Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive multifaceted technology

  1. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  2. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer-dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for first grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three second grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to third grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  3. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  4. Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional Federal Resources Technology and Youth Violence Young people are using media technology, including cell phones, personal data assistants, and the ...

  5. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  6. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. This effort will provide the framework to mature both on-orbit and earth-to-orbit avionics and propulsion technologies while also providing dedicated, affordable access to LEO for cubesat class payloads.

  7. Multilevel-multifaceted approach to assessing the impact of technology-mediated modeling practice on student understanding of the particulate nature of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi

    students to employ high-level cognitive strategies during the process. Yet the student-designed artifact needs public scrutiny through direct social interactions to help students formulate adequate dynamic visualization and chemistry understanding. A modified theoretical model of visualization formation was proposed, calling for studies to continue the discussion on how students' practices of purposeful manipulation and evaluation of virtual objects of dynamic visualizations in a computer environment affect student learning. The results also suggest the incorporation of mixed methods to the multilevel-multifaceted framework of assessment to better detect any impact of innovative technology on student learning.

  8. Guitar Class: A Multifaceted Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Lee R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that the bias linking guitars to popular culture has needlessly limited approaches to teaching guitar. Examines how each of five current programs develops different music skills. Advocates a comprehensive, multifaceted program capable of emphasizing student skills in melody, harmony, perception, creativity, and performance over six years…

  9. Chips for Everyone: A Multifaceted Approach in Electrical Engineering Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, J.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a multifaceted approach in electrical engineering outreach focused on the area of semiconductor technology. The activities developed can be used in combination for a very wide range of audiences in both age and stage of education, as has been demonstrated with great success. Moreover, the project has developed…

  10. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  11. Multifaceted Interfaces of Bacterial Competition.

    PubMed

    Stubbendieck, Reed M; Straight, Paul D

    2016-08-15

    Microbial communities span many orders of magnitude, ranging in scale from hundreds of cells on a single particle of soil to billions of cells within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cells in all habitats are members of densely populated local environments that facilitate competition between neighboring cells. Accordingly, bacteria require dynamic systems to respond to the competitive challenges and the fluctuations in environmental circumstances that tax their fitness. The assemblage of bacteria into communities provides an environment where competitive mechanisms are developed into new strategies for survival. In this minireview, we highlight a number of mechanisms used by bacteria to compete between species. We focus on recent discoveries that illustrate the dynamic and multifaceted functions used in bacterial competition and discuss how specific mechanisms provide a foundation for understanding bacterial community development and function. PMID:27246570

  12. Rehabilitation Goals: Their Hierarchical and Multifaceted Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1988-01-01

    Rehabilitation goals are analyzed from a hierarchical, multifaceted perspective, illustrating reduction of the ultimate goal of life adjustment to smaller goals. Addressed are: the contexts within which rehabilitation takes place, the activity levels defining human performance, and the functional levels achieved. A matrix of 12 sets of goals is…

  13. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Jessica S.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14–20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions.

  14. Multifaceted Management of the Postthrombotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Lina; Vedantham, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    The postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a frequent cause of chronic pain, swelling, ulceration, and disability in patients with lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). As interventional radiologists are consulted on more patients with chronic DVT and PTS, their management strategies must be informed by a balanced understanding of the different facets of chronic DVT care and the available treatment options. This article provides an overview of the important elements of a multifaceted approach to the management of patients with PTS that includes pharmacological, physiological, and endovascular aspects of care. PMID:23449539

  15. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. Methods We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension’s region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. Expected outcomes The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic

  16. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  17. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  18. Concept analysis: aggression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  19. CSP: A Multifaceted Hybrid Architecture for Space Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Dylan; Wilson, Christopher; Stewart, Jacob; Gauvin, Patrick; George, Alan; Lam, Herman; Crum, Gary Alex; Wirthlin, Mike; Wilson, Alex; Stoddard, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Research on the CHREC Space Processor (CSP) takes a multifaceted hybrid approach to embedded space computing. Working closely with the NASA Goddard SpaceCube team, researchers at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing (CHREC) at the University of Florida and Brigham Young University are developing hybrid space computers that feature an innovative combination of three technologies: commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices, radiation-hardened (RadHard) devices, and fault-tolerant computing. Modern COTS processors provide the utmost in performance and energy-efficiency but are susceptible to ionizing radiation in space, whereas RadHard processors are virtually immune to this radiation but are more expensive, larger, less energy-efficient, and generations behind in speed and functionality. By featuring COTS devices to perform the critical data processing, supported by simpler RadHard devices that monitor and manage the COTS devices, and augmented with novel uses of fault-tolerant hardware, software, information, and networking within and between COTS devices, the resulting system can maximize performance and reliability while minimizing energy consumption and cost. NASA Goddard has adopted the CSP concept and technology with plans underway to feature flight-ready CSP boards on two upcoming space missions.

  20. Multifaceted Modelling of Complex Business Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fidge, Colin; Ma, Lin; Lassen, David

    2015-01-01

    We formalise and present a new generic multifaceted complex system approach for modelling complex business enterprises. Our method has a strong focus on integrating the various data types available in an enterprise which represent the diverse perspectives of various stakeholders. We explain the challenges faced and define a novel approach to converting diverse data types into usable Bayesian probability forms. The data types that can be integrated include historic data, survey data, and management planning data, expert knowledge and incomplete data. The structural complexities of the complex system modelling process, based on various decision contexts, are also explained along with a solution. This new application of complex system models as a management tool for decision making is demonstrated using a railway transport case study. The case study demonstrates how the new approach can be utilised to develop a customised decision support model for a specific enterprise. Various decision scenarios are also provided to illustrate the versatility of the decision model at different phases of enterprise operations such as planning and control. PMID:26247591

  1. A multifaceted approach to hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Churchard, Andrew J; Banach, Ewa; Borgschulte, Andreas; Caputo, Riccarda; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Clary, David; Fijalkowski, Karol J; Geerlings, Hans; Genova, Radostina V; Grochala, Wojciech; Jaroń, Tomasz; Juanes-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Kasemo, Bengt; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Ljubić, Ivan; Naujoks, Nicola; Nørskov, Jens K; Olsen, Roar A; Pendolino, Flavio; Remhof, Arndt; Románszki, Loránd; Tekin, Adem; Vegge, Tejs; Zäch, Michael; Züttel, Andreas

    2011-10-14

    The widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier could bring significant benefits, but only if a number of currently intractable problems can be overcome. Not the least of these is the problem of storage, particularly when aimed at use onboard light-vehicles. The aim of this overview is to look in depth at a number of areas linked by the recently concluded HYDROGEN research network, representing an intentionally multi-faceted selection with the goal of advancing the field on a number of fronts simultaneously. For the general reader we provide a concise outline of the main approaches to storing hydrogen before moving on to detailed reviews of recent research in the solid chemical storage of hydrogen, and so provide an entry point for the interested reader on these diverse topics. The subjects covered include: the mechanisms of Ti catalysis in alanates; the kinetics of the borohydrides and the resulting limitations; novel transition metal catalysts for use with complex hydrides; less common borohydrides; protic-hydridic stores; metal ammines and novel approaches to nano-confined metal hydrides. PMID:21887432

  2. Multifaceted Modelling of Complex Business Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We formalise and present a new generic multifaceted complex system approach for modelling complex business enterprises. Our method has a strong focus on integrating the various data types available in an enterprise which represent the diverse perspectives of various stakeholders. We explain the challenges faced and define a novel approach to converting diverse data types into usable Bayesian probability forms. The data types that can be integrated include historic data, survey data, and management planning data, expert knowledge and incomplete data. The structural complexities of the complex system modelling process, based on various decision contexts, are also explained along with a solution. This new application of complex system models as a management tool for decision making is demonstrated using a railway transport case study. The case study demonstrates how the new approach can be utilised to develop a customised decision support model for a specific enterprise. Various decision scenarios are also provided to illustrate the versatility of the decision model at different phases of enterprise operations such as planning and control. PMID:26247591

  3. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  4. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  5. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  6. Neurobiological Patterns of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes chemical model for patterns of aggressive behavior. Addresses cultural, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that affect violent children. Identifies five patterns of aggression (overaroused, impulsive, affective, predatory, and instrumental) and examines these dimensions of aggression for each pattern: baseline, precipitators,…

  7. Managing a Bone Healthy Lifestyle After Attending Multifaceted Group Education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie Lunde; Lomborg, Kirsten; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Wind, Gitte

    2016-09-01

    We examined patients with osteoporosis implementation of recommendations regarding a bone healthy lifestyle after the patients attended multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE). Our findings suggest that GE can support and influence patients' transfer of preventive actions. Still patients are challenged by concerns related to social roles and physical ability. We investigated if and how patients implemented knowledge from attending multifaceted osteoporosis GE in their daily lives. An interpretive description design using ethnographic field work was applied. In all 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE at a Danish hospital participated. Data consisted of field work and individual interviews in the participants' everyday environment after completion of GE. After attending multifaceted GE, participants experienced increased attention to and reflected more on how to implement osteoporosis preventive actions or activities. Participants who felt confident on how to act and experienced a clear need and motivation, or who could make the preventive activity into a social event, demonstrated an increased implementation of the preventive activity. On the contrary, attending GE was in some cases not sufficient to overcome social and physical concerns, or to eliminate uncertainty about recommendations or to make participants identify with the osteoporosis diagnosis, which thus impeded implementation of a bone healthy lifestyle. Attending multifaceted GE can support and influence participants' transfer of preventive actions into daily life. Being aware of how concerns about valued social roles and physical ability interfere with the implementation of medical recommendations obviously needs attention during GE. PMID:27146664

  8. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028

  9. Hydrothermal growth of multi-facet anatase spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-Ming; Song, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Lu-Yao; Wei, Xiao-Dan

    2011-03-01

    Titania with various nanostructures can be synthesized by several F --mediated procedures. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel multi-facet microsphere consisting of etched single-crystalline anatase by simply immersing metallic Ti plates in an HF aqueous solution under hydrothermal conditions. The etched multi-facet sphere was found to grow through the nucleation and growth of truncated bipyramids on a previously precipitated one to assemble a microsphere, and its subsequent etching by HF to expose the thermodynamic stable {1 0 1} facets. The photocatalytic activity of such etched multi-facet sphere thin films was evaluated utilizing rhodamine B and sulfonic salicylic acid in water as target molecules and compared with commercial Degussa P25 titania nanoparticles.

  10. Authoritarianism and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Walker, W D; Rowe, R C; Quinsey, V L

    1993-11-01

    In Study 1, 198 men completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism, Sex Role Ideology, Hostility Towards Women, Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Rape Myth Acceptance scales, as well as measures of past sexually aggressive behavior and likelihood of future sexual aggression. As predicted, authoritarianism and sex role ideology were as closely related to self-reported past and potential future sexually aggressive behavior as were the specifically sexual and aggression-related predictors. Among 134 men in Study 2, authoritarianism and sex guilt positively correlated with each other and with self-reported past sexual aggression. In both studies, the relationship of authoritarianism and sexual aggression was larger in community than in university samples. PMID:8246111

  11. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  12. Multifaceted Functional Behavior Assessment for Students with Externalizing Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympia, Daniel E.; Heathfield, Lora Tuesday; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    This article describes specific components of a multifaceted approach to functional behavior assessment in the context of the widely accepted behavioral excess/deficit model for students with externalizing behavior disorders. Specific strategies to address academic skill and performance deficits as well as social skills deficiencies are also…

  13. Multifaceted toxicity assessment of catalyst composites in transgenic zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Keon Yong; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Recent development in the field of nanomaterials has given rise into the inquiries regarding the toxicological characteristics of the nanomaterials. While many individual nanomaterials have been screened for their toxicological effects, composites that accompany nanomaterials are not common subjects to such screening through toxicological assessment. One of the widely used composites that accompany nanomaterials is catalyst composite used to reduce air pollution, which was selected as a target composite with nanomaterials for the multifaceted toxicological assessment. As existing studies did not possess any significant data regarding such catalyst composites, this study focuses on investigating toxicological characteristics of catalyst composites from various angles in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. Initial toxicological assessment on catalyst composites was conducted using HUVECs for cell viability assays, and subsequent in-vivo assay regarding their direct influence on living organisms was done. The zebrafish embryo and its transgenic lines were used in the in-vivo assays to obtain multifaceted analytic results. Data obtained from the in-vivo assays include blood vessel formation, mutated heart morphology, and heart functionality change. Our multifaceted toxicological assessment pointed out that chemical composites augmented with nanomaterials can too have toxicological threat as much as individual nanomaterials do and alarms us with their danger. This manuscript provides a multifaceted assessment for composites augmented with nanomaterials, of which their toxicological threats have been overlooked. PMID:27364464

  14. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  15. Music in a Hospital Setting: A Multifaceted Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preti, Costanza; Welch, Graham F.

    2004-01-01

    The article offers an explanation of the effects of music on children within a hospital setting and points up the multifaceted nature of this experience. The nature of the client group allows the musical experience to work on many different levels, such as modifying the child's perception of pain and reducing stress, whilst at the same time having…

  16. Evaluating Digital Libraries: A Longitudinal and Multifaceted View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The Perseus Digital Library (PDL), under continuous development since 1987, is one of the primary digital resources for the humanities. A summary of the PDL genesis and current status is given and the multifaceted and longitudinal evaluation effort is described. A brief synthesis of results is provided and reflections on the evaluation along with…

  17. MULTI-FACETED SUSTAINABILITY ON ITHACA COLLEGE NATURAL LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This student-generated proposal presents a multi-faceted program for sustainable stewardship of the natural areas south of the built campus of Ithaca College. Our challenge is to use student research and class projects to enhance biodiversity, support education and research, and...

  18. Building a New Music Curriculum: A Multi-Faceted Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi Cheung

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses one of the four questions of the MayDay Group Action Ideal No. 7: "To what extent and how can music education curriculums take broader educational and social concerns into account?" A multifaceted music curriculum model (MMC Model)--one that addresses relevant issues, criteria, and parameters typically involved or often…

  19. The human gut virome: a multifaceted majority

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Lesley A.; Jones, Brian V.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we outline our current understanding of the human gut virome, in particular the phage component of this ecosystem, highlighting progress, and challenges in viral discovery in this arena. We reveal how developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies and associated data analysis methodologies are helping to illuminate this abundant ‘biological dark matter.’ Current evidence suggests that the human gut virome is a highly individual but temporally stable collective, dominated by phages exhibiting a temperate lifestyle. This viral community also appears to encode a surprisingly rich functional repertoire that confers a range of attributes to their bacterial hosts, ranging from bacterial virulence and pathogenesis to maintaining host–microbiome stability and community resilience. Despite the significant advances in our understanding of the gut virome in recent years, it is clear that we remain in a period of discovery and revelation, as new methods and technologies begin to provide deeper understanding of the inherent ecological characteristics of this viral ecosystem. As our understanding increases, the nature of the multi-partite interactions occurring between host and microbiome will become clearer, helping us to more rationally define the concepts and principles that will underpin approaches to using human gut virome components for medical or biotechnological applications. PMID:26441861

  20. Angry and Aggressive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…

  1. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  2. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  3. Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

    1989-01-01

    Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable. PMID:21248947

  4. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  5. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  6. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  7. Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

  8. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  9. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  10. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  11. W versus Co-Al as Gate Fill-Metal for Aggressively Scaled Replacement High-k/Metal Gate Devices for (Sub-)22 nm Technology Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Anabela; Aik Chew, Soon; Schram, Tom; Dekkers, Harold; Van Ammel, Annemie; Witters, Thomas; Tielens, Hilde; Heylen, Nancy; Devriendt, Katia; Sebaai, Farid; Brus, Stephan; Ragnarsson, Lars-Åke; Pantisano, Luigi; Eneman, Geert; Carbonell, Laure; Richard, Olivier; Favia, Paola; Geypen, Jef; Bender, Hugo; Higuchi, Yuichi; Phatak, Anup; Thean, Aaron; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2013-04-01

    In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of a novel, low-resistance Co-Al alloy vs W to fill aggressively scaled gates with high aspect-ratios [gate height (Hgate) ˜50-60 nm, gate length (Lgate) ≥20-25 nm]. We demonstrate that, with careful liner/barrier materials selection and tuning, well-behaved devices are obtained, showing: tight gate resistance (Rgate) distributions down to Lgate˜20 nm, low threshold voltage (VT) values, comparable DC and bias temperature instability (BTI) behavior, and improved RF response. The impact of fill-metals intrinsic stress, including the presence of occasional voids in narrow W-gates, on devices fabrication and performance is also explored.

  12. Immune modulation by multifaceted cationic host defense (antimicrobial) peptides.

    PubMed

    Hilchie, Ashley L; Wuerth, Kelli; Hancock, Robert E W

    2013-12-01

    Cationic host defense (antimicrobial) peptides were originally studied for their direct antimicrobial activities. They have since been found to exhibit multifaceted immunomodulatory activities, including profound anti-infective and selective anti-inflammatory properties, as well as adjuvant and wound-healing activities in animal models. These biological properties suggest that host defense peptides, and synthetic derivatives thereof, possess clinical potential beyond the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. In this Review, we provide an overview of the biological activities of host defense and synthetic peptides, their mechanism(s) of action and new therapeutic applications and challenges that are associated with their clinical use. PMID:24231617

  13. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as

  14. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.

    2016-04-01

    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  15. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.

    2016-07-01

    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  16. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  17. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  18. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  19. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  20. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  1. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  2. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  3. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  4. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  5. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  6. Cyber Aggression: The Relation between Online Offenders and Offline Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Corrie L.; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly using computer technologies to engage in acts of aggression against peers, often termed "cyber aggression". Media reports have sensationalized instances of cyber aggression, and social scientists have begun to examine its characteristics and consequences. Using a younger sample of children than most previous research (192…

  7. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  8. Understanding Parkinson Disease: A Complex and Multifaceted Illness.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Apoorva; Alexander, Sheila A

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson disease is an incredibly complex and multifaceted illness affecting millions of people in the United States. Parkinson disease is characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and loss, leading to debilitating motor, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. Parkinson disease is an enigmatic illness that is still extensively researched today to search for a better understanding of the disease, develop therapeutic interventions to halt or slow progression of the disease, and optimize patient outcomes. This article aims to examine in detail the normal function of the basal ganglia and dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, the etiology and pathophysiology of Parkinson disease, related signs and symptoms, current treatment, and finally, the profound impact of understanding the disease on nursing care. PMID:26528949

  9. The Multifaceted Role of the Vasculature in Endochondral Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bahney, Chelsea S.; Hu, Diane P.; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    Fracture healing is critically dependent upon an adequate vascular supply. The normal rate for fracture delayed or non-union is estimated to be between 10 and 15%, and annual fracture numbers are approximately 15 million cases per year. However, when there is decreased vascular perfusion to the fracture, incidence of impaired healing rises dramatically to 46%. Reduction in the blood supply to the fracture can be the result of traumatic injuries that physically disrupt the vasculature and damage supportive soft tissue, the result of anatomical location (i.e., distal tibia), or attributed to physiological conditions such as age, diabetes, or smoking. The role of the vasculature during repair is multifaceted and changes during the course of healing. In this article, we review recent insights into the role of the vasculature during fracture repair. Taken together these data highlight the need for an updated model for endochondral repair to facilitate improved therapeutic approaches to promote bone healing. PMID:25699016

  10. Multi-faceted identities and interactions in mixed health teams.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Daniella; Hirschfeld, Miriam J

    2016-01-01

    The literature in the area of the health workforce and societies in conflict encompasses a wide range of studies and potential directions. Lately, Keshet and Popper-Giveon reported on a study based on interviews with 13 Arab Israeli nurses who work in Israeli hospitals. This preliminary study describes how being an Arab nurse in Israel is experienced and perceived by those nurses. The results indicate the need for further studies on the complexity of health workers' experiences in their changing and multi-faceted professional, cultural, gender and national identities. In order to manage health systems, in particular in divided societies that are characterized by inter-group conflicts, special attention should be given to studying the everyday processes in mixed teams. PMID:27441083

  11. Nebivolol: a multifaceted antioxidant and cardioprotectant in hypertensive heart disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Usman; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhao, Tieqiang; Al Darazi, Fahed; Ahokas, Robert A; Sun, Yao; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2013-11-01

    Cardiomyocyte necrosis with attendant microscopic scarring is a pathological feature of human hypertensive heart disease (HHD). Understanding the pathophysiological origins of necrosis is integral to its prevention. In a rat model of HHD associated with aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST), myocyte necrosis is attributable to oxidative stress induced by cytosolic-free [Ca]i and mitochondrial [Ca]m overloading in which the rate of reactive oxygen species generation overwhelms their rate of detoxification by endogenous Zn-based antioxidant defenses. We hypothesized that nebivolol (Neb), unlike another β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist atenolol (Aten), would have a multifaceted antioxidant potential based on its dual property as a β3 receptor agonist, which activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) generation. NO promotes the release of cytosolic Zn sequestered inactive by its binding protein, metallothionein. Given the reciprocal regulation between these cations, increased [Zn]i reduces Ca entry and attendant rise in [Ca]i and [Ca]m. Herein, we examined the antioxidant and cardioprotectant properties of Neb and Aten in rats receiving 4 weeks ALDOST. Compared with untreated age-/sex-matched controls, ALDOST alone or ALDOST with Aten, Neb cotreatment induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation, NO generation and a marked increase in [Zn]i with associated decline in [Ca]i and [Ca]m. Attendant antioxidant profile at subcellular and cellular levels included attenuation of mitochondrial H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation expressed as reduced 8-isoprostane concentrations in both mitochondria and cardiac tissue. Myocyte salvage was expressed as reduced microscopic scarring and tissue collagen volume fraction. Neb is a multifaceted antioxidant with unique properties as cardioprotectant in HHD. PMID:23921314

  12. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  13. The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…

  14. The Impact of Multifaceted Questions on Eyewitness Accuracy Following Forced Fabrication Interviews.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Quin M; Rindal, Eric J; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers will frequently use complex-question forms, such as multifaceted questions (single questions that contain both a true and a false proposition), when cross-examining witnesses, and prior research has shown that use of such questions reduces testimonial accuracy. The present study extends this research by using a forced fabrication paradigm (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2008) to assess how multifaceted questions might affect eyewitness suggestibility after exposure to misleading post-event information. Consistent with prior studies, the use of multifaceted questions led to lower accuracy than simple questions. The novel finding was that multifaceted questions caused larger impairments in performance among fabrication participants (who had earlier been suggestively interviewed), than in control participants (who had not). We also provide preliminary evidence that the impairment caused by multifaceted questions is due to both (a) having to consider two propositions simultaneously, and (b) the shift in question focus from the fabricated event to a true event. PMID:26273938

  15. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  16. Do Different Facets of Impulsivity Predict Different Types of Aggression?

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen; DeWall, C. Nathan; Metze, Amanda V.; Walsh, Erin C.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between impulsivity-related traits (as assessed by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) and aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that UPPS-P Lack of Premeditation and Sensation Seeking were important in predicting general violence. In contrast, UPPS-P Urgency was most useful in predicting intimate partner violence. To further explore relations between intimate partner violence and Urgency, a measure of autonomic response to pleasant and aversive stimuli and facets of Neuroticism from the NEO PI-R were used as control variables. Autonomic responsivity was correlated with intimate partner violence at the zero-order level, and predicted significant variance in intimate partner violence in regression equations. However, UPPS-P Urgency was able to account for unique variance in intimate partner violence above and beyond measures of Neuroticism and arousal. Implications regarding the use of a multifaceted conceptualization of impulsivity in the prediction of different types of violent behavior are discussed. PMID:21259270

  17. Do different facets of impulsivity predict different types of aggression?

    PubMed

    Derefinko, Karen; DeWall, C Nathan; Metze, Amanda V; Walsh, Erin C; Lynam, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations between impulsivity-related traits (as assessed by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) and aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that UPPS-P Lack of Premeditation and Sensation Seeking were important in predicting general violence. In contrast, UPPS-P Urgency was most useful in predicting intimate partner violence. To further explore relations between intimate partner violence and Urgency, a measure of autonomic response to pleasant and aversive stimuli and facets of Neuroticism from the NEO PI-R were used as control variables. Autonomic responsivity was correlated with intimate partner violence at the zero-order level, and predicted significant variance in intimate partner violence in regression equations. However, UPPS-P Urgency was able to account for unique variance in intimate partner violence, above and beyond measures of Neuroticism and arousal. Implications regarding the use of a multifaceted conceptualization of impulsivity in the prediction of different types of violent behavior are discussed. PMID:21259270

  18. Forms of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Ammerman, Brooke A; Kulper, Daniel A; Uyeji, Lauren L; Jenkins, Abigail L; McCloskey, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    To date, the considerable body of research on predictors of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has conceptualized NSSI as a unitary construct despite the fact that NSSI can exist in many forms (e.g., hitting, cutting, burning). The goal of the present study is to examine differential prediction of forms of NSSI. Specifically, we examined trait aggression as a predictor of more aggressive forms of NSSI (i.e., hitting). We hypothesized that higher trait aggression would differentiate those who engaged in hitting forms of NSSI from those who did not, whereas other factors (i.e., emotion regulation and trait anger) would serve as a non-specific predictor of NSSI. We also hypothesized that higher trait aggression would be related to lifetime frequency of hitting NSSI, but not other forms of NSSI, whereas emotion regulation and anger would act as predictors of other forms of NSSI. To test these hypotheses, a large sample of young adults completed measures of trait aggression, trait anger, emotion regulation, and NSSI behaviors. Results were generally in line with our hypotheses. Higher levels of trait aggression differentiated those who engaged in hitting NSSI from those who did not and was also associated with greater frequency of hitting NSSI. These results imply that different factors predict different forms of NSSI and that NSSI may be best examined as a multi-faceted construct. PMID:25778908

  19. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  20. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  1. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Ron; Brozell, Scott R.; Gidofalvi, Gergely

    2014-08-14

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that both the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N{sup 2}n{sup 4}) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N{sub 2} dissociation, cubic H{sub 8} dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H{sub 2}O, and the insertion of Be into H{sub 2}. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form.

  2. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Ron; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Brozell, Scott R

    2014-08-14

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that both the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N(2)n(4)) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N2 dissociation, cubic H8 dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H2O, and the insertion of Be into H2. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form. PMID:25134549

  3. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ron; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Brozell, Scott R.

    2014-08-01

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that both the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N2n4) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N2 dissociation, cubic H8 dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H2O, and the insertion of Be into H2. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form.

  4. Evaluating a cognitive/ecological program for the prevention of aggression among urban children.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Maxwell, C D; Eron, L; Dahlberg, L L; Guerra, N G; Tolan, P H; VanAcker, R; Henry, D

    1996-01-01

    The Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) is a multifaceted school- and family-based intervention and evaluation study designed to prevent and understand the development of aggressive behavior. The multifaceted interventions are grounded in combined social-cognitive and ecologic theories. Social-cognitive theories contend that cognitive scripts, attributions, and beliefs acquired early in life mediate the effects of ecological factors that influence the development of antisocial behavior. Prevention programs aimed at these cognitions must address multiple dimensions of the child's environment including family, peer, school, and community. The program has three levels of intervention delivered in two-year segments: (1) Level 1: a general enhancement classroom intervention that stresses culturally sensitive student and teacher interaction involving instructional and classroom management strategies and a social-cognitive curriculum that mitigates aggressive development; (2) Level 2: intensive small-group sessions designed to change children's cognitions and enhance peer relationship skills for at-risk children added to the general classroom enhancement program; and (3) Level 3: a one-year family relationship intervention that stresses parenting skill building and emotional responsiveness in family interactions added to the general enhancement and small-group training conditions. Sixteen Chicago-area schools are randomly assigned (four each) to a control group or one of the three intervention levels. Individual child assessment, peer assessments, classroom behavioral observations, and archival data are collected before the interventions begin, during the interventions, at the end of each intervention, and at a follow-up point. The pretests indicate that the children on average have higher levels of aggression than found nationally and elevated clinical levels of other psychopathologies. Across the four intervention levels there are no significant differences in ethnic

  5. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  6. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  7. Investigation of the multifaceted iron acquisition strategies of Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, J; Whelan, N; Wright, C; Sá-Correia, I; McClean, S; Thomas, M; Callaghan, Máire

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is a bacterial pathogen which causes severe respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). These studies were aimed at gaining an insight into the iron acquisition strategies of B. cenocepacia. In iron restricted conditions, genes associated with the synthesis and utilisation of ornibactin (pvdA, orbA, orb F) were significantly upregulated compared to the expression of pyochelin associated genes (pchD, fptA). In the absence of alternative iron sources, B. cenocepacia J2315 and 715j utilised ferritin and haemin, but not transferrin or lactoferrin for growth. Significantly, mutants unable to produce ornibactin, (715j-orbI) or ornibactin and pyochelin, (715j-pobA), utilised haemin and ferritin more efficiently than the wild-type. Moreover, both mutants were also able to utilise lactoferrin for growth (P ≤ 0.01) and additionally 715j-pobA utilised transferrin (P ≤ 0.01), potentially facilitating adaptation to the host environment. Furthermore, B. cenocepacia increased ornibactin gene expression in response to pyoverdine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.01), demonstrating the capacity to compete for iron in co-colonised niches. Pyoverdine also significantly diminished the growth of B. cenocepacia (P < 0.001) which was related to its iron chelating activity. In a study of three B. cenocepacia sequential clonal isolates obtained from a CF patient over a 3.5 year period, ornibactin upregulation in response to pyoverdine was less pronounced in the last isolate compared to the earlier isolates, as was growth in the presence of haemin and ferritin, indicating alternative iron acquisition mechanism(s) may dominate as chronic infection progresses. These data demonstrate the multifaceted iron acquisition strategies of B. cenocepacia and their capacity to be differentially activated in the presence of P. aeruginosa and during chronic infection. PMID:25725797

  8. Sequences and Combinations of Multifaceted Therapy In Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vaishampayan, Ulka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Multiple agents with very distinct mechanisms of actions and unique toxicities and efficacies have become available for use in advanced prostate cancer. The next wave of investigations is focused on development of combinations and optimal sequences of the currently available agents. The focus of this review paper is to provide an update on clinical developments in advanced prostate cancer occurring within the past year, and to highlight the ongoing investigations of promising novel targets and compounds. Recent Findings The clinical use of enzalutamide prior to chemotherapy, demonstrated improvement in progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as compared to placebo in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This report of the PREVAIL trial led to the FDA approval of this agent. Novel agents such as cabozantinib and custirsen that had shown promising results in phase II trials, revealed disappointing results in the phase III setting. The breakthrough report, of the ability of the ARV-7 mutation, detected in circulating tumor cells, to predict lack of response to abiraterone or enzalutamide, and the remarkable responses of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in prostate cancer with BRCA1/2 mutations, have elevated hopes of a bright future in the biomarker driven therapeutic arena. Summary As the clinical application of the recently approved multifaceted therapies widens, trials addressing optimal sequences and combinations are gaining importance. In addition, exploring the utility of therapies in the hormone naïve or non-metastatic settings is an area of active investigation. Early use of available agents, optimal sequencing and aid of biomarkers to guide therapeutic choices will make the achievement of lifetime remissions in advanced prostate cancer a reachable goal. PMID:25811344

  9. Credit use: psychological perspectives on a multifaceted phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Consumer borrowing is a highly topical and multifaceted phenomenon as well as a popular subject for study. We focus on consumer credit use and review the existing literature. To categorize what is known we identify four main psychological perspectives on the phenomenon: credit use as (1) a reflection of the situation, (2) a reflection of the person, (3) a cognitive process, and (4) a social process. On top of these perspectives we view credit use as a process that entails three distinct phases: (1) processes before credit acquisition, (2) processes at credit acquisition, and (3) processes after credit acquisition. We review the international literature along a two-tier structure that aligns the psychological perspectives with a process view of credit. This structure allows us to identify systematic concentrations as well as gaps in the existing research. We consolidate what is known within each perspective and identify what seems to be most urgently missing. Some of the most important gaps relate to research studying credit acquisition from the perspective of credit use as a reflection of the person or as a social process. In particular, research on credit use as a reflection of the person appears to focus exclusively on the first stage of the credit process. We conclude with a discussion that reaches across perspectives and identifies overarching gaps, trends, and open questions. We highlight a series of implicit linkages between perspectives and the geographical regions in which studies related to the perspectives were conducted. Beyond diagnosing a geographical imbalance of research, we argue for future research that systematically addresses interrelations between perspectives. We conclude with a set of global implications and research recommendations. PMID:22181814

  10. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  11. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  12. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  13. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  14. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  15. A psychoanalytic study of aggression.

    PubMed

    Furst, S S

    1998-01-01

    Eleven participants carried out a study of aggression by utilizing clinical data from the analyses of patients who manifested significant problems in the management of aggression. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of the intrapsychic factors that determine the nature and intensity of aggressive tendencies, the place they occupy in the psychic economy, their patterns of expression, and the extrapsychic factors that trigger them. The findings of the study indicate, first, that aggression is multiply determined by developmental, genetic (experiential), and dynamic variables; second, that each cluster of variables affects the nature, intensity, and expression of aggression in a fairly specific way; third, the importance of aggression in the psychic economy is proportional to the extent to which it is overdetermined. The successful analysis of aggressive individuals depends not solely on interpretation and insight, but on the relationship to the analyst as new parent who does not threaten and prohibit. The relationship to the analyst permits developmental change, particularly the ability to organize, structure, and control aggression. As a result, it need not be expressed destructively, but may be placed in the service of constructive thought and action. PMID:9990829

  16. In search of Winnicott's aggression.

    PubMed

    Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

    2001-01-01

    Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

  17. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  18. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  19. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach reduces mortality in rhinocerebral mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, Sheri K.; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Lemole, G. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs in immunocompromised hosts with uncontrolled diabetes, solid organ transplants, and hematologic malignancies. Primary disease is in the paranasal sinuses but often progresses intracranially, via direct extension or angioinvasion. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is rapidly fatal with a mortality rate of 85%, even when maximally treated with surgical debridement, antifungal therapy, and correction of underlying processes. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis from 2011 to 2014. These patients were analyzed for symptoms, surgical and medical management, and outcome. We found four patients who were diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. All patients underwent rapid aggressive surgical debridement and were started on antifungal therapy on the day of diagnosis. Overall, we observed a mortality rate of 50%. Results: An early aggressive multidisciplinary approach with surgical debridement, antifungal therapy, and correction of underlying disease have been shown to improve survivability in rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach to rhinocerebral mucormycosis with otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology, infectious disease and medical intensivists can help reduce mortality in an otherwise largely fatal disease. Even despite these measures, outcomes remain poor, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained in at-risk populations, in order to rapidly execute a multifaceted approach. PMID:27280057

  20. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  1. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  2. Evolution of the multifaceted eukaryotic akirin gene family

    PubMed Central

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    evolution had shifted significantly between paralogues. Interestingly, the highest scoring position was within a conserved, validated binding-site for 14-3-3 proteins. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework to facilitate future studies of eukaryotic akirins and provides insight into their multifaceted and conserved biochemical functions. PMID:19200367

  3. The reduction of aggression in people with learning difficulties: a review of psychological methods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, S

    1993-02-01

    The literature on the reduction of aggression in people with learning difficulties is reviewed. The methods of reducing aggression identified were predominantly evaluated in staffed settings and with target behaviours more frequent than once a day. This contrasts with the findings of a recent survey that found the majority of aggressive individuals to live in the community and show aggression less than once a day. It is argued that the reasons for this disparity are as follows. That it is easier to do a controlled study in staffed settings with high-frequency aggression. That it is more difficult to do an analysis of the target behaviour if it is low frequency or if the subject is in the community; and that the methods that have been traditionally used to reduce aggression may not be effective with all subjects in all settings. It is suggested that it may be necessary to develop and evaluate a new technology for reducing aggression. PMID:8467270

  4. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  5. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    PubMed Central

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

  6. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  7. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  8. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  9. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area. PMID:20390357

  10. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  11. Thin Water Films at Multifaceted Hematite Particle Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boily, Jean-François; Yeşilbaş, Merve; Uddin, Munshi Md Musleh; Baiqing, Lu; Trushkina, Yulia; Salazar-Alvarez, Germàn

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces exposed to moist air stabilize nanometer- to micrometer-thick water films. This study resolves the nature of thin water film formation at multifaceted hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticle surfaces with crystallographic faces resolved by selected area electron diffraction. Dynamic vapor adsorption (DVA) in the 0-19 Torr range at 298 K showed that these particles stabilize water films consisting of up to 4-5 monolayers. Modeling of these data predicts water loadings in terms of an "adsorption regime" (up to 16 H2O/nm(2)) involving direct water binding to hematite surface sites, and of a "condensation regime" (up to 34 H2O/nm(2)) involving water binding to hematite-bound water nanoclusters. Vibration spectroscopy identified the predominant hematite surface hydroxo groups (-OH, μ-OH, μ3-OH) through which first layer water molecules formed hydrogen bonds, as well as surface iron sites directly coordinating water molecules (i.e., as geminal η-(OH2)2 sites). Chemometric analyses of the vibration spectra also revealed a strong correspondence in the response of hematite surface hydroxo groups to DVA-derived water loadings. These findings point to a near-saturation of the hydrogen-bonding environment of surface hydroxo groups at a partial water vapor pressure of ∼8 Torr (∼40% relative humidity). Classical molecular dynamics (MD) resolved the interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding populations at five representative crystallographic faces expressed in these nanoparticles. Simulations of single oriented slabs underscored the individual roles of all (hydro)oxo groups in donating and accepting hydrogen bonds with first layer water in the "adsorption regime". These analyses pointed to the preponderance of hydrogen bond-donating -OH groups in the stabilization of thin water films. Contributions of μ-OH and μ3-OH groups are secondary, yet remain essential in the stabilization of thin water films. MD simulations also helped resolve crystallographic

  12. Multifaceted regulation of V(D)J recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guannan

    V(D)J recombination is responsible for generating an enormous repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, therefore it is a centerpiece to the formation of the adaptive immune system. The V(D)J recombination process proceeds through two steps, site-specific cleavage at RSS (Recombination Signal Sequence) site mediated by the RAG recombinase (RAG1/2) and the subsequent imprecise resolution of the DNA ends, which is carried out by the ubiquitous non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). The V(D)J recombination reaction is obliged to be tightly controlled under all circumstances, as it involves generations of DNA double strand breaks, which are considered the most dangerous lesion to a cell. Multifaceted regulatory mechanisms have been evolved to create great diversity of the antigen receptor repertoire while ensuring genome stability. The RAG-mediated cleavage reaction is stringently regulated at both the pre-cleavage stage and the post-cleavage stage. Specifically, RAG1/2 first forms a pre-cleavage complex assembled at the boarder of RSS and coding flank, which ensures the appropriate DNA targeting. Subsequently, this complex initiates site-specific cleavage, generating two types of double stranded DNA breaks, hairpin-ended coding ends (HP-CEs) and blunt signal ends (SEs). After the cleavage, RAG1/2 proteins bind and retain the recombination ends to form post-cleavage complexes (PCC), which collaborates with the NHEJ machinery for appropriate transfer of recombination ends to NHEJ for proper end resolution. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this collaboration, partly attributed to the lack of sensitive assays to reveal the interaction of PCC with HP-CEs. Here, for the first time, by using two complementary fluorescence-based techniques, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), I managed to monitor the RAG1/2-catalyzed cleavage reaction in real time, from the pre-cleavage to the post-cleavage stages. By

  13. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Robert M; Middeldorp, Christel M; Cherny, Stacey S; Krapohl, Eva; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Corley, Robin; Rhee, Soo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard R; Hewitt, John K; Sham, Pak; Plomin, Robert; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2016-07-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were available for 10,765 twin pairs at age 7, for 8,557 twin pairs at age 9/10, and for 7,176 twin pairs at age 12. In TEDS, parental ratings of conduct disorder from the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) were available for 6,897 twin pairs at age 7, for 3,028 twin pairs at age 9 and for 5,716 twin pairs at age 12. In both studies, stability and heritability of aggressive behavioral problems was high. Heritability was on average somewhat, but significantly, lower in TEDS (around 60%) than in NTR (between 50% and 80%) and sex differences were slightly larger in the NTR sample. In both studies, the influence of shared environment was similar: in boys shared environment explained around 20% of the variation in aggression across all ages while in girls its influence was absent around age 7 and only came into play at later ages. Longitudinal genetic correlations were the main reason for stability of aggressive behavior. Individual differences in CBCL-Aggressive Behavior and SDQ-Conduct disorder throughout childhood are driven by a comparable but significantly different genetic architecture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786601

  14. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  15. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  16. The Development of Aggression within Sibling Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    1995-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined responses to physically aggressive conflicts among siblings. Found that parents respond to half of children's aggression (especially if there is crying). Most parent and child responses were simple commands to stop the aggression. Reasoning was used less often, and physical intervention, rarely. Aggression was higher…

  17. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  18. Attributional bias and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Hudley, C; Friday, J

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student

  19. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  20. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:23505967

  1. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  2. Mapping Developmental Precursors of Cyber-Aggression: Trajectories of Risk Predict Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-01-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…

  3. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  4. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  5. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization…

  6. Scientific Literacy: Charting the Terrains of a Multifaceted Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study that takes its point of departure from four facets of human functioning to which scientific literacy may contribute from a personal, social, and scientific disciplinary perspective. These include everyday coping, social decision making, working in technological industrial enterprises, and extending the frontiers of science and…

  7. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  8. [Multifaceted Intervention to Explore the Appropriate Time of Anti-Cancer Treatment Cessation].

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Chikako

    2016-07-01

    When anti-cancer treatment should be ended is very controversial. This reviewprovides a narrative summary of recent empirical studies about the potential association between the timing of anti-cancer treatment cessation and patient quality of death and dying. Furthermore, we propose a multifaceted intervention model for Japanese oncology patients based on the evidence available. PMID:27431627

  9. Development and Initial Validation of the Disinhibition Inventory: A Multifaceted Measure of Disinhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindo, Lilian; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Sharma, Leigh; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    The broad personality trait of disinhibition reflects the tendency to behave in an underconstrained versus overconstrained manner and is associated with externalizing psychopathology and risk-taking behaviors. This article describes the development and initial validation of the Disinhibition Inventory (DIS-I), a multifaceted measure of…

  10. Results of a Multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence Training Program for Pediatric Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Maria D.; Cruz, Mario; McKee, Jessica; Dempsey, Sandra H.; Davis, Martha B.; Barry, Patricia; Yoder, Ana Lisa; Giardino, Angelo P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices of pediatric residents. Methods: The intervention included: an on-site IPV counselor, IPV training for attending physicians, residents and social workers, and screening prompts. Evaluation included…

  11. A Multifaceted Approach to Investigating Pre-Task Planning Effects on Paired Oral Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitta, Ryo; Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of paired format speaking assessments, the effects of pre-task planning time on performance in these formats are not yet well understood. For example, some studies have revealed the benefits of planning but others have not. Using a multifaceted approach including analysis of the process of speaking performance, the…

  12. A Multifaceted Approach to Teamwork Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemery, Edward R.; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multifaceted, multilevel approach to teamwork learning and assessment. It includes teamwork knowledge, peer and self-appraisal of teamwork behavior, and individual and team performance on objective tests for teaching and assessing teamwork in an undergraduate business program. At the beginning of this semester-long process, students…

  13. A Multi-Faceted Formative Assessment Approach: Better Recognising the Learning Needs of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Students are increasingly subject to a series of learning pressures that prevent effective engagement in assessment. Thus, the aim of this study was to create a multi-faceted formative assessment approach that better enabled students to engage in the assessment process. A formative assessment approach, consisting of six key initiatives, is…

  14. The Multifaceted Variable Approach: Selection of Method in Solving Simple Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahir, Salma; Cavanagh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the solution strategies used by two groups of Year 8 students as they solved linear equations. The experimental group studied algebra following a multifaceted variable approach, while the comparison group used a traditional approach. Students in the experimental group employed different solution strategies,…

  15. Infinity as a Multi-Faceted Concept in History and in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Bussi, Maria G., Bartolini; Robutti, Ornella

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation of infinity as a multi-faceted concept, discussing two examples. The first is from history and illustrates the work of Euler, when using infinity in an algebraic context. The second sketches an activity in a school context, namely students who approach the definite integral with symbolic-graphic…

  16. The neurobiology of offensive aggression: Revealing a modular view.

    PubMed

    de Boer, S F; Olivier, B; Veening, J; Koolhaas, J M

    2015-07-01

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the neurobiology of aggression started in the early 20th century, and by employing increasingly sophisticated tools of functional neuroanatomy (i.e., from electric/chemical lesion and stimulation techniques to neurochemical mapping and manipulations) have provided the important framework for the functional brain circuit organization of aggressive behaviors. Recently, newly emerging technologies for mapping,measuring and manipulating neural circuitry at the level of molecular and genetically defined neuronal subtypes promise to further delineate the precise neural microcircuits mediating the initiation and termination of aggressive behavior, and characterize its dynamic neuromolecular functioning. This paper will review some of the behavioral, neuroanatomical and neurochemical evidence in support of a modular view of the neurobiology of offensive aggressive behavior. Although aggressive behavior likely arises from a specific concerted activity within a distributed neural network across multiple brain regions, emerging opto- and pharmacogenetic neuronal manipulation studies make it clear that manipulation of molecularly-defined neurons within a single node of this global interconnected network seems to be both necessary and sufficient to evoke aggressive attacks. However, the evidence so far also indicates that in addition to behavior-specific neurons there are neuronal systems that should be considered as more general behavioral control modules. The answer to the question of behavioral specificity of brain structures at the level of individual neurons requires a change of the traditional experimental setup. Studies using c-fos expression mapping usually compare the activation patterns induced by for example aggression with a home cage control. However, to reveal the behavioral specificity of this neuronal activation pattern, a comparison with other social and non-social related behaviors such as mating, defensive burying

  17. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  18. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  19. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  20. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  1. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  2. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  3. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  4. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  5. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated. PMID:25857854

  6. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  7. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  8. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  9. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  10. Investigating Three Explanations of Women's Relationship Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated explanations of women's partner aggression in a sample of 358 women. Women completed measures of physical aggression, control, and fear. Three explanations of women's partner aggression were explored: (a) that its use is associated with fear, (b) that it is reciprocal, and (c) that it is coercive. Each explanation received…

  11. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  12. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  13. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  14. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  15. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  16. Promoting Science Education Using an Energetic Multi-faceted Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Nagy, Alex

    2006-10-01

    The Fusion Education Program at General Atomics is beginning its 13^th year of interaction with teachers and students and continues to be a fundamental source of information and activities covering states of matter, fusion science and technology, and classroom demonstrations. DIII-D facility field trips by students and classroom visits by scientists offer students close interaction with professional scientists and engineers and hands-on demonstrations. Educator workshops allow teachers to build items for their classroom that allow clear demonstration of specific science concepts found in basic plasma science and science measurements using devices such as DVMs, compasses, and pressure gauges. Materials for teaching plasma and fusion science in the class are readily available and formats include notebook, videotape, CD, and DVD. In recent summer `Build-it Day' workshops teachers built a 300 turn coil used in magnetic field mapping exercises and a 200 turn coil used in a magnetic levitation demonstration. Teachers also harvested a small coil from a standard relay to make a magnetic field pickup coil for making quantitative field measurements. Demonstration equipment will be present for review and interaction.

  17. Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

  18. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  19. Effects of Aggressive vs. Nonaggressive Films on the Aggressive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Charles

    Examined was the effect of viewing an aggressive film on the behavior of 22 moderately and mildly mentally retarded children (5-11 years old). Ss' doll playing was observed after they viewed a nonaggressive and an aggressive film. Results supported the hypothesis that Ss would exhibit more aggressive behavior following the aggressive than the…

  20. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  1. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  2. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  3. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  4. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  5. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  6. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  7. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

  8. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  9. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  10. Aliquat 336 stabilized multi-faceted gold nanoparticles with minimal ligand density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Gul; Othaman, Zulkafli; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; Ghoshal, S. Krishna

    2016-02-01

    Using Methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as a shaping and stabilizing agent for the first time, quasi-spherical and multi-faceted gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized via seed mediated protocol. These slightly elongated NPs devoid of any centre of symmetry are found to possess some twin defects on their surfaces as confirmed by TEM analysis. Their Surface plasmon resonance band is evidenced at 534 nm. The growth progression is examined through the formation of translational Au NPs during the reaction. Such Aliquat 336 stabilized NPs are demonstrated to achieve minimal ligand density. This is attributed to the formation of hexagonally patterned self-assembled monolayer of ligand molecules over the surface of Au NPs. TGA and DLS experiments are performed to quantify the ligand density on the surface of these multi-faceted Au NPs. EDX, FTIR, and XPS measurements are accomplished to determine the structure and binding of ligand molecules to Au surface. Further, these NPs are found to be luminescent with violet emission under an excitation at 320 nm. The admirable features of the results suggest that our method may constitute a basis for the facile synthesis of functionalized and luminescent multi-faceted Au NPs with minimal ligand density, potential for sundry biomedical applications.

  11. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. PMID:26916604

  12. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  13. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627

  14. Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

  15. Problems in the study of rodent aggression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J; Wall, Philip M; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Laboratory research has produced detailed descriptions of aggression and defense patterns in the rat, mouse, and hamster, showing strong similarities, but also some differences, across these species. Research on target sites for attack, in conjunction with analyses of the situational antecedents of attack behaviors and of responsivity of these to conditions that elicit fear, has also provided a strong basis for analysis of offensive and defensive aggression strategies and for identification of combinations of these modalities such as may occur in maternal aggression. These patterns have been empirically differentiated from phenomena such as play fighting or predation and compared for laboratory rodents and their wild ancestors. An array of tasks, suitable for use with pharmacological and experimental manipulations, is available for analysis of both aggression and defense. These developments should produce a firm basis for research using animal models to analyze a broad array of aggression-related phenomena, including systematic approaches to understanding the normal antecedents and consequences of each of several differentiable types of aggressive behavior. Despite this strong empirical and analytic background, laboratory animal aggression research has been in a period of decline, spanning several decades, relative to comparable research focusing on areas such as sexual behavior or stress. Problems that may have contributed to the relative neglect of aggression research include confusion about the interpretation of different tasks for eliciting aggression; difficulties and labor intensiveness of observational measures needed for an adequate differentiation of offensive and defensive behaviors; analytic difficulties stemming from the sensitivity of offensive aggression to the inhibitory effects of fear or defensiveness; lack of a clear relationship between categories of aggressive behavior as defined in animal studies and those used in human aggression research; and

  16. Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors?

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Allison G; Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Storch, Eric A

    2011-05-01

    Cyber technology provides a new venue for the expression of aggression. However, whether cyber technology has produced a new group of peer aggressors or simply allowed aggressive peers new tools to victimize others is unclear. This study sampled 1,672 adolescents to assess their engagement in cyber aggression. Although "cyber," "overt," and "relational" represent distinct subtypes of aggressive behavior, our results indicate that adolescents' behaviors clustered according to their frequency-not type-of aggression. Thus cyber technology provides new tools for youth who already engage in aggressive behaviors in the physical world to victimize peers in cyberspace. PMID:21162661

  17. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  18. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  19. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  20. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  1. Cyber aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships: linkages to parental and partner attachment.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships. PMID:25008295

  2. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  3. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  4. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  5. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  6. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  7. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  8. Effective Work Function Engineering for Aggressively Scaled Planar and Multi-Gate Fin Field-Effect Transistor-Based Devices with High-k Last Replacement Metal Gate Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Anabela; Aik Chew, Soon; Higuchi, Yuichi; Ragnarsson, Lars-Åke; Simoen, Eddy; Schram, Tom; Witters, Thomas; Van Ammel, Annemie; Dekkers, Harold; Tielens, Hilde; Devriendt, Katia; Heylen, Nancy; Sebaai, Farid; Brus, Stephan; Favia, Paola; Geypen, Jef; Bender, Hugo; Phatak, Anup; Chen, Michael S.; Lu, Xinliang; Ganguli, Seshadri; Lei, Yu; Tang, Wei; Fu, Xinyu; Gandikota, Srinivas; Noori, Atif; Brand, Adam; Yoshida, Naomi; Thean, Aaron; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2013-04-01

    This work reports on aggressively scaled replacement metal gate, high-k last devices (RMG-HKL), exploring several options for effective work function (EWF) engineering, and targeting logic high-performance and low-power applications. Tight low-threshold voltage (VT) distributions for scaled NMOS devices are obtained by controlled TiN/TiAl-alloying, either by using RF-physical vapor deposition (RF-PVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD) for TiN growth. The first technique allows optimization of the TiAl/TiN thicknesses at the bottom of gate trenches while maximizing the space to be filled with a low-resistance metal; using ALD minimizes the occurrence of preferential paths, at gate sidewalls, for Al diffusion into the high-k dielectric, reducing gate leakage (JG). For multi-gate fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) which require smaller EWF shifts from mid-gap for low-VT: 1) conformal, lower-JG ALD-TiN/TaSiAl; and 2) Al-rich ALD-TiN by controlled Al diffusion from the fill-metal are demonstrated to be promising candidates. Comparable bias temperature instability (BTI), improved noise behavior, and slightly reduced equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) are measured on Al-rich EWF-metal stacks.

  9. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to ‘classical’ hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Location Global Methods SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. Main conclusions The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global

  10. CoMAGC: a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to access the large amount of information in biomedical literature about genes implicated in various cancers both efficiently and accurately, the aid of text mining (TM) systems is invaluable. Current TM systems do target either gene-cancer relations or biological processes involving genes and cancers, but the former type produces information not comprehensive enough to explain how a gene affects a cancer, and the latter does not provide a concise summary of gene-cancer relations. Results In this paper, we present a corpus for the development of TM systems that are specifically targeting gene-cancer relations but are still able to capture complex information in biomedical sentences. We describe CoMAGC, a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations. In CoMAGC, a piece of annotation is composed of four semantically orthogonal concepts that together express 1) how a gene changes, 2) how a cancer changes and 3) the causality between the gene and the cancer. The multi-faceted annotations are shown to have high inter-annotator agreement. In addition, we show that the annotations in CoMAGC allow us to infer the prospective roles of genes in cancers and to classify the genes into three classes according to the inferred roles. We encode the mapping between multi-faceted annotations and gene classes into 10 inference rules. The inference rules produce results with high accuracy as measured against human annotations. CoMAGC consists of 821 sentences on prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Currently, we deal with changes in gene expression levels among other types of gene changes. The corpus is available at http://biopathway.org/CoMAGCunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0). Conclusions The corpus will be an important resource for the development of advanced TM systems on gene-cancer relations. PMID:24225062

  11. Daily Associations among Anger Experience and Intimate Partner Aggression within Aggressive and Nonaggressive Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate partner aggression using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner aggression perpetration among male and female participants as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both Actor and Partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily Partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among females who reported high anger and males, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in Actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive females. Previously aggressive males and females consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high Actor anger experience. Results emphasize the importance of both Actor and Partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

  12. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605

  13. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  14. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  15. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  16. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  17. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  18. Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

  19. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  20. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  1. A multifaceted mental health training program in reducing burnout among occupational social workers.

    PubMed

    Rabin, S; Saffer, M; Weisberg, E; Kornitzer-Enav, T; Peled, I; Ribak, J

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at ways of reducing stress through a multifaceted training program involving the acquisition of mental health knowledge and skills and experiential training in a group of occupational social workers. The training group of 13 occupational workers was compared to a group of occupational social workers not attending the program. Post-training revealed statistically significant increases in professional self-efficacy associated with awareness of psychological and psychopathological issues and professional social support. Reduction in cognitive weariness and listlessness associated with burnout was also found. Gaining competence in mental health issues relating to the occupational setting coupled with emotional sharing helped to reduce professional burnout. PMID:10857266

  2. Hypoglycemia and aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Benton, D

    1988-08-01

    The popular notion that a tendency to develop low levels of blood glucose is the cause of a range of behavioral problems is reviewed. It is concluded that it is inappropriate to use the glucose tolerance test as a test of the tendency to develop reactive hypoglycemia. Instead, a meal tolerance test, in which glucose is administered in the presence of fat and protein, should be the method of choice. The use of a meal tolerance test strongly suggests that reactive hypoglycemia rarely results, except in a few exceptional individuals. Three situations are described in which a correlation between a tendency to develop moderately low levels of blood glucose during a glucose tolerance test (not hypoglycemic values) and the tendency to act aggressively have been reported. The significance of these data is unclear but several possible mechanisms by which glucose may influence behavior are discussed. PMID:3053477

  3. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  4. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  5. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  6. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  7. Students' Attitude to Aggression in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettenborn, Harry; Lautsch, Erwin

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of 2,553 students' attitudes toward aggression in schools. Finds differentiated results based on demographic data and with the students' personal involvement in the aggressive acts as either the perpetrator or victim. Discusses practical consequences of the study for schools. (CFR)

  8. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  9. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  10. School-Based Aggression Replacement Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Becky Sue; Striepling-Goldstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a potent K-12 intervention that responds to many of the developmental and natural needs of aggressive and antisocial students. Woven into the curriculum preventatively or as a stand-alone course in response to an antisocial school climate, ART facilitates the learning necessary to reach and provide lasting…

  11. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  12. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  13. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  14. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  15. The Prevention of Social Aggression among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Weinstein, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first systematic attempt to examine a theory-based program designed to reduce girls' social aggression and increase positive leadership among peers. Fifth-grade girls from six public schools were randomly assigned within classrooms to the social aggression prevention program (SAPP) and the comparison reading clubs. A…

  16. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  17. Intercommunity differences in aggression among Zapotec children.

    PubMed

    Fry, D P

    1988-08-01

    Patterns of play aggression and serious aggression were compared in 2 neighboring Zapotec Indian communities that have different levels of adult violence. Social learning theory provided the basis for predicting that levels of agonistic behavior among children would parallel levels of violence among adults. Ethological methods were employed to observe 3-8-year-old children (N = 48). An examination of physical aggression and nonphysical threatening showed that agonism generally was more severe among the children of the more aggressive community. That is, children from the more aggressive community engaged in more actual fighting (p = .005) and play fighting (p = .0001) than their counterparts from the other community. On the other hand, children from the less aggressive community used more noncontact threatening than the children from the more aggressive community (p = .0001). These findings suggest that community differences in levels of violence are perpetuated as Zapotec children learn community-appropriate patterns for expressing aggression and continue to express these patterns as adults. Possible functions of play fighting are also discussed. PMID:3168610

  18. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  19. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    PubMed

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22909910

  20. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569133

  1. Retinoid resistance and multifaceted impairment of retinoic acid synthesis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Campos, Benito; Weisang, Sarah; Osswald, Florian; Ali, Ramadan; Sedlmeier, Georg; Bageritz, Josephine; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Hartmann, Christian; von Deimling, Andreas; Popanda, Odillia; Goidts, Violaine; Plass, Christoph; Unterberg, Andreas; Schmezer, Peter; Burhenne, Jürgen; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2015-10-01

    Measuring concentrations of the differentiation-promoting hormone retinoic acid (RA) in glioblastoma tissues would help to understand the reason why RA treatment has been inefficient in clinical trials involving brain tumor patients. Here, we apply a recently established extraction and measurement protocol to screen glioblastoma tissues for the levels of the RA precursor retinol and biologically active RA. Combining this approach with mRNA analyses of 26 tumors and 8 normal brains, we identify a multifaceted disturbance of RA synthesis in glioblastoma, involving multiple aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family and retinol dehydrogenase enzymes. Through database studies and methylation analyses, we narrow down chromosomal deletions and aberrant promoter hypermethylation as potential mechanisms accounting for these alterations. Employing chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses and cell-culture studies, we further show that chromatin at RA target genes is poised to RA substitution, but most glioblastoma cell cultures are completely resistant to RA treatment. This paradoxical RA response is unrelated to alternative RA signaling through the fatty acid-binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta axis. Our data suggest a multifaceted disturbance of RA synthesis in glioblastoma and contribute to reconsider current RA treatment strategies. PMID:25944104

  2. Measuring teacher dispositions using the DAATS battery: a multifaceted Rasch analysis of rater effect.

    PubMed

    Lang, W Steve; Wilkerson, Judy R; Rea, Dorothy C; Quinn, David; Batchelder, Heather L; Englehart, Dierdre S; Jennings, Kelly J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which raters' subjectivity impacts measures of teacher dispositions using the Dispositions Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards (DAATS) battery. This is an important component of the collection of evidence of validity and reliability of inferences made using the scale. It also provides needed support for the use of subjective affective measures in teacher training and other professional preparation programs, since these measures are often feared to be unreliable because of rater effect. It demonstrates the advantages of using the Multi-Faceted Rasch Model as a better alternative to the typical methods used in preparation programs, such as Cohen's Kappa. DAATS instruments require subjective scoring using a six-point rating scale derived from the affective taxonomy as defined by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1956). Rater effect is a serious challenge and can worsen or drift over time. Errors in rater judgment can impact the accuracy of ratings, and these effects are common, but can be lessened through training of raters and monitoring of their efforts. This effort uses the multifaceted Rasch measurement models (MFRM) to detect and understand the nature of these effects. PMID:24992248

  3. MultiFacet: A Faceted Interface for Browsing Large Multimedia Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael J.; Hampton, Shawn D.; Endert, Alexander; Roberts, Ian E.; Payne, Deborah A.

    2013-10-31

    Faceted browsing is a common technique for exploring collections where the data can be grouped into a number of pre-defined categories, most often generated from textual metadata. Historically, faceted browsing has been applied to a single data type such as text or image data. However, typical collections contain multiple data types, such as information from web pages that contain text, images, and video. Additionally, when browsing a collection of images and video, facets are often created based on the metadata which may be incomplete, inaccurate, or missing altogether instead of the actual visual content contained within those images and video. In this work we address these limitations by presenting MultiFacet, a faceted browsing interface that supports multiple data types. MultiFacet constructs facets for images and video in a collection from the visual content using computer vision techniques. These visual facets can then be browsed in conjunction with text facets within a single interface to reveal relationships and phenomena within multimedia collections. Additionally, we present a use case based on real-world data, demonstrating the utility of this approach towards browsing a large multimedia data collection.

  4. Evolutionary Trade-Offs Underlie the Multi-faceted Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Laabei, Maisem; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D.; Austin, Eloise D.; Yokoyama, Maho; Ouadi, Khadija; Feil, Edward; Thorpe, Harry A.; Williams, Barnabas; Perkins, Mark; Peacock, Sharon J.; Clarke, Stephen R.; Dordel, Janina; Holden, Matthew; Votintseva, Antonina A.; Bowden, Rory; Crook, Derrick W.; Young, Bernadette C.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial virulence is a multifaceted trait where the interactions between pathogen and host factors affect the severity and outcome of the infection. Toxin secretion is central to the biology of many bacterial pathogens and is widely accepted as playing a crucial role in disease pathology. To understand the relationship between toxicity and bacterial virulence in greater depth, we studied two sequenced collections of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and found an unexpected inverse correlation between bacterial toxicity and disease severity. By applying a functional genomics approach, we identified several novel toxicity-affecting loci responsible for the wide range in toxic phenotypes observed within these collections. To understand the apparent higher propensity of low toxicity isolates to cause bacteraemia, we performed several functional assays, and our findings suggest that within-host fitness differences between high- and low-toxicity isolates in human serum is a contributing factor. As invasive infections, such as bacteraemia, limit the opportunities for onward transmission, highly toxic strains could gain an additional between-host fitness advantage, potentially contributing to the maintenance of toxicity at the population level. Our results clearly demonstrate how evolutionary trade-offs between toxicity, relative fitness, and transmissibility are critical for understanding the multifaceted nature of bacterial virulence. PMID:26331877

  5. Followers Are Not Enough: A Multifaceted Approach to Community Detection in Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In online social media networks, individuals often have hundreds or even thousands of connections, which link these users not only to friends, associates, and colleagues, but also to news outlets, celebrities, and organizations. In these complex social networks, a ‘community’ as studied in the social network literature, can have very different meaning depending on the property of the network under study. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of these networks, we claim that community detection in online social networks should also be multifaceted in order to capture all of the different and valuable viewpoints of ‘community.’ In this paper we focus on three types of communities beyond follower-based structural communities: activity-based, topic-based, and interaction-based. We analyze a Twitter dataset using three different weightings of the structural network meant to highlight these three community types, and then infer the communities associated with these weightings. We show that interesting insights can be obtained about the complex community structure present in social networks by studying when and how these four community types give rise to similar as well as completely distinct community structure. PMID:26267868

  6. Followers are not enough: a multifaceted approach to community detection in online social networks.

    PubMed

    Darmon, David; Omodei, Elisa; Garland, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In online social media networks, individuals often have hundreds or even thousands of connections, which link these users not only to friends, associates, and colleagues, but also to news outlets, celebrities, and organizations. In these complex social networks, a 'community' as studied in the social network literature, can have very different meaning depending on the property of the network under study. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of these networks, we claim that community detection in online social networks should also be multifaceted in order to capture all of the different and valuable viewpoints of 'community.' In this paper we focus on three types of communities beyond follower-based structural communities: activity-based, topic-based, and interaction-based. We analyze a Twitter dataset using three different weightings of the structural network meant to highlight these three community types, and then infer the communities associated with these weightings. We show that interesting insights can be obtained about the complex community structure present in social networks by studying when and how these four community types give rise to similar as well as completely distinct community structure. PMID:26267868

  7. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. PMID:26075351

  8. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    PubMed

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:17444525

  9. Not all aggressions are created equal: a multifoci approach to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lyons, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Types of perpetrators of workplace aggression can vary considerably, and recent research has demonstrated that aggression from different perpetrator categories has different implications for victims. We extended research on multifoci aggression and explored affective and cognitive pathways linking verbal aggression from four perpetrator types--supervisors, coworkers, customers, and significant others--and employee morale and turnover intention. Data from a sample of 446 working adults indicated that both emotional strain and employees' corresponding judgments of their social exchange relationships with these perpetrators served as the mechanisms for the association between aggression from supervisors, coworkers, and customers and morale and turnover intention. Coworker aggression had a direct association with turnover intention and significant other aggression was related to turnover intention only through emotional strain. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22122549

  10. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  11. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  12. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  13. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe.

  14. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  15. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  16. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  17. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  18. An examination of social cognitive theory with differences among sexually aggressive, physically aggressive and nonaggressive children in state care.

    PubMed

    Burton, D L

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of boys in Washington State care (37 sexually aggressive, 17 physically aggressive, and 15 nonaggressive) are compared on measures of behavior and cognition. Bandura's Social Cognition theory is offered as a possible explanation for sexual aggression by children. Two theory-based hypothesis are tested. First, are sexually aggressive children cognitively deficient when compared to the other groups? Second, do the sexually aggressive children have cognitive distortions about their behavior and about sex? Similarities were found in the aggressive and sexually aggressive groups on several measures. Physically aggressive boys were found to have some sexual behavior problems. Sexually aggressive boys were also found to be physically aggressive. Physically aggressive boys were found to have the least severe and least frequent victimization history. No support was found for the first hypothesis, while some evidence of cognitive distortions regarding both social behavior and sex was found in the sexually aggressive children. Discussion and some implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:10418769

  19. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  20. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  1. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  2. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  3. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  4. Partners in Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deere and Company scientists are working with various NASA centers in a multifaceted technical exchange program investigating areas of aerospace technology that can be applied to company's products. This is a non-traditional type spinoff in that it does not simply reapply existing technology but development of new technology using Deere's extensive R & D capability to complement NASA's efforts, adapting NASA information to new research paths and providing feedback of importance to NASA's own work. NASA/Deere exchange extends to these areas: Composite materials, ceramics, wear and lubrication, plasma coatings and sensors, and electronics.

  5. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562

  6. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression. PMID:23398093

  7. Mild hypoglycaemia and questionnaire measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Kumari, N; Brain, P F

    1982-01-01

    A glucose-tolerance test was given to a group of males who did not have a history involving aggressive behaviour or abnormal glucose metabolism. In these subjects a significant correlation was found between the tendency to become mildly hypoglycaemic and scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study. A factor analysis of the data found that both scores on the aggression questionnaires and the measure of hypoglycaemia were similarly weighted. These results extent to normal subjects the finding that there is a relationship between hypoglycaemia and aggressiveness, a result previously found in psychiatric patients. PMID:7104424

  8. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  9. Alcohol Expectancies and Evaluations of Aggression in Alcohol-Related Intimate-Partner Verbal and Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191

  10. Designing a multifaceted quality improvement intervention in primary care in a country where general practice is seeking recognition: the case of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Samoutis, George A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Stoffers, Henri E; Zachariadou, Theodora; Philalithis, Anastasios; Lionis, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Quality Improvement Interventions require significant financial investments, and therefore demand careful consideration in their design in order to maximize potential benefits. In this correspondence we present the methodological approach of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention aiming to improve quality of care in primary care, properly tailored for a country such as Cyprus where general practice is currently seeking recognition. Methods Our methodological approach was focused on the design of an open label, community-based intervention controlled trial using all patients from two urban and two rural public primary care centers diagnosed with hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus. The design of our intervention was grounded on a strong theoretical framework that included the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, and the Chronic Care Model, which synthesize evidence-based system changes in accordance with the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The primary outcome measure was improvement in the quality of care for two chronic diseases evaluated through specific clinical indicators, as well as the patient satisfaction assessed by the EUROPEP questionnaire and additional personal interviews. Results We designed a multifaceted quality improvement intervention model, supported by a varying degree of scientific evidence, tailored to local needs and specific country characteristics. Overall, the main components of the intervention were the development and adoption of an electronic medical record and the introduction of clinical guidelines for the management of the targeted chronic diseases facilitated by the necessary model of organizational changes. Conclusion Health planners and policy makers need to be aware of the potential use of certain theoretical models and applied methodology as well as inexpensive tools that may be suitably tailored to the local needs, in order to effectively design quality

  11. A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jeannette M.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has been widely studied and is a crucial component in the study of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression. However, rumination means different things in the context of different theories, and has not been uniformly defined or measured. This article aims to review models of rumination, as well as the various ways in which it is assessed. The models are compared and contrasted with respect to several important dimensions of rumination. Guidelines to consider in the selection of a model and measure of rumination are presented, and suggestions for the conceptualization of rumination are offered. In addition, rumination's relation to other similar constructs is evaluated. Finally, future directions for the study of ruminative phenomena are presented. It is hoped that this article will be a useful guide to those interested in studying the multi-faceted construct of rumination. PMID:19128864

  12. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Diego A.; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H.; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T.

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  13. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  14. Introducing a multifaceted approach to the management of diabetes mellitus in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Somasundram; Aldous, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Globally diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications are placing an enormous burden on individual patients and countries alike. South Africa is a developing country already under enormous pressure from communicable diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Added to this is DM, which serves to fuel the interactions between communicable and non-communicable diseases. Data from KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN) have demonstrated that the majority of patients with DM in the public healthcare sector are diagnosed and started on treatment at their local resource-limited healthcare clinics. This article describes introduction of a multifaceted approach to the management of DM in a resource-limited clinic at Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, KZN. Strategies like this may help provide a blueprint for other resource-limited healthcare facilities in developing countries. PMID:27138660

  15. A Multi-facetted Visual Analytics Tool for Exploratory Analysis of Human Brain and Function Datasets.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Diego A; Schneider, Cyril; Oliver, James H; Charpak, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jose T

    2016-01-01

    Brain research typically requires large amounts of data from different sources, and often of different nature. The use of different software tools adapted to the nature of each data source can make research work cumbersome and time consuming. It follows that data is not often used to its fullest potential thus limiting exploratory analysis. This paper presents an ancillary software tool called BRAVIZ that integrates interactive visualization with real-time statistical analyses, facilitating access to multi-facetted neuroscience data and automating many cumbersome and error-prone tasks required to explore such data. Rather than relying on abstract numerical indicators, BRAVIZ emphasizes brain images as the main object of the analysis process of individuals or groups. BRAVIZ facilitates exploration of trends or relationships to gain an integrated view of the phenomena studied, thus motivating discovery of new hypotheses. A case study is presented that incorporates brain structure and function outcomes together with different types of clinical data. PMID:27601990

  16. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  17. Native Americans and cancer risks: moving toward multifaceted solutions.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Hilary N

    2010-05-01

    Native Americans experience some of the poorest health statistics of any people in the United States, including rising cancer risks. If we are to truly understand and address health concerns among Native Americans, we need multifaceted interventions and policy solutions. Much of the current attention to Native American health issues examines behavioral health patterns and related interventions (that is, smoking rates and programs to moderate them). While such programs are necessary, they are not sufficient. It is imperative that the impact of the environment, including toxic waste exposure, be considered when examining cancer risk and moving toward solutions that reduce that risk for Native Americans. This article examines cancer risk factors related to both health behaviors and the physical environment. By examining these two areas, we can begin to understand the risks and move toward appropriate programmatic and policy solutions. PMID:20446175

  18. Thermal analysis of multifacet-mirror ring resonator for XUV free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, B.D.; Goldstein, J.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    XUV (10 nm {le} {lambda} {le} 100 nm) free-electron lasers (FELs) are potentially important light sources for advanced lithography and materials applications. The average power of an XUV FEL oscillator may be limited by thermal loading of the resonator mirrors. We analyze the requirements for the thermal performance of the mirrors of a metal, multifacet-mirror ring resonator for use at 12 nm. We use analytical methods and numerical approaches which include simulations with the 3-D FEL code FELEX. Thermal distortion of mirror surfaces leads to optical wavefront aberrations which reduce the focusability of the light beam in the gain medium (wiggler/electron beam) and limit the laser performance. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A multifaceted 'omics' approach for addressing the challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Asi; Bont, Louis; Engelhard, Dan; Moore, Edward; Fernández, David; Kreisberg-Greenblatt, Racheli; Oved, Kfir; Eden, Eran; Hays, John P

    2015-01-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics has severe global health and economic consequences, including the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A major driver of antibiotic misuse is the inability to accurately distinguish between bacterial and viral infections based on currently available diagnostic solutions. A multifaceted 'omics' approach that integrates personalized patient data such as genetic predisposition to infections (genomics), natural microbiota composition and immune response to infection (proteomics and transcriptomics) together with comprehensive pathogen profiling has the potential to help physicians improve their antimicrobial prescribing practices. In this respect, the EU has funded a multidisciplinary project (TAILORED-Treatment) that will develop novel omics-based personalized treatment schemes that have the potential to reduce antibiotic consumption, and help limiting the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25812460

  20. Adolescent parents and their children: a multifaceted approach to prevention of adverse childhood experiences (ACE).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Lynn Milgram; Thursby, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood experiences can have long-term effects. Research shows that children who undergo adverse childhood experiences (ACE) often have negative health and mental health outcomes later in life. Children of adolescent parents with high ACE Scores are at greater risk of ACE. As such, an intergenerational approach to preventing ACE is proposed in this article, addressing the needs of both the adolescent parent and their children. A review of the literature indicates that a public health perspective can guide the development of a prevention model aimed at reducing the effects of ACE. The current article proposes a universal, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary prevention science model that has two targets: adolescent parents and their children. Schools and early childhood programs can be mobilized to offer community prevention strategies across realms to include the individual, community, provider, coalitions/networks, organizational practices, and policy/legislation. PMID:22970783

  1. Effects of deindividuating situational cues and aggressive models on subjective deindividuation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Prentice-Dunn, S; Rogers, R W

    1980-07-01

    This experiment demonstrated that a subjective state of deindividuation mediates the effect of deindividuating situational cues on aggression displayed by small groups (n = 4) of coacting aggressors. The deindividuated state was composed of two factors, Self-Awareness and Altered Experiencing, both of which had a causal influence on aggressive behavior. These data are interpreted in terms of deindividuation theories which assume that certain input variables reduce self-awareness and concern about social evaluation and thereby weaken the restraints against expressing antisocial behavior. Also as predicted, compared with a no-model control condition, a high-aggressive model disinhibited overt displays of aggression, whereas a low-aggressive model inhibited aggression among both individuated and deindividuated group members. PMID:7411390

  2. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  3. Research: Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the major research findings on the relationship between television violence and aggressive behavior; concludes that, while there is no definitive proof that such a relationship exists, the evidence points strongly in that direction. (GT)

  4. Human Aggression Linked to Chemical Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies done by federal researchers indicate that human aggression may be affected by a critical balance of two or three key brain chemical neurotransmitters. Results of this study with human beings are included in this article. (MA)

  5. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  6. minSKIN Does a multifaceted intervention improve the competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by general practitioners? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most common neoplasms. Melanoma is the most aggressive one and can be lethal if not detected and removed on time. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is more frequent as melanoma; it is seldom lethal but can disfigure patients in advanced stages. General practitioners (GPs) are often faced with suspicious skin lesions of their patients. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled trial (RCT). Population: 60 GPs, randomised into intervention group and control group. Intervention: GPs get a Lumio loupe, a digital camera and continuous feedback based on pictures of skin lesions they send to the Dermatologist. Primary outcome: Competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs, measured as the percentage of correctly classified pictures of skin lesions. Measurements: At baseline, and prior to any intervention (T0), GPs will be asked to rate 36 pictures of skin lesions according to their likelihood of malignancy on a visual analogue scale (VAS). After a full day training course with both groups (T1) and after one year of continuous feedback (T2) with the intervention group, we will repeat the picture scoring session with both groups, using new pictures. Discussion We want to determine whether a multifaceted intervention (including technical equipment and a continuous feedback on skin lesions) leads to an improved competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs. This study addresses the hypothesis that an additional feedback loop, based on pictures performed in daily practice by GPs is superior to a simple educational intervention regarding diagnostic competence. We expect an improvement of the competence in skin cancer diagnosis by GPs in both groups after the full day training course. Beside this immediate effect, we also expect a long term effect in the intervention group because of the continuous problem based feedback. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN29854485 PMID:21718520

  7. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  8. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  9. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression. PMID:27111213

  10. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  11. Unpacking the Complex and Multifaceted Nature of Parental Influences on Southeast Asian American College Students' Educational Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the ways in which parents influence the educational trajectories of Southeast Asian American (SEAA) undergraduates at four-year institutions. Individual, face-to-face interviews with 34 SEAAs were conducted and analyzed. Findings illustrate the complex and multifaceted ways that parental influences…

  12. A multifaceted approach to prioritize and design bank stabilization measures along the Big Sioux River, South Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multifaceted approach was used to manage fine-grained sediment loadings from river bank erosion along the Big Sioux River between Dell Rapids and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Simulations with the RVR Meander and CONCEPTS river-morphodynamics computer models were conducted to identify stream-ban...

  13. The Structural Validity of the Perceived Traits of the "Ideal Student" Multi-Faceted Theory among Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava; Cohen, Arie; Furman, Sari

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a multi-faceted theory of "ideal high school student" traits. The trait system, as defined by several theories, is a translation of the teachers' belief system into educational objectives. The study focused on Bloom's taxonomies and the structural validity of its principles, using Similarity Structure Analysis. Aware of the…

  14. A Multifaceted Program To Improve Self-Esteem and Social Skills while Reducing Anxiety in Emotionally Handicapped Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Lynn

    A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…

  15. Dissociation of Cognitive and Emotional Empathy in Adults with Asperger Syndrome Using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziobek, Isabel; Rogers, Kimberley; Fleck, Stefan; Bahnemann, Markus; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Wolf, Oliver T.; Convit, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct consisting of cognitive (inferring mental states) and emotional (empathic concern) components. Despite a paucity of research, individuals on the autism spectrum are generally believed to lack empathy. In the current study we used a new, photo-based measure, the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), to assess…

  16. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  17. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  18. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  19. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  20. Effects of Mixing on the Aggressive Behavior of Commercially Housed Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Shin-Jae; Son, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Hong, Joon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mixing on the aggressive behavior of commercially housed pigs. The behavioral patterns of 36 groups of pigs (a total of 360 animals) were observed over 3 consecutive days directly after weaning (25±1.2 days of age), and 25 and 50 days later with the aid of video technology. Fight latency and total duration and frequency of fighting were significantly different among the age groups. The aggressive behaviors decreased in 75-day old pigs if compared to 25- and 50-day old animals. Moreover, dominance index (DI) was higher in 25-day old and lower in 75-day old pigs. A comparison of dominant (DI>0) and submissive (DI<0) pigs showed significant differences (p<0.05) for major aggressive behaviors in all age groups. Dominant pigs were involved in more aggressive interactions, had longer fights, and initiated more fights than submissive pigs. Post-mixing aggressive behavior was altered by previous experience of mixing. Aggressive behavior and DI are suitable methods for analyzing the effects of mixing on commercially housed growing pigs. PMID:26104410

  1. Effects of Mixing on the Aggressive Behavior of Commercially Housed Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Shin-Jae; Son, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Hong, Joon-Ki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mixing on the aggressive behavior of commercially housed pigs. The behavioral patterns of 36 groups of pigs (a total of 360 animals) were observed over 3 consecutive days directly after weaning (25±1.2 days of age), and 25 and 50 days later with the aid of video technology. Fight latency and total duration and frequency of fighting were significantly different among the age groups. The aggressive behaviors decreased in 75-day old pigs if compared to 25- and 50-day old animals. Moreover, dominance index (DI) was higher in 25-day old and lower in 75-day old pigs. A comparison of dominant (DI>0) and submissive (DI<0) pigs showed significant differences (p<0.05) for major aggressive behaviors in all age groups. Dominant pigs were involved in more aggressive interactions, had longer fights, and initiated more fights than submissive pigs. Post-mixing aggressive behavior was altered by previous experience of mixing. Aggressive behavior and DI are suitable methods for analyzing the effects of mixing on commercially housed growing pigs. PMID:26104410

  2. Learning to See Differently: Viewing Technology Diffusion in Teacher Education through the Lens of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei; Patterson, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    While the discussion on the topic of technology diffusion in teacher education primarily centers on course design, program development, and faculty technology training, this article explores technology diffusion from the perspective of organizational change. Technology diffusion in teacher education is a multi-faceted task and, therefore, requires…

  3. Levels of Aggression among Turkish Adolescents and Factors Leading to Aggression.

    PubMed

    Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434

  4. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression. PMID:15203299

  5. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954

  6. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  7. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  8. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  9. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  10. [Zinc metabolism--a factor in canine aggression?].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Behne, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of zinc-deficiency as a factor in canine aggression, we examined sera of dangerously aggressive dogs and of behaviourally normal (non-aggressive) dogs for their zinc-contents. The results showed distinctly higher zinc-concentrations (mean +/- SD) in aggressive dogs (1.69 +/- 0.49 micrograms/ml) than in normal non aggressive dogs (0.76 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml). PMID:12894678

  11. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  12. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  13. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. PMID:26158924

  14. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions. PMID:16600064

  15. On Young People's Experience of Systems in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Maria; Zetterqvist, Ann; Ingerman, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Immersed in a technologically complex world, young people make sense of a multi-faceted set of events in everyday life. This article investigates the variation in how Swedish young people experience technological systems and is based on interviews focusing three systems concerning transport, energy and communication--contextualised in relation to…

  16. MEVA - An Interactive Visualization Application for Validation of Multifaceted Meteorological Data with Multiple 3D Devices

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Carolin; Bilke, Lars; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Böttinger, Michael; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve more realistic simulations, meteorologists develop and use models with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. The analyzing, comparing, and visualizing of resulting simulations becomes more and more challenging due to the growing amounts and multifaceted character of the data. Various data sources, numerous variables and multiple simulations lead to a complex database. Although a variety of software exists suited for the visualization of meteorological data, none of them fulfills all of the typical domain-specific requirements: support for quasi-standard data formats and different grid types, standard visualization techniques for scalar and vector data, visualization of the context (e.g., topography) and other static data, support for multiple presentation devices used in modern sciences (e.g., virtual reality), a user-friendly interface, and suitability for cooperative work. Methods and Results Instead of attempting to develop yet another new visualization system to fulfill all possible needs in this application domain, our approach is to provide a flexible workflow that combines different existing state-of-the-art visualization software components in order to hide the complexity of 3D data visualization tools from the end user. To complete the workflow and to enable the domain scientists to interactively visualize their data without advanced skills in 3D visualization systems, we developed a lightweight custom visualization application (MEVA - multifaceted environmental data visualization application) that supports the most relevant visualization and interaction techniques and can be easily deployed. Specifically, our workflow combines a variety of different data abstraction methods provided by a state-of-the-art 3D visualization application with the interaction and presentation features of a computer-games engine. Our customized application includes solutions for the analysis of multirun data, specifically with respect to data

  17. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

  18. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-01-01

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression. PMID:24113579

  19. The socializing effect of classroom aggression on the development of aggression and social rejection: A two-wave multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, Helena; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's physical and relational aggression and their social rejection status. Multi-level analyses revealed that the classroom level of relational aggression moderated the link between individual relational aggression at T1 and T2 (b=-0.18, 95% CI [-0.32, -0.05], p<.01) and the link between T1 relational aggression and T2 social rejection (b=-0.12, 95% CI [-0.23, -0.003], p<.01). Being in a classroom where relational aggression was prevalent increased relational aggression among children with a low level of relational aggression at T1. Furthermore, a high individual level of relational aggression predicted greater social rejection in classrooms with a low level of relational aggression. Children were mainly influenced by their same-gender peers. Boys as a group had a greater influence than girls on their peers of either gender in the domain of relational aggression, whereas girls as a group had a greater influence in the domain of physical aggression. The contributions of analyzing cross-level interaction to understanding the developmental patterns of aggression and social rejection in middle childhood are discussed. PMID:27586070

  20. A framework for treating partner aggressive women.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Lynn; Leisring, Penny A

    2008-01-01

    Women are increasingly referred to intervention programs to address their use of physical violence against intimate partners. This article reviews the scant treatment outcome and attrition literature for partner aggressive women and describes important characteristics of partner aggressive women that must be taken into consideration in designing treatment. Recommended treatment modules are described in detail and include skill-building to enhance safety planning, conflict management, emotional regulation, communication and negotiation, and stress management. Additional modules should be included for some women based on individualized needs. These may include parenting skills and education and referral for treatment of conditions that undermine emotional stability, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, substance abuse, and mood disorders. Treatment structure is outlined and pragmatic issues regarding the implementation of treatment are discussed. Interventions for partner aggressive woman must be designed to address women's victimization experiences as well as their perpetration. PMID:18624093

  1. [Self aggressive-behaviours in prison].

    PubMed

    Ammar, Malek M; Borras, L; Eytan, A

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among prisoners is a relatively well documented public health issue. On the other hand, data about self-aggressive behaviours in prisons are scarce, despite the fact that this problem seems to be highly prevalent. We conducted a retrospective study over a fifteen months period in a remand prison situated in the French speaking area of Switzerland. During this time period, 161 self-aggressive behaviours were recorded, corresponding to 80 inmates. The most frequent acts were self-cuttings and self-mutilations, followed by strangulations. All these patients were male and their mean age was 25. Some of these behaviours (ingesting cutting objects and sewing of the lips) were specific to some ethno-cultural groups. Copycat behaviours play a significant role in closed communities such as prisons. These results underline the necessity of taking into account self-aggressive behaviours in penitentiary institutions. PMID:19024369

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  3. Aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within five typologies.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-03-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the individual and those around them. Hence, greater consideration regarding intervention, management, person-centred strategies and prevalence and frequency rates are required in service provision for individuals with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour. This review presents the context of aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within the five typologies of aggressive behaviour: verbal aggression, aggression against others, sexually inappropriate behaviour, self-injurious behaviour and aggression against property, as identified by Crocker et al. (2007). The focus of this review is to report on the prevalence of aggressive behaviour reported for individuals with intellectual disability and consider the ambiguity in defining aggressive behaviour. PMID:24189373

  4. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility. PMID:26427235

  5. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  6. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  7. Mechanisms differentiating normal from abnormal aggression: glucocorticoids and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Haller, Jozsef; Mikics, Eva; Halász, József; Tóth, Máthé

    2005-12-01

    Psychopathology-associated human aggression types are induced by a variety of conditions, are behaviorally variable, and show a differential pharmacological responsiveness. Thus, there are several types of abnormal human aggression. This diversity was not reflected by conventional laboratory approaches that focused on the quantitative aspects of aggressive behavior. Recently, several laboratory models of abnormal aggression were proposed, which mainly model hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness (characteristic to intermittent explosive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, chronic burnout, etc.) and hypoarousal-driven aggressiveness (characteristic mainly to antisocial personality disorder and its childhood antecedent conduct disorder). Findings obtained with these models suggest that hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness has at its roots an excessive acute glucocorticoid stress response (and probably an exaggerated response of other stress-related systems), whereas chronic hypoarousal-associated aggressiveness is due to glucocorticoid deficits that affect brain function on the long term. In hypoarousal-driven aggressiveness, serotonergic neurotransmission appears to lose its impact on aggression (which it has in normal aggression), certain prefrontal neurons are weakly activated, whereas the central amygdala (no, or weakly involved in the control of normal aggression) acquires important roles. We suggest that the specific study of abnormal aspects of aggressive behavior would lead to important developments in understanding the specific mechanisms underlying different forms of aggression, and may ultimately lead to the development of better treatment approaches. PMID:16280125

  8. Callous-Unemotional Traits, Proactive Aggression, and Treatment Outcomes of Aggressive Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blader, Joseph C.; Pliszka, Steven R.; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A.; Crowell, Judith A.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Sauder, Colin; Margulies, David M.; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L.; Bailey, Brigitte Y.; Daviss, W. Burleson

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to their aggressive behavior. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study’s objective was to determine if pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. Method We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 6- to 13-year-olds (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% males) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. Primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. Results 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio=0.94, 95% CI=0.80–1.11; proactive aggression, odds ratio=1.05, 95% CI=0.86–1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size=−0.379, 95% CI=−0.60 to −0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size=−0.463, 95% CI=−0.69 to −0.23). Conclusions Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  9. Resolving the multifaceted mechanisms of the ferric chloride thrombosis model using an interdisciplinary microfluidic approach

    PubMed Central

    Ciciliano, Jordan C.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Myers, David R.; Fay, Meredith E.; Hechler, Beatrice; Meeks, Shannon; Li, Renhao; Dixon, J. Brandon; Lyon, L. Andrew; Gachet, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the widely used in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl3) thrombosis model remains poorly understood; although endothelial cell denudation is historically cited, a recent study refutes this and implicates a role for erythrocytes. Given the complexity of the in vivo environment, an in vitro reductionist approach is required to systematically isolate and analyze the biochemical, mass transfer, and biological phenomena that govern the system. To this end, we designed an “endothelial-ized” microfluidic device to introduce controlled FeCl3 concentrations to the molecular and cellular components of blood and vasculature. FeCl3 induces aggregation of all plasma proteins and blood cells, independent of endothelial cells, by colloidal chemistry principles: initial aggregation is due to binding of negatively charged blood components to positively charged iron, independent of biological receptor/ligand interactions. Full occlusion of the microchannel proceeds by conventional pathways, and can be attenuated by antithrombotic agents and loss-of-function proteins (as in IL4-R/Iba mice). As elevated FeCl3 concentrations overcome protective effects, the overlap between charge-based aggregation and clotting is a function of mass transfer. Our physiologically relevant in vitro system allows us to discern the multifaceted mechanism of FeCl3-induced thrombosis, thereby reconciling literature findings and cautioning researchers in using the FeCl3 model. PMID:25931587

  10. Resolving the multifaceted mechanisms of the ferric chloride thrombosis model using an interdisciplinary microfluidic approach.

    PubMed

    Ciciliano, Jordan C; Sakurai, Yumiko; Myers, David R; Fay, Meredith E; Hechler, Beatrice; Meeks, Shannon; Li, Renhao; Dixon, J Brandon; Lyon, L Andrew; Gachet, Christian; Lam, Wilbur A

    2015-08-01

    The mechanism of action of the widely used in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl3) thrombosis model remains poorly understood; although endothelial cell denudation is historically cited, a recent study refutes this and implicates a role for erythrocytes. Given the complexity of the in vivo environment, an in vitro reductionist approach is required to systematically isolate and analyze the biochemical, mass transfer, and biological phenomena that govern the system. To this end, we designed an "endothelial-ized" microfluidic device to introduce controlled FeCl3 concentrations to the molecular and cellular components of blood and vasculature. FeCl3 induces aggregation of all plasma proteins and blood cells, independent of endothelial cells, by colloidal chemistry principles: initial aggregation is due to binding of negatively charged blood components to positively charged iron, independent of biological receptor/ligand interactions. Full occlusion of the microchannel proceeds by conventional pathways, and can be attenuated by antithrombotic agents and loss-of-function proteins (as in IL4-R/Iba mice). As elevated FeCl3 concentrations overcome protective effects, the overlap between charge-based aggregation and clotting is a function of mass transfer. Our physiologically relevant in vitro system allows us to discern the multifaceted mechanism of FeCl3-induced thrombosis, thereby reconciling literature findings and cautioning researchers in using the FeCl3 model. PMID:25931587

  11. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  12. Treatment of bipolar disorder: a complex treatment for a multi-faceted disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Vieta, Eduard; Siamouli, Melina; Valenti, Marc; Magiria, Stamatia; Oral, Timucin; Fresno, David; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Kaprinis, George S

    2007-01-01

    Background Manic-depression or bipolar disorder (BD) is a multi-faceted illness with an inevitably complex treatment. Methods This article summarizes the current status of our knowledge and practice of its treatment. Results It is widely accepted that lithium is moderately useful during all phases of bipolar illness and it might possess a specific effectiveness on suicidal prevention. Both first and second generation antipsychotics are widely used and the FDA has approved olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of acute mania. These could also be useful in the treatment of bipolar depression, but only limited data exists so far to support the use of quetiapine monotherapy or the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Some, but not all, anticonvulsants possess a broad spectrum of effectiveness, including mixed dysphoric and rapid-cycling forms. Lamotrigine may be effective in the treatment of depression but not mania. Antidepressant use is controversial. Guidelines suggest their cautious use in combination with an antimanic agent, because they are supposed to induce switching to mania or hypomania, mixed episodes and rapid cycling. Conclusion The first-line psychosocial intervention in BD is psychoeducation, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other treatment options include Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a gap between the evidence base, which comes mostly from monotherapy trials, and clinical practice, where complex treatment regimens are the rule. PMID:17925035

  13. Hypertension in the ED: a multifaceted intervention to change provider practice.

    PubMed

    Bohan, Juliane; Fullerton, Lynne; Oakland, Barbara; Oldewage, Jill

    2011-09-01

    This project measured the effect of a multifaceted intervention on health care provider identification and treatment of undiagnosed hypertensive patients. The intervention comprised provider education, audit, and feedback. The primary outcomes were pre-/postintervention differences in the proportion of patients presenting with elevated blood pressure who were (1) identified, (2) given blood pressure measurements, (3) counseled regarding behavior change, (4) prescribed medications, and (5) advised of the need for follow-up. These 5 behaviors were selected based on the recommendations in the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Rates of all 5 outcomes improved significantly after the intervention, with prevalence differences ranging from 5% to 25%. However, despite increases, rates for each behavior remained low. At no point during the study were all 5 practitioner behaviors documented for an individual patient. In conclusion, while an intervention composed of education and practitioner audit and feedback improved practitioner behaviors in treating patients with elevated blood pressure, additional interventions are needed to bring practitioner behaviors up to the level of JACHO standards. PMID:20685061

  14. "Getting the lead out" in Hartford, Connecticut: a multifaceted lead-poisoning awareness campaign.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Tara J; Humphries, Owen; Nguyen, Tung; Maljanian, Rose; McCormack, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As part of a citywide effort to increase lead poisoning awareness within the city of Hartford, Connecticut, the Hartford Health Department implemented a multifaceted public health campaign involving several novel elements and partnerships, including the use of municipal sanitation trucks to disseminate lead-poisoning prevention messages throughout the city. To evaluate campaign reach and effectiveness, Health Department personnel collected measures of lead-poisoning knowledge, recall of campaign components, and reports of steps taken to prevent lead poisoning from 180 largely ethnic minority parents of preschool-age children. Key results were as follows: a) Recall of campaign components ranged from 21.5 to 62.6%, with newspaper advertisements and signs on buses and billboards recalled most often and a video broadcast on public-access television recalled least often. b) More than 45% of respondents reported that they took steps to prevent lead poisoning because of at least one of the campaign components, with the newspaper advertisements being the most effective component in terms of prompting lead-poisoning prevention behavior. c) Respondents' awareness was particularly low in terms of how medical personnel and procedures can and cannot detect and prevent lead poisoning in children. This campaign prompted caregivers to take steps to prevent lead poisoning and may help public health professionals in other communities to develop novel ideas through which to embark on similar initiatives. PMID:14698922

  15. Developing the OORCC: A Multifaceted Astronomical Research and Outreach Facility at the University of Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Teiler J.; Bullis, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Annika; Fisher, Robert Scott

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) owns and operates Pine Mountain Observatory (PMO), located in central Oregon on the summit of Pine Mountain at an elevation of 1980 meters. PMO consists of four telescopes ranging in size from 0.35 - 0.8 meters. The Oregon Observatory Remote Control Center (OORCC) is a remote-observing center within the Department of Physics on the UO campus (~140 miles from the observatory) that has a direct connection to PMO through a dedicated fiber-optic cable. With this facility, we will enable UO undergraduate student researchers, UO faculty, and the non-scientific community to fully control and operate a newly installed robotic telescope on the summit of Pine Mountain from Eugene, or any other authorized site in Oregon. In addition to providing undergraduates with instrumentation and engineering experience, we will implement research by photometrically monitoring bright and variable astronomical sources including main belt comets, Herbig Ae/Be stars, and active galactic nuclei in extragalactic systems. The primary objective with the OORCC is to manage a multifaceted astronomy and astrophysics research facility, extending as a state-wide resource for K-12 STEM activities and public outreach programs. With the OORCC, we intend to bring unique and enriching astronomy exposure to many different groups of people throughout the state of Oregon.

  16. Outcomes of a Multi-faceted Educational Intervention to Increase Student Scholarship

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Melissa; Slack, Marion; Warholak, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To increase the percentage of state, national, or international student presentations and publications. Design. A multi-faceted intervention to increase student scholarly output was developed that included: (1) a 120-minute lecture on publication of quality improvement or independent study research findings; (2) abstract workshops; (3) poster workshops; and (4) a reminder at an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) meeting encouraging students to publish or present posters. The intervention effect was measured as the percent of students who presented at meetings and the number of student projects published. Assessment. A significant increase occurred in the percent of students who presented posters or published manuscripts after the intervention (64% vs 81%). Total student productivity increased from 84 to 147 posters, publications, and presentations. The number of projects presented or published increased from 50 to 77 in one year. Conclusion. This high-impact, low-cost intervention increased scholarly output and may help students stand out in a competitive job market. PMID:26430267

  17. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, and Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mrazek, Michael D; Mooneyham, Benjamin W; Mrazek, Kaita L; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed. PMID:27047361

  18. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention to Promote Sleep in an ICU

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Biren B.; Yang, Jessica; King, Lauren M.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Brower, Roy G.; Collop, Nancy A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients commonly experience poor sleep quality in the intensive care unit (ICU) because of various modifiable factors. To address this issue, an ICU-wide, multifaceted quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to promote sleep in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU (MICU). To supplement previously published results of this QI intervention, the present article describes the specific QI framework used to develop and implement this intervention, which consists of 4 steps: (a) summarizing the evidence to create a list of sleep-promoting interventions, (b) identifying and addressing local barriers to implementation, (c) selecting performance measures to assess intervention adherence and patient outcomes, and (d) ensuring that all patients receive the interventions through staff engagement and education and regular project evaluation. Measures of performance included daily completion rates of daytime and nighttime sleep improvement checklists and completion rates of individual interventions. Although long-term adherence and sustainability pose ongoing challenges, this model provides a foundation for future ICU sleep promotion initiatives. PMID:24270169

  19. Optimization of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy: Role of Multifaceted Cooperation in the Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Onder, Graziano

    2016-03-01

    Because older patients are more vulnerable to adverse drug-related events, there is a need to ensure appropriate pharmacotherapy in these patients. This narrative review describes approaches to improve pharmacotherapy in older people in the hospital setting. Screening to identify older patients at risk of drug-related problems and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is the first critical step within a multistep approach to geriatric pharmacotherapy. Two methods that have been developed are the GerontoNet ADR risk score and the Brighton Adverse Drug Reactions Risk (BADRI) model, which take into account a number of factors, the most important of which is the number of medicines. In order to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing in older patients, different types of interventions exist, such as pharmacist-led medication reviews, educational interventions, computerized decision support systems, and comprehensive geriatric assessment. The effects of these interventions have been studied, sometimes in a multifaceted approach, by combining different techniques. None of the existing interventions shows a clear beneficial effect on patients' health outcomes if applied in isolation; however, when these interventions are combined within the context of a multidisciplinary team, positive effects on patients' health outcomes can be expected. Appropriate geriatric pharmacotherapy, global assessment of patients' clinical and functional parameters, and integration of skills from different healthcare professionals are needed to address medical complexity of older adults. PMID:26884392

  20. The Multifaceted Clinical Readouts of Platelet Inhibition by Low-Dose Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Inactivation of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 by low-dose aspirin leads to long-lasting suppression of thromboxane (TX) A2 production and TXA2-mediated platelet activation and aggregation. This effect is necessary and sufficient to explain aspirin's unique (among other COX-1 inhibitors) effectiveness in preventing atherothrombosis, as well as its shared (with other antiplatelet agents) bleeding liability. However, different mechanisms of action have been suggested to explain other beneficial effects of aspirin, such as prevention of venous thromboembolism, chemoprevention of colorectal (and other) cancers, and reduced risk of dementia. These mechanisms include acetylation of other proteins in blood coagulation, inhibition of COX-2 activity, and other COX-independent mechanisms. The intent of this review is to develop the concept that the multifaceted therapeutic effects of low-dose aspirin may reflect pleiotropic consequences of platelet inhibition on pathophysiological tissue repair processes. Furthermore, the clinical implications of this concept will be discussed in terms of current clinical practice and future research. PMID:26139061

  1. Outcomes of a Multi-faceted Educational Intervention to Increase Student Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Janet; Nelson, Melissa; Slack, Marion; Warholak, Terri

    2015-08-25

    Objective. To increase the percentage of state, national, or international student presentations and publications. Design. A multi-faceted intervention to increase student scholarly output was developed that included: (1) a 120-minute lecture on publication of quality improvement or independent study research findings; (2) abstract workshops; (3) poster workshops; and (4) a reminder at an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) meeting encouraging students to publish or present posters. The intervention effect was measured as the percent of students who presented at meetings and the number of student projects published. Assessment. A significant increase occurred in the percent of students who presented posters or published manuscripts after the intervention (64% vs 81%). Total student productivity increased from 84 to 147 posters, publications, and presentations. The number of projects presented or published increased from 50 to 77 in one year. Conclusion. This high-impact, low-cost intervention increased scholarly output and may help students stand out in a competitive job market. PMID:26430267

  2. Multi-faceted Rasch measurement and bias patterns in EFL writing performance assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Gou, Wen Johnny; Chien, Ya-Chen; Chen, I-Shan Jenny; Chang, Shan-Mao

    2013-04-01

    This study applied multi-faceted Rasch measurement to examine rater bias in the assessment of essays written by college students learning English as a foreign language. Four raters who had received different academic training from four distinctive disciplines applied a six-category rating scale to analytically rate essays on an argumentative topic and on a descriptive topic. FACETS, a Rasch computer program, was utilized to pinpoint bias patterns by analyzing the rater-topic, rater-category, and topic-category interactions. Results showed: argumentative essays were rated more severely than were descriptive essays; the linguistics-major rater was the most lenient rater, while the literature-major rater was the severest one; and the category of language use received the severest ratings, whereas content was given the most lenient ratings. The severity hierarchies for raters, essay topics, and rating categories suggested that raters' academic training and their perceptions of the importance of categories were associated with their bias patterns. Implications for rater training are discussed. PMID:23833876

  3. The Multifaceted Roles of STAT3 Signaling in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jennifer L.; Thaper, Daksh; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 governs essential functions of epithelial and hematopoietic cells that are often dysregulated in cancer. While the role for STAT3 in promoting the progression of many solid and hematopoietic malignancies is well established, this review will focus on the importance of STAT3 in prostate cancer progression to the incurable metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Indeed, STAT3 integrates different signaling pathways involved in the reactivation of androgen receptor pathway, stem like cells and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition that drive progression to mCRPC. As equally important, STAT3 regulates interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment as well as immune cell activation. This makes it a major factor in facilitating prostate cancer escape from detection of the immune response, promoting an immunosuppressive environment that allows growth and metastasis. Based on the multifaceted nature of STAT3 signaling in the progression to mCRPC, the promise of STAT3 as a therapeutic target to prevent prostate cancer progression and the variety of STAT3 inhibitors used in cancer therapies is discussed. PMID:24722453

  4. Pushing the Limits: Cognitive, Affective, and Neural Plasticity Revealed by an Intensive Multifaceted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mrazek, Michael D.; Mooneyham, Benjamin W.; Mrazek, Kaita L.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific understanding of how much the adult brain can be shaped by experience requires examination of how multiple influences combine to elicit cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity. Using an intensive multifaceted intervention, we discovered that substantial and enduring improvements can occur in parallel across multiple cognitive and neuroimaging measures in healthy young adults. The intervention elicited substantial improvements in physical health, working memory, standardized test performance, mood, self-esteem, self-efficacy, mindfulness, and life satisfaction. Improvements in mindfulness were associated with increased degree centrality of the insula, greater functional connectivity between insula and somatosensory cortex, and reduced functional connectivity between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and somatosensory cortex. Improvements in working memory and reading comprehension were associated with increased degree centrality of a region within the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) that was extensively and predominately integrated with the executive control network. The scope and magnitude of the observed improvements represent the most extensive demonstration to date of the considerable human capacity for change. These findings point to higher limits for rapid and concurrent cognitive, affective, and neural plasticity than is widely assumed. PMID:27047361

  5. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. PMID:26603475

  6. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  7. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  8. The effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children.

    PubMed

    Day, R C; Ghandour, M

    1984-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. The sample consisted of 48 boys and 48 girls of Lebanese origin who were students in an elementary school in Beirut, Lebanon. After controlling for pre-experimental aggression, the subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: human-film aggression, cartoon-film aggression, neutral film, or real-life (act of war) aggression. The results indicated that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression after viewing both violent film and real-life violence. Girls were not more violent after viewing filmed aggression but were affected by the real-life violence. Comparisons of Bandura's work within the Lebanese culture are made. PMID:6470621

  9. Modeling general and specific variance in multifaceted constructs: a comparison of the bifactor model to other approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang Fang; Hayes, Adele; Carver, Charles S; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Zugui

    2012-02-01

    This article recommends an alternative method for testing multifaceted constructs. Researchers often have to choose between two problematic approaches for analyzing multifaceted constructs: the total score approach and the individual score approach. Both approaches can result in conceptual ambiguity. The proposed bifactor model assesses simultaneously the general construct shared by the facets and the specific facets, over and above the general construct. We illustrate the bifactor model by examining the construct of Extraversion as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992), with two college samples (N = 383 and 378). The analysis reveals that the facets of the NEO-PI-R Extraversion correlate with criteria in opposite directions after partialling out the general construct. The direction of gender differences also varies by facets. Bifactor models combine the advantages but avoid the drawbacks of the 2 existing methods and can lead to greater conceptual clarity. PMID:22092195

  10. Small Spacecraft Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shope, R.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace designers are aggressively pursuing new ideas in advanced technology for smaller spacecraft. NASA's 'faster, better, cheaper' philosophy is the driving force to accomplish higher level scientific exploration more efficiently. More memory and higher performance is packed into computer hardware that takes up a fraction of the space of earlier generation spacecraft. Current technology is described.

  11. Evaluating Social Skills of Sexual Aggressives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Outlines the current means of assessing various social skills and applying skills training treatments to sexual aggressives. A major finding was that treatment in one skills area does not generalize into other skills areas; that is, each skills deficit must be resolved by individual treatment. (Author)

  12. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  13. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  14. Identifying and Intervening in Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or…

  15. Digital Aggression: Cyberworld Meets School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm and affects students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, in which displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional strategies (e.g., text messaging, online Web logs, video sharing). As a…

  16. Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

  17. PROGRAMED EXCHANGES AND THE CONTROL OF AGGRESSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, DESMOND P.; HAMBLIN, ROBERT L.

    SYSTEMS OF EXCHANGE - USING THE EXTINCTION, DISTRACTION, AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS SYSTEMS - WERE IMPLEMENTED TO DECREASE AGGRESSION AND PROMOTE COOPERATION AND SCHOLARLY BEHAVIOR, THREE SYSTEMS WERE TESTED USING EXCHANGE THEORY AS A GUIDE. THE SUBJECTS WERE FIVE 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD BOYS DIAGNOSED AS HYPERAGGRESSIVE. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS INCLUDED…

  18. Evaluations of Physical Aggression in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana; Johnson, Patti

    The occurrence of physical aggression in marriage is quite high. On the basis of frequency of occurrence among the general population, a distinction has been made between ordinary violence (frequent slapping, pushing) and severe violence (less frequent use of hitting with objects or use of lethal weapons). This study was conducted to examine how…

  19. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  20. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  1. Controlling Aggressive Students. Fastback Series, No. 387.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blendinger, Jack; And Others

    Coping with aggressive student behavior is crucial to providing a safe and orderly classroom and school environment. Approaches for improving student behavior, ranging from enhancing a student's interpersonal skills to restraint techniques (such as the prudent use of physical force) are covered in this booklet. The material blends information in…

  2. BENEFITS OF AGGRESSIVE ACCELEROMETRY DATA COLLECTION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine whether the completeness of accelerometer data obtained from elementary and high school students is enhanced when an aggressive data collection approach is employed. Methods: Participants were 149 elementary school (9.9+/-0.4 yrs) and 153 high school (17.7+/-0.4 yrs) students. ...

  3. Fantasy and Reality in Mark Twain's Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Robert R.

    Psychoanalysis, a favorite method for studying personality and motivation, cannot be used on the dead. Instead, biographical analysis must be employed. This study examines Mark Twain's aggression by analyzing his writings, social behavior, and environmental aspects of his life. In viewing Mark Twain's novels as representing fantasy, 17 categories…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  5. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  6. Parental Deprivation and the Development of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, G.

    The research on parental deprivation done at the Wisconsin primate laboratories and related laboratories is summarized. Social isolation and certain other social conditions were observed in their effects on aggressive behavior. Isolate-reared rhesus monkeys show more abnormality in postures and movements than do socially reared monkeys from…

  7. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  8. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  9. Teacher and Peer Perceptions of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britsch, Brenda; And Others

    This study investigated neighborhood differences in perceptions of aggressive behavior from teachers and students' peers. Predominantly African American students (n=764) in grades 3 through 5 from 2 urban public schools (29 classrooms) in southern California participated in this study. The neighborhoods surrounding the schools differ substantially…

  10. Psychological Skill Training and the Aggressive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…

  11. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  12. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956

  13. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides: a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive-behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of -0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.19 to -0.38), LBP intensity of -0.4 (95% CI, -0.60 to -0.26), and bothersomeness days of -0.5 (95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population. PMID:25993549

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education. PMID:19953190

  15. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

  16. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024

  17. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  18. Behavioral differences in aggressive children linked with neural mechanisms of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marc D; Granic, Isabela; Lamm, Connie

    2006-12-01

    Children with aggressive behavior problems may have difficulties regulating negative emotions, resulting in harmful patterns of interpersonal behavior at home and in the schoolyard. Ventral and dorsal regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been associated with response inhibition and self-control-key components of emotion regulation. Our research program aims to explore differences among aggressive and normal children in the activation of these cortical regions during emotional episodes, to the extent possible using electrophysiological techniques, to identify diagnostic subtypes, gain insights into their interpersonal difficulties, and help develop effective treatment strategies. This report reviews several recent studies investigating individual and developmental differences in cortical mechanisms of emotion regulation, corresponding with different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Our methods include event-related potentials (ERPs) and cortical source modeling, using dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) technology, as well as videotaped observations of parent-child interactions, with both normal and aggressive children. By relating patterns of brain activation to observed behavioral differences, we find (i) a steady decrease in cortical activation subserving self-regulation across childhood and adolescence, (ii) different cortical activation patterns as well as behavioral constellations distinguishing subtypes of aggressive children, and (iii) robust correlations between the activation of cortical mediators of emotion regulation and flexibility in parent-child emotional communication in children referred for aggressive behavior problems. These findings point toward models of developmental psychopathology based on the interplay among biological, psychological, and social factors. PMID:17347349

  19. Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk predict perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-05-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date. PMID:23242509

  20. The Effect of Online Violent Video Games on Levels of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143

  1. Dead certain: confidence and conservatism predict aggression in simulated international crisis decision-making.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dominic D P; McDermott, Rose; Cowden, Jon; Tingley, Dustin

    2012-03-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that confidence and conservatism promoted aggression in our ancestral past, and that this may have been an adaptive strategy given the prevailing costs and benefits of conflict. However, in modern environments, where the costs and benefits of conflict can be very different owing to the involvement of mass armies, sophisticated technology, and remote leadership, evolved tendencies toward high levels of confidence and conservatism may continue to be a contributory cause of aggression despite leading to greater costs and fewer benefits. The purpose of this paper is to test whether confidence and conservatism are indeed associated with greater levels of aggression-in an explicitly political domain. We present the results of an experiment examining people's levels of aggression in response to hypothetical international crises (a hostage crisis, a counter-insurgency campaign, and a coup). Levels of aggression (which range from concession to negotiation to military attack) were significantly predicted by subjects' (1) confidence that their chosen policy would succeed, (2) score on a liberal-conservative scale, (3) political party affiliation, and (4) preference for the use of military force in real-world U.S. policy toward Iraq and Iran. We discuss the possible adaptive and maladaptive implications of confidence and conservatism for the prospects of war and peace in the modern world. PMID:22450767

  2. Managing Complex Environmental Remediation amidst Aggressive Facility Revitalization Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Richter Pack, S.

    2008-07-01

    Unlike the final closure projects at Rocky Flats and Fernald, many of the Department of Energy's future CERCLA and RCRA closure challenges will take place at active facilities, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) central campus. ORNL has aggressive growth plans for a Research Technology Park and cleanup must address and integrate D and D, soil and groundwater remediation, and on-going and future business plans for the Park. Different planning and tracking tools are needed to support closures at active facilities. To support some large Airport redevelopment efforts, we created tools that allowed the Airline lease-holder to perform environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and new building construction, which in turn allowed them to migrate real estate from unusable to usable within an aggressive schedule. In summary: The FIM and OpenGate{sup TM} spatial analysis system were two primary tools developed to support simultaneous environmental remediation, D and D, and construction efforts at an operating facility. These tools helped redevelopers to deal with environmental remediation on the same schedule as building D and D and construction, thereby meeting their goals of opening gates, restarting their revenue streams, at the same time complying with all environmental regulations. (authors)

  3. Synthesis of aligned symmetrical multifaceted monolayer hexagonal boron nitride single crystals on resolidified copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Roland Yingjie; Park, Hyo Ju; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Tan, Dunlin; Tsang, Siu Hon; Li, Hongling; Liu, Wenwen; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Lee, Zonghoon; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    Atomically smooth hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films are considered as a nearly ideal dielectric interface for two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure devices. Reported mono- to few-layer 2D h-BN films, however, are mostly small grain-sized, polycrystalline and randomly oriented. Here we report the growth of centimetre-sized atomically thin h-BN films composed of aligned domains on resolidified Cu. The films consist of monolayer single crystalline triangular and hexagonal domains with size of up to ~10 μm. The domains converge to symmetrical multifaceted shapes such as ``butterfly'' and ``6-apex-star'' and exhibit ~75% grain alignment for over millimetre distances as verified through transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that these domains are aligned for over centimetre distances. Defect lines are generated along the grain boundaries of mirroring h-BN domains due to the two different polarities (BN and NB) and edges with the same termination. The observed triangular domains with truncated edges and alternatively hexagonal domains are in accordance with Wulff shapes that have minimum edge energy. This work provides an extensive study on the aligned growth of h-BN single crystals over large distances and highlights the obstacles that are needed to be overcome for a 2D material with a binary configuration.Atomically smooth hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films are considered as a nearly ideal dielectric interface for two-dimensional (2D) heterostructure devices. Reported mono- to few-layer 2D h-BN films, however, are mostly small grain-sized, polycrystalline and randomly oriented. Here we report the growth of centimetre-sized atomically thin h-BN films composed of aligned domains on resolidified Cu. The films consist of monolayer single crystalline triangular and hexagonal domains with size of up to ~10 μm. The domains converge to symmetrical multifaceted shapes such as ``butterfly'' and ``6-apex-star'' and exhibit ~75% grain

  4. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  5. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  6. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  7. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more risk, ... comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may be best to ...

  8. Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Certain Fatty Foods Be Linked to Aggressive Prostate Cancer? Study also suggests that cholesterol-lowering ... fatty beef and cheese was linked with more aggressive prostate cancer, the researchers found. A diet high ...

  9. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  10. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  11. Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Low Vitamin D Levels May Signal More Aggressive Prostate Cancer But men should not expect supplements ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Prostate cancer may be more aggressive in men who are deficient in vitamin D, ...

  12. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  13. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158851.html More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from ... SPRINT trial tested that approach against a more aggressive one, aiming to get patients of all ages ...

  14. Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159415.html Extensive Surgery Best for an Aggressive Brain Cancer: Study Although larger procedure carries more ... News) -- When it comes to battling a particularly aggressive form of brain tumor, more extensive surgeries may ...

  15. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  16. Assessment of multifaceted environmental issues and model development of an Indo-Burma hotspot region.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present article provides a multifaceted critical research review on environmental issues intimately related with the socio-economy of North East India (NE), a part of Indo-Burma hotspot. Further, the article addresses the issue of sustainable development of NE India through diverse ecological practices inextricably linked with traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). The biodiversity of NE India comprises endemic floral diversity, particularly medicinal plants of importance to pharmaceutical industry, and unique faunal diversity. Nevertheless, it is very unfortunate that this great land of biodiversity is least explored taxonomically as well as biotechnologically, probably due to geographical and political constraints. Different anthropogenic and socio-economic factors have perturbed the pristine ecology of this region, leading to environmental degradation. Also, the practice of unregulated shifting cultivation (jhooming), bamboo flowering, biological invasions and anthropogenic perturbations to biodiversity exacerbate the gloomy situation. Instead of a plethora of policies, the TEK of NE people may be integrated with modern scientific knowledge in order to conserve the environment which is the strong pillar for socio-economic sector here. The aforesaid approach can be practiced in NE India through the broad implementation and extension of agroforestry practices. Further, case studies on Apatanis, ethnomedicinal plants use by indigenous tribal groups and sacred forests are particularly relevant in the context of conservation of environmental health in totality while addressing the socioeconomic impact as well. In context with the prevailing scenarios in this region, we developed an eco-sustainable model for natural resource management through agroforestry practices in order to uplift the social as well as environmental framework. PMID:21374044

  17. Multifaceted Defense against Antagonistic Microbes in Developing Offspring of the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials

  18. Effect of a Multi-Faceted Intervention on Gingival Health Among Adults with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Hon K.; Weng, Yanqiu; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Reed, Susan G.; Leite, Renata S.; Silver, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of adaptive oral hygiene devices and orofacial exercise to improve gingival health among adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS Forty-eight patients with SSc were assigned randomly to the multi-faceted oral health intervention or usual dental care control group. Participants in the intervention group received a rechargeable, powered Oral-B® oscillating-rotating-pulsating toothbrush and a Reach® Access™ Flosser that has a toothbrush-like handle. For those with an oral aperture of less than 40 mm, orofacial exercises were taught. Participants in the control group were each given a manual toothbrush and dental floss. Participants in both groups received instructions and demonstration on the use of the devices, and were requested to perform the respective intervention twice a day for 6 months. Evaluations were at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. The main outcome was gingival index (GI), an indicator of gingival inflammation. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in GI scores at 6 months (Ps<0.005). Reduction in GI scores of the intervention group at 6 months was 20.8% which is considered to be clinically significant. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant and larger reduction in GI score by 8% at 6 months (P=0.0007). CONCLUSION Results support the use of adaptive devices and orofacial exercise to improve gingival health in adults with SSc when compared to use of manual toothbrushing and finger-held flossing. Recommending and educating patients with SSc to use adaptive devices to clean the tooth surfaces looks promising for long-term oral health improvement. PMID:21586215

  19. "We grandmothers know plenty": breastfeeding, complementary feeding and the multifaceted role of grandmothers in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Dakishoni, Laifolo; Shumba, Lizzie; Msachi, Rodgers; Chirwa, Marko

    2008-03-01

    This paper has two purposes: first of all, we examine grandmothers' role and views of child feeding practices in northern Malawi, and their influence on younger women's practices. Secondly, we consider the implications of these findings for health promotion activities and models of health education. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews, focus groups and a participatory workshop. Findings demonstrate that, to address child feeding practices which have an effect on nutrition, attention must be paid to the broader context that influences child nutrition, including extended family relations. Paternal grandmothers have a powerful and multifaceted role within the extended family in northern Malawi, both in terms of childcare and in other arenas such as agricultural practices and marital relations. Grandmothers often differ in their ideas about early child feeding from conventional Western medicine. Some practices have existed in the area at least since colonial times, and have strong cultural significance. Despite the important integrated role, older women have within households and communities in this part of Malawi, hospital personnel often have disparaging and paternalistic attitudes towards 'grannies' and their knowledge. Health education rarely involves grandmothers, and even if they are involved, their perspectives are not taken into consideration. Hospital staff often reject grandmother knowledge as part of a broader modernization paradigm which views 'traditional knowledge' as backward. Grandmothers view current child health conditions within a broader context of changing livelihood conditions and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The paper concludes by discussing the challenges of involving grandmothers in health education, and the difficulties of incorporating local knowledge into a medical system that largely rejects it. PMID:18155334

  20. The Multifaceted Origin of Taurine Cattle Reflected by the Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Malusà, Arianna; Pala, Maria; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Liotta, Luigi; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius) is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3) of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3%) that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R) which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare) taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved. PMID:19484124

  1. Multifaceted defense against antagonistic microbes in developing offspring of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa (Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katharina; Parzefall, Christopher; Herzner, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Effective antimicrobial strategies are essential adaptations of insects to protect themselves, their offspring, and their foods from microbial pathogens and decomposers. Larvae of the emerald cockroach wasp, Ampulex compressa, sanitize their cockroach hosts, Periplaneta americana, with a cocktail of nine antimicrobials comprising mainly (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. The blend of these antimicrobials has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here we explore the spatio-temporal pattern of deployment of antimicrobials during the development from egg to adult as well as their physico-chemical properties to assess how these aspects may contribute to the success of the antimicrobial strategy. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we show that larvae start sanitizing their food as soon as they have entered their host to feed on its tissue. Subsequently, they impregnate the cockroach carcass with antimicrobials to create a hygienic substrate for cocoon spinning inside the host. Finally, the antimicrobials are incorporated into the cocoon. The antimicrobial profiles on cockroach and wasp cocoon differed markedly. While micromolide persisted on the cockroaches until emergence of the wasps, solid-phase microextraction sampling and GC/MS analysis revealed that (R)-(-)-mellein vaporized from the cockroaches and accumulated in the enclosed nest. In microbial challenge assays (R)-(-)-mellein in the headspace of parasitized cockroaches inhibited growth of entomopathogenic and opportunistic microbes (Serratia marcescens, Aspergillus sydowii, Metarhizium brunneum). We conclude that, in addition to food sanitation, A. compressa larvae enclose themselves in two defensive walls by impregnating the cocoon and the cockroach cuticle with antimicrobials. On top of that, they use vaporous (R)-(-)-mellein to sanitize the nest by fumigation. This multifaceted antimicrobial defense strategy involving the spatially and temporally coordinated deployment of several antimicrobials

  2. A multifaceted strategy for implementation of the Ottawa ankle rules in two emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robyn; Shakib, Sepehr; Hughes, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Problem Despite widespread acceptance of the Ottawa ankle rules for assessment of acute ankle injuries, their application varies considerably. Design Before and after study. Background and setting Emergency departments of a tertiary teaching hospital and a community hospital in Australia. Key measures for improvement Documentation of the Ottawa ankle rules, proportion of patients referred for radiography, proportion of radiographs showing a fracture. Strategies for change Education, a problem specific radiography request form, reminders, audit and feedback, and using radiographers as “gatekeepers.” Effects of change Documentation of the Ottawa ankle rules improved from 57.5% to 94.7% at the tertiary hospital, and 51.6% to 80.8% at the community hospital (P<0.001 for both). The proportion of patients undergoing radiography fell from 95.8% to 87.2% at the tertiary hospital, and from 91.4% to 78.9% at the community hospital (P<0.001 for both). The proportion of radiographs showing a fracture increased from 20.4% to 27.1% at the tertiary hospital (P=0.069), and 15.2% to 27.2% (P=0.002) at the community hospital. The missed fracture rate increased from 0% to 2.9% at the tertiary hospital and from 0% to 1.6% at the community hospital compared with baseline (P=0.783 and P=0.747). Lessons learnt Assessment of case note documentation has limitations. Clinician groups seem to differ in their capacity and willingness to change their practice. A multifaceted change strategy including a problem specific radiography request form can improve the selection of patients for radiography. PMID:19675080

  3. Factor structures for aggression and victimization among women who used aggression against male partners.

    PubMed

    Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Van Horn, M Lee; Snow, David L; Sullivan, Tami P

    2012-09-01

    Theories and measures of women's aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women's aggression by examining how well three widely used measures (i.e., the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), the Sexual Experiences Survey [SES], and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory [PMWI]) perform in assessing women's perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men. These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women's perpetration differs from that of women's victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women's physical and psychological aggression but performed poorly in assessing women's sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence (IPV) may apply well to women's victimization but not as well to their perpetration of violence. PMID:23012348

  4. Do You Have to be Angry to be Aggressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wienir, Paul L.

    Seven hypotheses regarding the role of anger for aggressive behavior were testes in an experimental exchange situation using male children as subjects. In previous studies, anger had not actually been employed as the intervening variable in a provocation/aggressive cue-aggression model. The results indicate a strong relationship between…

  5. Females' Reasons for Their Physical Aggression in Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettrich, Emma L.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 32% of dating college females reported that they engaged in physical aggression against their partners and that they engaged in acts of physical aggression more often than their male partners engaged in aggression against them. However, the females also reported that their male partners attempted to force them to engage in oral sex…

  6. 10 CFR 15.20 - Aggressive agency collection activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive agency collection activity. 15.20 Section 15.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.20 Aggressive agency collection activity. (a) The NRC shall take aggressive action to collect...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggressive collection action; documentation... Activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.406 Aggressive collection action; documentation. (a) NASA shall take aggressive action, on a timely basis with effective...

  8. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  9. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…

  10. The Early Socialization of Aggressive Victims of Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Studied early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied during middle childhood. Found that aggressive victims had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than others. Nonvictimized aggressors had greater exposure to adult aggression, but not victimization, than the normative group,…

  11. Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

  12. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  13. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  14. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  15. Shared Targets for Aggression by Early Adolescent Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2006-01-01

    Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …

  16. Interaction Patterns in Families of Normal and Aggressive Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Deborah E.

    The interpersonal conditions which may maintain a child's aggression in the family were investigated by observing immediate, ongoing interactions in families of normal and aggressive adolescent sons. Normal-son families (N=6) and aggressive-son families (N=6) were videotaped engaging in a 50-minute discussion of questionnaire items designed to…

  17. Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only. PMID:21440304

  18. The Development of Sex Differences in Aggression: A Revised Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet S.; Schuck, John R.

    In response to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) conclusion that sex differences in aggression must be biological in origin, we suggest alternative social-learning mechanisms to explain the differences. These mechanisms include: (1) punishment for aggression increases aggression in boys, particularly because boys do not identify with the punisher; (2)…

  19. The Validity of Physical Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…

  20. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  1. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  2. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  3. Integrating Field and Laboratory Investigations of Televised Violence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    Longitudinal and intervention laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of viewing televised violence on the aggressive behavior of elementary school children. In the longitudinal study 505 children were studied over a 3-year period. The measures used included peer nominated aggression, aggression anxiety and popularity,…

  4. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  5. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  6. Effects of Attack and Uncontrollable Noise on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    1978-01-01

    The past decade has been marked by mounting public concern over noise as a source of environmental pollution. Simultaneously, research has shown that noise is also a potent cause of physiological stress. This research relates noise to aggression concluding that noise facilitates aggression in subjects who have been instigated to aggress to the…

  7. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  8. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  9. Exploring Parental Aggression toward Teachers in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, David C.; Johnson, Jerry; Chen, Yanfen; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ricketts, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school…

  10. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  11. Behavior Genetics of Aggression in Children: Review and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLalla, Lisabeth Fisher

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a thorough understanding of factors that influence aggression in children cannot be achieved without including behavior genetic studies that allow examination of the effects of shared versus non-shared environment, as well as genes, on aggressive behaviors. Details the growing body of evidence on the genetic effects on aggression.…

  12. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  13. An Investigation of Turkish Preservice Teachers' Aggression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…

  14. Partner Aggression among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-to-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms. PMID:18554825

  15. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  16. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  17. Identifying and intervening in relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D

    2004-08-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or name calling, as well as psychological attacks such as gossip, social exclusion, and strategic friendship manipulations. A girl's ability to identify these indirect attacks may be imperative for her to enact an effective defense. Because many students do not recognize relational aggression as a form of bullying, their experiences often go unreported to parents or teachers. School nurses may be the front line of defense. With this in mind, school nurses must be informed about bullying behaviors, equipped to identify these behaviors, and prepared to intervene with victims as well as perpetrators of bullying. PMID:15283614

  18. Relational Aggression and Middle School Girls: Why They Participate and What Meaning They Make of This Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression seems to invoke more emotional and academic difficulties for girls in middle school than any other age group. In this research, the author describes the different types of aggression often used by middle school girls in their social relationships. The author sought to find out why girls participate in relational aggression,…

  19. Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

  20. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  1. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. PMID:23606625

  2. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  3. Aggressive events in adolescent dating violence.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pamela; Risko, Judy; Heckman, Terri; Sheehan, Denice; Perkins, Shannon; Washington, Kalisha; Cook, Christina; Ferguson, Candice

    2010-09-01

    This purpose of this paper is to present a typology of common aggressive events that occur in the context of adolescent dating violence. The typology is based on 42 transcripts of interviews with young adults, ages 18 to 21, who described dating violence they had experienced when adolescents (ages 13-18). One-hundred and eighty-four text units that contained a description of an event involving aggression or violence between the participant and a dating partner were extracted from the transcripts. Cross-case analysis was used to create categories of events that shared similar characteristics. The analysis yielded eight types of aggressive events: (a) tumultuous, (b) explosive, (c) scuffling, (d) violating, (e) threatening, (f) controlling, (g) disparaging, and (h) rejecting, ignoring, or disrespecting. The typology can provide a foundation for further research on adolescent dating violence from a situational perspective and can be used as a tool to promote discussion of dating violence with victimized or at-risk youth. PMID:20701423

  4. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  5. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  6. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  7. Assessment of mental health literacy using a multifaceted measure among a Chinese rural population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Xi-guang; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population. Setting Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China. Participants This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18–60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18–60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=−0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38–2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=−0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=−0.07, p<0.05). Conclusions MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated. PMID:26438139

  8. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with

  9. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  10. Further evidence for the validity of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) as a measure of direct physical aggression. Hypotheses were generated from recent theory pertinent to the categorization and measurement of aggressive behavior as well as widely supported effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on aggression. Participants were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age who completed self-report personality inventories designed to assess one's propensity toward direct physical aggression, verbal aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on the TAP, in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Direct physical aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities (i.e., first trial shock intensity, mean shock intensity, proportion of highest shock) administered to the fictitious opponent. Although all self-report measures were significantly associated with the three TAP indices, the associations involving physical aggression were strongest. In addition, self-report measures of physical aggression consistently predicted higher levels of aggression on the TAP indices in men, compared with women, and in intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. Taken as a whole, this pattern of findings provides further evidence for the validity of the TAP as a measure of direct physical aggression for men and women. PMID:17894385

  11. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. PMID:22486899

  12. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  13. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  14. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-05-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  15. Interpersonal aggression victimization within casual sexual relationships and experiences.

    PubMed

    Klipfel, Katherine M; Claxton, Shannon E; van Dulmen, Manfred H M

    2014-02-01

    The frequent occurrence of aggression within committed romantic relationships is well documented. However, little is known about experiences of interpersonal aggression within casual sexual relationships and experiences. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression victimization within committed romantic relationships, casual dating relationships, friends-with-benefit relationships, booty-calls, and one-night stands. College students (N = 172) provided data regarding the lifetime occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression across different forms of casual sexual relationships and experiences (friends-with-benefits, booty-call, casual dating, one-night stands, committed relationships). Emotional, physical, and sexual subtypes of aggression were reported across all casual sexual relationships and experiences. While a higher percentage of individuals who had been involved in committed relationships reported experiencing at least one form of aggression (approximately 69%), prevalence of at least one form of aggression ranged from approximately 31% to 36% for the various casual sexual relationships/experiences. Across relationships/experiences, emotional and sexual aggression were more common than physical aggression. The findings from this study indicate that emotional, physical, and sexual aggression occur across types of relationships and experiences. Thus, the current study underscores the importance of considering casual dating, friends-with-benefits, booty-calls, and one-night stands when assessing interpersonal aggression. PMID:24176987

  16. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  17. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067

  18. Aggressiveness and size: a model and two tests.

    PubMed

    Logue, David M; Takahashi, April D; Cade, William H

    2011-02-01

    Individual variation in aggressive behavior in animals might be caused by adaptive covariation with body size. We developed a model that predicts the benefits of aggressiveness as a function of body size. The model indicated that individuals of intermediate sizes would derive the greatest benefits from being aggressive. If we assume that the cost of aggression is approximately uniform with respect to body size, selection should favor higher aggression in intermediate-sized individuals than in large or small individuals. This prediction was tested by stimulating male Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa, with disembodied antennae and recording the males' aggressive responses. Antennae from larger males evoked weaker responses in subjects, suggesting that males obtained information about their opponents' size from the opponents' antennae alone. After accounting for this effect, we found support for the key prediction of our model: aggressiveness peaked at intermediate sizes. Data from actual male-male interactions validated that the antenna assay accurately measured aggressiveness. Analysis of an independent data set generated by staging male-male interactions also supported the prediction that intermediate-sized males were most aggressive. We conclude that adaptive covariation between body size and aggressiveness explains some interindividual variation in aggressiveness. PMID:21460556

  19. Reactive aggression among children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Miia; Puura, Kaija; Helminen, Mika; Salmelin, Raili; Pelkonen, Erja; Juujärvi, Petri

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-seven boys and eight girls with ASD and thirty-five controls matched for gender, age and total score intelligence were studied to ascertain whether boys and girls with ASD display stronger reactive aggression than boys and girls without ASD. Participants performed a computerized version of the Pulkkinen aggression machine that examines the intensity of reactive aggression against attackers of varying gender and age. Relative to the control group boys, the boys with ASD reacted with more serious forms of aggression when subjected to mild aggressive attacks and did not consider a child attacker's opposite sex an inhibitory factor. The girls with ASD, on the other hand, reacted less aggressively than the girls without ASD. According to the results boys with ASD may not follow the typical development in cognitive regulation of reactive aggression. PMID:23263769

  20. Multivariate models of mothers' and fathers' aggression toward their children.

    PubMed

    Smith Slep, Amy M; O'Leary, Susan G

    2007-10-01

    Multivariate, biopsychosocial, explanatory models of mothers' and fathers' psychological and physical aggression toward their 3- to 7-year-old children were fitted and cross-validated in 453 representatively sampled families. Models explaining mothers' and fathers' aggression were substantially similar. Surprisingly, many variables identified as risk factors in the parental aggression and physical child abuse literatures, such as income, unrealistic expectations, and alcohol problems, although correlated with aggression bivariately, did not contribute uniquely to the models. In contrast, a small number of variables (i.e., child responsible attributions, overreactive discipline style, anger expression, and attitudes approving of aggression) appeared to be important pathways to parent aggression, mediating the effects of more distal risk factors. Models accounted for a moderate proportion of the variance in aggression. PMID:17907856

  1. Shared targets for aggression by early adolescent friends.

    PubMed

    Card, Noel A; Hodges, Ernest V E

    2006-11-01

    Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends were found to share more targets for aggression than nonfriends, even after general levels of aggression were controlled (all ps < .05). Moreover, greater sharing of targets with friends relative to nonfriends was more pronounced among aggressive youths than nonaggressive youths, especially among aggressive youths' best friends relative to their other friends. Generally, these findings were similar across boys and girls as well as among older and younger youths. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17087564

  2. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  3. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  4. Do aggressive people play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming; Mou, Yi

    2008-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates whether individual difference influences idiosyncratic experience of game playing. In particular, we examine the relationship between the game player's physical-aggressive personality and the aggressiveness of the player's game playing in violence-oriented video games. Screen video stream of 40 individual participants' game playing was captured and content analyzed. Participants' physical aggression was measured before the game play. The results suggest that people with more physical-aggressive personality engage in a more aggressive style of playing, after controlling the differences of gender and previous gaming experience. Implications of these findings and direction for future studies are discussed. PMID:18422407

  5. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides: a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive–behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of −0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], −1.19 to −0.38), LBP intensity of −0.4 (95% CI, −0.60 to −0.26), and bothersomeness days of −0.5 (95% CI, −0.85 to −0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population. PMID:25993549

  6. No Straight Line: Wrinkling Binaries in Literacy and Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammack, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This article challenges some accepted binaries in literacy and technology research in order to explore the complex, multifaceted nature of literacy practices using a hypertextual multimedia study environment (MSE). Binary distinctions like literacy/illiteracy or online/offline are "wrinkled" or complicated by introducing findings from an…

  7. Performing aggressive code optimization with an ability to rollback changes made by the aggressive optimizations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-07-23

    Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.

  8. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression. PMID:26085494

  9. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  10. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents. PMID:19011243

  11. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855

  12. The Expression of Genetic Risk for Aggressive and Non-aggressive Antisocial Behavior is Moderated by Peer Group Norms.

    PubMed

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes. PMID:25990672

  13. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    PubMed

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms. PMID:26615980

  14. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework: Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for studying affective aggression, integrating many insights from previous models, is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperature and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is presented. Hostile cognition was assessed using automatic priming tasks (i.e., Stroop interference). Hostile affect was…

  15. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  16. The Relevance of Aggression and the Aggression of Relevance: The Rise of the Accreditation Marketing Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how language functions to construct relevance at moments of articulation and how language functions as an aggressive marketing practice to promote a self-regulated (production-oriented) system of accreditation. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the political theory of Laclau and Lacanian…

  17. Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children during early grade school.

    PubMed

    Ladd, G W; Burgess, K B

    1999-01-01

    The premises examined in this longitudinal investigation were that specific behavioral characteristics place children at risk for relationship maladjustment in school environments, and that multiple behavioral risks predispose children to the most severe and prolonged difficulties. Aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children were compared to normative and matched control groups on teacher and peer relationship attributes, loneliness, and social satisfaction from kindergarten (M age = 5 years, 7 months; n = 250) through grade 2 (M age = 8.1; n = 242). Children's withdrawn behavior was neither highly stable nor predictive of relational difficulties, as their trajectories resembled the norm except for initially less close and more dependent relationships with teachers. Aggressive behavior was fairly stable, and associated with early-emerging, sustained difficulties including low peer acceptance and conflictual teacher-child relationships. Aggressive/withdrawn children evidenced the most difficulty: compared to children in the normative group, they were consistently more lonely, dissatisfied, friendless, disliked, victimized, and likely to have maladaptive teacher-child relationships. Findings are discussed with respect to recent developments in two prominent literatures: children at-risk and early relationship development. PMID:10446726

  18. The Attention Skills and Academic Performance of Aggressive/Rejected and Low Aggressive/Popular Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Petaja, Holly; Mancil, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aggressive/rejected children are at risk for continuing conduct and school problems. Some limited research indicates that these children have attention problems. Previous research has linked attention problems with academic performance. The current study investigated group differences in attention skills and the role of these…

  19. Variation and Transgression of Aggressiveness Among Two Gibberella Zeae Crosses Developed from Highly Aggressive Parental Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is the most common cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Aggressiveness is the most important fungal trait affecting disease severity and stability of host resistance. Objectives were to analyze in two field exper...

  20. The mainstreaming of verbally aggressive online political behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cicchirillo, Vincent; Hmielowski, Jay; Hutchens, Myiah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between verbal aggression and uncivil media attention on political flaming. More specifically, this paper examines whether the use of uncivil media programming is associated with the perceived acceptability and intention to engage in aggressive online discussions (i.e., online political flaming) and whether this relationship varies by verbal aggression. The results show that individuals less inclined to engage in aggressive communication tactics (i.e., low in verbal aggression) become more accepting of flaming and show greater intention to flame as their attention to uncivil media increases. By contrast, those with comparatively higher levels of verbal aggression show a decrease in acceptance and intention to flame as their attention to these same media increases. PMID:25965860

  1. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, A.J.; Kalb, L.; Mazurek, M.O.; Kanne, S.M.; Freedman, B.; Vasa, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD. PMID:27239223

  2. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  3. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  4. Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

    1996-03-01

    Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288

  5. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed. PMID:11432607

  6. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:22080583

  7. Technology solutions for wind integration in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-03

    Texas has for more than a decade led all other states in the U.S. with the most wind generation capacity on the U.S. electric grid. The State recognized the value that wind energy could provide, and committed early on to build out the transmission system necessary to move power from the windy regions in West Texas to the major population centers across the state. It also signaled support for renewables on the grid by adopting an aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The joining of these conditions with favorable Federal tax credits has driven the rapid growth in Texas wind capacity since its small beginning in 2000. In addition to the major transmission grid upgrades, there have been a number of technology and policy improvements that have kept the grid reliable while adding more and more intermittent wind generation. Technology advancements such as better wind forecasting and deployment of a nodal market system have improved the grid efficiency of wind. Successful large scale wind integration into the electric grid, however, continues to pose challenges. The continuing rapid growth in wind energy calls for a number of technology additions that will be needed to reliably accommodate an expected 65% increase in future wind resources. The Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) recognized this technology challenge in 2009 when it submitted an application for funding of a regional demonstration project under the Recovery Act program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy1. Under that program the administration announced the largest energy grid modernization investment in U.S. history, making available some $3.4 billion in grants to fund development of a broad range of technologies for a more efficient and reliable electric system, including the growth of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. At that time, Texas was (and still is) the nation’s leader in the integration of wind into the grid, and was investing heavily

  8. TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR WIND INTEGRATION IN ERCOT

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-03

    Texas has for more than a decade led all other states in the U.S. with the most wind generation capacity on the U.S. electric grid. The State recognized the value that wind energy could provide, and committed early on to build out the transmission system necessary to move power from the windy regions in West Texas to the major population centers across the state. It also signaled support for renewables on the grid by adopting an aggressive renewable portfolio standard (RPS). The joining of these conditions with favorable Federal tax credits has driven the rapid growth in Texas wind capacity since its small beginning in 2000. In addition to the major transmission grid upgrades, there have been a number of technology and policy improvements that have kept the grid reliable while adding more and more intermittent wind generation. Technology advancements such as better wind forecasting and deployment of a nodal market system have improved the grid efficiency of wind. Successful large scale wind integration into the electric grid, however, continues to pose challenges. The continuing rapid growth in wind energy calls for a number of technology additions that will be needed to reliably accommodate an expected 65% increase in future wind resources. The Center for the Commercialization of Electric Technologies (CCET) recognized this technology challenge in 2009 when it submitted an application for funding of a regional demonstration project under the Recovery Act program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy1. Under that program the administration announced the largest energy grid modernization investment in U.S. history, making available some $3.4 billion in grants to fund development of a broad range of technologies for a more efficient and reliable electric system, including the growth of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. At that time, Texas was (and still is) the nation’s leader in the integration of wind into the grid, and was investing heavily

  9. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

  10. Depressive Illness and Aggression in Belfast

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    An inverse relation has been suggested between the incidence of depressive illness and the opportunity to externalize aggressive behaviour. The riot situation in Belfast in 1969-70 provided an opportunity to study this hypothesis. The incidences of depressive illness in the city and a neighbouring peaceful rural county were compared over a number of years. Data regarding age, sex, area of the city, and type of depression were obtained. The city was divided into areas and four of these were studied in detail. Similar data were obtained for persons showing aggressive behaviour. There was a significant decrease in depressive illness in Belfast in both sexes and all age groups. This was more pronounced in males but the decrease was confined to those in social groups IV and V. The decrease was more significant in riot areas. The suicide rate fell by almost 50% and there was a noticeable increase in the rates of homicide and crimes of violence. In contrast the rural county showed a sharp increase in male depressives. PMID:5008660

  11. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  12. Coping with the aggressive patient: an alternative to punishment.

    PubMed

    Matheson, W; Mian, M; MacLeod, J

    1976-01-01

    Extremely aggressive patients in mental institutions constitute a threat to staff and other patients that usually necessitates the use of physical restraints. With chronically aggressive patients this cycle of behaviors is defeating for both the staff and the patient. In this case history the authors describe how positive and negative reinforcement and shaping were used to alter the previously unmanageable aggression of a 36-year-old male psychiatric patient. PMID:1277115

  13. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  14. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects. PMID:25599665

  15. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  16. Single serotonergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz; Bülow, Torsten; Pankratz, Michael J; Kravitz, Edward A

    2014-11-17

    Monoamine serotonin (5HT) has been linked to aggression for many years across species. However, elaboration of the neurochemical pathways that govern aggression has proven difficult because monoaminergic neurons also regulate other behaviors. There are approximately 100 serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila nervous system, and they influence sleep, circadian rhythms, memory, and courtship. In the Drosophila model of aggression, the acute shut down of the entire serotonergic system yields flies that fight less, whereas induced activation of 5HT neurons promotes aggression. Using intersectional genetics, we restricted the population of 5HT neurons that can be reproducibly manipulated to identify those that modulate aggression. Although similar approaches were used recently to find aggression-modulating dopaminergic and Fru(M)-positive peptidergic neurons, the downstream anatomical targets of the neurons that make up aggression-controlling circuits remain poorly understood. Here, we identified a symmetrical pair of serotonergic PLP neurons that are necessary for the proper escalation of aggression. Silencing these neurons reduced aggression in male flies, and activating them increased aggression in male flies. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) analyses suggest that 5HT-PLP neurons form contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain. Activation of these 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, in turn, caused reductions in aggression. Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. PMID:25447998

  17. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  18. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. PMID:23501053

  19. Clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Kathpal, Archana; Demer, James

    2016-08-01

    Use of Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has grown more significantly in recent years. Clozapine has shown good results for the treatment of aggression in adult population but no case has been reported about the use of clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents. We present cases of 2 adolescents in which clozapine was used primarily to treat their aggressive behavior and suicidal ideation. PMID:27520908

  20. Effects of oxytocin on aggressive responding in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy; Lane, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of oxytocin (OT) on human aggression using a well-established laboratory measure of state (reactive) aggression to test the hypothesis that OT would decrease the frequency of aggressive responding. In a within-subject design, 17 healthy male volunteers received placebo or 24 IU of intranasal OT. Aggression was measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm at 30 min before and 30, 60, and 90 min after dose. Acute OT did not produce a significant main effect on aggressive behavior. OT attenuated the expected rise in diastolic blood pressure from morning to early afternoon observed under placebo, providing a possible indication of biological activity. Examination of individual differences showed that aggressive responding following OT dosing (but not placebo) was positively correlated with psychometric measures of interpersonal manipulation and anger (Pearson's r=0.57), indicating that higher scores on these antisocial personality traits were related to increased aggressive behavior following OT administration. These preliminary results stand in contrast to previous work on the prosocial effects of OT and highlight the need for further understanding of individual differences in aggression following OT administration. Such individual differences may have implications for the therapeutic use of OT in individuals with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctional social behavior. PMID:26241153

  1. Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression. PMID:21396441

  2. Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-02-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games predicted automatic aggressive self-concept, above and beyond self-reported aggression. Results suggest that playing violent video games can lead to the automatic learning of aggressive self-views. PMID:15013259

  3. Unprovoked aggression: effects of psychopathic traits and sadism.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Seibert, L Alana

    2011-02-01

    Psychopathic individuals engage in the most violent and cold-blooded acts of aggression. In the laboratory, psychopathy traits have been linked to the commission of unprovoked aggression. The purpose of this study was to assess affective motives that may underlie the relationship between psychopathy and unprovoked aggression. One hundred thirty-seven men viewed a series of photographs depicting violent imagery, completed a lexical decision task designed to assess state affect, and competed in a laboratory-based aggression paradigm. Results indicated that participants who responded faster to happiness words after viewing violent imagery (i.e., sadistic) were significantly more likely to engage in unprovoked aggression. Additionally, Factor 1 psychopathy (emotional detachment) predicted increased probability of unprovoked aggression; however, this relationship was not mediated by sadism. Rather, Factor 1 and sadism each independently predicted unprovoked aggression. The implications of the present data suggest that the type of violence evinced may inform the risk for perpetration of future acts. That is, the individual who demonstrates unprovoked violence may be more likely to employ aggressive tactics across situational contexts than the individual who demonstrates only impulsive acts of hostile/reactive aggression. PMID:21223265

  4. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Morgan, Theodore J; Mackay, Trudy F. C

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression. The realized heritability of aggressive behavior was approximately 0.10, and the phenotypic response to selection specifically affected aggression. We used whole-genome expression analysis to identify 1,539 probe sets with different expression levels between the selection lines when pooled across replicates, at a false discovery rate of 0.001. We quantified the aggressive behavior of 19 mutations in candidate genes that were generated in a common co-isogenic background, and identified 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex traits. PMID:17044737

  5. Political skill: A proactive inhibitor of workplace aggression exposure and an active buffer of the aggression-strain relationship.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yang, Liu-Qin; Spector, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    In the current study we examined the role of 4 dimensions of political skill (social astuteness, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity) in predicting subsequent workplace aggression exposure based on the proactive coping framework. Further, we investigated their buffering effects on the negative outcomes of experienced workplace aggression based on the transactional stress model. Data were collected from nurses at 3 time points: before graduation (Time 1, n = 346), approximately 6 months after graduation (Time 2, n = 214), and approximately 12 months after graduation (Time 3, n = 161). Results showed that Time 1 interpersonal influence and apparent sincerity predicted subsequent physical aggression exposure. Exposure to physical and/or psychological workplace aggression was related to increased anger and musculoskeletal injury, and decreased job satisfaction and career commitment. Further, all dimensions of political skill but networking ability buffered some negative effects of physical aggression, and all dimensions but social astuteness buffered some negative effects of psychological aggression. PMID:25798720

  6. Does the relationship between depression and intimate partner aggression vary by gender, victim-perpetrator role, and aggression severity?

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Wells, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a consistent link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression, although this association may vary by gender, role in IPV (victim, perpetrator, or bidirectional), and aggression severity. We evaluated these factors in a telephone survey of 14,063 Canadians. All three factors were found to affect the association of depression with IPV. Specifically, depression was more strongly associated with IPV by a partner (i.e., victimization) for women but with aggression toward a partner (i.e., perpetration) for men. Severity of aggression was associated with increased risk of depression for both one-sided and bidirectional aggression by a partner but more strongly for one-sided aggression toward a partner. These findings suggest that research, prevention, and treatment should focus on all roles in IPV, not just male-to-female aggression. PMID:23155723

  7. Exposure to "low-level" aggression in school: associations with aggressive behavior, future expectations, and perceived safety.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Edwards-Leeper, Laura; Goldstein, Sara E; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Dubow, Eric F

    2003-12-01

    Examined associations with witnessing and being victimized by "low-level" aggressive acts (e.g., pushing, gossip) and three indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 771 elementary school students from one urban and one suburban school district. Results indicated that exposure to low-level aggression appears to relate to psychosocial functioning in ways similar to more severe forms of aggression. Students who were exposed to higher levels of both witnessing and victimization by low-level aggression reported the highest levels of engagement in aggression, the lowest levels of positive expectations for the future, and the lowest levels of perceived safety. Findings are discussed in the context of research on exposure to aggression in general, with suggestions offered for future studies. Implications of the findings for school-based intervention programs are raised. PMID:15109121

  8. "Just how graphic are graphic novels?" An examination of aggression portrayals in manga and associations with aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138

  9. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:16902237

  10. Tryptophan via serotonin/kynurenine pathways abnormalities in a large cohort of aggressive inmates: markers for aggression.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Bertazzo, Antonella; Vachon, Jeanne; Daigle, Marc; Toupin, Jean; Côté, Gilles; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    Aggressive behavior is one of the most challenging symptoms in psychiatry, and biological markers for aggression lack of large sample validations. Serotonin (5-HT) and other neuroactive compounds deriving from Tryptophan (Trp), including kynurenine (Kyn), have not yet been investigated in large cohorts of aggressive individuals to validate their potential as biomarkers of aggression. In 361 male inmates we measured serum levels of Trp, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HT, Kyn, the ratios 5-HT/Trp∗1000 and Kyn/Trp∗1000, and performed Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I and -II Disorders (SCID-I and -II), global assessment of functioning (GAF), and scales for aggressive behavior, impulsivity, adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intelligent quotient (IQ). Aggressive compared to non-aggressive inmates exhibited lower Trp and Kyn serum levels but higher levels of 5-HT and 5-HT/Trp∗1000, higher levels of impulsivity and ADHD indices, lower IQ and GAF, higher prevalence of mood disorders, drug abuse/dependence, and borderline, conduct and antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, Kyn/Trp∗1000 was positively correlated to the number of severe aggressive acts (r=0.593, P<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that 5-HT/Trp∗1000, antisocial behavior, and GAF were predictors of aggressive behavior. The model combining these three predictors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.851 (95% CI 0.806-0.895). This study indicates that while circulating Trp is reduced in aggressive individuals, the combination of biological (5-HT/Trp ratio) and psychopathological (antisocial behavior and GAF) markers discriminates between aggressive and non-aggressive behavior suggesting the potential of a multi-marker approach in psychiatry given the heterogenic nature of mental diseases. PMID:27117820

  11. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  12. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  13. Single serotonergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Chan, Yick-Bun; de la Paz Fernandez, Maria; Bülow, Torsten; Pankratz, Michael J.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Monoamine serotonin (5HT) has been linked to aggression for many years across species [1–3]. However, elaboration of the neurochemical pathways that govern aggression has proven difficult because monoaminergic neurons also regulate other behaviors [4, 5]. There are about 100 serotonergic neurons in the Drosophila nervous system and they influence sleep [6], circadian rhythms [7], memory [8, 9] and courtship [10]. In the Drosophila model of aggression [11] the acute shut down of the entire serotonergic system yields flies that fight less, while induced activation of 5HT neurons promotes aggression [12]. Using intersectional genetics we restricted the population of 5HT neurons that can be reproducibly manipulated to identify those that modulate aggression. Although similar approaches were used recently to find aggression-modulating dopaminergic [13] and FruM –positive peptidergic [14] neurons, the downstream anatomical targets of the neurons that make up aggression-controlling circuits remain poorly understood. Here we identified a symmetrical pair of serotonergic PLP neurons that are necessary for the proper escalation of aggression. Silencing these neurons reduced, and activating them increased aggression in male flies. GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) [15] analyses suggests that 5HT-PLP neurons form contacts with 5HT1A receptor - expressing neurons in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain. Activation of these 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, in turn, caused reductions in aggression. Our studies, therefore, suggest that aggression may be held in check, at least in part, by inhibitory input from 5HT1A receptor-bearing neurons, which can be released by activation of the 5HT-PLP neurons. PMID:25447998

  14. Flow rate measurement in aggressive conductive fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.

  15. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours—linalool and 2-phenylethanol—have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  16. Sexual aggression toward women: reducing the prevalence.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Gwendolyn L; Cherneski, Lindsay

    2006-11-01

    Date rape or acquaintance rape is far more common than rape by strangers and can lead to serious health and adjustment problems for girls and women. Research has found women and men to be similar in many of their views about sexual assault. However, studies on attribution of blame have highlighted differences in the ways in which men and women attribute blame in sexual assault. Men attribute less blame to perpetrators of sexual assault than do women, regardless of whether the perpetrator is female or male. This suggests that men identify with the power associated with the role of perpetrator. Ways of reducing the prevalence of men's sexual aggressiveness toward women are addressed. PMID:17189496

  17. Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma.

    PubMed

    Görgün, Ömer; Salduz, Ahmet; Kebudi, Rejin; Özger, Harzem; Bilgiç, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation. PMID:27499324

  18. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  19. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  20. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in