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Sample records for aggressive media exposure

  1. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  2. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  3. Relationally Aggressive Media Exposure and Children's Normative Beliefs: Does Parental Mediation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that relationally aggressive media exposure is positively associated with relational aggression in children. Theories of media effects suggest that these associations may be mediated by aggressive cognitions. Although parental mediation can attenuate the effects of violent media, it is unknown whether there are similar benefits…

  4. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  5. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  6. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

  7. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study.

  8. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  9. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls.

  10. Children's Toleration of Real-Life Aggression after Exposure to Media Violence: A Replication of the Drabman and Thomas Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Hirsch, Kenneth William

    1994-01-01

    Results of four mid-1970s experiments continue to be used as evidence that exposure to media violence desensitizes children to real-life aggression. This study replicated procedures from those experiments using contemporary video materials, and results confirmed original findings that children tend to tolerate more the aggressive behaviors of…

  11. Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the effect of media violence on individual differences in aggression is primarily the result of a cumulative learning process during childhood. Presents a developmental theory holding that a child's repeated viewing of media violence, in combination with other factors, can culminate in aggressive behavior patterns (including…

  12. Exposure to Media Violence and Other Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Laura A.; Perez, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the play behavior of 70 preschool children and its relationship to television violence and regulatory status. Linear regression analysis showed that violent program content and poor self-regulation were independently and significantly associated with overall and physical aggression. Advanced maternal age and child age and…

  13. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits.

  14. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  15. Media and children's aggression, fear, and altruism.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on the sheer amount of time they spend in front of the screen. Wilson begins by reviewing evidence on the link between media and children's emotions. She points out that children can learn about the nature and causes of different emotions from watching the emotional experiences of media characters and that they often experience empathy with those characters. Although research on the long-term effects of media exposure on children's emotional skill development is limited, a good deal of evidence shows that media exposure can contribute to children's fears and anxieties. Both fictional and news programming can cause lasting emotional upset, though the themes that upset children differ according to a child's age. Wilson also explores how media exposure affects children's social development. Strong evidence shows that violent television programming contributes to children's aggressive behavior. And a growing body of work indicates that playing violent video games can have the same harmful effect. Yet if children spend time with educational programs and situation comedies targeted to youth, media exposure can have more prosocial effects by increasing children's altruism, cooperation, and even tolerance for others. Wilson also shows that children's susceptibility to media influence can vary according to their gender, their age, how realistic they perceive the media to be, and how much they identify with characters and people on the screen. She concludes with guidelines to help parents enhance the positive effects of the media while minimizing the risks associated with certain types of content.

  16. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  17. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model.

  18. "Frenemies, Fraitors, and Mean-em-aitors": Priming Effects of Viewing Physical and Relational Aggression in the Media on Women.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  19. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression.

  20. Media Violence Associations with the Form and Function of Aggression among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association between media violence exposure (MVE) and physical aggression (PA) has been well studied, few studies have examined the link between MVE and other subtypes of aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between MVE and reactive and proactive subtypes of both PA and relational aggression (RA). Six…

  1. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  2. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  3. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of…

  4. Looking through Time: A Longitudinal Study of Children's Media Violence Consumption at Home and Aggressive Behaviors at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Linder, Jennifer R.; Walsh, David A.

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical); (2) by measuring media violence exposure across three types of media (television, movies/videos, and video…

  5. Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression.

  6. Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggression about 15 years later for sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Found that childhood exposure to media violence predicted young adult aggression for males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence predicted…

  7. Efficacy of an intervention to reduce the use of media violence and aggression: an experimental evaluation with adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert; Krause, Christina

    2012-02-01

    Several longitudinal studies and meta-analytic reviews have demonstrated that exposure to violent media is linked to aggression over time. However, evidence on effective interventions to reduce the use of violent media and promote critical viewing skills is limited. The current study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to reduce the use of media violence and aggression in adolescence, covering a total period of about 12 months. A sample of 683 7th and 8th graders in Germany (50.1% girls) were assigned to two conditions: a 5-week intervention and a no-intervention control group. Measures of exposure to media violence and aggressive behavior were obtained about 3 months prior to the intervention (T1) and about 7 months post-intervention (T2). The intervention group showed a significantly larger decrease in the use of violent media from T1 to T2 than the control group. Participants in the intervention group also scored significantly lower on self-reported aggressive behavior (physical aggression and relational aggression) at T2 than those in the control group, but the effect was limited to those with high levels of initial aggression. This effect was mediated by an intervention-induced decrease in the normative acceptance of aggression. No gender differences in program efficacy were found. The results show that a 5-week school-based intervention can produce changes in the use of media violence, aggressive norms, and behaviors sustained over several months.

  8. Does aggression cause a preference for viewing media violence?

    PubMed

    Fenigstein, A

    1979-12-01

    Virtually all of the research concerned with media violence has attempted to determine whether the viewing of violence is associated with or causes aggression. Little experimental research has been directed at understanding why persons view media violence. The present research experimentally tested the hypotheses that physical aggression and fantasy aggression would lead to a preference for viewing violence. In Experiment 1, undergraduate men and women were induced to express aggressive, nonaggressive, or no fantasies and were then given an opportunity to select film clips for viewing. The films chosen by men contained more violence than those chosen by women. In addition, aggressive fantasies in males, compared to nonaggressive fantasies, increased the preference for viewing violence. Experiment 2, using only males, replicated the results of the first study and also found that men who were given an opportunity to aggress physically, compared to those who had no such opportunity, were more likely to choose to view films containing violent content. These results provide an additional perspective on the relationship between the observation of violence and the expression of aggression by suggesting that the causal effects are bidirectional: Just as the viewing of violence may increase aggression, so, too, aggressive behavior may increase the preference for viewing violence.

  9. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  10. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence. PMID:19636754

  11. The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-03-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence.

  12. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views.

  13. Efficacy of an Intervention to Reduce the Use of Media Violence and Aggression: An Experimental Evaluation with Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Ingrid; Krahe, Barbara; Busching, Robert; Krause, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Several longitudinal studies and meta-analytic reviews have demonstrated that exposure to violent media is linked to aggression over time. However, evidence on effective interventions to reduce the use of violent media and promote critical viewing skills is limited. The current study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to reduce the…

  14. Effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unconstrained social interaction.

    PubMed

    Wood, W; Wong, F Y; Chachere, J G

    1991-05-01

    This article provides a meta-analytic review of the experimental effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unstructured social interaction. In the reviewed experiments, children or adolescents were exposed to violent or control presentations and their postexposure behavior was coded for aggression during spontaneous social interaction. Exposure to media violence significantly enhanced viewers' aggressive behavior when the findings were aggregated across studies, but the effect was not uniform across investigations. Only suggestive evidence was obtained concerning moderators of the effect: Marginally stronger relations were obtained in those studies using a cross-section of the normal population of children (vs. emotionally disturbed children) and in those studies conducted in laboratory settings (vs. other contexts).

  15. Young adults' media use and attitudes toward interpersonal and institutional forms of aggression.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sonya S

    2007-01-01

    Links between media violence exposure and favorable attitudes toward interpersonal violence are well established, but few studies have examined whether associations extend to include favorable attitudes toward institutional forms of aggression. Studies on this topic have not assessed multiple forms of media use and statistically controlled for individual characteristics likely to influence attitudes beyond sociodemographic information. In this study, undergraduate students (N=319) aged 18-20 years (56% male) completed a survey assessing media use (number of hours per week spent playing videogames, watching movies/TV shows, watching TV sports) and attitudes toward interpersonal violence, punitive criminal justice policies, and different types of military activities (preparedness/defense and aggressive intervention). Greater number of hours spent watching TV contact sports was associated with more favorable attitudes toward military preparedness/defense, aggressive military intervention, and punitive criminal justice policies among men independently of parental education, lifetime violence exposure within the home and community, aggressive personality, and constrained problem solving style. Greater number of hours spent watching violent movies/TV was associated with more favorable attitudes toward military preparedness/defense among men and with more favorable attitudes toward interpersonal violence and punitive criminal justice policies among women, but these associations became non-significant when adjusting for covariates.

  16. Media exposure increases contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D; Mishra, V

    1997-08-01

    India's national family welfare program has been broadcasting family planning messages on the radio and television for many years. The electronic mass media play a major role in teaching women about the benefits of small families and providing them with information on contraception. Radio and television are particularly important in India, a country in which 63% of currently married reproductive-age women are illiterate. An analysis of nationally representative data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) on 84,558 currently married women aged 13-49 years indicates that general exposure to radio, television, and cinema has a strong positive effect upon current contraceptive use and the intended future use of contraception. Specific exposure to family planning messages has a significant positive effect upon current and intended future contraceptive behavior beyond the general effect of media exposure.

  17. Effect of exposure delay of concrete into aggressive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abimouloud, Youcef; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2016-07-01

    Some regions in the world suffered since several years from environmental problems such as underground level water rising. Water table effects durability of concrete implantation in the underground by the ease of luckless chemical elements ingress mainly through concrete the foundations of structures such as sulfate, chloride, and acids. For that reason a lot of foundations structures were made with SRPC (sulfate resisting Portland cement). This study is a contribution to assess the effect of exposure delay of concrete into aggressive fields, as a kind of cure which protects concrete from aggressive factors and allows it to acquire the needed strength. The study has shown that concrete exposure delay into aggressive environment is not a kind of cure mainly for concrete made with SRPC. Concrete with SRPC immediately exposed to aggressive environment shows a better mechanical resistance than concrete that has known exposure delay.

  18. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  19. Relationships among Violence Exposure, Depression, and Aggressive Behavior in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele S.; Carey, Michael P.; Kim, Wun Jung; Niedermeier, Danielle

    Recent research has indicated that adolescents are particularly prone to witnessing, perpetrating, and being victimized by violence. Research has also suggested that depression may be a risk factor for aggression in adolescents. This document presents preliminary results from a study evaluating the relationship among violence exposure, aggressive…

  20. The Media's Influence on Female Relational Aggression and Its Implications for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The author of this paper explores the media's role in the normalization of relational aggression of females and the implications this can have in schools. It is important that those who teach, support, and develop curricula for students be aware of the media's role in the use, and the effects, of indirect aggression and have information on how to…

  1. Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Moise-Titus, Jessica; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Eron, Leonard D

    2003-03-01

    Although the relation between TV-violence viewing and aggression in childhood has been clearly demonstrated, only a few studies have examined this relation from childhood to adulthood, and these studies of children growing up in the 1960s reported significant relations only for boys. The current study examines the longitudinal relations between TV-violence viewing at ages 6 to 10 and adult aggressive behavior about 15 years later for a sample growing up in the 1970s and 1980s. Follow-up archival data (N = 450) and interview data (N = 329) reveal that childhood exposure to media violence predicts young adult aggressive behavior for both males and females. Identification with aggressive TV characters and perceived realism of TV violence also predict later aggression. These relations persist even when the effects of socioeconomic status, intellectual ability, and a variety of parenting factors are controlled.

  2. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  3. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  4. Maternal Attachment Buffers the Association Between Exposure to Violence and Youth Attitudes About Aggression.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jessica; Grych, John

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative and cumulative predictive power of parent-child, interparental, and community aggression on youths' perceptions of the acceptability of aggression between peers and siblings. The potential for mother-child attachment to buffer the effects of violence on aggressive attitudes was tested, as well as the link between aggressive attitudes and aggressive behaviors. A diverse sample of 148 children (ages 9-14) completed measures of interparental, parent-child, and community aggression; a measure of mother-child attachment quality; and a measure of aggressive behaviors. Participants also rated the acceptability of aggressive interactions between two peers and two siblings in written vignettes. Mothers completed a measure of their child's aggressive behaviors. Youths' violence exposure was related to perceptions of aggression as more acceptable, with parent-child aggression having the only unique association. Maternal attachment buffered the relation between exposure to community violence and perceived acceptability of aggression, which predicted decreased aggression. When exposed to high levels of community violence, youths with more secure maternal attachment perceived aggression as less acceptable than youths with less secure attachment and, in turn, displayed fewer aggressive behaviors. Interventions that focus on strengthening the caregiver-child relationship in children exposed to violence may reduce aggressive behaviors by interrupting the development of aggressive attitudes.

  5. Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P.; Berkule, Samantha; Fierman, Arthur H.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether duration and content of media exposure in 6-month-old infants are associated with development at age 14 months. Design Longitudinal analysis of 259 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development, from November 23, 2005, through January 14, 2008. Setting An urban public hospital. Participants Mothers with low socioeconomic status and their infants. Main Exposure Duration and content of media exposure at age 6 months. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive and language development at age 14 months. Results Of 259 infants, 249 (96.1%) were exposed to media at age 6 months, with mean (SD) total exposure of 152.7 (124.5) min/d. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, duration of media exposure at age 6 months was associated with lower cognitive development at age 14 months (unadjusted: r=−0.17, P<.01; adjusted: β=−0.15, P=.02) and lower language development (r=−0.16, P<.01; β=−0.16, P<.01). Of 3 types of content assessed, only 1 (older child/adult–oriented) was associated with lower cognitive and language development at age 14 months. No significant associations were seen with exposure to young child–oriented educational or noneducational content. Conclusions This study is the first, to our knowledge, to have longitudinally assessed associations between media exposure in infancy and subsequent developmental outcomes in children from families with low socioeconomic status in the United States. Findings provide strong evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of no media exposure prior to age 2 years, although further research is needed. PMID:21135338

  6. Women's reactions to sexually aggressive mass media depictions.

    PubMed

    Krafka, C; Linz, D; Donnerstein, E; Penrod, S

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the potential harm of sexually explicit and/or violent films to women viewers. More specifically, it investigates the idea that the visual media contribute to a cultural climate that is supportive of attitudes facilitating violence against women, diminish concern for female victims (desensitization), and have a negative impact on women's views of themselves. In this study, women viewed 1 film per day for 4 consecutive days from one of these 3 categories: 1) sexually explicit but nonviolent; 2) sexually explicit, sexually violent; and 3) mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent. They then served as jurors in a simulated rape trial. The study found that exposure to both types of violent stimuli produced desensitization and ratings of the stimuli as less degrading to women. Moreover, women exposed to the mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent images were less sensitive toward the victim in the rape trial compared with the other film viewers. However, no differences were found between the film groups and the no-exposure control group with regard to women¿s self-perception.

  7. Effects of Violent-Video-Game Exposure on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive-Thought Accessibility, and Aggressive Affect Among Adults With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O; Hilgard, Joseph; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted the idea among some members of the public that exposure to violent video games can have a pronounced effect on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Empirical evidence for or against this claim has been missing, however. To address this issue, we assigned adults with and without ASD to play a violent or nonviolent version of a customized first-person shooter video game. After they played the game, we assessed three aggression-related outcome variables (aggressive behavior, aggressive-thought accessibility, and aggressive affect). Results showed strong evidence that adults with ASD, compared with typically developing adults, are not differentially affected by acute exposure to violent video games. Moreover, model comparisons provided modest evidence against any effect of violent game content whatsoever. Findings from this experiment suggest that societal concerns that exposure to violent games may have a unique effect on adults with autism are not supported by evidence.

  8. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  9. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  10. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  11. Psychological Warfare: The Media and Relational Aggression among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, the researcher examined the media's influences on the experience of relational aggression among college women. Women in the United States of America are learning to stifle their true selves in favor of the feminine ideal, which includes behaving covertly. Examples of female behavior as presented in the Western media include a wide…

  12. The role of violence exposure and negative affect in understanding child and adolescent aggression.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Kim, Eunha; Young, John

    2014-12-01

    Aggressive behaviors in youth tend to be relatively stable across the lifespan and are associated with maladaptive functioning later in life. Researchers have recently identified that both violence exposure and negative affective experiences are related to the development of aggressive behaviors. Children exposed to violence also often experience negative affect (NA) in the form of anxiety and depression. Bringing these findings together, the current study used a clinical sample of youth (N = 199; ages 7-17 years) referred to a psychiatric residential treatment facility to examine the specific contributions of NA and exposure to violence on the development of aggressive behaviors in youth. Using structural equation modeling, both NA and recent exposure to violence significantly predicted aggressive behaviors. More importantly, negative affect partially mediated the relationship between exposure to violence and aggression. Implications of these findings from a clinical perspective and future directions for research on aggression are discussed.

  13. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  14. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  15. Social-Cognitive Mediators of the Association between Community Violence Exposure and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Garbarino, James

    2009-01-01

    There is increased awareness that exposure to violence in the community can influence students' aggressive behavior at school; however, less is known about the mechanisms that mediate this process. Having an enhanced understanding of how community violence exposure relates to students' aggressive behavior at school may inform the use of preventive…

  16. Social Cognitive and Emotional Mediators Link Violence Exposure and Parental Nurturance to Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…

  17. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research.

  18. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth’s Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “downward spirals” and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment. PMID:26456988

  19. The Effects of Mediated Exposure to Ethnic-Political Violence on Middle East Youth's Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Shikaki, Khalil; Boxer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces the concept of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence and investigates its effects on aggressive behavior and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in young viewers. Embracing the risk-matrix approach, these effects are studied alongside other childhood risk factors that influence maladjustment. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of youth who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). As hypothesized, higher levels of chronic mediated exposure were longitudinally related to higher levels of PTS symptoms and aggression at peers independently of exposure to violence in other contexts. In the case of aggressive behavior, structural equation analysis (SEM) analyses suggest that, while it is likely there are causal effects in both directions, the bigger effect is probably for exposure to violence stimulating aggression than for aggression stimulating exposure to violence. Both the longitudinal effects on aggression and PTS symptoms were especially strong among youth who demonstrated initially higher levels of the same type of maladjustment. These results support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as "reciprocally determined" or "downward spirals" and highlight the contribution of the risk-matrix approach to the analysis of childhood maladjustment.

  20. Mitigating the imitation of aggressive behaviors by changing children's attitudes about media violence.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Eron, L D; Klein, R; Brice, P; Fischer, P

    1983-05-01

    A sample of 169 first- and third-grade children, selected because of their high exposure to television violence, was randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. Over the course of 2 years, the experimental subjects were exposed to two treatments designed to reduce the likelihood of their imitating the aggressive behaviors they observed on TV. The control group received comparable neutral treatments. By the end of the second year, the experimental subjects were rated as significantly less aggressive by their peers, and the relation between violence viewing and aggressiveness was diminished in the experimental group.

  1. Sexual Violence in the Media: Indirect Effects on Aggression Against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; Briere, John

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model hypothesizing indirect effects of media sexual violence on aggression against women. Suggests that cultural factors and individual variables interact to affect thought patterns and other responses that may lead to antisocial behavior. Discusses relevance of model to current research trends, including laboratory and naturalistic…

  2. [Justification of violence as a mediator between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior in children].

    PubMed

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of the justification of violence schema in the relationship between exposure to violence and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. We differentiated between direct and indirect exposure in four contexts: home, neighborhood, school and TV. A total of 675 children, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. They answered questionnaires about exposure to violence, justification of violence, and proactive and reactive aggressive behavior in two waves six months apart. The results showed that witnessing violence at home and on TV predicted aggressive behavior, and this relationship was mediated by the justification of violence. Victimization in all contexts predicted aggressive behavior and this relationship was generally mediated by the justification of violence.

  3. Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Forman, Leah S; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school-age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low-income, primarily African American children, ages 8-11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self-reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers' reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood.

  4. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  5. [The effects of media violence on aggression: focus on the role of anger evoked by provocation].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Endo, K; Yoshida, F

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of anger evoked by earlier provocation on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior after being exposed to media violence. Sixty male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Before viewing one of three videos (either highly violent, violent with high entertainment, or nonviolent), half of the subjects were provoked by a confederate posing as another subject. Subjects' heart rates and eyeblink rates were recorded while viewing the video. After viewing the video, subjects described their thoughts that occurred while watching the video and rated their affective reactions toward the video. Finally, subjects' aggressive behavior toward the confederate was measured. Results of covariance structure analysis suggested that (a) anger evoked by provocation and high level of violence in videos additively elicited negative cognition and affect, which further facilitated aggressive behavior, and (b) high level of entertainment in videos elicited positive cognition and affect, which alleviated negative cognition and affect.

  6. Aggression from Patients or Next of Kin and Exposure to Bullying Behaviors: A Conglomerate Experience?

    PubMed

    Reknes, Iselin; Notelaers, Guy; Magerøy, Nils; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Einarsen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    Although workplace violence and aggression have been identified as important stressors in the nursing profession, studies simultaneously comparing patient-initiated aggression and exposure to bullying behaviors at work are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to compare aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors in terms of prevalence, health-related quality of life outcomes, and potential overlap in those targeted. In the period of 2008-2009, data were collected among 2059 members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization. Latent class (LC) analysis and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the proposed relationships. The results showed that aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors were perceived as separate and independent stressors. Although aggression from patients or next of kin was more frequent than workplace bullying, the latter was the only significant stressor related to health-related quality of life in terms of reduced mental health functioning. Although being a rather infrequent experience, exposure to bullying behaviors seems to have more severe health-related outcomes for nurses than aggression from patients or next of kin. Hence, the results of the study strengthen previous findings and suggest that managers must aim to maintain a positive psychosocial work environment with zero-tolerance for bullying.

  7. Aggression from Patients or Next of Kin and Exposure to Bullying Behaviors: A Conglomerate Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Notelaers, Guy; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Einarsen, Ståle

    2017-01-01

    Although workplace violence and aggression have been identified as important stressors in the nursing profession, studies simultaneously comparing patient-initiated aggression and exposure to bullying behaviors at work are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to compare aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors in terms of prevalence, health-related quality of life outcomes, and potential overlap in those targeted. In the period of 2008-2009, data were collected among 2059 members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization. Latent class (LC) analysis and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the proposed relationships. The results showed that aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors were perceived as separate and independent stressors. Although aggression from patients or next of kin was more frequent than workplace bullying, the latter was the only significant stressor related to health-related quality of life in terms of reduced mental health functioning. Although being a rather infrequent experience, exposure to bullying behaviors seems to have more severe health-related outcomes for nurses than aggression from patients or next of kin. Hence, the results of the study strengthen previous findings and suggest that managers must aim to maintain a positive psychosocial work environment with zero-tolerance for bullying. PMID:28270936

  8. Biosocial Bases of Reactive and Proactive Aggression: The Roles of Community Violence Exposure and Heart Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarpa, Angela; Tanaka, Akiho; Haden, Sara Chiara

    2008-01-01

    In order to more fully understand how individual differences influence adaptation to violence, this study examined the moderating influence of resting heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) between community violence (CV) exposure and child reactive/proactive aggression. Forty 7-13-year-old community children self-reported CV exposure (i.e.,…

  9. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  10. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  11. Teens with heavy prenatal cocaine exposure respond to experimental social provocation with escape not aggression.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, M K; Chiodo, L M; Hannigan, J H; Sokol, R J; Janisse, J; Delaney-Black, V

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical data show that, compared to no exposure, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has age-dependent effects on social interaction and aggression. The aim of this clinical study was to determine how heavy/persistent PCE--after controlling for other prenatal drug exposures, sex and postnatal factors--predicts behavioral sensitivity to provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) using a well-validated human laboratory model of aggression. African American teens (mean=14.2 years old) with histories of heavy/persistent PCE (maternal cocaine use ≥ 2 times/week during pregnancy, or positive maternal or infant urine/meconium test at delivery; n=86) or none/some exposure (NON: maternal cocaine use < 2 times/week during pregnancy; n=330) completed the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm. In this task, teens competed in a computer game against a fictitious opponent. There were three possible responses: (a) earn points, to exchange for money later; or (b) "aggress" against the fictitious opponent by subtracting their points; or (c) escape temporarily from point subtraction perpetrated by the fictitious opponent. The PCE group responded significantly more frequently on the escape option than the NON group, but did not differ in aggressive or money-earning responses. These data indicate that PCE-teens provoked with a social stressor exhibit a behavioral preference for escape (negative reinforcement) than for aggressive (retaliatory) or appetitive (point- or money-reinforced) responses. These findings are consistent with preclinical data showing that social provocation of adolescent or young adult offspring after PCE is associated with greater escape behavior, inferring greater submission, social withdrawal, or anxiety, as opposed to aggressive behavior.

  12. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression in rats.

    PubMed

    Royalty, J

    1990-04-01

    The effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggressive behavior in rats were longitudinally assessed in the context of more conventionally applied physical and behavioral measures. Pregnant animals were treated with either 2 gm/kg/day ethanol or isocaloric sucrose over gestation Days 6-19. Reproduction and somatic variables included maternal weight over gestation, offspring weight over Days 1-90, and age at eye opening and incisor eruption. Behavioral variables consisted of negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination, activity, juvenile play-fighting, and postpubertal aggression. Ethanol offspring had lower birth weights, but there was no significant prenatal treatment effect on subsequent offspring weights or on any other reproductive or somatic variable. Both male and female ethanol-exposed offspring exhibited more play-fighting responses when paired with same-sex controls. Postpubertal aggression levels were assessed in males only. Ethanol-exposed offspring were more aggressive than controls and there was a significant positive correlation between play-fighting and postpubertal aggression ranks. No other behavioral measures discriminated between prenatal treatment groups and none were significantly correlated with either play-fighting or postpubertal aggression rank. The results are consistent with the position that juvenile play-fighting and postpubertal aggression are subserved by common substrates. They also are consistent with predictions derived from the hypothesis concerning a response-inhibition deficit as an effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on behavior.

  13. Ethanol exposure during development reduces resident aggression and testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Joaquin N; Marino, Melissa D; Gass, Justin T; Wilson, Marlene A; Kelly, Sandra J

    2006-02-28

    Ethanol exposure during development has been shown to alter social behaviors in people, but the range of deficits is not clear. Using an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, inter-male aggression and testosterone levels were examined in adult rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol during the entire prenatal period and from postnatal day 2 through 10. Ethanol was administered via intragastric intubation. Two other groups consisted of a nontreated control and an intubated control group that was exposed to the administration procedures but not ethanol. Both offensive and defensive aggression were examined in experimental residents and intruders under three different housing conditions for the resident males: (1) with another male, (2) with a pregnant female, and (3) with a female and litter fathered by the experimental animal. When housed with a female and litter, ethanol-exposed rats displayed reduced offensive aggression compared to control groups under the same condition. Defensive aggression in the non-experimental intruders was reduced in this same condition. There were no differences in duration of non-aggressive social behaviors among the groups in any of the housing conditions. Testosterone levels were reduced in ethanol-exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, ethanol exposure over the combined prenatal and postnatal periods reduces aggressive behavior in a condition where aggressive behavior is normally seen. This reduction may be related to lower testosterone levels.

  14. Longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent aggression, prosocial behavior, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between parental media monitoring and adolescent behavior, and explored indirect effects via sympathy and self-regulation. A sample of adolescents and their mothers from Northwestern and Mountain West cities in the USA participated in a study at three time points, approximately one year apart (N = 681; M age of child at Time 3 = 13.33, SD = 1.06; 51% female; 73% European American, 9% African American, 17% Multi-ethnic). Though findings varied by reporter, results suggested that restrictive and active media monitoring were indirectly associated with adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and externalizing behavior, with restrictive monitoring being somewhat maladaptive and active monitoring adaptive. The discussion focuses on the need to examine multiple aspects of media monitoring, and highlights implications of findings for parents.

  15. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Relationship between Media Use and Adolescents' Academic Performance and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korie, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored media usage among adolescents and its relations to academic performance and aggressive behavior from a qualitative research perspective. This study represents the first of its kind by utilizing a phenomenological methodology to gain insights about lived experiences of adolescents' media use relative to their academic…

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Aggression among Urban Adolescents: Testing a Cognitive Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan D.; Felix, Erika D.; Halpert, Jane A.; Petropoulos, Lara A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that exposure to violence leads to aggressive behavior, but few community-based studies have examined theoretical models illustrating the mediating social cognitive processes that explain this relation with youth exposed to high rates of violence. This study examines the impact of community violence on behavior through…

  17. A Meta-Analysis Summarizing the Effects of Pornography II: Aggression after Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines by meta-analysis the effect that exposure to pornography produces on aggressive behavior under laboratory conditions considering a variety of possible moderating conditions. Demonstrates a homogeneous set of results showing that pictorial nudity reduces subsequent violent behavior, but that depictions of nonviolent sexual behavior and…

  18. Lasting effect of intimate partner violence exposure during preschool on aggressive behavior and prosocial skills.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes.

  19. Patterns of Mass Media Exposure among Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    In a study to identify types of mass media consumers, a Q-type factor analysis was run on respondent exposure to 90 categories of content within seven mass media (television, radio, recordings, motion pictures, newspapers, magazines, and books). The respondents were 116 seventh graders in Waterloo, Iowa, who were asked to keep daily diaries of…

  20. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Consumer Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Food

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  2. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Aquatic Biota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  3. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  4. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time.

  5. Does Media Literacy Mitigate Risk for Reduced Body Satisfaction Following Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media?

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to thin-ideal media can contribute to increased body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Understanding the factors that may prevent or exacerbate the negative effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction is important to facilitate prevention of these problems. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body image in three instructional set experimental conditions: appearance comparison, peer norms, and control. An important aim was to examine baseline levels of media literacy as a protective factor and trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison as risk factors. Early adolescent girls (N = 246) completed baseline measures and 1 week later viewed thin-ideal media images, before and after which they rated their state body satisfaction. Participants in the appearance comparison instruction but not peer norms instruction condition had significantly reduced body satisfaction. Media literacy, particularly high levels of critical thinking, mitigated the negative effects of trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison on body satisfaction outcomes. These findings provide evidence for the role of media literacy as a protective factor against the negative effects on body satisfaction of exposure to thin-ideal media images, and also provide evidence to support the development and implementation of media literacy-based body image interventions.

  6. Role of cognitive-emotional mediators and individual differences in the effects of media violence on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J; Geen, R G

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that observation of media violence elicits thoughts and emotional responses related to aggression. In Experiment 1, highly violent videotapes elicited more aggressive cognitions than did a less violent tape. This effect was moderated by the trait of stimulus screening. In Experiment 2, aggressive cognitions increased with the level of violence in the videotape, and physical assaultiveness influenced this effect. Hostility and systolic blood pressure were higher in response to the most violent video than in response to the other two. Hostility was influenced by emotional susceptibility and dissipation-rumination, and systolic blood pressure was influenced by emotional susceptibility and assaultiveness.

  7. Decreased aggressive and locomotor behaviors in Betta splendens after exposure to fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Kohlert, Jess G; Mangan, Brian P; Kodra, Christine; Drako, Linsay; Long, Emily; Simpson, Holly

    2012-02-01

    The failure of sewage treatment plants to remove pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine from waste water has become a concern given that these products are being detected in the surface waters of many countries of the world. The effects of fluoxetine in sub-lethal doses on the neural systems and behaviors of aquatic life are worthy of investigation. This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal amounts fluoxetine dissolved in water on the aggressive and locomotor behaviors of 44 male Betta splendens. Fish treated with 705 microg/l of fluoxetine and 350 microg/l of fluoxetine generally demonstrated significant decreases in locomotion and number of aggressive attacks compared to 0 microg/l of fluoxetine (controls) on Days 11 and 19 of drug exposure and persisted for at least 13 days after removal of fluoxetine. Consistent with decreases in the number of aggressive attacks, there was a significant increase in aggression-response time to a perceived intruder for treated males on Days 11 and 19 and persisted for 6 days following removal of fluoxetine. However, the differences in aggressive and locomotor behaviors seen in the fluoxetine-treated groups were indistinguishable from controls three weeks following drug removal.

  8. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior.

  9. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents’ brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion–attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  10. Relation between aggression exposure in adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress symptoms: Moderating role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Barry, Samantha A; Rabkin, Ari N; Olezeski, Christy L; Rivers, Alison J; Gordis, Elana B

    2015-03-15

    The present study examines the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), on the link between family aggression experienced during adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms during young adulthood. Participants completed retrospective self-report measures of interparental aggression and harsh parenting exposure during adolescence and measures of current posttraumatic stress symptoms. RSA indexed PNS activity. Among females, the three-way interaction between harsh parenting, interparental aggression, and resting RSA was significant in accounting for young adulthood PTSD symptoms. At higher values of resting RSA and higher levels of interparental aggression exposure, harsh parenting experienced during adolescence was positively associated with adulthood PTSD symptoms. Among males, adolescent aggression exposure and resting RSA did not significantly account for variation in adulthood PTSD symptoms. Thus, this study suggests that resting PNS activity may play an important role in the relationship between stressors during adolescence and later PTSD in females.

  11. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  12. The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

  13. Exploring Personal Attitudes towards Parent Involvement as It Relates to Relational Aggression Acted out through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Karla M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…

  14. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  15. Does parental mediation of media influence child outcomes? A meta-analysis on media time, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kevin M; Coyne, Sarah M; Rasmussen, Eric E; Hawkins, Alan J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Erickson, Sage E; Memmott-Elison, Madison K

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined how parental mediation of media (restrictive mediation, active mediation, and coviewing) influenced child outcomes. Three meta-analyses, 1 for each type of mediation, were conducted on a total of 57 studies. Each analysis assessed the effectiveness of parental mediation on 4 pertinent child outcomes: media use, aggression, substance use, and sexual behavior. The overall results indicated small, but significant relationships between child outcomes and restrictive mediation (r+ = -.06), and coviewing (r+ = .09). Overall active mediation was nonsignificant, though active mediation was individually related to lower levels of aggression (r+ = -.08), sexual behavior (r+ = -.06), and substance use (r+ = -.11). This analysis revealed that parents may have the ability to mitigate some of the adverse effects of the media by using certain mediation strategies. Overall, a cooperative effort from the communication and parenting fields is necessary for a comprehensive analysis of parental mediation as well as a disentanglement of the various parental mediation measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  17. Media Exposure and Beliefs about Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) feeling both competent about handling scientific information and enthusiastic about scientific and technological advances are strongly related to exposure to media science information and (2) beliefs about specific science and technology issues (such as the need to maintain scientific and technical superiority for national…

  18. Adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure alters lateral anterior hypothalamic serotonin-2A receptors in aggressive male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schwartzer, Jared J; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2009-05-16

    Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Serotonin (5-HT) modulates aggressive behavior and has been shown to be altered after chronic treatment with AAS. Furthermore, 5-HT type 2 receptors have been implicated in the control of aggression. For example, treatment with 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists suppress the generation of the offensive aggressive phenotype. However, it is unclear whether these receptors are sensitive to adolescent AAS exposure. The current study assessed whether treatment with AAS throughout adolescence influenced the immunohistochemical localization of 5-HT(2A) in areas of the hamster brain implicated in the control of aggression. Hamsters were administered AAS (5.0 mg/kg) each day throughout adolescence, scored for offensive aggression, and then examined for differences in 5-HT(2A)-immunoreactivity (5-HT(2A)-ir). When compared with non-aggressive oil-treated controls, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters showed significant increases in 5-HT(2A)-ir fibers in the lateral portion of the anterior hypothalamus (LAH). Further analysis revealed that AAS treatment also produced a significant increase in the number of cells expressing 5-HT(2A)-ir in the LAH. Together, these results support a role for altered 5-HT(2A) expression and further implicate the LAH as a central brain region important in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression.

  19. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  20. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health.

    PubMed

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.

  1. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health

    PubMed Central

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work. PMID:21643471

  2. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  3. Adverse outcomes associated with media exposure to contradictory nutrition messages

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Rebekah H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the media present conflicting health information on topics including cancer screening and nutrition. Although scholars have speculated that exposure to this information leads to increased public confusion, less trust in health recommendations, and less engagement in health behaviors, there is a lack of empirical research that directly addresses the role of media exposure to conflicting information. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, this study finds that exposure to conflicting information on the health benefits and risks of, for example, wine, fish, and coffee consumption is associated with confusion about what foods are best to eat and the belief that nutrition scientists keep changing their minds. There is evidence that these beliefs, in turn, may lead people to doubt nutrition and health recommendations more generally—including those that are not rife with contradictory information (e.g., fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise). The implications of these findings for healthy eating campaigns and interventions are discussed. PMID:24117281

  4. The Sleeper Effect of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure: Long-Term Consequences on Young Children's Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a wide variety of short-term social adjustment and emotional difficulties, including externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression. While children are affected by IPV at all ages, little is known about the long-term consequences of IPV exposure at…

  5. The Role of Sociability Self-Concept in the Relationship between Exposure to and Concern about Aggression in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Janice Williams

    2013-01-01

    This study examined middle grades students' sociability self-concept and their perceptions about feeling safe at school. Participants' (N = 420) exposure to school aggression and concern about the potential for violence at school were measured across four critical areas: fighting, bullying, stealing, and seeing weapons. Results indicated a limited…

  6. Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-12-01

    This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology.

  7. Child Exposure to Serious Life Events, COMT, and Aggression: Testing Differential Susceptibility Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in…

  8. Relation between Exposure to and Consequences of Aggression: U.S. National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisak, Marie S.; Wichorek, Michele George; Tisak, John

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents, 12 to 18 years (N = 962), were asked how often they worried about, heard about, witnessed, were victimized by, and committed aggression at or near their schools. Social, moderate physical, and violent aggression were assessed. Females heard, worried, and witnessed more social aggression than males, but both were victims and/or…

  9. Media exposure predicts children's reactions to crime and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined reactions to 3 news events (September 11 terrorist attacks, Summer 2002 kidnappings, and Fall 2002 sniper shootings) in a national, representative sample of children aged 2 to 17. Media exposure was related to increased worry and changes in activities, with September 11 creating the most concern and shootings the least. More signs of stress were apparent among 10- to 13-year-olds, minority children and those of low socioeconomic status, children with prior adversities, and children who lived in close geographical proximity. Girls aged 10 to 17 had more reaction to the kidnappings, suggesting that other features of target similarity may heighten a sense of risk. The results support moderating exposure for both younger and older youth.

  10. Social Isolation-Induced Territorial Aggression in Male Offspring Is Enhanced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Moriya, Nozomu; Takeda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15) or clean air (control group: n = 15) for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident-intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications for pregnant women

  11. Social Isolation-Induced Territorial Aggression in Male Offspring Is Enhanced by Exposure to Diesel Exhaust during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Moriya, Nozomu; Takeda, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15) or clean air (control group: n = 15) for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident−intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications for pregnant women

  12. Do beliefs about gender roles moderate the relationship between exposure to misogynistic song lyrics and men's female-directed aggression?

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Courtland S; Berke, Danielle S; Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-04-01

    Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aggressive and violent behavior among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence and link with deployment and combat exposure.

    PubMed

    MacManus, Deirdre; Rona, Roberto; Dickson, Hannah; Somaini, Greta; Fear, Nicola; Wessely, Simon

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted on studies of the prevalence of aggressive and violent behavior, as well as of violent offenses and convictions, among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and/or Afghanistan; the relationship with deployment and combat exposure; and the role that mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have on the pathway between deployment and combat to violence. Seventeen studies published between January 1, 2001, and February 12, 2014, in the United States and the United Kingdom met the inclusion criteria. Despite methodological differences across studies, aggressive behavior was found to be prevalent among serving and formerly serving personnel, with pooled estimates of 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1, 20) for physical assault and 29% (95% CI: 25, 36) for all types of physical aggression in the last month, and worthy of further exploration. In both countries, rates were increased among combat-exposed, formerly serving personnel. The majority of studies suggested a small-to-moderate association between combat exposure and postdeployment physical aggression and violence, with a pooled estimate of the weighted odds ratio = 3.24 (95% CI: 2.75, 3.82), with several studies finding that violence increased with intensity and frequency of exposure to combat traumas. The review's findings support the mediating role of PTSD between combat and postdeployment violence and the importance of alcohol, especially if comorbid with PTSD.

  14. Media exposure in children one hundred miles from a terrorist bombing.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Seale, Thomas W; Brandt, Edward N; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Doughty, Debby E; Rainwater, Scott M

    2003-03-01

    This study assessed indirect interpersonal exposure to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, broadcast and print media exposure in the aftermath of the explosion, emotional reactions to media coverage, and posttraumatic stress reactions in children distant from the explosion. A survey was administered to 88 sixth-grade students in the public middle school in a community 100 miles from Oklahoma City 2 years after the bombing. Many children reported indirect interpersonal exposure and most reported bomb-related media exposure. Print media exposure was more strongly associated with enduring posttraumatic stress than broadcast exposure. Indirect interpersonal exposure and the interaction of media exposure with emotional reaction to media coverage in the aftermath of the explosion each predicted ongoing posttraumatic stress. The results suggest that children may have lingering reactions to highly publicized terrorist incidents. Concern about the influence of television viewing has long been proclaimed. This study implicates print media exposure as well. Media exposure to terrorist incidents, therefore, should be monitored and those working with children should assess exposure and stress even in children not directly impacted.

  15. Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimization: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy

    2014-04-01

    Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks.

  16. Medial amygdala lesions modify aggressive behavior and immediate early gene expression in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons during intermale exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; He, Zhiyi; Zhao, Chuansheng; Li, Lei

    2013-05-15

    The medial amygdala and neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (VSP) have been associated aggressive behavior regulation. However, the specific mechanism involved in OXT and VSP modulation in distinct brain regions during hostile intermale aggressive behavior is undetermined. A retrograde tracer mouse model was employed using male C57BL/6 mice injected with rhodamine-conjugated latex microsphere suspensions in the right hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Adult male C57BL/6 mice (aged 14-16 weeks) were subjected to resident-intruder testing using juvenile intruder mice (aged 3 weeks) or adult intruder mice (aged 8 weeks). Following exposure, Fos protein expression was increased in the medial amygdala neurons of resident mice receiving the retrograde tracer. Thus, medial amygdala neurons projecting to or localized in the vicinity of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus showed immediate early gene (IEG) expression following resident-intruder testing that was considered an indirect marker of activation. Additionally, intermale aggression-related behaviors were inhibited or modified by exposure to juvenile or adult intruders, respectively, in mice that underwent medial amygdala lesioning. Furthermore, Fos protein expression in OXT-positive neurons was attenuated. Thus, ablation of medial amygdala neurons prevented immediate early gene expression in OXT- and VSP-positive neurons in the hypothalamus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and medial preoptic area during intermale exposure. These findings indicate that the medial amygdala likely modulates hostile aggressive behavior associated with immediate early gene expression in OXT and VSP neurons in specific brain areas, which may actually be instrumental in beneficial social interaction-related aggressive responses associated with mating, territorial defense, and offspring protection.

  17. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870

  18. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  19. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  20. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  1. MEDIA EXPOSURE AND SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM REACTIVITY PREDICT PTSD SYMPTOMS AFTER THE BOSTON MARATHON BOMBINGS

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Daniel S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks have been shown to precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in children and adolescents, particularly among youths with high exposure to media coverage surrounding such events. Media exposure may be particularly likely to trigger PTSD symptoms in youths with high physiological reactivity to stress or with prior psychopathology or exposure to violence. We examined the interplay between media exposure, preattack psychopathology, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, and prior violence exposure in predicting PTSD symptom onset following the terrorist attack at the 2013 Boston Marathon. Methods A community sample of 78 adolescents (mean age = 16.7 years, 65% female) completed a survey about the bombings, including media exposure to the event and PTSD symptoms. All respondents participated in a study assessing psychopathology prior to the attack, and sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity to a laboratory-based stressor was assessed in a subset (N = 44) of this sample. We examined the associations of media exposure, ANS reactivity, preattack psychopathology, and prior violence exposure with onset of PTSD symptoms related to the bombings. Results Media exposure, preattack psychopathology, and prior violence exposure were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, media exposure interacted with sympathetic reactivity to predict PTSD symptom onset, such that adolescents with lower levels of sympathetic reactivity developed PTSD symptoms only following high exposure to media coverage of the attack. Conclusions We provide novel evidence that physiological reactivity prior to exposure to an unpredictable traumatic stressor predicts PTSD symptom onset. These findings have implications for identifying youths most vulnerable to PTSD following wide-scale trauma. PMID:24995832

  2. Media and Violence: Does McLuhan Provide a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jane

    2015-01-01

    School shootings publicized worldwide inevitably awaken the debate about contemporary communication media and violence. It is often conjectured that regular exposure of young people to countless acts of aggression in contemporary popular media leads them to become more aggressive and, in some cases, to commit violent crimes. But is this claim…

  3. The Effects of Media Violence on Attitudes, Emotions, and Cognitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Brendan Gail; Ferguson, Tamara J.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies mediating factors between the viewing of violent media and aggressive behavior. Discusses the role of cognitive and emotional arousal processes, and the interplay among these factors and attitudes toward aggression. Describes the effects of media exposure on arousal, emotional desensitization, and the excitement of the observer's…

  4. Single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for condition monitoring of cross-linked polyethylene exposed to aggressive media.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Piechatzek, A; Schmitt, G; Siegmund, G

    2015-08-05

    The potential of single-sided Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to monitor truly non-invasive changes in polymer materials during aging under aggressive media is for the first time evaluated. For this, the NMR method is used in combination with other condition monitoring methods including mechanical measurements, mass uptake, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is validated by studying for the first time the aging kinetics of silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) exposed to media used in oil and gas production and transportation, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur solvents, and corrosion inhibitors in combination with CO2 and H2S. All investigated parameters changed, with the strongest effects detected for the NMR chain mobility and in the presence of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, a universal linear correlation curve could be established between the depression of the tensile strength and the chain mobility. This result represents a fundamental step towards establishing single-sided NMR as a new analytical tool for in situ condition monitoring of polyethylene working under sour conditions. The proposed approach can be easily extended to other polymer materials.

  5. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  6. Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.

  7. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) increases aggression and modulates maternal behavior in offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, Natali; Levy, Sigal; Avitsur, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. SSRIs cross the placental barrier and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus. Although no gross SSRI-related teratogenic effects were reported, infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are at higher risk for various developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI on social and maternal behavior in mice. To this end, pregnant female dams were exposed to saline or fluoxetine (FLX) throughout pregnancy, and the behavior of the offspring was examined. The results indicate that in utero FLX increased aggression in adult males and delayed emergence of maternal behavior in adult females. Social exploration and recognition memory were not affected by prenatal FLX exposure. These findings support the notion that alterations in the development of serotonergic pathways following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are associated with changes in social and maternal behavior throughout life.

  8. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas.

  9. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.

  10. Moderating effects of media exposure on associations between socioeconomic position and cancer worry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Chan, Carina Ka Yee; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals' socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media--television, radio and the Internet--using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the level of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer as a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the level and type of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered.

  11. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  12. Residential Mobility and Exposure to Neighborhood Crime: Risks for Young Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Maria E.; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated associations between residential mobility, neighborhood crime, and aggression during middle childhood. Participants were 460 children (M age = 6.9 years, SD = 1.1) residing in a disadvantaged city in the Northeastern United States. Residential mobility was determined from school records, teachers…

  13. Snooping and Sexting: Digital Media as a Context for Dating Aggression and Abuse Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lauren A; Tolman, Richard M; Ward, L Monique

    2016-11-01

    Digital dating abuse (DDA) is a pattern of behaviors that control, pressure, or threaten a dating partner using a cell phone or the Internet. A survey of 365 college students was conducted, finding that digital monitoring behaviors were especially common. There were no gender differences in number of DDA behaviors experienced, but women reported more negative hypothetical reactions to sexual messaging than men. DDA was associated with measures of physical, sexual, and psychological dating violence. Results suggest that digital media are a context for potentially harmful dating behaviors, and the experience of DDA may differ by gender for sexual behaviors.

  14. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media.

  15. REPEATED ANABOLIC/ANDROGENIC STEROID EXPOSURE DURING ADOLESCENCE ALTERS PHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED GLUTAMINASE AND GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR 1 SUBUNIT IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN HAMSTER BRAIN: CORRELATION WITH OFFENSIVE AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Shannon G.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    Male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with moderately high doses (5.0mg/kg/day) of anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence (P27–P56) display highly escalated offensive aggression. The current study examined whether adolescent AAS-exposure influenced the immunohistochemical localization of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutamate, a fast-acting neurotransmitter implicated in the modulation of aggression in various species and models of aggression, as well as glutamate receptor 1 subunit (GluR1). Hamsters were administered AAS during adolescence, scored for offensive aggression using the resident-intruder paradigm, and then examined for changes in PAG and GluR1 immunoreactivity in areas of the brain implicated in aggression control. When compared with sesame oil-treated control animals, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters displayed a significant increase in the number of PAG- and area density of GluR1- containing neurons in several notable aggression regions, although the differential pattern of expression did not appear to overlap across brain regions. Together, these results suggest that altered glutamate synthesis and GluR1 receptor expression in specific aggression areas may be involved in adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression. PMID:17418431

  16. Rigorous tests of gene-environment interactions in a lab study of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), alcohol exposure, and aggression.

    PubMed

    LoParo, Devon; Johansson, Ada; Walum, Hasse; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; Waldman, Irwin

    2016-07-01

    Naturalistic studies of gene-environment interactions (G X E) have been plagued by several limitations, including difficulty isolating specific environmental risk factors from other correlated aspects of the environment, gene-environment correlation (rGE ), and the use of a single genetic variant to represent the influence of a gene. We present results from 235 Finnish young men in two lab studies of aggression and alcohol challenge that attempt to redress these limitations of the extant G X E literature. Specifically, we use a latent variable modeling approach in an attempt to more fully account for genetic variation across the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and to robustly test its main effects on aggression and its interaction with alcohol exposure. We also modeled aggression as a latent variable comprising various indices, including the average and maximum levels of aggression, the earliest trial on which aggression was expressed, and the proportion of trials on which the minimum and maximum levels of aggression were expressed. The best fitting model for the genetic variation across OXTR included six factors derived from an exploratory factor analysis, roughly corresponding to six haplotype blocks. Aggression levels were higher on trials in which participants were administered alcohol, won, or were provoked. There was a significant main effect of OXTR on aggression across studies after controlling for covariates. The interaction of OXTR and alcohol was also significant across studies, such that OXTR had stronger effects on aggression in the alcohol administration condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Football Fan Aggression: The Importance of Low Basal Cortisol and a Fair Referee

    PubMed Central

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants’ favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result. PMID:25844939

  18. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Klauke, Fabian; Moore, Hannah L; Ludwig, Yannick S; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  19. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  20. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  1. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Soil and Dust

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  2. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Water and Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  3. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks.

  4. Mass media exposure to tobacco messages among secondary school children in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Surani, Nikita Shiraz; Shroff, Hemal Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions) between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534) from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%). There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.

  5. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  6. The relationship between exposure to dementia-related aggressive behavior and occupational stress among Japanese care workers.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiromi; Harvath, Theresa A

    2015-04-01

    Aggressive behaviors (ABs) related to dementia in older adults have been associated with increased occupational stress among care workers (CWs) in the United States and other Western countries, and they may contribute to staff turnover. However, few studies related to this issue have been conducted in Japan. The current cross-sectional study examined (a) the relationship between CW frequency of exposure to dementia-related ABs and CW occupational stress (i.e., job burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to resign), and (b) mediator effects between frequency of exposure to dementia-related ABs and CW occupational stress. A total of 137 CWs in dementia special care units from 10 nursing homes in Japan were recruited as study participants. Major findings indicate that the relationship between exposure to ABs and work outcomes was fully mediated by the appraisal of stress. Findings from this study may be used to develop culturally relevant training and educational interventions targeted at reducing ABs in individuals with dementia and occupational stress from exposure to ABs among CWs.

  7. Exposure to Media and Theory-of-Mind Development in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Moore, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of narrative media may influence children's development of theory-of-mind. Because engagement with fictional narratives provides one with information about the social world, and possibly draws upon theory-of-mind processes during comprehension, exposure to storybooks, movies, and television may influence theory-of-mind…

  8. Amount, Content and Context of Infant Media Exposure: A Parental Questionnaire and Diary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Danzinger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marissa E.; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…

  9. Reciprocal Causality among Political Interest, Political Knowledge and Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    This study utilized a cross-lagged correlational technique to determine the causal relationship among media exposure patterns, political and information level, and degree of interest in the 1972 Presidential campaign. It was hypothesized that exposure to campaign content in newspapers, television, radio, and news magazines would lead to higher…

  10. News Media Exposure and Its Learning Effects during the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Zhongdang; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Shows significantly higher levels of news exposure across all media channels during the Persian Gulf War compared to a year-and-a-half earlier. Finds that both exposure to newspaper and to cable and PBS news programming were positively related to levels of knowledge about the war. Discusses the effectiveness of information dissemination by various…

  11. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads…

  12. Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A

    2017-01-27

    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2-3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4-5 years, and elementary school: age 6-8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at-risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). IPV exposure during age 2-3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4-5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2-3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4-5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-11, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Media exposure and romantic relationship quality: a slippery slope?

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira; Hetsroni, Amir

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether media consumption predicted relationship quality among 188 college students who were involved in romantic relationships. The respondents assessed their commitment to the relationship, their satisfaction from the relationship, and their tendency to engage in conflicts within the relationship. Media consumption was measured by assessing the time dedicated to television viewing in general, watching specific genres, Internet use, and newspaper reading. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that total TV viewing time statistically predicted lower commitment to the relationship, while viewing of programming focusing on romantic relationships predicted lower satisfaction and stronger tendency to engage in conflicts. Consumption of media other than television and the control factors did not predict any indicator of relationship quality. The pattern of negative associations between TV viewing and relationship quality is discussed with reference to cultivation theory and mood management theory.

  14. Adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. Methods A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. Results Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n = 216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n = 342) of the non-smokers (n = 922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1) h of media daily, including 2.6 h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (Ptrend = 0.036 and Ptrend<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (Ptrend<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10–3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.94). Conclusion Exposure to films and music are associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking. PMID:18206196

  15. Acute Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol Alters Aggressive Behavior of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Toward Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Dang, Hieu M; Inagaki, Yoshihiko; Yamauchi, Yuta; Kurihara, Takaaki; Vo, Cong H; Sakakibara, Yutaka

    2017-02-03

    Behavior of the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) toward the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was tested under exposure to environmental 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic derivative of natural estrogen, estradiol. The mosquitofish were exposed to EE2 at different concentrations-0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 ng/L-for 2 days, before their behavioral changes toward the medaka were observed. Results indicate that female mosquitofish became more aggressive at the high level of EE2 (50 ng/L), in terms of how persistently they attempted to approach the medaka. The males showed increased aggressive behavior toward the medaka, by significantly increasing the number and persistence of approach attempts at the low (0.5 and 5 ng/L) levels of EE2. At the highest EE2 concentration (50 ng/L), however, the number of attempts decreased, while the persistence increased in the males showing the same pattern as in the females. All behavioral changes were reversed once EE2 was removed from the environment.

  16. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  17. Determinants of anger and physical aggression based on sexual orientation: an experimental examination of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations on antigay anger and aggression. Participants were 148 heterosexual men who were randomly assigned to view either a male-male or a male-female erotic video. Participants completed a measure of hypermasculinity and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic video. A laboratory paradigm was then used to measure physical aggression toward a gay or heterosexual man. Hypermasculinity predicted greater increases in anger among men who viewed male-male erotica relative to men who viewed male-female erotica. Hypermasculinity also predicted higher levels of physical aggression toward a gay, relative to a heterosexual, man, but only after viewing male-male erotica. Findings were discussed within the context of the General Aggression Model.

  18. The Influence of Media Violence on Youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Berkowitz, Leonard; Donnerstein, Edward; Huesmann, L Rowell; Johnson, James D; Linz, Daniel; Malamuth, Neil M; Wartella, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    Research on violent television and films, video games, and music reveals unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. The effects appear larger for milder than for more severe forms of aggression, but the effects on severe forms of violence are also substantial (r = .13 to .32) when compared with effects of other violence risk factors or medical effects deemed important by the medical community (e.g., effect of aspirin on heart attacks). The research base is large; diverse in methods, samples, and media genres; and consistent in overall findings. The evidence is clearest within the most extensively researched domain, television and film violence. The growing body of video-game research yields essentially the same conclusions. Short-term exposure increases the likelihood of physically and verbally aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, and aggressive emotions. Recent large-scale longitudinal studies provide converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in childhood with aggression later in life, including physical assaults and spouse abuse. Because extremely violent criminal behaviors (e.g., forcible rape, aggravated assault, homicide) are rare, new longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to estimate accurately how much habitual childhood exposure to media violence increases the risk for extreme violence. Well-supported theory delineates why and when exposure to media violence increases aggression and violence. Media violence produces short-term increases by priming existing aggressive scripts and cognitions, increasing physiological arousal, and triggering an automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviors. Media violence produces long-term effects via several types of learning processes leading to the acquisition of lasting (and automatically accessible) aggressive scripts, interpretational schemas, and aggression-supporting beliefs

  19. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  20. Exposure to Filmed Violence and Children's Tolerance of Real Life Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    In order to measure the effects of exposure to filmed violence, 40 third-grade boys and girls were shown two television excerpts. One-half of the group viewed a segment from a violent detective series; the other half saw an exciting but nonviolent segment from a major league baseball game. Immediately afterward, each child was asked to "babysit"…

  1. Exposure to Violence in Early Adolescence: The Impact of Self-Restraint, Witnessing Violence, and Victimization on Aggression and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Farrell, Albert D.; Kliewer, Wendy; Vulin-Reynolds, Monique; Valois, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relation between self-restraint and exposure to violence (witnessing violence and victimization) in predicting increased frequencies of aggression and drug use among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth graders attending four rural middle schools (n = 913). Lower levels of self-restraint predicted higher rates of…

  2. The relationship between media exposure and antifat attitudes: the role of dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linda; Reid, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between media exposure, antifat attitudes, and body dissatisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of dysfunctional appearance beliefs. A sample of 112 women completed surveys measuring media exposure, antifat attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. It was found that time spent reading fashion magazines was positively correlated with antifat attitudes and that this relationship was mediated by dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. Measures of antifat attitudes and body dissatisfaction were both found to be correlated with endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about appearance and body mass index. Results suggest that time spent reading fashion magazines may be related to antifat attitudes through dysfunctional appearance beliefs.

  3. Reducing Media Viewing: Implications for Behaviorists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Mesina, Anna

    2005-01-01

    American children spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using various forms of media. Research has suggested that this high level of exposure has a negative impact on children's attitudes and behaviors. For example, media violence increases aggression in children, especially video games which allows children to be the aggressor and…

  4. Eating pathology in East African women: the role of media exposure and globalization.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Hennessey, Moira; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2007-03-01

    Eating disorder (ED) pathology and its relation to media exposure and globalization were assessed in a sample of young Tanzanian females (N = 214; 19.4 years +/- 3.8 years). Participants completed Kiswahili versions of a DSM-IV ED symptom clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and a media exposure/globalization questionnaire. One third endorsed cognitive ED symptoms; bingeing (10%) and purging (5%) were less common. Four women (1.9%) met modified criteria for anorexia nervosa, one for bulimia nervosa, and 10 (4.7%) reported clinically significant ED pathology consistent with an ED not otherwise specified diagnosis. Media exposure and Western exposure (e.g., travel abroad) were positively associated with ED symptoms. The intended factor structure of the EDI was not supported. Eating pathology is present in this developing nation and is most common in subpopulations with increased exposure to Western culture. Future research should replicate these findings to clarify the role of Western media in the development of ED pathology.

  5. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  6. A Model of International Communication Media Appraisal and Exposure: A Comprehensive Test in Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David; Oliveira, Omar Souki

    A study constituted the fifth phase of a programmatic research effort designed to develop and test a model of international communications media exposure and appraisal. The model posits that three variables--editorial tone, communication potential, and utility--have positive determinant effects on these dependent variables. Research was carried…

  7. The exposure of the nursing profession in online and print media

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rodrigo José Martins; Graveto, João Manuel Garcia de Nascimento; Queiroz, Ana Maria Correia Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe the coverage of news concerning the nursing profession in the Portuguese media: informative sites on the Internet and in print media. Method a total of 1,271 health news items were collected in September and October of 2011 (956 online news items and 325 news items originating from the press review of the Portuguese Order of Nurses). Statistical analysis was used to characterize the variables. Results nurses were the sources of information in 6.6% of cases, suggesting limited media exposure. The health news collected is characterized by a production based on limited information sources, that is, male and official sources, on information disseminated by news agencies focused on economic and political issues in the health field. Conclusion the presence of nurses in the news concerning nursing health is reduced. We suggest that nurses develop public communication skills to disseminate the importance of their profession in society and their relationship with the media. PMID:24553715

  8. Adolescents and media violence: six crucial issues for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marjorie J

    2005-06-01

    The mass media are rife with violent images and messages and youth spend a great deal of time with media. A rich tradition of research shows that exposure to media violence leads to aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior, and also to fear and desensitization. Certain youth are more vulnerable to violent media messages and images; the impact of media violence is modified by its nature and context. Parents, teachers, and the media industry should work toward mitigating the effects of media violence on youth; pediatricians and other health care providers play a key role in fostering healthy family media habits.

  9. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure (‘media verbal interactions’) might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother–infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home. PMID:21593996

  10. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants During Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on their Language Development as Toddlers?

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Alan L; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ('media verbal interactions') might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads participating in a longitudinal study, media exposure and media verbal interactions were assessed using 24-hour recall diaries. Additionally, general level of cognitive stimulation in the home [StimQ] was assessed at 6 months and language development [Preschool Language Scale-4] was assessed at 14 months. Results suggest that media verbal interactions play a role in the language development of infants from low-income, immigrant families. Evidence showed that media verbal interactions moderated adverse impacts of media exposure found on 14-month language development, with adverse associations found only in the absence the these interactions. Findings also suggest that media verbal interactions may have some direct positive impacts on language development, in that media verbal interactions during the co-viewing of media with educational content (but not other content) were predictive of 14-month language independently of overall level of cognitive stimulation in the home.

  11. Media violence and youth.

    PubMed

    Beresin, E V

    1999-06-01

    This column reviews the literature on violence in the media and its effects on youth. The author summarizes the findings of naturalistic, longitudinal, and population-based studies conducted over the last 30 years. The literature provides compelling evidence that exposure of media violence to children plays a major role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists can facilitate primary prevention of violence in our society by discussing the problem of media violence with parents, medical students, residents, and allied health and school professionals.

  12. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  13. Does Parental Mediation of Media Influence Child Outcomes? A Meta-Analysis on Media Time, Aggression, Substance Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Kevin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Hawkins, Alan J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Erickson, Sage E.; Memmott-Elison, Madison K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined how parental mediation of media (restrictive mediation, active mediation, and coviewing) influenced child outcomes. Three meta-analyses, 1 for each type of mediation, were conducted on a total of 57 studies. Each analysis assessed the effectiveness of parental mediation on 4 pertinent child outcomes: media use,…

  14. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  15. Pervasive media violence.

    PubMed

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes.

  16. Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Cash, Thomas F; Melnyk, Susan E; Posavac, Heidi D; Posavac, Steven S

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examined the preventative impact of two brief interventions (i.e., media literacy information with and without a dissonance-induction procedure). Results indicated that relative to a control group, the exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images adversely influenced the state body image of participants with high internalization levels. Media-literacy psychoeducation prior to the media exposure prevented this adverse effect. Adding a pre-exposure dissonance-induction procedure did not significantly enhance the preventative effects relative to psychoeducation alone. These results and their implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbances are discussed in the context of the empirical literature on the media's effects on body image.

  17. Predictors of perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations: sociodemographic factors and mass media exposures.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul K J; Moser, Richard P; Klein, William M P; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Hesse, Bradford W

    2009-12-01

    Cancer prevention recommendations reaching the public today are often ambiguous-that is, of uncertain reliability, credibility, or adequacy-yet little is known about the factors that influence public perceptions of this ambiguity. We used data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, to explore how sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported mass media exposures relate to perceptions of ambiguity regarding recommendations for the prevention of colon, skin, and lung cancer. Various sociodemographic characteristics (age, education, race) and mass media exposures (television, radio, Internet, health news) were found to be associated with perceived ambiguity about cancer prevention recommendations, and many of these associations varied by cancer type. These findings have important implications for future health communication research and practice.

  18. Hazards of New Media: Youth’s Exposure to Tobacco Ads/Promotions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: A gap in knowledge exists about the youth’s exposure to protobacco campaigns via new electronic media outlets. In response, we use national data to delineate the associations between tobacco ads/promotions delivered through new media outlets (i.e., social network sites and text messages) and youth attitudes/beliefs about tobacco and intent to use (among youth who had not yet used tobacco). Methods: Data were derived from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth enrolled in both public and private schools (N = 15,673). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics and reported exposure to tobacco ads/promotions via social networking sites and text messages. Logistic regression models were also used to investigate associations between exposure tobacco ads/promotions and attitudes toward tobacco. Results: We found that highly susceptible youth (i.e., minorities, very young youth, and youth who have not yet used tobacco) have observed tobacco ads/promotions on social networking sites and text messages. These youth are more likely to have favorable attitudes toward tobacco, including the intention to use tobacco among those who had not yet used tobacco. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the need for policy strategies to more effectively monitor and regulate tobacco advertising via new media outlets. PMID:24163285

  19. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Substance Use-Related Media Exposure and Alcohol Use During Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. Methods The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Results Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p=.02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p=.07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents’ exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. PMID:23770074

  20. [Media and children's well-being].

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta

    2011-01-01

    Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.

  1. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    2017-03-09

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand.

  2. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  3. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress.

  4. The impact of exposure to the thin-ideal media image on women.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nicole; Richards, P Scott; Granley, H Mac; Stein, David M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal body image on women's affect, self-esteem, body satisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, and level of internalization of the thin-ideal. College women (N=145) were randomly exposed to photographs from popular magazines containing either thin-ideal images or neutral images. Exposure to thin-ideal magazine images increased body dissatisfaction, negative mood states, and eating disorder symptoms and decreased self-esteem, although it did not cause more internalization of the thin-ideal. Exposure to thin-ideal media images may contribute to the development of eating disorders by causing body dissatisfaction, negative moods, low self-esteem, and eating disorders symptoms among women.

  5. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  6. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.

  7. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  8. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    PubMed

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  10. Evaluation of bioaerosol exposures during conditioning of biofilter organic media beds.

    PubMed

    Barth, Ed; Talbott, Nancy; Gable, Robert; Richter, Sheri; Reponen, Tiina

    2002-01-01

    Biological media air filters (biofilters) are currently being used for the treatment of inorganic and organic gases from sewage treatment plants, industrial processes, and remediation systems. The media may be organic material such as compost, wood chips, or synthetic plastic media, each with a large surface area for microorganism growth and activity. An occupational health and safety graduate student team (OHS team) evaluated potential particulate and bioaerosol exposure from a biofilter unit process used to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas generated from a primary sludge settling unit process. The OHS team included an industrial hygiene/environmental health engineering specialist, an occupational safety specialist, an occupational health physician, and an occupational health nurse. Concerns were raised regarding the possibility of adverse health effects to maintenance workers during "conditioning" of the biofilter compost-like media beds. Conditioning activities may include in-situ rearrangement of the existing media, removal from the tank/surface, drying/reinsertion of the existing media, or complete removal of the media, and replacement with new. Neither the design engineering firm nor the manufacturer had specific written recommendations or precautions regarding exposure during the conditioning of the compost beds. No personal protection equipment has been used for this activity. The expected agents for adverse health effects associated with this unit process are respirable particulate dust and bioaerosols, which may contain viable bacteria and fungi, as well as endotoxin. Safety procedures are already in place for H2S. Mixed dust from the compost media bed may cause irritation of pre-existing health conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, and some skin conditions, and may also lead to new health problems such as inhalation fever, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, skin rashes and/or skin infections, and upper or lower respiratory

  11. Repeated anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence alters phosphate-activated glutaminase and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit immunoreactivity in Hamster brain: correlation with offensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Shannon G; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2007-06-04

    Male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with moderately high doses (5.0mg/kg/day) of anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence (P27-P56) display highly escalated offensive aggression. The current study examined whether adolescent AAS-exposure influenced the immunohistochemical localization of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutamate, a fast-acting neurotransmitter implicated in the modulation of aggression in various species and models of aggression, as well as glutamate receptor 1 subunit (GluR1). Hamsters were administered AAS during adolescence, scored for offensive aggression using the resident-intruder paradigm, and then examined for changes in PAG and GluR1 immunoreactivity in areas of the brain implicated in aggression control. When compared with sesame oil-treated control animals, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters displayed a significant increase in the number of PAG- and area density of GluR1-containing neurons in several notable aggression regions, although the differential pattern of expression did not appear to overlap across brain regions. Together, these results suggest that altered glutamate synthesis and GluR1 receptor expression in specific aggression areas may be involved in adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression.

  12. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  13. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?☆

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959

  14. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-12-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14-15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  15. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  16. Residential Exposure to Urban Traffic Is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Weigel, M. Margaret; Myers, Orrin B.; Li, Wen-Whai; Racines, Marcia; Berwick, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to urban traffic pollution is documented to promote atherosclerosis in adults but little is known about its potential effects in children. Our study examined the association of long-term exposure to traffic with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 287 healthy children. Residential proximity and distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) were used as proximity markers for traffic-related air pollution exposure. The multivariable analyses revealed that children residing <100 meters from the nearest heavily trafficked road had cIMT mean and maximum measurements that were increased by 15% and 11% compared to those living ≥ 200 meters away (P = 0.0001). Similar increases in cIMT were identified for children in the highest versus lowest DWTD tertile. Children who resided 100–199 meters from traffic or in the middle DWTD tertile also exhibited increased cIMT but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were identified between residential distance to traffic or DWTD and systemic inflammation indicators (CRP, IL-6). The study results suggest that exposure to urban traffic promotes arterial remodeling in children. This finding is important since even small increases in cIMT over time can potentially lead to earlier progression to atherosclerosis. It is also important because traffic-related pollution is potentially modifiable. PMID:25685160

  17. Prolonged prenatal exposure to low-level ozone affects aggressive behaviour as well as NGF and BDNF levels in the central nervous system of CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Daniela; Sorace, Alberto; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Alleva, Enrico

    2006-01-06

    The long-term effects on isolation-induced aggressive behaviour and central NGF and BDNF levels of gestational exposures to ozone (O(3)) were evaluated in adult CD-1 mice. Females were exposed to O(3), at the dose of 0.0, 0.3 or 0.6 ppm from 30 days prior the formation of breeding pairs until gestational day 17. Litters were fostered at birth to untreated dams and, at adulthood, male offspring underwent five successive daily encounters (15 min each) with a standard opponent of the same strain, sex, weight and age. The encounters on day 1, 3 and 5 were videotaped and agonistic and non-agonistic behavioural items finely scored. O(3)-exposed mice showed a significant increase in freezing and defensive postures, a decrease in nose-sniffing behaviour and reduced progressively the aggressive behavioural profile displayed on day 1. Reduced NGF levels in the hippocampus and increased BDNF in the striatum were also found upon O(3) exposure.

  18. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  19. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  20. An examination of direct and indirect effects of exposure and attention to health media on intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jennette; Riffe, Daniel; Lovejoy, Travis I

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, accounting for more than 2 million diagnoses and more than 9,000 deaths annually. A regional online survey of students enrolled at institutions of higher education (N = 1,251) examined (a) associations between health media use and intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure and (b) theoretically derived health behavior constructs that may mediate the relationship between media use and individuals' decisions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Individuals with greater exposure and attention to health information in television, magazines, and newspapers had higher intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Multiple mediation models indicated that health behavior constructs collectively mediated the relationship between television use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. Both cumulative and specific indirect mediating effects were observed for the relationship between magazine use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. However, the direction of effects was opposite to the hypothesized direction, due primarily to the association of magazine use with less favorable attitudes about sun protection and reduced behavioral control to avoid unprotected sun exposure. This study provides preliminary evidence for the interrelationships among media use, internal psychological states and cognitions, and health behavior decision making. Future studies should further explicate the mediating processes that account for the relationships between media and health behavior.

  1. Exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling has additive effects on exclusive breastfeeding and its psychosocial determinants among Vietnamese mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A.; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self‐efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children < 2 year (n = 2045) from the 2013 process evaluation of Alive & Thrive's program in Viet Nam. Multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to estimate effects. Exposure to mass media only, interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors. PMID:27334544

  2. Exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling has additive effects on exclusive breastfeeding and its psychosocial determinants among Vietnamese mothers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-10-01

    The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children < 2 year (n = 2045) from the 2013 process evaluation of Alive & Thrive's program in Viet Nam. Multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to estimate effects. Exposure to mass media only, interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors.

  3. Brainworks: Birth to Kindergarten--The Aggression Component. A Question/Answer Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipelt, Kathy; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    This document takes a look at the roots of aggression. Constant exposure to violence in the media along with the drug culture has played a pivotal role in the growth of violence among youth. The poor nurturing of the very young contributes to the problem, and early trauma can inhibit children's concentration, impede learning, hinder attachment,…

  4. Preventing sexual aggression among college men: an evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program.

    PubMed

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berkowitz, Alan D

    2011-06-01

    Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media.

  5. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  6. American Academy of Pediatrics. Media violence. Committee on Public Education.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes exposure to violence in media, including television, movies, music, and video games, as a significant risk to the health of children and adolescents. Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed. Pediatricians should assess their patients' level of media exposure and intervene on media-related health risks. Pediatricians and other child health care providers can advocate for a safer media environment for children by encouraging media literacy, more thoughtful and proactive use of media by children and their parents, more responsible portrayal of violence by media producers, and more useful and effective media ratings.

  7. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females.

  8. Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-09-30

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.

  9. Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; Coups, Elliot J.; Ford, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass media is increasingly important in shaping a range of health beliefs and behaviors. Objective We examined the association between mass media health information exposure (general health, cancer, sun-protection information), skin cancer beliefs and sun protection behaviors. Methods We utilized a general population national probability sample comprised of 1,633 individuals with no skin cancer history (Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005, National Cancer Institute) and examined univariate and multivariate associations between family history of skin cancer, mass media exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection (use of sunscreen, shade-seeking, and use of sun-protective clothing). Results Mass media exposure was higher in younger individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. More accurate skin cancer beliefs and more adherent sun protection practices were reported by older individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. Recent Internet searches for health or sun-protection information was associated with sunscreen use. Limitations Study limitations include the self-report nature of sun protection behaviors and cross-sectional study design. Conclusion We identify demographic differences in mass media health exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors that will contribute to planning skin cancer awareness and prevention messaging across diverse population subgroups. PMID:19596487

  10. Exposure to media violence and bullying at school: mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Myungja

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed a model of mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends in the relationship between exposure to media violence and bullying at school. Data came from 560 Korean junior high school students who were living with their parents. Analysis indicated that, as hypothesized, exposure to media-portrayed violence was directly associated with bullying at school. Anger and contact with delinquent friends mediated this relationship. In addition, two alternative models were estimated, neither supported by the data, further sustaining the validity of the hypothesized model. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  11. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  12. Contributing factors to aggressive behaviors in high school students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I

    2012-02-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing factors to this behavior among high school students. Sample was composed of 805 students of 14-18 ages attending five high schools in Istanbul. The most common aggressive behavior among the students was found to be "beating others," 34.5% (n = 278). Past experiences of violence of high school students (direct exposure to violence/witnessing violence/exposure to/witnessing attack with knife/gun) were determined as the most contributing factor to aggressive behavior. The present study investigated the nature of violent behaviors and associations between violent behaviors and contributing factors among high school students from Turkey.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness in male twins.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Margarethe; Shah, Amit; Goldberg, Jack; Cheema, Faiz; Shallenberger, Lucy; Murrah, Nancy V; Bremner, J Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-11-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, though the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined whether PTSD and combat exposure were associated with CIMT in Vietnam War-era twins after controlling for shared genetic and childhood factors. Between 2002 and 2010, we studied 465 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were free from cardiovascular disease. PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine individual, between-pair, and within-pair associations. Approximately 13% of participants met the criteria for PTSD, and 45% served in the Vietnam Theater. PTSD was associated with 32.7 μm higher CIMT (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 64.5) after adjustment for confounders. The average CIMT for the pair increased by 59.7 μm for each additional twin with PTSD (95% CI: 15.9, 104.2). We found no significant within-pair differences in CIMT when comparing PTSD-discordant co-twins. Results for combat exposure were similar, but its association with CIMT weakened after adjustment for PTSD (95% CI: 7.0, 45.3). Among Vietnam War-era veterans, combat exposure and PTSD are associated with CIMT, though the associations are largely mediated by shared childhood factors.

  14. Preschool Children's Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Newton, Allison B.; Albaiz, Najla Essa A.; Ernest, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are being increasingly exposed to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) at home and in instructional settings. Little is known about the long-term effects of MeTS and there is a lack of research concerning caregivers' opinions regarding young children's exposure to and utilization of MeTS. Therefore, this study explored the…

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF 2,4-D ON SOLID-PHASE EXPOSURE SAMPLING MEDIA BY LC/MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...

  16. Media Exposure, Current and Future Body Ideals, and Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kristen; Hefner, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Internalization of the thin body ideal is considered by many to account for the relationship between media exposure and disordered eating among girls and young women, but almost all supporting research has employed adolescent and adult samples. Using longitudinal panel survey data collected from 257 preadolescent girls at 2 points in time 1 year…

  17. Relationships between Media Exposure, Violent Images, and Attitude towards the U.S.: Contradictions in Japanese Adolescents' Images and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yasuhiro

    A study examined the relationship between Japanese adolescents' media exposure, images of the United States, and their attitudes towards the United States and its people by surveying Japanese junior high school students. By using cultivation theory, the study hypothesized that an image of a dangerous America would be partly attributed to Japanese…

  18. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  19. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  20. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  1. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893

  2. Media violence: advice for parents.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By the time they reach age 18, American children will have seen 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence (American Psychiatric Association, 1998). Media violence can be hazardous to children's health, and studies point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive attitudes, values and behaviors in some children (Congressional Public Health Summit, 2000). Through education in clinics, schools, and primary care offices, pediatric nurses can minimize the impact of media violence. They can obtain comprehensive media histories on children and families. They can teach children and parents about the effects of media violence and advise them how to avoid exposure. Nurses can also encourage the entertainment industry to exercise more responsibility in the ways they entertain children.

  3. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction.

  4. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  5. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sun exposure, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are ascertained. Finally, the melanin content of the skin is measured using a skin reflectance...meter called a Dermaspectrometer, to measure baseline skin melanin content, which is known to inhibit vitamin D synthesis from sunlight. This...three hospitals in Chicago, along with demographic and medical information, BMI, and skin melanin content using a portable narrow-band reflectometer

  6. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  7. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  8. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.

  9. Exposure to the androgenic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane alters reproductive and aggressive behaviors in birds.

    PubMed

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-10-01

    Detected in environmental samples, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) is a bioaccumulative isomer of a current-use brominated flame retardant. All 4 structural isomers are androgen agonists; however, little toxicological information exists for this compound. The objective of the present study was to determine if β-DBE-DBCH, the isomer found most prominently in animal tissue, affects androgen-dependent behavior of breeding American kestrels (Falco sparverius). The authors hypothesized that if β-DBE-DBCH acts as an androgen agonist in kestrels, androgen-dependent behaviors (i.e., copulation, courtship, aggression) would increase and behaviors inhibited by androgens (i.e., parental care behaviors) would decrease. Sixteen captive experimental kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239 ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/d by diet from 4 wk prior to pairing until their nestlings hatched (mean 82 d) and compared with vehicle only-exposed control pairs (n = 15). Androgen-dependent behaviors were significantly increased in β-DBE-DBCH-exposed birds, consistent with the authors' hypothesis. These behavioral changes included copulation and other sexual behaviors in males and females and aggression in males, suggesting that β-DBE-DBCH may have acted like an androgen agonist in these birds. Parental behaviors were not reduced in exposed birds as predicted, although dietary exposure had ceased before chicks hatched. Further assessment of β-DBE-DBCH is recommended given these behavioral changes and the previously reported reproductive changes in the same birds.

  10. Fate and Transport of Mercury in Environmental Media and Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from various natural and anthropogenic sources, and degrades with difficulty in the environment. Mercury exists as various species, mainly elemental (Hg0) and divalent (Hg2+) mercury depending on its oxidation states in air and water. Mercury emitted to the atmosphere can be deposited into aqueous environments by wet and dry depositions, and some can be re-emitted into the atmosphere. The deposited mercury species, mainly Hg2+, can react with various organic compounds in water and sediment by biotic reactions mediated by sulfur-reducing bacteria, and abiotic reactions mediated by sunlight photolysis, resulting in conversion into organic mercury such as methylmercury (MeHg). MeHg can be bioaccumulated through the food web in the ecosystem, finally exposing humans who consume fish. For a better understanding of how humans are exposed to mercury in the environment, this review paper summarizes the mechanisms of emission, fate and transport, speciation chemistry, bioaccumulation, levels of contamination in environmental media, and finally exposure assessment of humans. PMID:23230463

  11. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  12. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  13. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  14. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement--Media violence.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to violence in media, including television, movies, music, and video games, represents a significant risk to the health of children and adolescents. Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed. Pediatricians should assess their patients' level of media exposure and intervene on media-related health risks. Pediatricians and other child health care providers can advocate for a safer media environment for children by encouraging media literacy, more thoughtful and proactive use of media by children and their parents, more responsible portrayal of violence by media producers, and more useful and effective media ratings. Office counseling has been shown to be effective.

  15. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  16. Does Watching the News Affect Fear of Terrorism? The Importance of Media Exposure on Terrorism Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Ashley Marie; Savage, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that media hype elevates perceptions of risk and fear of crime. Research suggests that fear of crime is related to the overall amount of media consumption, resonance of news reports, how much attention the individual pays to the news, and how credible he or she believes it to be. The present study examines whether the…

  17. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL EXPOSURES DURING CONDITIONING OF BIOFILTER ORGANIC MEDIA BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological media air filters (biofilters) are currently being used for the treatment of inorganic and organic gasses from sewage treatment plants, industrial processes, and remediation systems. The media may be organic material such as comost, wood chips, or synthetic plastic med...

  18. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  19. The Effects of Risk-Glorifying Media Exposure on Risk-Positive Cognitions, Emotions, and Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Vogrincic, Claudia; Sauer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge in the quantity of media content that glorifies risk-taking behavior, such as risky driving, extreme sports, or binge drinking. The authors conducted a meta-analysis involving more than 80,000 participants and 105 independent effect sizes to examine whether exposure to such media depictions increased their…

  20. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Gustav; Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. Method A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. Results We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9–2.0). Conclusion Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost. PMID:24433945

  1. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (p<0.044), Egypt (p<0.001) and Jordan (p<0.001). Exposure to television had a weaker association than exposure to magazines with body weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (p<0.019) and Oman (p<0.019). The pressure from mass media on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  2. Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  4. Media Violence and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  5. Reactions to Media Violence: It’s in the Brain of the Beholder

    PubMed Central

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wang, Gene-Jack; Preston-Campbell, Rebecca N.; Moeller, Scott J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Zhu, Wei; Jayne, Millard C.; Wong, Chris; Tomasi, Dardo; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    Media portraying violence is part of daily exposures. The extent to which violent media exposure impacts brain and behavior has been debated. Yet there is not enough experimental data to inform this debate. We hypothesize that reaction to violent media is critically dependent on personality/trait differences between viewers, where those with the propensity for physical assault will respond to the media differently than controls. The source of the variability, we further hypothesize, is reflected in autonomic response and brain functioning that differentiate those with aggression tendencies from others. To test this hypothesis we pre-selected a group of aggressive individuals and non-aggressive controls from the normal healthy population; we documented brain, blood-pressure, and behavioral responses during resting baseline and while the groups were watching media violence and emotional media that did not portray violence. Positron Emission Tomography was used with [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) to image brain metabolic activity, a marker of brain function, during rest and during film viewing while blood-pressure and mood ratings were intermittently collected. Results pointed to robust resting baseline differences between groups. Aggressive individuals had lower relative glucose metabolism in the medial orbitofrontal cortex correlating with poor self-control and greater glucose metabolism in other regions of the default-mode network (DMN) where precuneus correlated with negative emotionality. These brain results were similar while watching the violent media, during which aggressive viewers reported being more Inspired and Determined and less Upset and Nervous, and also showed a progressive decline in systolic blood-pressure compared to controls. Furthermore, the blood-pressure and brain activation in orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus were differentially coupled between the groups. These results demonstrate that individual differences in trait aggression strongly

  6. Reactions to media violence: it's in the brain of the beholder.

    PubMed

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wang, Gene-Jack; Preston-Campbell, Rebecca N; Moeller, Scott J; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Zhu, Wei; Jayne, Millard C; Wong, Chris; Tomasi, Dardo; Goldstein, Rita Z; Fowler, Joanna S; Volkow, Nora D

    2014-01-01

    Media portraying violence is part of daily exposures. The extent to which violent media exposure impacts brain and behavior has been debated. Yet there is not enough experimental data to inform this debate. We hypothesize that reaction to violent media is critically dependent on personality/trait differences between viewers, where those with the propensity for physical assault will respond to the media differently than controls. The source of the variability, we further hypothesize, is reflected in autonomic response and brain functioning that differentiate those with aggression tendencies from others. To test this hypothesis we pre-selected a group of aggressive individuals and non-aggressive controls from the normal healthy population; we documented brain, blood-pressure, and behavioral responses during resting baseline and while the groups were watching media violence and emotional media that did not portray violence. Positron Emission Tomography was used with [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) to image brain metabolic activity, a marker of brain function, during rest and during film viewing while blood-pressure and mood ratings were intermittently collected. Results pointed to robust resting baseline differences between groups. Aggressive individuals had lower relative glucose metabolism in the medial orbitofrontal cortex correlating with poor self-control and greater glucose metabolism in other regions of the default-mode network (DMN) where precuneus correlated with negative emotionality. These brain results were similar while watching the violent media, during which aggressive viewers reported being more Inspired and Determined and less Upset and Nervous, and also showed a progressive decline in systolic blood-pressure compared to controls. Furthermore, the blood-pressure and brain activation in orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus were differentially coupled between the groups. These results demonstrate that individual differences in trait aggression strongly

  7. Prolonged and repetitive exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis increases aggressiveness of oral cancer cells by promoting acquisition of cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Hee; Woo, Bok Hee; Kim, Da Jeong; Ha, Eun Sin; Choi, Jeom Il; Kim, Sung Jo; Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition occurring in the human oral cavity, but our knowledge on its contribution to oral cancer is rather limited. To define crosstalk between chronic periodontitis and oral cancer, we investigated whether Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis, plays a role in oral cancer progression. To mimic chronic irritation by P. gingivalis in the oral cavity, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were infected with P. gingivalis twice a week for 5 weeks. Repeated infection of oral cancer cells by P. gingivalis resulted in morphological changes of host cancer cells into an elongated shape, along with the decreased expression of epithelial cell markers, suggesting acquisition of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. The prolonged exposure to P. gingivalis also promoted migratory and invasive properties of OSCC cells and provided resistance against a chemotherapeutic agent, all of which are described as cellular characteristics undergoing EMT. Importantly, long-term infection by P. gingivalis induced an increase in the expression level of CD44 and CD133, well-known cancer stem cell markers, and promoted the tumorigenic properties of infected cancer cells compared to non-infected controls. Furthermore, increased invasiveness of P. gingivalis-infected OSCC cells was correlated with enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-10 that was stimulated by interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. This is the first report demonstrating that P. gingivalis can increase the aggressiveness of oral cancer cells via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes and the acquisition of stemness, implicating P. gingivalis as a potential bacterial risk modifier.

  8. Adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids and the neurobiology of offensive aggression: a hypothalamic neural model based on findings in pubertal Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Richard H; Ricci, Lesley A

    2010-06-01

    Considerable public attention has been focused on the issue of youth violence, particularly that associated with drug use. It is documented that anabolic steroid use by teenagers is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior and serious violence, yet little is known about how these drugs produce the aggressive phenotype. Here we discuss work from our laboratory on the relationship between the development and activity of select neurotransmitter systems in the anterior hypothalamus and anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression using pubertal male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as an adolescent animal model, with the express goal of synthesizing these data into an cogent neural model of the developmental adaptations that may underlie anabolic steroid-induced aggressive behavior. Notably, alterations in each of the neural systems identified as important components of the anabolic steroid-induced aggressive response occurred in a sub-division of the anterior hypothalamic brain region we identified as the hamster equivalent of the latero-anterior hypothalamus, indicating that this sub-region of the hypothalamus is an important site of convergence for anabolic steroid-induced neural adaptations that precipitate offensive aggression. Based on these findings we present in this review a neural model to explain the neurochemical regulation of anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression showing the hypothetical interaction between the arginine vasopressin, serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate neural systems in the anterior hypothalamic brain region.

  9. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    PubMed

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks.

  10. The effect of exposure to missile attacks on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a function of perceived media control and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Shrira, Amit; Cohen-Fridel, Sara; Grossman, Ephraim S; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-10-30

    Exposure is one of the most robust predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in warfare situations. Yet, while many are sensitive to exposure, others do not develop PTSD. In the current study, we address how perceived media control along with external locus of control moderate effects of exposure on PTSD symptoms among 1268 individuals exposed to missile attacks (mean age=36.97). We expected that the coupling of low perceived media control, whereby one feels poor control over media consumption (an inability to stop), especially when irrelevant and non-informative (e.g., involuntarily viewing the same terror incident shown repeatedly in a looped fashion) along with a self-perception of external locus of control, will render participants highly vulnerable to exposure. As expected, results suggest that effects of exposure on PTSD are not automatic, rather, the coupling of both low media control along with believing that life event are controlled by external factors exacerbates effects of exposure. These findings bear practical implications, as both media control and locus of control can be modified by therapeutic interventions, rendering one less vulnerable to the detrimental effects of traumatic exposure.

  11. Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J

    2016-11-01

    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r+  = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Media exposure and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of college students.

    PubMed

    Strouse, J S; Buerkel-rothfuss, N L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between popular media consumption and sexual attitudes and behavior for 475 college students, while controlling for commonly related social-psychological variables. Results indicate that females consume more sexually suggestive media (TV soap operas and pop music) than males. General media consumption was not a powerful predictor of permissiveness. Regression analyses revealed that Music Television consumption was the only media variable significantly associated with permissiveness for females. Self-esteem was positively associated with permissive attitudes and behavior for both males and females. Soap opera consumption was significantly associated with permissive behavior for males but not for females. Sexual permissiveness for females was more significantly related to religiosity but less significantly related to self-esteem than for males. No important extraneous variable influences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences, the normative context hypothesis, social scripts, the double standard, the sexual revolution, and the cultivation hypothesis.

  13. Early exposure to otitis media: a preliminary investigation of behavioral outcome.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Sonnenschein, S

    1993-06-01

    Factors that contribute to developmental vulnerability were examined in a 4-year follow-up of 31 children who, as infants, had participated in an investigation of the relationship between recurrent otitis media and developmental status. The children in this inner-city sample experienced significant decline in their language and developmental status regardless of their history with otitis media. Findings support a threshold model of risk, suggesting that otitis media does not necessarily pose an additional stress to the language and cognitive development of low-income, inner-city children. In keeping with theoretical models by Vygotsky and Rutter, maternal cognitive growth fostering facilitated children's language development by serving as a compensatory factor, counteracting the potential impact of recurrent otitis media.

  14. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  15. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 μm diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 μg/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni.

  16. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed.

  17. Effect of subchronic and chronic exposure to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the aggressive behavior induced by food competition in undernourished dominant and submissive pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Ison, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    1996-02-01

    The acute administration of 5-HTP was reported to block in undernourished dominant pigeons the aggressive attacks induced in a submissive partner by food competition. In the present study, undernourished pigeons with previously consolidated dominance were submitted to subchronic and chronic 5-HTP treatment. Adult males (n = 28) were kept at 80% of their body weight by a restricted diet. These were divided in pairs made of a previously ranked dominant subject (total time spent in aggression higher than 200 s/20 min) and a submissive one of similar body weight (time spent in aggression between 90 and 150 s/20 min). The same pairs were exposed to a daily 20 min interaction during each experiment in an observation chamber bearing a central feeder. The time spent in aggressive behavior, feeder control behavior and eating behavior was recorded. Intratest body weight gain was also recorded. In Experiment 1, 8 pairs of pigeons were exposed to a daily trial for 4 successive days (pretreatment-scores). The dominant subjects were then injected subcutaneously, 30 min. before trials, with 7.5 mg/kg 5-HTP from day 5 to day 8 (Treatment scores). The Recovery scores were obtained through a 4-trial post-treatment schedule. In Experiment 2 different pigeons were used. The pretreatment and recovery scores were obtained according to a 16-trial schedule (16 days). Both 4-day (subchronic) and 16-day (chronic) 5-HTP treatments attenuated aggression by the dominant subjects and reduced their intra-test body weight gain but did not decrease dominance for feeder control. The recovery scores of total aggression in subchronic experiments returned to pretreatment scores. In chronic experiments, instead, the recovery scores of aggression remained lower than pretreatment scores, whereas body-weight-gain scores came back to pretreatment values. This suggests that dominant subjects submitted to chronic 5-HTP might have learned to maintain dominance and feeder control in a virtual absence of

  18. Moderation of the association between media exposure and youth smoking onset: race/ethnicity, and parent smoking.

    PubMed

    Tanski, Susanne E; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2012-02-01

    This study of youth smoking onset aims to replicate previously published media moderation effects for race/ethnicity in a national longitudinal multiethnic sample of U.S. adolescents. Previous research has demonstrated that associations between media and smoking during adolescence are greater for Whites than Hispanics or Blacks, and for youth living in non-smoking families. In this study, changes in smoking status over 24 months were assessed among 4,511 baseline never-smokers. The incidence of smoking onset was 14.3% by 24 months with no differences by race/ethnicity. Blacks had higher exposure to movie smoking and overall television viewing compared with Whites and Hispanics. Whites responded to movie smoking regardless of parent smoking but more strongly if their parents were non-smokers. In contrast, Black adolescents showed little behavioral response to any media, regardless of parent smoking. Hispanic adolescents responded only to TV viewing and only when their parents did not smoke. In an analysis assessing the influence of the race of smoking characters on smoking behavior of White and Black adolescents, Whites responded to both White and Black movie character smoking, whereas Blacks responded only to smoking by Black movie characters. Taken as a whole, the findings replicate and extend previous findings, suggesting media factors are more influential among adolescents at low to moderate overall risk for smoking. We draw analogies between these low-moderate risk adolescents and "swing voters" in national elections, suggesting that media effects are more apt to influence an adolescent in the middle of the risk spectrum, compared with his peers at either end of it.

  19. Otitis media exposure associates with dietary preference and adiposity: a community-based observational study of at-risk preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Peracchio, Heather L; Henebery, Kerah E; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2012-05-15

    Chronic exposure to otitis media (OM) has been linked to risk of overweight/obesity. Here we tested if dietary behaviors explained some of the OM-adiposity relationship among 485 racially-diverse, low-income preschoolers (253 girls, mean age=45±7 months) enrolled in government-supported urban preschool programs. From measured weight/height, 4% were underweight, 17% were overweight and 13% were obese. OM exposure according to parent report varied across nearly equal quartiles-low (never, once) to high (3-5 times, 6+ times) exposure categories. Boys were more likely to be in the high exposure categories. Parents rated their child's liking/disliking of foods (high-fat/added sugar, fruits/juice, vegetables) and non-food activities. In analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), mean liking for vegetables and fruits/juice fell as OM exposure increased, with significant differences between lowest and highest exposure categories (p<.05). Food neophobic versus non-neophobic preschoolers also liked vegetables and fruits less (p<.001). In a two-way ANCOVA, main effects of OM and food neophobia independently predicted vegetable and fruit liking; preschoolers with more OM exposure and neophobia had the lowest liking. Although ANCOVA failed to reveal OM effects on mean liking for fat/sugar foods, the relative ranking of liking for these foods differed by OM category. Fat/sugar foods were ranked as most preferred for the high OM children, particularly the boys, surpassing the ranking of pleasurable non-food items. Conversely, low OM children ranked pleasurable non-food items and fruits/juice as more pleasurable than high OM children. BMI percentile varied with OM exposure, but not neophobia: preschoolers with the greatest exposure averaged the highest percentiles. In multiple regression analyses, liking for vegetables or fruits failed to associate significantly with BMI percentile. There was a small but significant association between greater fat/sugar liking and higher BMI percentile

  20. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  1. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  2. Experimental induction of psychogenic illness in the context of a medical event and media exposure

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joan E.; Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Bass, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Mass psychogenic illness can be a significant problem for triage and hospital surge in disasters; however, research has been largely limited to posthoc observational reports. Reports on the impact of public media during a disaster have suggested both salutary as well as iatrogenic psychological effects. This study was designed to determine if psychogenic illness can be evoked and if media will exacerbate it in a plausible, controlled experiment among healthy community adults. Methods A randomized controlled experiment used a simulated biological threat and elements of social contagion—essential precipitants of mass psychogenic illness. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: no-intervention control group, psychogenic illness induction group, or psychogenic illness induction plus media group. Measures included three assessments of symptom intensity, heart rate, blood pressure, as well as questionnaires to measure potential psychogenic illness risk factors. Results The two psychogenic induction groups experienced 11 times more symptoms than the control group. Psychogenic illness was observed in both men and women at rates that were not significantly different. Higher rates of lifetime history of traumatic events and depression were associated with greater induction of illness. Media was not found to exacerbate symptom onset. Conclusions Psychogenic illness relevant to public health disasters can be evoked in an experimental setting. This sets the stage for further research on psychogenic illness and strategies for mitigation. PMID:21870665

  3. Mass Media Exposure as a Dimension of the Teen-Age Innovator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Reed H.; Nelson, Orval

    A study sought to determine whether female innovative teens have mass media behavior similar to that of adult innovators. Research indicates that adult innovators (adult who are the first to adopt new ideas and products and who comprise 16% of the population) are more ventursome, better educated, more socially integrated, and have greater contact…

  4. Reinforcing Spirals Model: Conceptualizing the Relationship Between Media Content Exposure and the Development and Maintenance of Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The Reinforcing Spirals Model (RSM, Citation Withheld) has two primary purposes. First, the RSM provides a general framework for conceptualizing media use as part of a dynamic, endogenous process combining selective exposure and media effects that may be drawn on by theorists concerned with a variety of social processes and effects. Second, the RSM utilizes a systems-theory perspective to describe how patterns of mediated and interpersonal communication contribute to the development and maintenance of social identities and ideology as well as more transient attitudes and related behaviors, and how those outcomes may influence subsequent media use. The RSM suggests contingencies that may lead to homeostasis or encourage certain individuals or groups to extreme polarization of such attitudes. In addition, the RSM proposes social cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for attitude maintenance and reinforcement. This article discusses empirical progress in testing the model, addresses misconceptions that have arisen, and provides elaborated illustrations of the model. The article also identifies potentially fruitful directions for further conceptual development and empirical testing of the RSM. PMID:26366124

  5. Exposure to violence across the social ecosystem and the development of aggression: a test of ecological theory in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Rowell Huesmann, L; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave yearly for 3 years) from 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14) representing three populations in the Middle East: Palestinians (N = 600), Israeli Jews (N = 451), and Israeli Arabs (N = 450). Results supported a hypothesized model in which ethnopolitical violence increases community, family, and school violence and children's aggression. Findings are discussed with respect to ecological and observational learning perspectives on the development of aggressive behavior.

  6. Exposure to Violence across the Social Ecosystem and the Development of Aggression: A Test of Ecological Theory in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher-order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower-order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children’s aggression via analyses of three waves of data (one wave yearly for three years) from three age cohorts (starting ages 8, 11, and 14) representing three populations in the Middle East: Palestinians (N = 600), Israeli Jews (N = 451), and Israeli Arabs (N = 450). Results supported a hypothesized model in which ethno-political violence increases community, family, and school violence and children’s aggression. Findings are discussed with respect to ecological and observational learning perspectives on the development of aggressive behavior. PMID:22906188

  7. Exposure to Violence across the Social Ecosystem and the Development of Aggression: A Test of Ecological Theory in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave…

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following media exposure to tragic events: impact of 9/11 on children at risk for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Henin, Aude; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Pollack, Mark H; Biederman, Joseph; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2007-01-01

    With the extensive media coverage on September 11, 2001, adults and children indirectly witnessed the terrorist attacks leading to the deaths of almost 3,000 people. An ongoing longitudinal study provided the opportunity to examine pre-event characteristics and the impact of this media exposure. We assessed symptoms of PTSD in 166 children and 84 mothers who had no direct exposure to the 9/11 attacks. The sample included children who had parents with or without anxiety and mood disorders, and who had been assessed for the presence or absence of temperamental behavioral inhibition (BI). We found a 5.4 percent rate of symptomatic PTSD in response to 9/11 in children and 1.2 percent in their mothers. Children's identification with victims of the attack, and for younger children, the amount of television viewing predicted increased risk of PTSD symptoms. Parental depression was associated with higher symptoms, and pre-event levels of family support was associated with a lower risk for PTSD symptoms. BI in children was also linked to lower rates of PTSD symptoms, suggesting that a cautious and fearful approach to novelty may offer protection against exposure to media-based traumatic images. Media viewing of tragic events is sufficient to produce PTSD symptoms in vulnerable populations such as children. Given the links between PTSD symptoms and viewing habits, parental monitoring of media exposure may be important for younger children.

  9. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  10. Mental- and physical-health effects of acute exposure to media images of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison; Andersen, Judith Pizarro; Poulin, Michael; McIntosh, Daniel N; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed Web-based surveys 1 to 3 weeks after 9/11; a subsample (n = 1,322) also completed surveys at the initiation of the Iraq War. These surveys measured media exposure and acute stress responses. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to 9/11 and physician-diagnosed health ailments were assessed annually for 3 years. Early 9/11- and Iraq War-related television exposure and frequency of exposure to war images predicted increased posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 to 3 years after 9/11. Exposure to 4 or more hr daily of early 9/11-related television and cumulative acute stress predicted increased incidence of health ailments 2 to 3 years later. These findings suggest that exposure to graphic media images may result in physical and psychological effects previously assumed to require direct trauma exposure.

  11. The protective role of general self-determination against 'thin ideal' media exposure on women's body image and eating-related concerns.

    PubMed

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-04-01

    Women's responses to 'thin ideal' media pending their level of general self-determination (GSD) were examined. High and low GSD women (N = 99) viewed a 'thin physique salient' (TPS) video or a 'thin physique non-salient' (TPNS) video. Following exposure to the TPS video, perceptions of pressure from the media to be thin, body dissatisfaction, and concerns over quantity of food were greater for low but not high GSD women. However, high GSD women reported greater concerns over the quality of food they eat following exposure to the TPNS video. Prevention efforts aimed at enhancing GSD are discussed.

  12. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.

  13. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  14. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  15. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  16. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  17. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  18. Associations Between Exposure to and Expression of Negative Opinions About Human Papillomavirus Vaccines on Social Media: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Leask, Julie; Zhou, Xujuan; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background Groups and individuals that seek to negatively influence public opinion about the safety and value of vaccination are active in online and social media and may influence decision making within some communities. Objective We sought to measure whether exposure to negative opinions about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Twitter communities is associated with the subsequent expression of negative opinions by explicitly measuring potential information exposure over the social structure of Twitter communities. Methods We hypothesized that prior exposure to opinions rejecting the safety or value of HPV vaccines would be associated with an increased risk of posting similar opinions and tested this hypothesis by analyzing temporal sequences of messages posted on Twitter (tweets). The study design was a retrospective analysis of tweets related to HPV vaccines and the social connections between users. Between October 2013 and April 2014, we collected 83,551 English-language tweets that included terms related to HPV vaccines and the 957,865 social connections among 30,621 users posting or reposting the tweets. Tweets were classified as expressing negative or neutral/positive opinions using a machine learning classifier previously trained on a manually labeled sample. Results During the 6-month period, 25.13% (20,994/83,551) of tweets were classified as negative; among the 30,621 users that tweeted about HPV vaccines, 9046 (29.54%) were exposed to a majority of negative tweets. The likelihood of a user posting a negative tweet after exposure to a majority of negative opinions was 37.78% (2780/7361) compared to 10.92% (1234/11,296) for users who were exposed to a majority of positive and neutral tweets corresponding to a relative risk of 3.46 (95% CI 3.25-3.67, P<.001). Conclusions The heterogeneous community structure on Twitter appears to skew the information to which users are exposed in relation to HPV vaccines. We found that among users that tweeted about

  19. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  20. SAR measurement due to mobile phone exposure in a simulated biological media.

    PubMed

    Behari, J; Nirala, Jay Prakash

    2012-09-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements are carried out for compliance testing of personal 3G Mobile phone. The accuracy of this experimental setup has been checked by comparing the SAR in 10 gm of simulated tissue and an arbitrary shaped box. This has been carried out using a 3G mobile Phone at 1718.5 MHz, in a medium simulating brain and muscle phantom. The SAR measurement system consists of a stepper motor to move a monopole E-field probe in two dimensions inside an arbitrary shaped box. The phantom is filled with appropriate frequency-specific fluids with measured electrical properties (dielectric constant and conductivity). That is close to the average for gray and white matters of the brain at the frequencies of interest (1718.5 MHz). Induced fields are measured using a specially designed monopole probe in its close vicinity. The probe is immersed in the phantom material. The measured data for induced fields are used to compute SAR values at various locations with respect to the mobile phone location. It is concluded that these SAR values are position dependent and well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure.

  1. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement.

  2. The Longitudinal Effects of Chronic Mediated Exposure to Political Violence on Ideological Beliefs About Political Conflicts Among Youths

    PubMed Central

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Boxer, Paul; Shikaki, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence on ideological beliefs regarding political conflict. It centers on these effects on young viewers, from preadolescents to adolescents. Ideological beliefs refers here to support of war, perception of threat to one's nation, and normative beliefs concerning aggression toward the out-group. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of Israeli and Palestinian youths who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). Two alternative hypotheses were tested: that chronic exposure via the media increases support for war and aggression and elevates feeling of threat, or that chronic exposure via the media strengthens preexisting beliefs. Results demonstrated that higher levels of exposure were longitudinally related to stronger support for war. Regarding normative beliefs about aggression and threat to one's nation, mediated exposure reinforced initial beliefs, rendering the youths more extreme in their attitudes. These results mostly support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as “reciprocally determined” or “reinforcing spirals.” The results are also discussed in light of the differences found between the effect of exposure to political violence firsthand and exposure via the media. PMID:26997852

  3. The Longitudinal Effects of Chronic Mediated Exposure to Political Violence on Ideological Beliefs About Political Conflicts Among Youths.

    PubMed

    Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Boxer, Paul; Shikaki, Khalil

    This study examines the effects of chronic (i.e., repeated and cumulative) mediated exposure to political violence on ideological beliefs regarding political conflict. It centers on these effects on young viewers, from preadolescents to adolescents. Ideological beliefs refers here to support of war, perception of threat to one's nation, and normative beliefs concerning aggression toward the out-group. A longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of Israeli and Palestinian youths who experience the Israeli-Palestinian conflict firsthand (N = 1,207). Two alternative hypotheses were tested: that chronic exposure via the media increases support for war and aggression and elevates feeling of threat, or that chronic exposure via the media strengthens preexisting beliefs. Results demonstrated that higher levels of exposure were longitudinally related to stronger support for war. Regarding normative beliefs about aggression and threat to one's nation, mediated exposure reinforced initial beliefs, rendering the youths more extreme in their attitudes. These results mostly support the conceptualization of the relation between media violence and behaviors as "reciprocally determined" or "reinforcing spirals." The results are also discussed in light of the differences found between the effect of exposure to political violence firsthand and exposure via the media.

  4. The effects of risk-glorifying media exposure on risk-positive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Vogrincic, Claudia; Sauer, Anne

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge in the quantity of media content that glorifies risk-taking behavior, such as risky driving, extreme sports, or binge drinking. The authors conducted a meta-analysis involving more than 80,000 participants and 105 independent effect sizes to examine whether exposure to such media depictions increased their recipients' risk-taking inclinations. A positive connection was found for overall, combined risk taking (g=.41); as well as its underlying dimensions: risk-taking behaviors (g=.41), risk-positive cognitions and attitudes (g=.35), and risk-positive emotions (g=.56). This effect was observed across varying research methods (experimental, correlational, longitudinal); types of media (video games, movies, advertising, TV, music); and differing risk-related outcome measures (e.g., smoking, drinking, risky driving, sexual behavior). Multiple moderator analyses revealed 2 theoretically new boundary conditions for sociocognitive models. First, the effect was stronger for active (i.e., video games) than for passive (e.g., film, music) exposure to risk-glorifying media content. Second, the effect was stronger when there was a high degree of contextual fit between the media content and type of risk-taking measure. The theoretical, practical, and societal implications of the present research synthesis are discussed.

  5. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  6. Of virtual victims and victimized virtues: differential effects of experienced aggression in video games on social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects.

  7. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  8. Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how news coverage on the connections between media violence and aggression have left the public confused, examining whether media violence mirrors real world violence and how news reports about media violence and aggression have changed over time. Highlights the entertainment industry and scientific community, discussing why they often…

  9. Meta-analytic moderators of experimental exposure to media portrayals of women on female appearance satisfaction: Social comparisons as automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Want, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Experimental exposure to idealized media portrayals of women is thought to induce social comparisons in female viewers and thereby to be generally detrimental to female viewers' satisfaction with their own appearance. Through meta-analysis, the present paper examines the impact of moderators of this effect, some identified and updated from a prior meta-analysis and some that have hitherto received little attention. Participants' pre-existing appearance concerns and the processing instructions participants were given when exposed to media portrayals were found to significantly moderate effect sizes. With regard to processing instructions, a novel and counter-intuitive pattern was revealed; effect sizes were smallest when participants were instructed to focus on the appearance of women in media portrayals, and largest when participants processed the portrayals on a distracting, non-appearance dimension. These results are interpreted through a framework that suggests that social comparisons are automatic processes, the effects of which can be modified through conscious processing.

  10. Examining the effects of mass media campaign exposure and interpersonal discussions on youth's drug use: the mediating role of visiting pro-drug websites.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Lee, Chul-Joo

    2013-01-01

    To extend past research on interpersonal communication and campaign effects, we hypothesized that anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure indirectly affects visiting anti- and pro-drug websites through targeted parent-child and friend-to-friend communication against drugs, as well as through having drug-related discussions during organized group activities. Second, we posited that engaging in anti-drug interpersonal communication indirectly affects adolescents' drug use through two intervening variables: visiting anti-drug websites and visiting pro-drug websites. Using self-reported longitudinal data from 2,749 youth, we found that as youth reported higher levels of anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure, they were more likely to talk to friends about the bad consequences of drugs, how to avoid drugs, and anti-drug ads. In turn, however, they were more likely to visit pro-drug websites, and subsequently, to smoke cigarettes.

  11. Turning the other cheek. Agreeableness and the regulation of aggression-related primes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2006-02-01

    Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.

  12. Influences of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to media on breast-feeding patterns: experience of Nigeria and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, F A; Suchindran, C M; Cornwell, G T

    2001-01-01

    This study uses data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1990 and the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1995 to examine the implications of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to the media for breast-feeding patterns (exclusivity and intensity) in Nigeria and Uganda. Nigeria and Uganda present an interesting contrast because Nigeria is more modernized and economically developed than Uganda, thus providing a good indication of the influence of modernization on breast-feeding patterns. Mother's work status is defined by considering whether mothers earned cash from work and took their children to work, hence emphasizing the compatibility of work with child care. Work least compatible with child care had a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Nigeria. The negative effect of mother's work on exclusive breast-feeding (that is, if the mothers used formula or milk instead) observed for some working mothers in Nigeria and Uganda was partly confounded by urban residence, exposure to media, and other socioeconomic factors. Mother's work did not have a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Uganda. The relationship between mother's work, urban residence, media exposure, and breast-feeding practice seems to be stronger in Nigeria than Uganda.

  13. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  14. A Subcultural Account of Media Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howitt, Dennis; Dembo, Richard

    1974-01-01

    A critical review and analysis of the literature on the effects--aggressive drive, behavior or attitude--of mass media violence, suggesting that the processes of media influence are more subtle than traditional effects formulations imply. (Author/SF)

  15. Cyber Aggression: The Relation between Online Offenders and Offline Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Corrie L.; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly using computer technologies to engage in acts of aggression against peers, often termed "cyber aggression". Media reports have sensationalized instances of cyber aggression, and social scientists have begun to examine its characteristics and consequences. Using a younger sample of children than most previous research (192…

  16. Media Violence and Antisocial Behavior: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Malamuth, Neil M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses general issues that have shaped research on whether depictions of violence in television and other media significantly influence real-life aggressive behavior. Presents a theoretical framework for understanding media effects on the psychological processes of acquisition, maintenance, and emission of aggression. Outlines contents of this…

  17. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses.

  18. Multi-media campaign exposure and interpersonal communication on sexual abstinence among young people in Nigeria: a propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Adesegun O; Wang, Wenjuan; Anyanti, Jennifer

    A national multi-media campaign (Zip-Up!) was initiated in Nigeria in 2004 to promote sexual abstinence among young people as part of comprehensive efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infection and unwanted pregnancy. This study assessed the effect of the campaign exposure on interpersonal communication about abstinence among a nationally representative sample of never-married young people (15-24 years). A propensity score matching technique was used to create a comparison group statistically equivalent to the group exposed to the campaign and assess the campaign effect. Of the 3,388 people sampled, 29.1% had been exposed to the campaign. Factors significantly associated with campaign exposure included age (OR = 1.08; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.12), urban location (OR = 1.31; 95% C.I. = 1.04-1.66), and frequency of media use. Compared to the non-exposed group, campaign exposure was associated with a statistically significant adjusted increase of 10.9% in the proportion of young people who engaged in interpersonal communication about abstinence.

  19. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    PubMed

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students.

  20. Effects of Symbolic Modeling on Children's Interpersonal Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Does exposure to symbolically modeled aggression (aggression in cartoons, movies, stories and simulated television programs) increase children's willingness to engage in behavior which might actually harm another human being? This paper presents a summary of three recent experiments offering affirmative answers to the question. A fourth experiment…

  1. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  2. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  3. POTENTIAL MEDIA FOR MONITORING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 2,2’,4,4’-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that many diseases are linked to environmental exposures early in life. Little is known about in utero exposures to most environmental chemicals. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread in the environment as a result of many years of usage ...

  4. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  5. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  6. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  7. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  8. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  9. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Prozac impacts lateralization of aggression in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    HedayatiRad, Maryam; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Brown, Culum

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, preferentially use right-eye during the aggressive displays. However, administration of antidepressant drugs may disrupt eye-use preference in association with a reduction in aggression; a phenomena that has not been explored in fish. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of exposure to the antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, on lateralization in eye-use during aggressive displays in male Siamese fighting fish. Baseline aggression and lateralization in eye use of thirty fish were assessed toward live conspecifics, following which experimental subjects (n=15) were then exposed to fluoxetine (540ng/L) in a static renewal water system. Behavior was quantified again after 9 days of exposure. All of the subjects preferentially used the right-eye during aggressive responses before the exposure experiments. Fluoxetine exposed subjects showed a reduction in the time spent gill flaring as has previously been reported, indicative of a reduction in the level of aggression. Fluoxetine also had a significant effect on the lateralization in preferred eye-use while looking at their opponent. Fish exposed to fluoxetine switched from a preferential use of the right-eye during aggressive encounters prior to exposure to using their left-eye after exposure to fluoxetine. The results are discussed with regard to asymmetrical distribution of serotonin between the two brain hemispheres.

  11. Trends in media use.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Donald F; Foehr, Ulla G

    2008-01-01

    American youth are awash in media. They have television sets in their bedrooms, personal computers in their family rooms, and digital music players and cell phones in their backpacks. They spend more time with media than any single activity other than sleeping, with the average American eight- to eighteen-year-old reporting more than six hours of daily media use. The growing phenomenon of "media multitasking"--using several media concurrently--multiplies that figure to eight and a half hours of media exposure daily. Donald Roberts and Ulla Foehr examine how both media use and media exposure vary with demographic factors such as age, race and ethnicity, and household socioeconomic status, and with psychosocial variables such as academic performance and personal adjustment. They note that media exposure begins early, increases until children begin school, drops off briefly, then climbs again to peak at almost eight hours daily among eleven- and twelve-year-olds. Television and video exposure is particularly high among African American youth. Media exposure is negatively related to indicators of socioeconomic status, but that relationship may be diminishing. Media exposure is positively related to risk-taking behaviors and is negatively related to personal adjustment and school performance. Roberts and Foehr also review evidence pointing to the existence of a digital divide--variations in access to personal computers and allied technologies by socioeconomic status and by race and ethnicity. The authors also examine how the recent emergence of digital media such as personal computers, video game consoles, and portable music players, as well as the media multitasking phenomenon they facilitate, has increased young people's exposure to media messages while leaving media use time largely unchanged. Newer media, they point out, are not displacing older media but are being used in concert with them. The authors note which young people are more or less likely to use several

  12. The effect of exposure, storage times, and types of holding media on the drag-swab monitoring technique for Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Opara, O O; Mallinson, E T; Tate, C R; Carr, L E; Miller, R G; Stewart, L; Kelleher, C; Johnston, R W; Joseph, S W

    1992-01-01

    Four maintenance media were compared for the preservation of the sensitivity of drag swabs and to assess the survival of Salmonella spp. on drag swabs at reduced temperatures. The effects of Difco double-strength skim milk (2 x SM), 2% buffered peptone water (BPW), a modified liquid Cary-Blair transport medium (LCB), and lactose broth holding medium were compared, as were storage periods of various lengths. The results with enzyme-linked immunosorbent antigen capture assay and highly selective plating media detection systems showed that 2 x SM had the highest level of recovery of salmonellae after prolonged storage, both under refrigeration at 4 C for 3 days and under frozen conditions of -15 C for 2 weeks.

  13. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.

  14. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  15. Physical Aggression in the Family and Preschoolers' Use of the Mother as a Secure Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Pratt, Dawn Marie

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-mother attachment relationships is context sensitive. Conflict and aggression in the marital relationship as well as aggressive discipline practices may diminish a child's confidence in her or his mother as a secure base. We investigated whether physical aggression against the mother, exposure of the child to it, and use of…

  16. Children's Media Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  17. Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11-14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression.

  18. Emotionally anesthetized: media violence induces neural changes during emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Laura A.; Morrison, Robert G.; Kmiecik, Matthew J.; Garbarino, James

    2015-01-01

    Media violence exposure causes increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior, suggesting that media violence desensitizes people to the emotional experience of others. Alterations in emotional face processing following exposure to media violence may result in desensitization to others’ emotional states. This study used scalp electroencephalography methods to examine the link between exposure to violence and neural changes associated with emotional face processing. Twenty-five participants were shown a violent or nonviolent film clip and then completed a gender discrimination stop-signal task using emotional faces. Media violence did not affect the early visual P100 component; however, decreased amplitude was observed in the N170 and P200 event-related potentials following the violent film, indicating that exposure to film violence leads to suppression of holistic face processing and implicit emotional processing. Participants who had just seen a violent film showed increased frontal N200/P300 amplitude. These results suggest that media violence exposure may desensitize people to emotional stimuli and thereby require fewer cognitive resources to inhibit behavior. PMID:25759472

  19. Emotionally anesthetized: media violence induces neural changes during emotional face processing.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Morrison, Robert G; Kmiecik, Matthew J; Garbarino, James; Silton, Rebecca L

    2015-10-01

    Media violence exposure causes increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior, suggesting that media violence desensitizes people to the emotional experience of others. Alterations in emotional face processing following exposure to media violence may result in desensitization to others' emotional states. This study used scalp electroencephalography methods to examine the link between exposure to violence and neural changes associated with emotional face processing. Twenty-five participants were shown a violent or nonviolent film clip and then completed a gender discrimination stop-signal task using emotional faces. Media violence did not affect the early visual P100 component; however, decreased amplitude was observed in the N170 and P200 event-related potentials following the violent film, indicating that exposure to film violence leads to suppression of holistic face processing and implicit emotional processing. Participants who had just seen a violent film showed increased frontal N200/P300 amplitude. These results suggest that media violence exposure may desensitize people to emotional stimuli and thereby require fewer cognitive resources to inhibit behavior.

  20. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  1. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  2. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out.

  3. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  4. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-09-01

    Transport of reactive solutes in groundwater is affected by physical and chemical heterogeneity of the porous medium, leading to complex spatio-temporal patterns of concentrations and reaction rates. For certain cases of bioreactive transport, it could be shown that the concentrations of reactive constituents in multi-dimensional domains are approximately aligned with isochrones, that is, lines of identical travel time, provided that the chemical properties of the matrix are uniform. We extend this concept to combined physical and chemical heterogeneity by additionally considering the time that a water parcel has been exposed to reactive materials, the so-called exposure time. We simulate bioreactive transport in a one-dimensional domain as function of time and exposure time, rather than space. Subsequently, we map the concentrations to multi-dimensional heterogeneous domains by means of the mean exposure time at each location in the multi-dimensional domain. Differences in travel and exposure time at a given location are accounted for as time difference. This approximation simplifies reactive-transport simulations significantly under conditions of steady-state flow when reactions are restricted to specific locations. It is not expected to be exact in realistic applications because the underlying assumption, such as neglecting transverse mixing altogether, may not hold. We quantify the error introduced by the approximation for the hypothetical case of a two-dimensional, binary aquifer made of highly-permeable, non-reactive and low-permeable, reactive materials releasing dissolved organic matter acting as electron donor for aerobic respiration and denitrification. The kinetically controlled reactions are catalyzed by two non-competitive bacteria populations, enabling microbial growth. Even though the initial biomass concentrations were uniform, the interplay between transport, non-uniform electron-donor supply, and bio-reactions led to distinct spatial patterns of

  5. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T.; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-09-01

    Transport of reactive solutes in groundwater is affected by physical and chemical heterogeneity of the porous medium, leading to complex spatio-temporal patterns of concentrations and reaction rates. For certain cases of bioreactive transport, it could be shown that the concentrations of reactive constituents in multi-dimensional domains are approximately aligned with isochrones, that is, lines of identical travel time, provided that the chemical properties of the matrix are uniform. We extend this concept to combined physical and chemical heterogeneity by additionally considering the time that a water parcel has been exposed to reactive materials, the so-called exposure time. We simulate bioreactive transport in a one-dimensional domain as function of time and exposure time, rather than space. Subsequently, we map the concentrations to multi-dimensional heterogeneous domains by means of the mean exposure time at each location in the multi-dimensional domain. Differences in travel and exposure time at a given location are accounted for as time difference. This approximation simplifies reactive-transport simulations significantly under conditions of steady-state flow when reactions are restricted to specific locations. It is not expected to be exact in realistic applications because the underlying assumption, such as neglecting transverse mixing altogether, may not hold. We quantify the error introduced by the approximation for the hypothetical case of a two-dimensional, binary aquifer made of highly-permeable, non-reactive and low-permeable, reactive materials releasing dissolved organic matter acting as electron donor for aerobic respiration and denitrification. The kinetically controlled reactions are catalyzed by two non-competitive bacteria populations, enabling microbial growth. Even though the initial biomass concentrations were uniform, the interplay between transport, non-uniform electron-donor supply, and bio-reactions led to distinct spatial patterns of

  6. Measuring exposure to sexually explicit media among young men who have sex with men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kimberly; Golden, Matthew R.; Glick, Sara Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption may contribute to sexual risk-taking among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Methods We estimated the prevalence and frequency of SEM consumption as well as associations with contextual and sexual risk characteristics among 61 YMSM. Results All participants (n=61, 100%) reported viewing SEM; 45 (74%) in the past week. There were no significant associations between viewing SEM in the past week and measured characteristics. Conclusion SEM use among YMSM is extremely common. Future research should clarify potential relations between SEM and sexual risk-taking with larger samples of YMSM and specific measures, including SEM content and amount. PMID:26535592

  7. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  8. Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.

    PubMed

    Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

    2013-09-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli.

  9. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups.

  10. Prospective Influence of Music-Related Media Exposure on Adolescent Substance-Use Initiation: A Peer Group Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects via association with substance-using peers are also tested in a four-wave longitudinal data set (2729 middle-school students for the alcohol model, 2716 students for the cigarette model, and 2710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the U.S. In so doing we examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance-use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects via association with substance-using peers on all three substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents’ substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups. PMID:23311876

  11. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention.

  12. Associations between metals in residential environmental media and exposure biomarkers over time in infants living near a mining-impacted site

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Riederer, Anne M.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schaider, Laurel A.; Shine, James P.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Wright, Robert O.; Spengler, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Infant exposures to metals are a concern for mining-impacted communities, although limited information is available to assess residential exposures over the first year of life. We measured lead (Pb), manganese, arsenic, and cadmium in indoor air, house dust, yard soil, and tap water from 53 infants’ homes near the Tar Creek Superfund Site (Oklahoma, USA) at two time points representing developmental stages before and during initial ambulation (age 0–6 and 6–12 months). We measured infant metal biomarkers in: umbilical cord blood (n = 53); 12- (n = 43) and 24- (n = 22) month blood; and hair at age 12 months (n = 39). We evaluated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between infant residential and biomarker concentrations. A doubling of mean dust Pb concentration was consistently associated with 36–49% higher 12-month blood Pb adjusting for cord blood Pb (P≤ 0.05). Adjusted dust concentration explained 29–35% of blood Pb variance, and consistent associations with other media were not observed. Although concentrations in dust and blood were generally low, strong and consistent associations between dust and body burden suggest that house dust in mining-impacted communities may impact children’s health. These relationships were observed at a young age, typically before blood Pb levels peak and when children’s development may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. PMID:26648247

  13. Pathways to Aggression in Urban Elementary School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…

  14. [Violent video games and aggression: long-term impact and selection effects].

    PubMed

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    This study applied social-cognitive models of aggression in order to examine relations between video game use and aggressive tendencies and biases in social information processing. To this end, 499 secondary school students (aged 12-16) completed a survey on two occasions one year apart. Hierarchical regression analysis probed media effects and selection effects and included relevant contextual variables (parental monitoring of media consumption, impulsivity, and victimization). Results revealed that it was not the consumption of violent video games but rather an uncontrolled pattern of video game use that was associated with increasing aggressive tendencies. This increase was partly mediated by a hostile attribution bias in social information processing. The influence of aggressive tendencies on later video game consumption was also examined (selection path). Adolescents with aggressive traits intensified their video game behavior only in terms of their uncontrolled video game use. This was found even after controlling for sensation seeking and parental media control.

  15. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  16. Of fish and mirrors: Fluoxetine disrupts aggression and learning for social rewards.

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Greene, Susan; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2017-05-01

    Aggressive signaling is a key social behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Successfully establishing a territory and defending it from intruders has direct fitness effects, making Betta splendens a prime model for studies examining the biological underpinnings of aggressive behavior. Current research has outlined serotonin transporter pathways as one key component for the engagement and coordination of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens. Using the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, we examined the impact of 10μmol exposures on associative learning and aggression between mirror and conspecific social reinforcers. Our results provide clear evidence that exposure to fluoxetine reduces aggression and impairs learning independent of social reinforce type. In addition, our results provide support for motor inhibition of aggressive behavior as the main behavioral mechanism of action for fluoxetine. Placed within the broader context of behavioral syndromes, our results, along with others, implicate serotonergic pathways as a key biological correlate of the bold-aggressive phenotype.

  17. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Dill, K E

    2000-04-01

    Two studies examined violent video game effects on aggression-related variables. Study 1 found that real-life violent video game play was positively related to aggressive behavior and delinquency. The relation was stronger for individuals who are characteristically aggressive and for men. Academic achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time spent playing video games. In Study 2, laboratory exposure to a graphically violent video game increased aggressive thoughts and behavior. In both studies, men had a more hostile view of the world than did women. The results from both studies are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term (e.g., delinquency).

  18. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  19. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  20. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  1. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  2. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  3. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  4. Effects of test media on reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and of pre-exposure population densities on sensitivity to cadmium in a reproduction test.

    PubMed

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Wigh, Adriana; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Molluscan species can be affected by various anthropogenic substances. Yet, these effects are disregarded in chemical risk assessment as molluscs are unrepresented in standard OECD guidelines. The project "validation of a mollusc reproduction test" (Federal Environment Agency, code 371165417) deals with the development of a test method with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum for OECD purposes. In this context, the influence on reproduction of both, different media and varying snail density, has been observed in independent experiments. Further, the impact of density on the outcome of subsequent cadmium (Cd) toxicity in a test has been investigated to refine the existing methodology. First, adult snails were kept in different test media for 12 weeks. Second, snail density was increased for 4 weeks to induce stress. Snails from each density scenario were used for another 4 weeks in a reproduction test at an equal density with 12 μg Cd/L, respectively. Significant differences in reproduction between medium groups were noted after 4 and 8, but not 12, weeks. Further, reproduction was significantly altered by snail density in the beakers but after subsequent 4 weeks at a constant density, no differences were observed between control groups. Cd reduced reproduction and this effect increased with snail density in the pre-exposure period, demonstrating that a previous stress factor may result in increased sensitivity to chemicals and underlines the need for more standardized breeding conditions to minimize effect variations. Based on the outcome of this study, an acclimatization period of 12 weeks must be guaranteed for specimens transferred to another medium. Further, 4 weeks of acclimatization are necessary after density stress. An additional 12 weeks density experiment showed that medium volume in each replicate can be decreased by half to save on chemicals, water and space during tests.

  5. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  6. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  7. Contributing Factors to Aggressive Behaviors in High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing…

  8. Making our own meanings: a critical review of media effects research in relation to the causation of aggression and social skills difficulties in children and anorexia nervosa in young women.

    PubMed

    Barrett, R T

    1997-06-01

    This study examines concerns regarding the effects of video and television on certain types of behaviour. In the forefront of such debate is the claim by Elizabeth Newson [Newson E. (1994) Video violence and the protection of children. Journal of Mental Health 3,221-227] that video and television representations of violence have a direct influence on children. Newson's argument is challenged in this paper, as is the popular belief that media images cause anorexia nervosa in young women. The author's argument against the notion of such direct influence is aimed at media effects research, which will be criticized as both deterministic and simplistic, on the grounds that as a positivist approach it overlooks the sophisticated resistance of viewers. Evidence from cultural studies, within an interpretivist tradition, will be cited as a challenge to the 'moral panic of the media', highlighting the incommensurability of diverse research disciplines. Mental health professionals have long been confronted with the failure of science to provide any unitary truth regarding the aetiology of mental health problems. Frustrating as that is, it is proposed that diverse empirical methods in the social sciences enrich debate and serve to expose the quest for a monocasual aetiology as fundamentally flawed. Media effects are thus only part of a myriad possible causes of anorexia nervosa, and yet are seen as central to current alarm regarding the way children learn (or don't learn) to cooperate with, and show concern for, other people.

  9. From Cyberbullying to Electronic Aggression: Typology of the Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyzalski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is usually operationalised as a kind of bullying understood as peer aggression that is intentional and continuous, and involves an aspect of imbalance of power between a victim and a perpetrator or perpetrators. Despite the tool used (new media), cyberbullying often takes place within a traditional group (e.g. school class). However,…

  10. Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervova, Irina

    1999-01-01

    Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

  11. Managing aggression in the emergency department: promoting an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Rintoul, Yvonne; Wynaden, Dianne; McGowan, Sunita

    2009-04-01

    Incidents of aggression are frequent occurrences in hospitals, particularly the emergency department. Aggression creates instability in the environment, impacts on patient care outcomes and leads to increased levels of stress in staff. Regular exposure to aggression in the workplace can have detrimental effects on health professionals' ongoing quality of life. The emergency department is a gateway to care and is heavily populated 24h a day. Therefore, it is essential that all health professionals are confident and well prepared to manage aggression. Based upon a review of the literature this paper outlines the causes of aggression and provides an interdisciplinary action plan for intervening with aggressive patients in the emergency department. The importance of interdisciplinary ownership and the well planned management of aggression are outlined. When well managed, the impact of aggression can be limited. Stability in the emergency department ensures that health professionals can be responsive to the community's needs for emergency care. This leads to the provision of effective and timely care and a stable work environment for all health professionals.

  12. Experience influences aggressive behaviour in the Argentine ant

    PubMed Central

    Van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Clémencet, Johanna; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    All animals interact with conspecifics during their life, and nearly all also display some form of aggression. An enduring challenge, however, is to understand how the experiences of an individual animal influence its later behaviours. Several studies have shown that prior winning experience increases the probability of initiating fights in later encounters. Using behavioural assays in the laboratory, we provide evidence that, in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), the mere exposure to an opponent, without the encounter escalating to a fight, also increases the probability that it will display aggression in later encounters. Argentine ant workers differ in their propensity to attack non-colonymates, with some ants repeatedly aggressive and others consistently more docile. Although 78 per cent of the workers were consistent in their behaviour from one encounter to the next, workers that did change their behaviour after an encounter with a non-colonymate more often changed from non-aggressive to aggressive, rather than the reverse. Surprisingly, a single encounter with a non-colonymate increased a worker's propensity to fight in encounters up to a week later. An encounter with a non-colonymate also increased the probability that a worker would attack ants from a colony that it had not previously encountered. Thus, these interactions lowered the overall aggression threshold, rather than stimulating a specific aggressive response to a particular foreign colony. Finally, our data suggest that aggression towards non-colonymates increases with age. PMID:19793741

  13. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression.

  14. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  15. Linkages between Children's and Their Friends' Social and Physical Aggression: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…

  16. Entertainment-education in a media-saturated environment: examining the impact of single and multiple exposures to breast cancer storylines on two popular medical dramas.

    PubMed

    Hether, Heather J; Huang, Grace C; Beck, Vicki; Murphy, Sheila T; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-12-01

    In the United States, entertainment-education (E-E) initiatives in primetime television that provide public health information are at risk for diminished impact due to the media-saturated environment in which they must compete. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to use multiple primetime TV shows to reinforce similar health messages in multiple storylines. The current study explores such an approach by evaluating the impact of two separate breast cancer genetics storylines featured on two different TV programs as the result of outreach to writers and producers. These storylines aired within approximately 3 weeks of each other on the popular medical dramas, ER (NBC) and Grey's Anatomy (ABC), and included information about the BRCA1 breast cancer gene mutation and the risks it poses to women who test positive for it. The evaluation used data collected from a panel sample of 599 female survey respondents at three points in time. Results show that while the individual storylines had a modest impact on viewers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to breast cancer, combined exposure seemed to be most effective at changing outcomes. Implications of our findings for future E-E interventions and evaluations are discussed.

  17. Predictors of vulnerability to reduced body image satisfaction and psychological wellbeing in response to exposure to idealized female media images in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Sarah J; Paxton, Susan J

    2002-11-01

    Predictors of change in body satisfaction, depressed mood, anxiety and anger, were examined following exposure to idealized female advertising images in Grades 7 and 10 girls. Stable body dissatisfaction, physical appearance comparison tendency, internalization of thin ideal, self-esteem, depression, identity confusion and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. One week later, participants viewed magazine images, before and after which they completed assessments of state body satisfaction, state depression, state anxiety and state anger. Participants were randomly allocated to view either images of idealized females (experimental condition) or fashion accessories (control condition). For both grades, there was a significant decrease in state body satisfaction and a significant increase in state depression attributable to viewing the female images. In Grade 7 girls in the experimental condition, decrease in state body satisfaction was predicted by stable body dissatisfaction and BMI, while significant predictors of decreases in the measures of negative affect included internalization of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison. In Grade 10 girls, reduction in state body satisfaction and increase in state depression was predicted by internalization of the thin-ideal, appearance comparison and stable body dissatisfaction. These findings indicate the importance of individual differences in short-term reaction to viewing idealized media images.

  18. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.

  19. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  20. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    PubMed

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation.

  1. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term.

  2. Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy.

  3. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors.

  4. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  5. The impact of electronic media on mental and somatic children's health.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Andreas D

    2007-10-01

    A concise review of the literature on the influence of electronic media on children's health is given. The exposure to different media is estimated with special reference to the situation in Germany. The impact on violence and aggressive behavior, on sexuality, on physical activity, obesity and nutrition, on substance use and abuse and addiction, on anxiety, depression, irregular sleep, and attention deficits, on cognition, language and reading, creativity is discussed. Although some of the results reported are still in question, there is no doubt that television and other electronic media negatively influence children's mental and somatic well-being. They have fundamentally changed the life of children and expose them to a powerful experiment with unpredictable and possibly irreversible outcome.

  6. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15-49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15-49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS.

  7. Plasticity in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin correlates with aggression during anabolic-androgenic steroid withdrawal in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Jill M; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2006-02-01

    In hamsters, adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure facilitates offensive aggression, in part by altering the development and activity of anterior hypothalamic arginine vasopressin (AH-AVP). This study assessed whether these effects were lasting by examining aggression and AH-AVP during AAS withdrawal. Adolescent hamsters administered AAS were tested as adults for aggression at 1, 4, 11, 18, or 25 days of withdrawal, sacrificed the following day, and examined for AH-AVP afferent innervation using immunohistochemistry. Through Day 12 of withdrawal, aggression and AVP were significantly higher in AAS-treated hamsters than in controls. These differences were no longer observable by Day 19 of withdrawal, at which point the behavior and neurobiology of AAS-treated hamsters reverted to that observed in controls. These data indicate that adolescent AAS exposure has short-term, reversible effects on both aggression and AH-AVP, correlating AH-AVP with the aggressive/nonaggressive behavioral phenotype during AAS withdrawal.

  8. Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects-all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment.

  9. Human Aggression Across the Lifespan: Genetic Propensities and Environmental Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects—all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment. PMID:22078481

  10. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  11. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  12. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  13. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  14. Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brandon G; Lapré, Genevieve E; Marsee, Monica A; Weems, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Despite an abundance of evidence linking maltreatment and violence-related trauma exposure to externalizing problems in youth, there is surprisingly little evidence to support a direct link between disaster exposure and youth aggressive behavior. This study tested the theory that there is primarily an indirect association between disaster exposure and aggression via posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study also examined the association between aggression and academic achievement. A sample of 191 4th- to 8th-grade minority youth who experienced Hurricane Katrina were assessed for aggressive behavior using the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS), disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and academic achievement. Structural equation modeling of the set of associations was consistent with the theory suggesting that there is an indirect link between disaster exposure and aggression through PTSD symptoms. Aggression was negatively associated with academic achievement, and modeling indicated that the set of associations was age and gender invariant. Findings advance the theoretical understanding of the linkage between aggression and disaster exposure. Findings also support the utility of the PCS in disaster research and the link between PCS scores and academic achievement.

  15. Neurochemical Correlates of Accumbal Dopamine D2 and Amygdaloid 5-HT1B Receptor Densities on Observational Learning of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called “chronic passive exposure to aggression,” changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, our study used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or non-aggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in the bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased 5-HT1BR density in the bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA in predicting high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms for observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions. PMID:25650085

  16. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies.

  17. Aggressive responding in abstinent heroin addicts: neuroendocrine and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Moi, Gabriele; Bussandri, Monica; Bubici, Cristina; Mossini, Matteo; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Brambilla, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Objective measures of experimentally induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, in comparison with 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were preliminarily submitted to DSM-IV interviews, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participant. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response). Money-earning responses were not different in drug-free heroin addicts and controls during the first two sessions and significantly lower during the third session in heroin-dependent subjects (t=2.99, P<.01). Aggressive responses were significantly higher (F=4.9, P<.01) in heroin addicted individuals, in comparison with controls. During the experimentally induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) concentrations increased less significantly, and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), increased more significantly in abstinent heroin-dependent subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamine changes, BDHI "direct" and "irritability" scores, MMPI "psychopathic deviate" scores in heroin-dependent subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between heroin-exposure extent (substance abuse history duration) and aggressiveness levels. The present findings suggest that heroin-dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relation with monoamine hyperreactivity, after long-term opiate discontinuation. Aggressiveness in heroin addicts seems to be related more to the

  18. Anger & Aggression Management in Young Adolescents: An Experimental Validation of the SCARE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the SCARE program; an anger management program developed with high school students. Adolescents (n=207) exposed to the SCARE program had significantly lower levels of anger and aggression, slightly higher anger control, and lower scores on aggressive and violent attitudes a year after exposure. (Contains…

  19. Burnout Among Summer Camp Staff Supporting People with Intellectual Disability and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Clara; Lunsky, Yona; Hensel, Jennifer; Dewa, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is an association between exposure to people with intellectual disability who are aggressive and burnout in the staff who support them. Little is known, however, about the experience of summer camp staff who work with this population. This study examined the relationship between aggression and burnout in 169 staff…

  20. Photoperiodic regulation of adrenal hormone secretion and aggression in female Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Gutzler, Stephanie J.; Karom, Mary; Erwin, W. Daniel; Albers, H. Elliott

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the length of the daily photoperiod induce significant changes in social behavior. Hamsters housed in winter-like short photoperiods (SP) can express significantly higher levels of aggression than hamsters housed in long photoperiods (LP) that mimic summer. The mechanisms responsible for increasing aggressiveness in SP-exposed female hamsters are not well understood but may involve seasonal changes in the endocrine system. In experiment 1, the effects of SP exposure on the circulating levels of three adrenal hormones were determined. Short photoperiod exposure was found to significantly depress the circulating levels of cortisol and the adrenal androgen dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) but significantly increased the circulating levels of the sulfated form of DHEA, DHEAS. Experiment 2 examined the effects of gonadal hormones on several different measures of aggression including its intensity in females housed in both long and short photoperiod. Exposure to SP resulted in high levels of aggression regardless of the endocrine state of the animal or the measure used to quantify aggression. In contrast, administration of estradiol to hamsters housed in LP significantly reduced aggression. The data of the present study support the hypothesis that SP-housed females are more aggressive than LP-housed females because SP exposure renders females insensitive to the aggression-reducing effects of ovarian hormones. PMID:19716370

  1. Social Media: Developing an Acceptable Use Policy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The growing use of social media by students and staff has led many schools to consider developing acceptable use policies. There is tremendous opportunity for improving education through the use of social media. There is also potential risk because social media can be used to access age inappropriate information and to engage in aggressive online…

  2. The Study of Aggressive Pornography: The Vicissitudes of Relevance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Augustine; Goldenberg, Sheldon

    1987-01-01

    Reviews experimental studies of behavioral consequences of exposure to violent or aggressive pornography and evaluates the validity and relevance as support for censoring pornography in the aftermath of the Meese Commission. Finds research deficient in several areas, such as design, theoretical models, and interpretation, thus offering no…

  3. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  4. "Teaching them a lesson?" A qualitative exploration of underlying motivations for driver aggression.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety.

  5. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  6. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  7. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  9. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  10. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  11. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  12. Links between Friends' Physical Aggression and Adolescents' Physical Aggression: What Happens If Gene-Environment Correlations are Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…

  13. The impact of exposure to mass media campaigns and social support on levels and trends of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: tools for enhancing effective HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A

    2010-05-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001).

  14. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  15. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  16. Neurochemical correlates of accumbal dopamine D2 and amygdaloid 5-HT 1B receptor densities on observational learning of aggression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R

    2015-06-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called "chronic passive exposure to aggression," changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, in our study, we used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or nonaggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased the 5-HT1BR density in bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA to predict high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms in the observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions.

  17. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26886483

  18. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and Childhood Blood Pressure and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Yao, Jin; Millstein, Josh; Gao, Lu; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Mack, Wendy; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Lurmann, Fred; Hodis, Howard; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to ambient air pollutants increases cardiovascular disease risk in adults little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure. Genetic variation and epigenetic alterations are two mechanisms that may influence the effects of early-life exposures on cardiovascular phenotypes. Objectives: We investigated whether genetic and epigenetic variation modify associations between prenatal air pollution on markers of cardiovascular risk in childhood. Methods: We used linear regression analysis to investigate the associations between prenatal pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE1) and AluYb8 DNA methylation levels measured in newborn blood spot tests, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and blood pressure (BP) in 459 participants as part of the Children’s Health Study. Interaction terms were also included to test for effect modification of these associations by genetic variation in methylation reprogramming genes. Results: Prenatal exposure to NO2 in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher systolic BP in 11-year-old children. Prenatal exposure to multiple air pollutants in the first trimester was associated with lower DNA methylation in LINE1, whereas later exposure to O3 was associated with higher LINE1 methylation levels in newborn blood spots. The magnitude of associations with prenatal air pollution varied according to genotype for 11 SNPs within DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B), Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), and Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) genes. Although first-trimester O3 exposure was not associated with CIMT and systolic BP overall, associations within strata of DNMT1 or DNMT3B were observed, and the magnitude and the direction of these associations depended on DNMT1 genotypes. Conclusions: Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in

  19. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-30

    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment.

  20. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  1. The role of media violence in violent behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Taylor, Laramie D

    2006-01-01

    Media violence poses a threat to public health inasmuch as it leads to an increase in real-world violence and aggression. Research shows that fictional television and film violence contribute to both a short-term and a long-term increase in aggression and violence in young viewers. Television news violence also contributes to increased violence, principally in the form of imitative suicides and acts of aggression. Video games are clearly capable of producing an increase in aggression and violence in the short term, although no long-term longitudinal studies capable of demonstrating long-term effects have been conducted. The relationship between media violence and real-world violence and aggression is moderated by the nature of the media content and characteristics of and social influences on the individual exposed to that content. Still, the average overall size of the effect is large enough to place it in the category of known threats to public health.

  2. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  3. Appetitive Aggression as a Resilience Factor against Trauma Disorders: Appetitive Aggression and PTSD in German World War II Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Roland; Huth, Sina; Knecht, Jasmin; Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. Methods and Findings To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8). War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS). Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = − .31, p = .014). The effect size and power were sufficient (f2 = 0.51, (1-β) = .99). The same was true for current PTSD (β = − .27, p = .030). Conclusions Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans. PMID:23251398

  4. Examining the correlates of aggression among male and female Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Taft, Casey T; Monson, Candice M; Hebenstreit, Claire L; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of general aggression among a nationally representative sample of male and female Vietnam veterans (N = 1,632). Findings indicated that the rates of aggression for men and women were 41% and 32%, respectively, and men appeared to perpetrate relatively more acts of severe aggression. Correlates of aggression for men included lower socioeconomic status and age, minority status, unemployment, degree of exposure to the malevolent war-zone environment and perceived threat in the war zone, posttraumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. For women, only lower age and unemployment were associated with aggression. Findings highlight the importance of developing models for aggression among those experiencing military deployments.

  5. Examining the link between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and dating aggression perpetration.

    PubMed

    Taft, Casey T; Schumm, Jeremiah; Orazem, Robert J; Meis, Laura; Pinto, Lavinia A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with respect to dating aggression perpetration among a sample of 199 undergraduates. Almost one-third of the overall sample reported physical dating aggression perpetration in the past year, and approximately 80% reported engaging in psychological dating aggression. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that the effects of trauma exposure on dating aggression were fully indirect via PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms were associated with psychological dating aggression in part through its association with anger, and alcohol problems were also directly related to this outcome. Results generalize findings from other populations suggesting the salience of trauma and PTSD symptoms in intimate relationship aggression and point to possible etiological pathways for these associations.

  6. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  7. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  8. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  9. Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

  10. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  11. Media Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennebush, G. Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Media Clips aims to offer readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. Clips may be in text or graphic format, and clip sources may be either print or electronic media.

  12. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  13. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  14. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  15. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  16. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  17. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  18. Modifying Media Content for Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Michelle M.; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. METHODS: We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06–1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34–1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: −0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60–11.37]). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior. PMID:23420911

  19. Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the moderating role of in-group social identity on relations between youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggressive behaviors. Participants included 770 mother-child dyads living in interfaced neighborhoods of Belfast. Youth answered questions about aggressive and delinquent behaviors as well as the extent to which they targeted their behaviors toward members of the other group. Structural equation modeling results show that youth exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior is linked with increases in both general and sectarian aggression and delinquency over one year. Reflecting the positive and negative effects of social identity, in-group social identity moderated this link, strengthening the relationship between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community and aggression and delinquency towards the out-group. However, social identity weakened the effect for exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior in the community on general aggressive behaviors. Gender differences also emerged; the relation between exposure to sectarian antisocial behavior and sectarian aggression was stronger for boys. The results have implications for understanding the complex role of social identity in inter-group relations for youth in post-accord societies. PMID:24187409

  20. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  1. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  2. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  3. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  4. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  5. Witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood: implications for daily conflict in adult intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Janet Krone; Bolger, Niall; Shrout, Patrick E

    2002-12-01

    We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as reflected in end-of-day anger). Results showed no evidence of exposure effects: Witnessing interparental psychological aggression was unrelated to the number of conflict days reported by either partner. Reactivity effects emerged for males only, with father's aggression predicting increased reactivity and mother's aggression predicting the opposite. However, we found evidence of direct or unmediated effects of interparental conflict on daily anger for both males and females. Mirroring the reactivity pattern, the same-sex parent's psychological aggression predicted greater daily anger, whereas the opposite-sex parent's aggression predicted less daily anger. These effects emerged independently of Big Five measures of personality; moreover, Big Five measures did not predict outcomes independently of interparental aggression.

  6. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.

  7. Exposure to violence and victimization and the use of violence by adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Champion, H L; Durant, R H

    2001-06-01

    Violence by adolescents in the United States is of growing concern. Despite a decrease in the rate of violence and death by firearms, firearm injuries are the second leading cause of death among Americans age 15 to 24 and the third leading cause of death among 10- to 14-year-old children. Although there are many factors associated with the use of violence by youths, exposure to violence and victimization has consistently been a predictor of the use of violence, as well as intentions to use violence, carrying a gun, and having attitudes accepting of the use of violence and aggressive behavior to resolve conflict. Adolescents' families, friends, neighborhoods, schools, and the media provide sources of exposure and victimization related to the use of violence. The cultural transmission of deviant behavior theory establishes a framework for understanding the influence of exposure to violence and victimization from these sources on adolescents' use of violence.

  8. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  9. Media and Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…

  10. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  11. Alienation, Aggression, and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Use of Violent Film, Computer, and Website Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines predictors of various types of self-reported use of violent media content by eighth graders. Indicates that gender, sensation-seeking, aggression, and frequency of Internet use had relatively strong contributions to explaining the use of violent media content. Notes that alienation from school and family also appeared to partially mediate…

  12. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use.

  13. Morphological traits of damage to steam pipes in aggressive media

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, I.I.; Khodykina, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    In steam pipes handling steam 540-560{degrees}C hot there were repeated cases of damage to curved parts of the pipes (bends). In the bends cracks form both on the outer surface of tensioned zones and on the inner surface of neutral zones. Statistical processing of the cases of destruction of steam pipe bends showed that damage to bends was found on the inner surface of the neutral zones only in power stations which used returned condensate from petrochemical production. The proportion of damaged bends in the neutral zones is about 30% of the total number. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  14. The potential impact of media reporting in syndromic surveillance: an example using a possible Cryptosporidium exposure in North West England, August to September 2015.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Astbury, John; Nixon, Grainne; Brierley, Kate; Vivancos, Roberto; Inns, Thomas; Decraene, Valerie; Platt, Katherine; Lake, Iain; O'Brien, Sarah J; Smith, Gillian E

    2016-10-13

    During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24.8% (from 13.49 to 16.84) during the BWN period; average diarrhoea consultations increased by 28.5% (from 8.33 to 10.71). Local public health investigations revealed no laboratory reported cases confirmed as being associated with the water supply. These findings suggest that the increases reported by syndromic surveillance of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea likely resulted from changes in healthcare seeking behaviour driven by the intense local and national media coverage of the potential health risks during the event. This study has further highlighted the potential for media-driven bias in syndromic surveillance, and the challenges in disentangling true increases in community infection from those driven by media reporting.

  15. The potential impact of media reporting in syndromic surveillance: an example using a possible Cryptosporidium exposure in North West England, August to September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Astbury, John; Nixon, Grainne; Brierley, Kate; Vivancos, Roberto; Inns, Thomas; Decraene, Valerie; Platt, Katherine; Lake, Iain; O’Brien, Sarah J; Smith, Gillian E

    2016-01-01

    During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24.8% (from 13.49 to 16.84) during the BWN period; average diarrhoea consultations increased by 28.5% (from 8.33 to 10.71). Local public health investigations revealed no laboratory reported cases confirmed as being associated with the water supply. These findings suggest that the increases reported by syndromic surveillance of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea likely resulted from changes in healthcare seeking behaviour driven by the intense local and national media coverage of the potential health risks during the event. This study has further highlighted the potential for media-driven bias in syndromic surveillance, and the challenges in disentangling true increases in community infection from those driven by media reporting. PMID:27762208

  16. Reactive Aggression and Posttraumatic Stress in Adolescents Affected by Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study tests a theoretical model illustrating a potential pathway to reactive aggression through exposure to a traumatic event (Hurricane Katrina) in 166 adolescents (61% female, 63% Caucasian) recruited from high schools on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. Results support an association between exposure to Hurricane Katrina and reactive…

  17. Children's Patterns of Emotional Reactivity to Conflict as Explanatory Mechanisms in Links between Interpartner Aggression and Child Physiological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.; Zale, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Background: This paper examined children's fearful, sad, and angry reactivity to interparental conflict as mediators of associations between their exposure to interparental aggression and physiological functioning. Methods: Participants included 200 toddlers and their mothers. Assessments of interparental aggression and children's emotional…

  18. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated.

  19. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  20. Behavioral effects of fluoxetine on aggression and associative learning in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2015-12-01

    Past research has implicated serotonin as an important neurotransmitter in the facilitation of aggressive behavior. In Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), the SSRI fluoxetine has been demonstrated to reduce both frequency and duration of aggressive displays across a variety of concentration exposure procedures. While this multi-method approach has provided strong evidence for fluoxetine's impact on aggression, no study has sought to examine the behavioral mechanism by which fluoxetine exerts its anti-aggressive effect. To address this question, a Go-No Go discrimination task utilizing mirror presentations as a reinforcer was designed. Consistent with previous reports, the results indicated that fluoxetine may exert a sedative effect upon aggressive behavior via decreased arousal to external stimuli.

  1. Playing violent electronic games, hostile attributional style, and aggression-related norms in German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2004-02-01

    The relationship was examined between exposure to and preference for violent electronic games and aggressive norms as well as hostile attributional style. Following a pilot study to sample widely used electronic games varying in violent content, 231 eighth-grade adolescents in Germany reported their use of and attraction to violent electronic games. They also completed measures of hostile attributional style and endorsement of aggressive norms. There were significant gender differences in usage and attraction to violent electronic games, with boys scoring higher than girls. Significant relationships were found between attraction to violent electronic games and the acceptance of norms condoning physical aggression. Violent electronic games were linked indirectly to hostile attributional style through aggressive norms. The findings are discussed with respect to North American research on the aggression-enhancing effect of violent electronic games.

  2. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  3. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  4. Media education. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Public Education.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (ie, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, etc) presents both health risks and benefits for children and adolescents. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing the risk of exposure to mass media for children and adolescents.

  5. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research.

  6. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  7. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  8. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  9. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  10. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  11. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  12. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  13. Media, Gadgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference on Chemical Education describing new media and gadgets, particularly models, computers, and other media. A bibliography of 15 presented papers on these topics is attached. (CS)

  14. Effects of temperature variations and light exposure on the time to growth of dermatophytes using six different fungal culture media inoculated with laboratory strains and samples obtained from infected cats.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Verbrugge, Maria J; Kesting, Rachel A

    2010-12-01

    In this study, 5/6 commercially available fungal culture media were comparable with respect to first growth, first colour change, and first sporulation when inoculated with three strains of Microsporum canis, one strain of Microsporum gypseum, and one strain of Trichophyton species when incubated at either 25°C or 30°C. Five of six plates showed 100% growth at both temperatures. Five of six plates showed 100% growth when inoculated with naturally infective M canis hairs and spores. One commercial product packaged as a self-sealing incubation plate showed growth in only 65.4% of times and the plates were prone to desiccation. M canis inoculated plates were incubated under four different light exposures (24h of light, 24h of dark, 12h light/12h dark, and room lighting) and no differences in growth or sporulation were noted.

  15. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids.

  16. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  17. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  18. New Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downtown Business Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue explores lower Manhattan's burgeoning "New Media" industry, a growing source of jobs in lower Manhattan. The first article, "New Media Manpower Issues" (Rodney Alexander), addresses manpower, training, and workforce demands faced by new media companies in New York City. The second article, "Case Study:…

  19. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  20. Social Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    4 Table 2: Traditional Media Usage (% of consumers ...media can be described in terms of content authors and passive consumers . Traditional media sources have dominated the landscape of news distribution...delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources

  1. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  2. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods.

  3. Arousal Effects of Aggressive Film Content as a Function of Viewing Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Don J.

    Sixteen college students were measured for "skin conductance responses" (SCR) while they viewed four films on either a movie or a television screen in a study of selected media differences between theatrical film and television viewing. The students watched a bland (nonaggressive) and an aggressive film on one medium, then viewed two…

  4. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression (Robinson et al., 2008). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat (Alaux & Robinson, 2007, Couvillon et al., 2008, Hunt et al., 2003). Previous research has demonstrated social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype (Alaux et al., 2009b). For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles (Alaux et al., 2009b, Guzmán-Novoa et al., 2004). We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results demonstrate that bee aggression, and associated molecular processes, are subject to complex social influences. PMID:24034579

  5. Distribution of 2,4-D in air and on surfaces inside residences after lawn applications: comparing exposure estimates from various media for young children.

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, M G; Lewis, R G; Brinkman, M C; Burkholder, H M; Hines, C E; Menkedick, J R

    2001-01-01

    We collected indoor air, surface wipes (floors, table tops, and window sills), and floor dust samples at multiple locations within 11 occupied and two unoccupied homes both before and after lawn application of the herbicide 2,4-D. We measured residues 1 week before and after application. We used collected samples to determine transport routes of 2,4-D from the lawn into the homes, its subsequent distribution between the indoor surfaces, and air concentration as a function of airborne particle size. We used residue measurements to estimate potential exposures within these homes. After lawn application, 2,4-D was detected in indoor air and on all surfaces throughout all homes. Track-in by an active dog and by the homeowner applicator were the most significant factors for intrusion. Resuspension of floor dust was the major source of 2,4-D in indoor air, with highest levels of 2,4-D found in the particle size range of 2.5-10 microm. Resuspended floor dust was also a major source of 2,4-D on tables and window sills. Estimated postapplication indoor exposure levels for young children from nondietary ingestion may be 1-10 microg/day from contact with floors, and 0.2-30 microg/day from contact with table tops. These are estimated to be about 10 times higher than the preapplication exposures. By comparison, dietary ingestion of 2,4-D is approximately 1.3 microg/day. PMID:11713005

  6. Development and evaluation of a dynamic multimedia model (ECORAME) for local scale assessment of aquatic ecological exposure to chemicals originating from sources in environmental media.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ja Eun; Kim, Yoon Kwan; Song, Jee Hey; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-12-01

    Use of multimedia models (MMMs) has been limited in exposure assessment for aquatic ecosystems at local scale typically due to their coarse spatial resolution and inability to predict the individual concentrations of multiple streams within a watershed cell. An MMM named ECORAME is presented which overcomes the limitations by treating each water segment as an independent cell rather than a compartment within a watershed cell. This offers two advantages for exposure assessment, i.e., i) the spatial resolution for water is readily adjustable and ii) multiple water streams within one watershed cell could be handled individually. Model evaluation with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) demonstrated that ECORAME's prediction of relative concentration agreed with measured values within a factor of five or less. A case study of PAHs using ECORAME shows that the concentration can change by more than 10 fold over the 40km main stream stretch of the Han River in Seoul, Korea. The concentration difference among multiple streams in the same watershed cell could be substantial (greater than 100 fold). Besides a need of finer spatial resolutons than those typically used in MMMs, the results strongly suggest that exposure prediction capability for individual streams in the same watershed is necessary for local scale assessment. As demostrated with ECORAME, the need can be effectively met by handling the water segments as individual cells in future MMMs.

  7. Trauma and Aggression: Investigating the Mediating Role of Mentalizing in Female and Male Inpatient Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abate, Anna; Marshall, Kaisa; Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda

    2017-02-07

    High rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and elevated levels of aggression are common among youth in inpatient psychiatric settings. Several models link trauma exposure to aggression through anomalous mental state reasoning. Some theoretical frameworks linking trauma to aggression specify that the over-attribution of hostile mental states contributes to the development of aggressive behavior whereas other theories suggest that an inhibition of mental state reasoning leads to aggressive behavior. Using a sample of inpatient adolescents, the current study examined relations between PTSD symptoms and four forms of aggression, exploring the role of both over- and under-mentalizing (i.e., hypo- and hypermentalizing) as mediators and gender as a moderator. The results suggest that hypermentalizing, but not hypomentalizing, mediates the relation between trauma and aggression, extending prior research related to inpatient adolescents for the first time. Evidence of moderated mediation was noted, such that this mediational relation was evident for females but not males. The current study offers support for differential underlying causes of aggression among males and females with PTSD symptoms.

  8. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability) while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships). Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females. PMID:23864299

  9. The influence of violent and nonviolent computer games on implicit measures of aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, Matthias; Friedrich, Monika; Zumbach, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal-as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance-were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social-cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures.

  10. Emotion-relevant impulsivity predicts sustained anger and aggression after remission in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anger and aggression are of concern even during remission for persons with bipolar I disorder, although there is substantial variability in the degree of anger and aggression across individuals. Little research is available to examine psychological models of anger and aggression for those with remitted bipolar disorder, and that was the goal of this study. Participants were 58 persons diagnosed with bipolar I disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, who were followed with monthly symptom severity interviews until they achieved remission, and then assessed using the Aggression-Short Form. We examined traditional predictors of clinical parameters and trauma exposure, and then considered three trait domains that have been shown to be elevated in bipolar disorder and have also been linked to aggression outside of bipolar disorder: emotion-relevant impulsivity, approach motivation, and dominance-related constructs. Emotion-relevant impulsivity was related to anger, hostility, verbal aggression, and physical aggression, even after controlling for clinical variables. Findings extend the importance of emotion-relevant impulsivity to another important clinical outcome and suggest the promise of using psychological models to understand the factors driving aggression and anger problems that persist into remission among persons with bipolar disorder.

  11. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  12. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  13. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  14. On the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Without slighting the important role played by controlled psychological processes in human aggression, this paper recommends that considerable systematic attention should also be given to the operation of automatic processes in bringing about this behavior. The concepts of automaticity and impulsivity are discussed briefly and it is proposed that many impulsive actions, particularly antisocial ones, are due to failures of restraint after they were initiated involuntarily. A number of experiments are reviewed in which situational stimuli automatically instigated or heightened aggressive inclinations. These have to do with associations in hostility displacement, reactions to stigmatized persons, and association in aggressive reactions to media violence. The last-mentioned studies deal especially with factors affecting the selection of the target for aggression. In discussing these findings it is suggested that after the crucial situational features had automatically initiated the sequence of determinants, the aggression displayed could have been due either to a hostile appraisal of the target or the activation of aggression-related bodily reactions as well as hostile ideas. It is also hypothesized that in at least one of the studies, an experienced negative affect might have instigated the aggression independently of any appraisals.

  15. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Roche, Jessica S; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-09-01

    Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14-20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions.

  16. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play.

  17. Depressive and aggressive responses to frustration: development of a questionnaire and its validation in a sample of male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Baars, M Y; Müller, M J; Gallhofer, B; Netter, P

    2011-01-01

    Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.

  18. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  19. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  20. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  1. Pathways from marital aggression to infant emotion regulation: the development of withdrawal in infancy.

    PubMed

    Crockenberg, Susan C; Leerkes, Esther M; Lekka, Shamila K

    2007-02-01

    Associations between marital conflict and infant emotion regulation exist, but explanatory pathways have not been explored. For older children, parental behavior partially mediates this association through a "spillover" process. We test: associations between mothers' and fathers' verbally aggressive marital conflict, infant temperament, and infant withdrawal; mediating effects of negative maternal behavior, and moderating effects of infant temperament, exposure to marital arguments, and contact with father. Eighty mothers, 73 fathers, and their 6-month-old infants participated; parents reported marital aggression prenatally, mothers reported infant exposure to arguments, direct caregiving by father, and infant temperament at 5 months. Negative maternal behavior, infant withdrawal, distress to novelty, activity, and look away were observed at 6 months. Mothers' and fathers' aggressive marital conflict predicted infant withdrawal, interactively with exposure to marital arguments and extent of father caregiving, as did infant temperament and negative maternal behavior. Maternal behavior did not mediate between marital conflict and withdrawal.

  2. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  3. Correlates of Recent and Lifetime Aggression among Veterans with Co-Occurring PTSD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Teer, Andrew; Beylotte, Francis M.; Killeen, Therese K.; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggressive behavior is strongly associated with both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) among civilians. However, little research has examined correlates of aggression among Veterans with co-occurring PTSD and SUD. Methods This exploratory study examined the prevalence and correlates of recent (i.e., past 30 days) and lifetime aggressive behavior among a sample of U.S. Veterans (N=97) enrolled in a study examining integrated psychosocial treatment of co-occurring PTSD/SUD. Results The findings revealed high rates of recent and lifetime aggressive behaviors (39.2% and 57.7%, respectively). Participants who endorsed recent aggressive behaviors were younger, had less education, more severe PTSD numbing and hyperarousal symptoms, were more likely to report recent suicidal ideation, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, had higher rates of physical and sexual abuse, greater combat exposure, and more severe aftermath of battle experiences. Participants who endorsed lifetime aggression were younger, reported more total PTSD symptom severity, PTSD re-experiencing severity, depression severity, and fewer post-deployment stressors compared to those who did not. Logistic regression analyses indicated that education and number of drinking days were correlated with recent aggression while depression and post-deployment stressors were correlated with lifetime aggression. Conclusions The findings demonstrate high rates of aggressive behaviors among Veterans with PTSD/SUD, as well as clinically relevant correlates of aggressive behaviors. Although preliminary, the findings suggest potential targets for improving assessment and treatment of Veterans with PTSD/SUD. PMID:25419233

  4. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  5. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  6. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  7. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  8. Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research.

  9. Identification of neuronal loci involved with displays of affective aggression in NC900 mice.

    PubMed

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Sheikh, Atif; Ghashghaei, H Troy

    2013-07-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that is essential for survival. Of the various forms of aggression, impulsive violent displays without prior planning or deliberation are referred to as affective aggression. Affective aggression is thought to be caused by aberrant perceptions of, and consequent responses to, threat. Understanding the neuronal networks that regulate affective aggression is pivotal to development of novel approaches to treat chronic affective aggression. Here, we provide a detailed anatomical map of neuronal activity in the forebrain of two inbred lines of mice that were selected for low (NC100) and high (NC900) affective aggression. Attack behavior was induced in male NC900 mice by exposure to an unfamiliar male in a novel environment. Forebrain maps of c-Fos+ nuclei, which are surrogates for neuronal activity during behavior, were then generated and analyzed. NC100 males rarely exhibited affective aggression in response to the same stimulus, thus their forebrain c-Fos maps were utilized to identify unique patterns of neuronal activity in NC900s. Quantitative results indicated robust differences in the distribution patterns and densities of c-Fos+ nuclei in distinct thalamic, subthalamic, and amygdaloid nuclei, together with unique patterns of neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens and the frontal cortices. Our findings implicate these areas as foci regulating differential behavioral responses to an unfamiliar male in NC900 mice when expressing affective aggression. Based on the highly conserved patterns of connections and organization of neuronal limbic structures from mice to humans, we speculate that neuronal activities in analogous networks may be disrupted in humans prone to maladaptive affective aggression.

  10. Brachytherapy in the treatment of recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Almefty, Kaith K; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Arvold, Nils D; Devlin, Phillip M; Reardon, David A; Loeffler, Jay S; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas are uncommon tumors that recur despite receiving extensive surgery and radiation therapy (RT). We have utilized brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in two such patients with a unique implantation technique. Both patients had recurrence of WHO Grade II falcine meningiomas despite multiple prior surgical and RT treatments. Radioactive I-125 seeds were made into strands and sutured into a mesh implant, with 1 cm spacing, in a size appropriate to cover the cavity and region of susceptible falcine dura. Following resection the vicryl mesh was implanted and fixed to the margins of the falx. Implantation in this interhemispheric space provides good dose conformality with targeting of at-risk tissue and minimal radiation exposure to normal neural tissues. The patients are recurrence free 31 and 10 months after brachytherapy treatment. Brachytherapy was an effective salvage treatment for the recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas in our two patients.

  11. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  12. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  13. Following Your "Friend": Social Media and the Strength of Adolescents' Parasocial Relationships with Media Personae.

    PubMed

    Bond, Bradley J

    2016-11-01

    Social media have permeated the lives of adolescents and may be altering the way that teens engage with their favorite media celebrities and characters. This study surveyed 316 adolescents to examine the relationship between social media surveillance and the strength of adolescents' parasocial relationships (PSRs) with media personae they follow on social media. Results indicated a significant positive relationship between exposure to media personae on Twitter and strength of PSRs. Adolescents who had experienced social interactions with their favorite media personae on Twitter in the form of retweets or responses to tweets had stronger PSRs than adolescents who had no such interactions. The realism of the media personae did not moderate findings as expected. The findings suggest that Twitter provides intimate glimpses into the personal lives of media personae that increase audiences' feelings of connectedness to those celebrities and characters, an important finding given that teens are more likely to learn from media personae with whom they have PSRs.

  14. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.

  15. Honey bee aggression supports a link between gene regulation and behavioral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Alaux, Cédric; Sinha, Saurabh; Hasadsri, Linda; Hunt, Greg J.; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Uribe-Rubio, José Luis; Southey, Bruce R.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Robinson, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    A prominent theory states that animal phenotypes arise by evolutionary changes in gene regulation, but the extent to which this theory holds true for behavioral evolution is not known. Because “nature and nurture” are now understood to involve hereditary and environmental influences on gene expression, we studied whether environmental influences on a behavioral phenotype, i.e., aggression, could have evolved into inherited differences via changes in gene expression. Here, with microarray analysis of honey bees, we show that aggression-related genes with inherited patterns of brain expression are also environmentally regulated. There were expression differences in the brain for hundreds of genes between the highly aggressive Africanized honey bee compared with European honey bee (EHB) subspecies. Similar results were obtained for EHB in response to exposure to alarm pheromone (which provokes aggression) and when comparing old and young bees (aggressive tendencies increase with age). There was significant overlap of the gene lists generated from these three microarray experiments. Moreover, there was statistical enrichment of several of the same cis regulatory motifs in promoters of genes on all three gene lists. Aggression shows a remarkably robust brain molecular signature regardless of whether it occurs because of inherited, age-related, or environmental (social) factors. It appears that one element in the evolution of different degrees of aggressive behavior in honey bees involved changes in regulation of genes that mediate the response to alarm pheromone. PMID:19706434

  16. Acute and chronic glue sniffing effects and consequences of withdrawal on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bouchatta, Otmane; Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Kerekes, Nóra; Bennis, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse act on brain mechanisms that cause a high-risk individual to engage in aggressive and violent behavior. While a drug-violence relationship exists, the nature of this relationship is often complex, with intoxication, neurotoxic, and withdrawal effects often being confused and/or confounded. Glue sniffing is often a springboard to the abuse of more addictive drugs. Despite its high prevalence and serious consequences, we know relatively little about the aggressive behavioral effects of volatile inhalants abuse, especially glue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the duration of glue exposure, a common substance abuse problem in Morocco, and the level of aggressive behavior during withdrawal. For this we used the isolation-induced aggression model "residents" in three groups of mice. The first group served as control resident animals (n=10, without exposure); the second group as experimental resident mice (n=10) tested before and after acute (first day) and chronic exposure to the glue, and at 1 and 2weeks of withdrawal; and the third group of 10 intruder animals. The results showed that the number of attacks decreased (halved) and the latency of the first attack increased (doubled) following acute glue sniffing. However, the effects of chronic exposure and of 1week of withdrawal led to an increase in the intensity of agonistic encounters. After 2weeks of withdrawal, the intensity of aggressive behavior decreased again. These results indicated that chronic glue exposure and the first week of withdrawal are associated with increased aggression in mice.

  17. Television and aggression: a test of a mediated model with a sample of Portuguese students.

    PubMed

    Matos, Armanda Pinto da Mota; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G Alves; Haase, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of identification with violent TV heroes, enjoyment of TV violence, and perceived reality in TV violence as mediators of the relationship between viewing TV violence and subsequent physical and verbal aggression. A sample of 722 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students from schools in the central region of Portugal completed measures assessing enjoyment of TV violence, perceived reality, aggression, identification with violent TV heroes, and exposure to TV violence. The results showed that the relationship between TV violence and physical aggression is mediated by enjoyment of TV violence, perceived reality in TV violence, and identification with violent TV heroes. The TV violence to verbal aggression relationship was also mediated by enjoyment of TV violence.

  18. Female juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the intergenerational transmission of aggression and antisocial behavior by examining mothers' juvenile delinquency, their pregnancies, and its impact on their children's aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of the first 181 biological mothers recruited as part of the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children (British Columbia, Canada). Results indicated that mothers who were juvenile delinquents were more likely to experience social adversity, to use substances during pregnancy and to offend in adulthood. Furthermore, mothers who reported juvenile delinquency had children who were more physically aggressive and had an earlier onset of physical aggression. This pattern of association held when controlling for sociodemographics, social adversities, prenatal substance exposure, and criminal involvement in adulthood. The study findings highlighted the importance of understanding the role and impact of female delinquency and motherhood on the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior.

  19. Interparental Aggression and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Insecurity and Adrenocortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Kathleen N; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents' adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents' internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents' emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents' depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents' exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed.

  20. Mixed Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…