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Sample records for aggressive multifaceted technology

  1. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer-dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for first grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three second grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to third grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840

  2. The Multifaceted Impact of Peer Relations on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…

  3. Patients' perspectives of a multifaceted intervention with a focus on technology: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lambert-Kerzner, Anne; Havranek, Edward P; Plomondon, Mary E; Albright, Karen; Moore, Ashley; Gryniewicz, Kelsey; Magid, David; Ho, P Michael

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of multifaceted interventions from the study participants' perspective. We conducted qualitative interviews to understand patients' experiences with a multifaceted blood pressure (BP) control intervention involving interactive voice response technology, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-led BP management. In the randomized study, the intervention resulted in clinically significant decreases in BP. We used insights generated from in-depth interviews from all study participants randomly assigned to the multifaceted intervention or usual care (n=146) to create a model explaining the observed improvements in health behavior and clinical outcomes. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods and consultative and reflexive team analysis. Six explanatory factors emerged from the patients' interviews: (1) improved relationships with medical personnel; (2) increased knowledge of hypertension; (3) increased participation in their health care and personal empowerment; (4) greater understanding of the impact of health behavior on BP; (5) high satisfaction with technology used in the intervention; and, for some patients, (6) increased health care utilization. Eighty-six percent of the intervention patients and 62% of the usual care patients stated that study participation had a positive effect on them. Of those expressing a positive effect, 68% (intervention) and 55% (usual care) reached their systolic BP goal. Establishing bidirectional conversations between patients and providers is a key element of successful hypertension management. Home BP monitoring coupled with interactive voice response technology reporting facilitates such conversations.

  4. The Role of Technologies, Behaviors, Gender, and Gender Stereotype Traits in Adolescents' Cyber Aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the impact of gender and gender stereotype traits (i.e., masculinity, femininity) on cyber aggression perpetration utilizing different technologies (i.e., social-networking sites, gaming consoles, mobile phones) and behaviors (i.e., cyber relational aggression, cyber verbal aggression, hacking). Participants included 233 eighth graders (108 female; M age = 13.26, SD = 0.36) from two middle schools in the Midwestern United States. Adolescents completed questionnaires on their endorsement of masculinity and femininity traits as well as how often they engaged in cyber aggression perpetration (i.e., cyber relational aggression, cyber verbal aggression, hacking) through mobile phones, social-networking sites, and gaming consoles. Findings indicated that boys and girls with more feminine traits engaged in more cyber relational aggression through social-networking sites and mobile phones, while boys and girls who endorsed more masculine traits perpetrated this behavior and cyber verbal aggression more often through online gaming. In addition, these boys and girls engaged in more hacking through all technologies when compared with girls and boys who reported more feminine traits. Results of this study indicate the importance of delineating gender stereotype traits, behaviors, and technologies when examining cyber aggression perpetration.

  5. Education Administrators' Evaluation of Precautionary Measures Taken against Technology-Based Anger and Aggression in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerçel, Emete; Dagli, Gökmen

    2017-01-01

    Technology is thought to affect people's behaviors and trigger feelings of anger and aggression, which in turn manifest into other problems. It is more important to develop strategies in order to avoid these behavioral problems than to concentrate on the anger and aggression demonstrated by individuals. This study aimed to develop strategies to…

  6. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  7. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. This effort will provide the framework to mature both on-orbit and earth-to-orbit avionics and propulsion technologies while also providing dedicated, affordable access to LEO for cubesat class payloads.

  8. The Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale: A New Multidimensional Measure of Technology-Based Intimate Partner Aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and provide initial validation for a measure of adult cyber intimate partner aggression (IPA): the Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale (CARS). Drawing on recent conceptual models of cyber IPA, items from previous research exploring general cyber aggression and cyber IPA were modified and new items were generated for inclusion in the CARS. Two samples of adults 18 years or older were recruited online. We used item factor analysis to test the factor structure, model fit, and invariance of the measure structure across women and men. Results confirmed that three-factor models for both perpetration and victimization demonstrated good model fit, and that, in general, the CARS measures partner cyber aggression similarly for women and men. The CARS also demonstrated validity through significant associations with in-person IPA, trait anger, and jealousy. Findings suggest the CARS is a useful tool for assessing cyber IPA in both research and clinical settings.

  9. Design of a multifaceted referral equine hospital.

    PubMed

    Bousum, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    There is no simple recipe for designing a multifaceted practice. However, keys to any design are the devotion of the people involved and proper positioning of such people in the organization. Anyone designing such a practice also must pay keen attention to details and a keep a finger constantly on the pulse of the business to ensure that it maintains a sound financial footing and a consistent vision. Little money is made from savings or pushing financials. Profits come mainly through building additional sales, maintaining a clear vision, and making shrewd investments. Like for every small business, success in the multifaceted practice is clearly tied to such factors as financial acumen, forward thinking, technology, lifestyle, vision, and a willingness to take a calculated risk.

  10. Tumor microenvironment is multifaceted.

    PubMed

    Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Damotte, Diane; Fisson, Sylvain; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Cremer, Isabelle; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline

    2011-03-01

    the immune response, we suggest that the microenvironment of early-stage NSCLC may allow the in situ activation of the adaptive response. Finally, we find that the eyes or brain of mice with growing B cell lymphoma are infiltrated with T cells and that the cytokines produced ex vivo by the tumoral tissues have an impaired Th1 cytokine profile. Our work illustrates that the host and external tumor microenvironments are multifaceted and strongly influence tumor progression and anti-tumor immune responses.

  11. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  12. Chips for Everyone: A Multifaceted Approach in Electrical Engineering Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, J.; Roy, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a multifaceted approach in electrical engineering outreach focused on the area of semiconductor technology. The activities developed can be used in combination for a very wide range of audiences in both age and stage of education, as has been demonstrated with great success. Moreover, the project has developed…

  13. Interactive Effects of Cognitive Representations of Formidability and Technology on Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-08

    defensive technologies; their fighting skill ; the number and proximity of their allies; the quality of their leadership; their degree of unit...since the last review) 1. Gneezy, A. and Fessler, D.M.T. (2011) Conflict, sticks, and carrots: War increases prosocial punishments and rewards

  14. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Javidi, Bahram; Martínez-Cuenca, Raúl; Saavedra, Genaro

    2005-04-01

    Three-dimensional images generated by an integral imaging system suffer from degradations in the form of grid of multiple facets. This multifacet structure breaks the continuity of the observed image and therefore reduces its visual quality. We perform an analysis of this effect and present the guidelines in the design of lenslet imaging parameters for optimization of viewing conditions with respect to the multifacet degradation. We consider the optimization of the system in terms of field of view, observer position and pupil function, lenslet parameters, and type of reconstruction. Numerical tests are presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  16. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  17. A multilevel analysis of aggressive behaviors among nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Cassie, Kimberly M

    2012-01-01

    Individual and organizational characteristics associated with aggressive behavior among nursing home residents were examined among a sample of 5,494 residents from 23 facilities using the Minimum Data Set 2.0 and the Organizational Social Context scale. On admission, some individual level variables (age, sex, depression, activities of daily life [ADL] impairments, and cognitive impairments) and no organizational level variables were associated with aggressive behaviors. Over time, aggressive behaviors were linked with some individual characteristics (age, sex, and ADL impairments) and several organizational level variables (stressful climates, less rigid cultures, more resistant cultures, geographic location, facility size and staffing patterns). Findings suggest multi-faceted change strategies are needed.

  18. A multifaceted strategy using mobile technology to assist rural primary healthcare doctors and frontline health workers in cardiovascular disease risk management: protocol for the SMARTHealth India cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Patel, Anushka; McMahon, Stephen; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Clifford, Gari D; Maulik, Pallab K; Joshi, Rohina; Jan, Stephen; Heritier, Stephane; Peiris, David

    2013-11-25

    Blood Pressure related disease affected 118 million people in India in the year 2000; this figure will double by 2025. Around one in four adults in rural India have hypertension, and of those, only a minority are accessing appropriate care. Health systems in India face substantial challenges to meet these gaps in care, and innovative solutions are needed. We hypothesise that a multifaceted intervention involving capacity strengthening of primary healthcare doctors and non-physician healthcare workers through use of a mobile device-based clinical decision support system will result in improved blood pressure control for individuals at high risk of a cardiovascular disease event when compared with usual healthcare. This intervention will be implemented as a stepped wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial in 18 primary health centres and 54 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh involving adults aged ≥40 years at high cardiovascular disease event risk (approximately 15,000 people). Cardiovascular disease event risk will be calculated based on World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension's region-specific risk charts. Cluster randomisation will occur at the level of the primary health centres. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. The primary study outcome is the difference in the proportion of people meeting guideline-recommended blood pressure targets in the intervention period vs. the control period. Secondary outcomes include mean reduction in blood pressure levels; change in other cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, current smoking, reported healthy eating habits, and reported physical activity levels; self-reported use of blood pressure and other cardiovascular medicines; quality of life (using the EQ-5D); and cardiovascular disease events (using hospitalisation data). Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed process and economic evaluations. The findings are likely to inform

  19. The prevalence of verbal aggression against nurses.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Sue; Gorley, Lyn; Moseley, Laurence

    There have been many anecdotal and press reports of verbal aggression against nurses. The authors undertook a structured review of the published literature on the topic. They found that no consistent definitions or time periods had been used, a consistent estimate of prevalence was impossible to establish, studies had been retrospective, and the commonest form of measurement had been self-report. There had been no culmination of replicable knowledge. The claim of most studies is that verbal aggression is commonplace in nursing. The best available evidence suggests that verbal aggression is often viewed as 'part of the job'. Consequences can range from emotional effects such as anger and humiliation, through to intent to leave the profession and for some it may have a negative psychological impact. Further research is needed to investigate the multi-faceted nature of verbal aggression. This must be guided by clear definitions and incorporate standardized measures of the effects of verbal aggression so that nurses can compare findings and fully understand all of the complexities and consequences.

  20. Robotic gait assistive technology as means to aggressive mobilization strategy in acute rehabilitation following severe diffuse axonal injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stam, Daniel; Fernandez, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse axonal injury is a prominent cause of disablement post-traumatic brain injury. Utilization of the rapid expansion of our current scientific knowledge base combined with greater access to neurological and assistive technology as adjuncts to providing sensorimotor experience may yield innovative new approaches to rehabilitation based upon a dynamic model of brain response following injury. A 24-year-old female who sustained a traumatic brain injury, bilateral subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe diffuse axonal injury secondary to a motor vehicle collision. Evidence-based appraisal of present literature suggests a link between graded intensity of aerobic activity to facilitation of neuro-plastic change and up-regulation of neurotrophins essential to functional recovery post-diffuse axonal injury. Following resolution of paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia, aggressive early mobilization techniques were progressed utilizing robotic assistive gait technology in combination with conventional therapy. This approach allowed for arguably greater repetition and cardiovascular demands across a six-month inpatient rehabilitation stay. Outcomes in this case suggest that the use of assistive technology to adjunct higher level and intensity rehabilitation strategies may be a safe and effective means towards reduction of disablement following severe traumatic brain and neurological injury. Implications for Rehabilitation Functional recovery and neuroplasticity following diffuse neurological injury involves a complex process determined by the sensorimotor experience provided by rehabilitation clinicians. This process is in part modulated by intrinsic brain biochemical processes correlated to cardiovascular intensity of the activity provided. It is important that rehabilitation professionals monitor physiological response to higher intensity activities to provide an adaptive versus maladaptive response of central nervous system plasticity with

  1. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  2. Effecting skin renewal: a multifaceted approach.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan D; Grekin, Steven K

    2011-06-01

    The skin undergoes intrinsic aging as a normal course, but exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light results in major cumulative damage that manifests as the typical aged photodamaged skin. UV irradiation produces a sequence of changes within the skin layers starting with signaling processes following DNA damage and culminating in nonabsorbed fragmentation of collagen and other proteins within the extracellular matrix. These fragments promote the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that further aggravate the damage to the ground substance and add to fragment accumulation. This study describes a unique sequential approach to controlling this photodamage - inhibition of signaling, inhibition of MMPs, proteasome stimulation and mopping up of fragments, stimulation of procollagen and collagen production, and uniform packaging of new collagen fibers. Thus, a multifaceted approach is introduced with presentation of a unique product formulation based on these research principles. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multifaceted Schwinger effect in de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramkishor; Singh, Suprit

    2017-07-01

    We investigate particle production à la the Schwinger mechanism in an expanding, flat de Sitter patch as is relevant for the inflationary epoch of our Universe. Defining states and particle content in curved spacetime is certainly not a unique process. There being different prescriptions on how that can be done, we have used the Schrödinger formalism to define instantaneous particle content of the state, etc. This allows us to go past the adiabatic regime to which the effect has been restricted in the previous studies and bring out its multifaceted nature in different settings. Each of these settings gives rise to contrasting features and behavior as per the effect of the electric field and expansion rate on the instantaneous mean particle number. We also quantify the degree of classicality of the process during its evolution using a "classicality parameter" constructed out of parameters of the Wigner function to obtain information about the quantum to classical transition in this case.

  4. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  5. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  6. CSP: A Multifaceted Hybrid Architecture for Space Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Dylan; Wilson, Christopher; Stewart, Jacob; Gauvin, Patrick; George, Alan; Lam, Herman; Crum, Gary Alex; Wirthlin, Mike; Wilson, Alex; Stoddard, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Research on the CHREC Space Processor (CSP) takes a multifaceted hybrid approach to embedded space computing. Working closely with the NASA Goddard SpaceCube team, researchers at the National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing (CHREC) at the University of Florida and Brigham Young University are developing hybrid space computers that feature an innovative combination of three technologies: commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices, radiation-hardened (RadHard) devices, and fault-tolerant computing. Modern COTS processors provide the utmost in performance and energy-efficiency but are susceptible to ionizing radiation in space, whereas RadHard processors are virtually immune to this radiation but are more expensive, larger, less energy-efficient, and generations behind in speed and functionality. By featuring COTS devices to perform the critical data processing, supported by simpler RadHard devices that monitor and manage the COTS devices, and augmented with novel uses of fault-tolerant hardware, software, information, and networking within and between COTS devices, the resulting system can maximize performance and reliability while minimizing energy consumption and cost. NASA Goddard has adopted the CSP concept and technology with plans underway to feature flight-ready CSP boards on two upcoming space missions.

  7. Annual research review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: the nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Sonia; Smith, Peter K

    2014-06-01

    The usage of mobile phones and the internet by young people has increased rapidly in the past decade, approaching saturation by middle childhood in developed countries. Besides many benefits, online content, contact or conduct can be associated with risk of harm; most research has examined whether aggressive or sexual harms result from this. We examine the nature and prevalence of such risks, and evaluate the evidence regarding the factors that increase or protect against harm resulting from such risks, so as to inform the academic and practitioner knowledge base. We also identify the conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in this relatively new body of research, and highlight the pressing research gaps. Given the pace of change in the market for communication technologies, we review research published since 2008. Following a thorough bibliographic search of literature from the key disciplines (psychology, sociology, education, media studies and computing sciences), the review concentrates on recent, high quality empirical studies, contextualizing these within an overview of the field. Risks of cyberbullying, contact with strangers, sexual messaging ('sexting') and pornography generally affect fewer than one in five adolescents. Prevalence estimates vary according to definition and measurement, but do not appear to be rising substantially with increasing access to mobile and online technologies, possibly because these technologies pose no additional risk to offline behaviour, or because any risks are offset by a commensurate growth in safety awareness and initiatives. While not all online risks result in self-reported harm, a range of adverse emotional and psychosocial consequences is revealed by longitudinal studies. Useful for identifying which children are more vulnerable than others, evidence reveals several risk factors: personality factors (sensation-seeking, low self-esteem, psychological difficulties), social factors (lack of parental support

  8. Multifaceted Modelling of Complex Business Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We formalise and present a new generic multifaceted complex system approach for modelling complex business enterprises. Our method has a strong focus on integrating the various data types available in an enterprise which represent the diverse perspectives of various stakeholders. We explain the challenges faced and define a novel approach to converting diverse data types into usable Bayesian probability forms. The data types that can be integrated include historic data, survey data, and management planning data, expert knowledge and incomplete data. The structural complexities of the complex system modelling process, based on various decision contexts, are also explained along with a solution. This new application of complex system models as a management tool for decision making is demonstrated using a railway transport case study. The case study demonstrates how the new approach can be utilised to develop a customised decision support model for a specific enterprise. Various decision scenarios are also provided to illustrate the versatility of the decision model at different phases of enterprise operations such as planning and control. PMID:26247591

  9. Multifaceted Modelling of Complex Business Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fidge, Colin; Ma, Lin; Lassen, David

    2015-01-01

    We formalise and present a new generic multifaceted complex system approach for modelling complex business enterprises. Our method has a strong focus on integrating the various data types available in an enterprise which represent the diverse perspectives of various stakeholders. We explain the challenges faced and define a novel approach to converting diverse data types into usable Bayesian probability forms. The data types that can be integrated include historic data, survey data, and management planning data, expert knowledge and incomplete data. The structural complexities of the complex system modelling process, based on various decision contexts, are also explained along with a solution. This new application of complex system models as a management tool for decision making is demonstrated using a railway transport case study. The case study demonstrates how the new approach can be utilised to develop a customised decision support model for a specific enterprise. Various decision scenarios are also provided to illustrate the versatility of the decision model at different phases of enterprise operations such as planning and control.

  10. The displaced aggression questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; Pedersen, William C; Miller, Norman

    2006-06-01

    Previous measures of aggressive personality have focused on direct aggression (i.e., retaliation toward the provoking agent). An original self-report measure of trait displaced aggression is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor conceptualization of the construct. These analyses identified an affective dimension (angry rumination), a cognitive dimension (revenge planning), and a behavioral dimension (general tendency to engage in displaced aggression). The trait measure demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability as well as convergent and discriminant construct validity. Unlike other related personality measures, trait displaced aggression significantly predicted indirect indicators of real-world displaced aggression (i.e., self-reported domestic abuse and road rage) as well as laboratory displaced aggression in 2 experiments. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression

    PubMed Central

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C.; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly’s auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level. PMID:28115690

  12. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  13. Thalamic modulation of aggression.

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Giurintano, L; Giurintano, S; McDonald, T

    1975-01-01

    This experiment extends Pavlov's method of contrasts for 8 components of aggression were quantitatively evaluated in 11 freely moving adult cats. Aggression was elicited from the perifornix septohypothalamic areas by a series of progressively increasing and decreasing stimulation parameters. Three levels of thalamic stimulation (low, medium, and high) were combined with the perifornix stimulations. High level thalamic stimulation tended to facilitate the aggressive response elicited by low level perifornix stimulation. Thalamic lesions attenuated the aggression response, especially those elicited during high level perifornix stimulation. It was suggested that within the hypothalamic induced aggression circuitry the center median nucleus modulates the excitatory state of the system. The discussion concerns anatomic and physiologic pathways through which the center median nucleus may modulate the sensory, motor, and affective-autonomic subsystems into a well integrated aggressive state. These experimental findings are supported by the clinically established treatment of aggression by stereotaxic lesions placed in the center median nucleus.

  14. The General Aggression Model.

    PubMed

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  16. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  17. Sexually Aggressive College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanin, Eugene J.

    1971-01-01

    The accumulated evidence of this paper suggests that sex aggression is largely the consequence of a particular type of socialization coupled with appropriate situational factors. These males tend to be generally aggressive; they show a strong tendency to deny love feeling for their mothers; their peers tend to stress sexual activity. (Author/BY)

  18. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  19. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  20. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  1. Parents’ Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents’ responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents’ actual marital aggression. The study included 118 9−10 year old children, and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with same-sex parents’ actual marital aggression. For children with mothers who exhibit low actual marital aggression, mothers’ aggressive solutions to hypothetical situations corresponded with children's tendencies to propose aggressive but not assertive solutions. In a 3-way interaction, fathers’ aggressive solutions to peer scenarios and marital aggression, combined, exacerbated girls’ aggressive problem solving, but had the opposite effect for boys. Discussion addresses the complexity, particularly with respect to parent and child gender combinations, in understanding parents’ aggressive influences on children's peer relationships. PMID:17206880

  2. Music in a Hospital Setting: A Multifaceted Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preti, Costanza; Welch, Graham F.

    2004-01-01

    The article offers an explanation of the effects of music on children within a hospital setting and points up the multifaceted nature of this experience. The nature of the client group allows the musical experience to work on many different levels, such as modifying the child's perception of pain and reducing stress, whilst at the same time having…

  3. Conceptualising Middle Management in Higher Education: A Multifaceted Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; McAuley, John

    2005-01-01

    Debates about middle management in higher education have been largely confined to the dominant discourse of managerialism. In this paper, we argue for an engagement with the broader management literature, with its multiple discourses of middle management. We present an analysis of middle management as a multifaceted phenomenon and review…

  4. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  5. MULTI-FACETED SUSTAINABILITY ON ITHACA COLLEGE NATURAL LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This student-generated proposal presents a multi-faceted program for sustainable stewardship of the natural areas south of the built campus of Ithaca College. Our challenge is to use student research and class projects to enhance biodiversity, support education and research, and...

  6. Multifaceted Inpatient Psychiatry Approach to Reducing Readmissions: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Timothy P.; Rohrer, James E.; Rioux, Pierre A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Access to psychiatric services, particularly inpatient psychiatric care, is limited and lacks comprehensiveness in rural areas. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact on readmission rates of a multifaceted inpatient psychiatry approach (MIPA) offered in a rural hospital. Methods: Readmissions within 30 days of…

  7. Multifaceted toxicity assessment of catalyst composites in transgenic zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun Hyuk; Lee, Keon Yong; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Recent development in the field of nanomaterials has given rise into the inquiries regarding the toxicological characteristics of the nanomaterials. While many individual nanomaterials have been screened for their toxicological effects, composites that accompany nanomaterials are not common subjects to such screening through toxicological assessment. One of the widely used composites that accompany nanomaterials is catalyst composite used to reduce air pollution, which was selected as a target composite with nanomaterials for the multifaceted toxicological assessment. As existing studies did not possess any significant data regarding such catalyst composites, this study focuses on investigating toxicological characteristics of catalyst composites from various angles in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. Initial toxicological assessment on catalyst composites was conducted using HUVECs for cell viability assays, and subsequent in-vivo assay regarding their direct influence on living organisms was done. The zebrafish embryo and its transgenic lines were used in the in-vivo assays to obtain multifaceted analytic results. Data obtained from the in-vivo assays include blood vessel formation, mutated heart morphology, and heart functionality change. Our multifaceted toxicological assessment pointed out that chemical composites augmented with nanomaterials can too have toxicological threat as much as individual nanomaterials do and alarms us with their danger. This manuscript provides a multifaceted assessment for composites augmented with nanomaterials, of which their toxicological threats have been overlooked. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drugs and aggression.

    PubMed

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A; Giovenardi, Márcia; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2008-01-01

    Aggression is conceived as a social behavior that, in conjunct with motor and visceral displays, is related with acts for obtaining a specific goal or is directed against threatening stimuli with the intention of causing harm, either for attack or defense. Here it is reviewed basic concepts and aspects for the classification of aggression, the behavioral displays regarded as aggressive in animal models, the basic neural circuits that are involved to them and the pharmacological approaches involving some neurotransmitters (5-HT, dopamine and GABA) and drugs that can be used to identify the neural basis of aggression and to modulate its expression. Drug patents are referred in the text. Data are based on experiments developed mainly with rodents; however, some research hypotheses that may well give some insights for the clinical sciences in men were also included.

  9. School Aggression and Dispositional Aggression among Middle School Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Rattley, Kelvin T.; Fleming, Willie C.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    We examined the relationship between dispositional (trait) aggression and administrative reports of school aggression among 100 adolescent male participants from an urban middle school. Aggression was fairly common among the sample; 58 boys had a record of school aggression, and many of those were repeat offenders. Our hypothesis that those higher…

  10. The multifaceted interplay between lipids and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Koen F; Slagboom, P Eline; Jukema, J Wouter; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between lipids and epigenetic mechanisms has recently gained increased interest because of its relevance for common diseases and most notably atherosclerosis. This review discusses recent advances in unravelling this interplay with a particular focus on promising approaches and methods that will be able to establish causal relationships. Complementary approaches uncovered close links between circulating lipids and epigenetic mechanisms at multiple levels. A characterization of lipid-associated genetic variants suggests that these variants exert their influence on lipid levels through epigenetic changes in the liver. Moreover, exposure of monocytes to lipids persistently alters their epigenetic makeup resulting in more proinflammatory cells. Hence, epigenetic changes can both impact on and be induced by lipids. It is the combined application of technological advances to probe epigenetic modifications at a genome-wide scale and methodological advances aimed at causal inference (including Mendelian randomization and integrative genomics) that will elucidate the interplay between circulating lipids and epigenetics. Understanding its role in the development of atherosclerosis holds the promise of identifying a new category of therapeutic targets, since epigenetic changes are amenable to reversal.

  11. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Babu, Anish; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-03-27

    Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy.

  12. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Anish; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy. PMID:28346381

  13. Oxytocin and Aggression.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-09-02

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has a solid reputation as a facilitator of social interactions such as parental and pair bonding, trust, and empathy. The many results supporting a pro-social role of OT have generated the hypothesis that impairments in the endogenous OT system may lead to antisocial behavior, most notably social withdrawal or pathological aggression. If this is indeed the case, administration of exogenous OT could be the "serenic" treatment that psychiatrists have for decades been searching for.In the present review, we list and discuss the evidence for an endogenous "hypo-oxytocinergic state" underlying aggressive and antisocial behavior, derived from both animal and human studies. We furthermore examine the reported effects of synthetic OT administration on aggression in rodents and humans.Although the scientific findings listed in this review support, in broad lines, the link between a down-regulated or impaired OT system activity and increased aggression, the anti-aggressive effects of synthetic OT are less straightforward and require further research. The rather complex picture that emerges adds to the ongoing debate questioning the unidirectional pro-social role of OT, as well as the strength of the effects of intranasal OT administration in humans.

  14. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as

  15. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  16. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  17. Cerebral Lateralization and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillbrand, Marc; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…

  18. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  19. Neurobiology of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J M

    1976-10-30

    Causality, neurological mechanisms, and behavioral manifestations may be heterogeneous in different forms of aggressive behavior, but some elements are shared by all forms of violence, including the necessity of sensory inputs, the coding and decoding of information according to acquired frames of reference, and the activation of pre-established patterns of response. Understanding and prevention of violence requires a simultaneous study of its social, cultural, and economic aspects, at parity with an investigation of its neurological mechanisms. Part of the latter information may be obtained through animal experimentation, preferably in non-human primates. Feline predatory behavior has no equivalent in man, and therefore its hypothalamic representation probably does not exist in the human brain. Codes of information, frames of reference for sensory perception, axis to evaluate threats, and formulas for aggressive performance are not established genetically but must be learned individually. We are born with the capacity to learn aggressive behavior, but not with established patterns of violence. Mechanisms for fighting which are acquired by individual experience may be triggered in a similar way by sensory cues, volition, and by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral areas. In monkeys, aggressive responses may be modified by changing the hierarchical position of the stimulated animal, indicating the physiological quality of the neurological mechanisms electrically activated.

  20. Cyber Aggression: The Relation between Online Offenders and Offline Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Corrie L.; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly using computer technologies to engage in acts of aggression against peers, often termed "cyber aggression". Media reports have sensationalized instances of cyber aggression, and social scientists have begun to examine its characteristics and consequences. Using a younger sample of children than most previous research (192…

  1. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  2. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  3. A multifacet typology of patient satisfaction with a hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Singh, J

    1990-12-01

    The author views patient satisfaction after a hospital visit as a combination of several different and distinct evaluations. Patients are posited to form satisfaction judgments concurrently for each of the individual "objects" (e.g., physician, insurance provider) comprising the health care system. With patient data from four geographic areas, the author examines this multifacet view empirically and uses it to derive a typology of patient satisfaction. The study results suggest two broad groups of patients, the "satisfieds" and the "dissatisfieds." Finally, the author delineates the behavioral and demographic characteristics that discriminate between the two groups. Implications for health care researchers, practitioners, and public policy officials are presented.

  4. The multifaceted influence of gender in career progress in nursing.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Catherine; Nicholl, Honor

    2007-10-01

    The complex web of gender influence in the workplace results from a multifaceted interplay of factors [Walby et al. (1994) Medicine and Nursing. Sage Publications, London]. Literature reports that in nursing men's success compared with that of women is disproportionate and substantial evidence of gender-based disadvantage is found [Women in Management Review13 (1998) 184]. However, studies have not addressed the specific reasons for this and little is known of how or what influences nurses' career decisions and developments [Journal of Advanced Nursing25 (1997) 602]. Those studies which examine career developments and patterns are mainly found in the private business sector.

  5. Artful and multifaceted applications of carbon dot in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Jaleel, Jumana Abdul; Pramod, K

    2018-01-10

    Carbon dots (C-dots) are luminescent carbon nanomaterial having good biocompatibility and low toxicity. The characteristic fluorescence emission property of C-dots establishes their role in optical imaging. C-dots which are superior to fluorescent dyes and semiconductor quantum dots act as a safer in vivo imaging probe. Apart from their bioimaging application, other applications in biomedicine such as drug delivery, cancer therapy, and gene delivery were studied. In this review, we present multifaceted applications of C-dots along with their synthesis, surface passivation, doping, and toxicity profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Social determinants of aggression in a sample of Chinese primary school children.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, S

    1986-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate children's aggression levels to social determinants of interest (i.e., child-rearing measures, day-care attendance, peer group influence, and TV-watching) in a sample of Chinese children in the People's Republic of China. A sample of 290 primary school students (155 boys and 135 girls, mean age 10.3) in grade four in Beijing were investigated using the Multi-Faceted Aggression Inventory. The children's parents were asked about child-rearing measures and day-care experience for the child. Teachers rated the children's aggression, school achievement level, and membership in the Young Pioneers. Despite acknowledged limitations, the findings in this study gave evidence that according to a person-environment interaction perspective, the Chinese children's individual differences in aggression were influenced by the restricted environment. As aggressive behaviour is undesired and suppressed in the Chinese culture in and outside the home, the Chinese children seemed to show lower levels and less variation of aggression behaviour than children in permissive environments (e.g., Sweden). However, when analysing sex differences in aggression environmental influences alone might not explain the differences.

  7. EOSINOPHILS: MULTIFACETED BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES AND ROLES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During Th2-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with pro-inflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. PMID:21682744

  8. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  9. Aggression in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, A C; Raspa, M; Bishop, E; Bailey, D B

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially men, have long been described as presenting with significant behavioural challenges. Despite this known aspect of the phenotype, there has been little research exploring the prevalence, frequency, nature or consequences of aggressive behaviour in FXS. This study used survey methodology to gather caregiver reports on the types, frequency and severity of aggressive behaviour in 774 individuals with FXS. Based on caregiver report, nearly all (>90%) male and female individuals were reported to have engaged in some aggression over the previous 12 months, with a third of male cases and slightly fewer than 20% of female cases being described as engaging in moderate to severe aggression or being diagnosed or treated for aggression. Further, aggressive behaviours in male individuals were serious enough that 30% had caused injuries to caregivers and 22% had caused injuries to peers or friends. Sensory issues and hyperactivity were significant predictors of the frequency of aggressive acts, while sensory issues and anxiety were predictive of the severity of aggression. Traditional behaviour management techniques as well as medication was described as the most common and successful treatment options. Aggressive behaviours are a significant concern for a subsample of both male and female individuals with FXS. Given that sensory concerns were predictive of both the frequency and the severity of aggression suggests these behaviours may be a reactive means of escaping uncomfortable situations. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understanding Parkinson Disease: A Complex and Multifaceted Illness.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Apoorva; Alexander, Sheila A

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson disease is an incredibly complex and multifaceted illness affecting millions of people in the United States. Parkinson disease is characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and loss, leading to debilitating motor, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms. Parkinson disease is an enigmatic illness that is still extensively researched today to search for a better understanding of the disease, develop therapeutic interventions to halt or slow progression of the disease, and optimize patient outcomes. This article aims to examine in detail the normal function of the basal ganglia and dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, the etiology and pathophysiology of Parkinson disease, related signs and symptoms, current treatment, and finally, the profound impact of understanding the disease on nursing care.

  11. Multifaceted Roles of Connexin 43 in Stem Cell Niches.

    PubMed

    Genet, Nafiisha; Bhatt, Neha; Bourdieu, Antonin; Hirschi, Karen K

    2018-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the field of stem cell research; nonetheless, the use of stem cells for regenerative medicine therapies, for either endogenous tissue repair or cellular grafts post injury, remains a challenge. To better understand how to maintain stem cell potential in vivo and promote differentiation ex vivo, it is fundamentally important to elucidate the interactions between stem cells and their surrounding partners within their distinct niches. Among the vast array of proteins depicted as mediators for cell-to-cell interactions, connexin-comprised gap junctions play pivotal roles in the regulation of stem cell fate both in vivo and in vitro. This review summarizes and illustrates the current knowledge regarding the multifaceted roles of Cx43, specifically, in various stem cell niches.

  12. Pressure sores--a multifaceted approach to prevention and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Staas, W. E.; Cioschi, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and effect of pressure sores on the disabled and elderly population have created a challenge to physicians and health care professionals, from emergency departments to rehabilitation units, and in the community. If not prevented, the morbidity and mortality of patients and the direct and indirect costs to both patients and the health care system are radically increased. In this article we define the impact on our health care system of pressure sores, provide an overview of a multifaceted approach to their prevention and management, and introduce successful behavioral and educational approaches for patients with chronic, recurrent sores. A coordinated approach with patients as informed participants and their care givers enhances the chances for success. PMID:1830985

  13. Multi-faceted identities and interactions in mixed health teams.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Daniella; Hirschfeld, Miriam J

    2016-01-01

    The literature in the area of the health workforce and societies in conflict encompasses a wide range of studies and potential directions. Lately, Keshet and Popper-Giveon reported on a study based on interviews with 13 Arab Israeli nurses who work in Israeli hospitals. This preliminary study describes how being an Arab nurse in Israel is experienced and perceived by those nurses. The results indicate the need for further studies on the complexity of health workers' experiences in their changing and multi-faceted professional, cultural, gender and national identities. In order to manage health systems, in particular in divided societies that are characterized by inter-group conflicts, special attention should be given to studying the everyday processes in mixed teams.

  14. Forms of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Ammerman, Brooke A; Kulper, Daniel A; Uyeji, Lauren L; Jenkins, Abigail L; McCloskey, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    To date, the considerable body of research on predictors of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has conceptualized NSSI as a unitary construct despite the fact that NSSI can exist in many forms (e.g., hitting, cutting, burning). The goal of the present study is to examine differential prediction of forms of NSSI. Specifically, we examined trait aggression as a predictor of more aggressive forms of NSSI (i.e., hitting). We hypothesized that higher trait aggression would differentiate those who engaged in hitting forms of NSSI from those who did not, whereas other factors (i.e., emotion regulation and trait anger) would serve as a non-specific predictor of NSSI. We also hypothesized that higher trait aggression would be related to lifetime frequency of hitting NSSI, but not other forms of NSSI, whereas emotion regulation and anger would act as predictors of other forms of NSSI. To test these hypotheses, a large sample of young adults completed measures of trait aggression, trait anger, emotion regulation, and NSSI behaviors. Results were generally in line with our hypotheses. Higher levels of trait aggression differentiated those who engaged in hitting NSSI from those who did not and was also associated with greater frequency of hitting NSSI. These results imply that different factors predict different forms of NSSI and that NSSI may be best examined as a multi-faceted construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A southern region conference on technology transfer and extension

    Sarah F. Ashton; William G. Hubbard; H. Michael Rauscher

    2009-01-01

    Forest landowners and managers have different education and technology transfer needs and preferences. To be effective it is important to use a multi-faceted science delivery/technology transfer program to reach them. Multi-faceted science delivery programs can provide similar content over a wide range of mechanisms including printed publications, face-to-face...

  16. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  17. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  18. Do Different Facets of Impulsivity Predict Different Types of Aggression?

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen; DeWall, C. Nathan; Metze, Amanda V.; Walsh, Erin C.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between impulsivity-related traits (as assessed by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) and aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that UPPS-P Lack of Premeditation and Sensation Seeking were important in predicting general violence. In contrast, UPPS-P Urgency was most useful in predicting intimate partner violence. To further explore relations between intimate partner violence and Urgency, a measure of autonomic response to pleasant and aversive stimuli and facets of Neuroticism from the NEO PI-R were used as control variables. Autonomic responsivity was correlated with intimate partner violence at the zero-order level, and predicted significant variance in intimate partner violence in regression equations. However, UPPS-P Urgency was able to account for unique variance in intimate partner violence above and beyond measures of Neuroticism and arousal. Implications regarding the use of a multifaceted conceptualization of impulsivity in the prediction of different types of violent behavior are discussed. PMID:21259270

  19. The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…

  20. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  1. A Multifaceted Mentoring Program for Junior Faculty in Academic Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mary M; Sandborg, Christy I; Hudgins, Louanne; Sanford, Rania; Bachrach, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The departure of physician-scientists from education and research into clinical practice is a growing challenge for the future of academic medicine. Junior faculty face competing demands for clinical productivity, teaching, research, and work-life integration, which can undermine confidence in the value of an academic career. Mentorship is important to foster career development and satisfaction in junior faculty. The goals of this academic pediatrics department were to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted pediatric mentoring program to promote retention and satisfaction of junior faculty. Program elements included one-on-one mentor-mentee meetings, didactic workshops, grant review assistance, and facilitated peer-group mentoring. Program effectiveness was assessed using annual surveys of mentees and structured mentee exit interviews, as well as retention data for assistant professors. The mentees were instructors and assistant professors in the department of pediatrics. Seventy-nine mentees participated in the program from 2007 through 2014. The response rate from seven annual surveys was 84%. Sixty-nine percent of mentees felt more prepared to advance their careers, 81% had a better understanding of the criteria for advancement, 84% were satisfied with the program, and 95% found mentors accessible. Mentees who exited the program reported they most valued the one-on-one mentoring and viewed the experience positively regardless of promotion. Retention of assistant professors improved after initiation of the program; four of 13 hired from 2002 to 2006 left the institution, whereas 18 of 18 hired from 2007 to 2014 were retained. This multifaceted mentoring program appeared to bolster satisfaction and enhance retention of junior pediatric faculty. Mentees reported increased understanding of the criteria for promotion and viewed the program as a positive experience regardless of career path. Individual mentor-mentee meetings were needed at least twice yearly

  2. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  3. Thoughts on hate and aggression.

    PubMed

    Prelinger, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of hate is explored from two perspectives: in terms of intensive bodily arousal and mobilization, and as a form of active but paralyzed aggression. Aggression, in this context, is viewed not in terms of discharges of drive energies but rather as reinforced effort aimed at the removal or destruction of barriers that impede the organism's movement, in real or symbolic space. Winnicott (1950) already had emphasized how the basic fact of the child's motility, its activity, lies at the source of what becomes aggression. Encounter with 'reality' brings interference with free, unrestricted movement at first in actual, physical space, then gradually within the representational world. Inasmuch as such additional mobilization finds intrapsychic representation which, in turn, comes to be coupled with an 'injured' response from a loved or valued object, an intrapsychic representation of what the person experiences as his own aggressiveness emerges. Aggression thus derives from accumulating 'inevitable' collisions between adaptive motility and objects (real and symbolic barriers, obstacles) in the way. Aggression plays its part in the development of object relations. If aggressive mobilizations are sufficiently interfered with to block any further movement but continue to be stimulated in pursuing valued actual or symbolic goals, hate emerges as a form of active but paralyzed aggression. Selections from two patients' material illustrate these issues clinically.

  4. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  5. Evaluating a cognitive/ecological program for the prevention of aggression among urban children.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Maxwell, C D; Eron, L; Dahlberg, L L; Guerra, N G; Tolan, P H; VanAcker, R; Henry, D

    1996-01-01

    The Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) is a multifaceted school- and family-based intervention and evaluation study designed to prevent and understand the development of aggressive behavior. The multifaceted interventions are grounded in combined social-cognitive and ecologic theories. Social-cognitive theories contend that cognitive scripts, attributions, and beliefs acquired early in life mediate the effects of ecological factors that influence the development of antisocial behavior. Prevention programs aimed at these cognitions must address multiple dimensions of the child's environment including family, peer, school, and community. The program has three levels of intervention delivered in two-year segments: (1) Level 1: a general enhancement classroom intervention that stresses culturally sensitive student and teacher interaction involving instructional and classroom management strategies and a social-cognitive curriculum that mitigates aggressive development; (2) Level 2: intensive small-group sessions designed to change children's cognitions and enhance peer relationship skills for at-risk children added to the general classroom enhancement program; and (3) Level 3: a one-year family relationship intervention that stresses parenting skill building and emotional responsiveness in family interactions added to the general enhancement and small-group training conditions. Sixteen Chicago-area schools are randomly assigned (four each) to a control group or one of the three intervention levels. Individual child assessment, peer assessments, classroom behavioral observations, and archival data are collected before the interventions begin, during the interventions, at the end of each intervention, and at a follow-up point. The pretests indicate that the children on average have higher levels of aggression than found nationally and elevated clinical levels of other psychopathologies. Across the four intervention levels there are no significant differences in ethnic

  6. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neurochemistry of impulsiveness and aggression].

    PubMed

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is the most frequent social reaction among animals and men, and plays an important role in survival of the fittest. The change of social conditions in the course of development of human civilisation rendered some forms of aggression counter-adaptive, but the neurobiological mechanism of expression of aggression have not fundamentally changed in the last stages of human evolution. The two different kinds of aggression: emotional, serving mainly as a threat, and rational, predatory, serving for the attainment of goal in the most effective way, have different anatomical and neurobiological background and reciprocally inhibit each other. Aggression is modulated by several neurotransmitter and hormonal systems, of which the key role is seemingly played by testosterone, a hormone involved in domination behaviour, and serotonin, whose deficit results in increased impulsiveness.

  8. Dealing with aggressive behaviour in nursing homes: caregivers' use of recommended measures.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Adelheid; Müller, Marianne; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2014-09-01

    To identify groups of caregivers in terms of their use of measures for dealing with resident aggression and the differences between these groups related to their characteristics. Caregivers in nursing home are confronted with a major challenge when faced with the aggressive behaviour of residents. Therefore, the application of recommended measures is important in supporting caregivers and promoting safety for residents. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 804 caregivers working in 21 Swiss nursing homes provided data. The questionnaire used was based on published recommendations regarding management of aggressive behaviour and amendments by experts. The most widely used measure aimed to calm down the resident and to understand the meaning of aggressive behaviour. Physical activities were applied by around 50% of the respondents, and interdisciplinary case reviews as well as standardised instruments for assessment and documentation were used by <50%. Caregiver characteristics such as employment level, support from superiors, institutionalised support for affected caregivers and training in aggression management are associated with their use of recommended measures. Furthermore, caregivers' competence in empathising with the residents' perspective in connection with their professional experience has a positive influence on applying recommended measures. Caregivers use multifaceted measures in understanding the meaning of underlying aggression, but there is a certain failure to use standardised instruments. Caregivers differ significantly in the frequency of their application of recommended measures. Support from superiors and assistance for affected caregivers positively influence their use of measures, whereas training in aggression management leads to less use. Findings show the importance of support from superiors and institutionalised assistance for affected caregivers. Caregiver competence in empathising with the residents' perspective is important in using

  9. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation

    SciT

    Shepard, Ron; Brozell, Scott R.; Gidofalvi, Gergely

    2014-08-14

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that bothmore » the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N{sup 2}n{sup 4}) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N{sub 2} dissociation, cubic H{sub 8} dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H{sub 2}O, and the insertion of Be into H{sub 2}. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form.« less

  10. FACETS: multi-faceted functional decomposition of protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S.; Forbes Dewey, C.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of high-throughput PPIs remains a daunting task because of the amount of data they present. In this article, we propose a novel PPI network decomposition algorithm called FACETS in order to make sense of the deluge of interaction data using Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. FACETS finds not just a single functional decomposition of the PPI network, but a multi-faceted atlas of functional decompositions that portray alternative perspectives of the functional landscape of the underlying PPI network. Each facet in the atlas represents a distinct interpretation of how the network can be functionally decomposed and organized. Our algorithm maximizes interpretative value of the atlas by optimizing inter-facet orthogonality and intra-facet cluster modularity. Results: We tested our algorithm on the global networks from IntAct, and compared it with gold standard datasets from MIPS and KEGG. We demonstrated the performance of FACETS. We also performed a case study that illustrates the utility of our approach. Contact: seah0097@ntu.edu.sg or assourav@ntu.edu.sg Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at the Bioinformatics online. Availability: Our software is available freely for non-commercial purposes from: http://www.cais.ntu.edu.sg/∼assourav/Facets/ PMID:22908217

  11. FACETS: multi-faceted functional decomposition of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes

    2012-10-15

    The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of high-throughput PPIs remains a daunting task because of the amount of data they present. In this article, we propose a novel PPI network decomposition algorithm called FACETS in order to make sense of the deluge of interaction data using Gene Ontology (GO) annotations. FACETS finds not just a single functional decomposition of the PPI network, but a multi-faceted atlas of functional decompositions that portray alternative perspectives of the functional landscape of the underlying PPI network. Each facet in the atlas represents a distinct interpretation of how the network can be functionally decomposed and organized. Our algorithm maximizes interpretative value of the atlas by optimizing inter-facet orthogonality and intra-facet cluster modularity. We tested our algorithm on the global networks from IntAct, and compared it with gold standard datasets from MIPS and KEGG. We demonstrated the performance of FACETS. We also performed a case study that illustrates the utility of our approach. Supplementary data are available at the Bioinformatics online. Our software is available freely for non-commercial purposes from: http://www.cais.ntu.edu.sg/~assourav/Facets/

  12. Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of Fructose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well-established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose-induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy–dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD. PMID:28273805

  13. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  14. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ron; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Brozell, Scott R.

    2014-08-01

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that both the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N2n4) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N2 dissociation, cubic H8 dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H2O, and the insertion of Be into H2. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form.

  15. The multifacet graphically contracted function method. I. Formulation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Ron; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Brozell, Scott R

    2014-08-14

    The basic formulation for the multifacet generalization of the graphically contracted function (MFGCF) electronic structure method is presented. The analysis includes the discussion of linear dependency and redundancy of the arc factor parameters, the computation of reduced density matrices, Hamiltonian matrix construction, spin-density matrix construction, the computation of optimization gradients for single-state and state-averaged calculations, graphical wave function analysis, and the efficient computation of configuration state function and Slater determinant expansion coefficients. Timings are given for Hamiltonian matrix element and analytic optimization gradient computations for a range of model problems for full-CI Shavitt graphs, and it is observed that both the energy and the gradient computation scale as O(N(2)n(4)) for N electrons and n orbitals. The important arithmetic operations are within dense matrix-matrix product computational kernels, resulting in a computationally efficient procedure. An initial implementation of the method is used to present applications to several challenging chemical systems, including N2 dissociation, cubic H8 dissociation, the symmetric dissociation of H2O, and the insertion of Be into H2. The results are compared to the exact full-CI values and also to those of the previous single-facet GCF expansion form.

  16. A multifaceted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, David R; Gambone, Joseph C; Morris, Marge A; Ignarro, Louis J

    2010-12-01

    To review the role of various factors influencing vascular nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP, and consequently, erectile function and vascular health. Pertinent publications are reviewed. Daily moderate exercise stimulates vascular NO production. Maintenance of normal body weight and waist/hip ratio allows NO stimulation by insulin. Decreased intake of fat, sugar, and simple carbohydrates rapidly converted to sugar reduces the adverse effects of fatty acids and sugar on endothelial NO production. Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate endothelial NO release. Antioxidants boost NO production and prevent NO breakdown. Folic acid, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin E support the biochemical pathways leading to NO release. Cessation of smoking and avoidance of excessive alcohol preserve normal endothelial function. Moderate use of alcohol and certain proprietary supplements may favorably influence erectile and vascular function. Treatment of any remaining testosterone deficit will both increase erectile function and reduce any associated metabolic syndrome. After production of NO and cyclic GMP are improved, use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors should result in greater success in treating remaining erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have also suggested positive effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors on vascular function. A multifaceted approach will maximize both erectile function and vascular health. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  18. The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach: part 2: clinical studies using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium.

    PubMed

    Comai, Stefano; Tau, Michael; Pavlovic, Zoran; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2012-04-01

    Patients experiencing mental disorders are at an elevated risk for developing aggressive behavior. In the past 10 years, the psychopharmacological treatment of aggression has changed dramatically owing to the introduction of atypical antipsychotics on the market and the increased use of anticonvulsants and lithium in the treatment of aggressive patients.This review (second of 2 parts) uses a translational medicine approach to examine the neurobiology of aggression, discussing the major neurotransmitter systems implicated in its pathogenesis (serotonin, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) and the neuropharmacological rationale for using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium in the therapeutics of aggressive behavior. A critical review of all clinical trials using atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, clozapine, loxapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, and amisulpride), anticonvulsants (topiramate, valproate, lamotrigine, and gabapentin), and lithium are presented. Given the complex, multifaceted nature of aggression, a multifunctional combined therapy, targeting different receptors, seems to be the best strategy for treating aggressive behavior. This therapeutic strategy is supported by translational studies and a few human studies, even if additional randomized, double-blind, clinical trials are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this framework.

  19. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  20. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  2. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  3. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    PubMed Central

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

  4. Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathie C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Koerner, Kari M; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2016-03-01

    To test whether a multifaceted prospective memory intervention improved adherence to antihypertensive medications and to assess whether executive function and working memory processes moderated the intervention effects. Two-group longitudinal randomized control trial. Community. Individuals aged 65 and older without signs of dementia or symptoms of severe depression who were self-managing prescribed medication. After 4 weeks of initial adherence monitoring using a medication event monitoring system, individuals with 90% or less adherence were randomly assigned to groups. The prospective memory intervention was designed to provide strategies that switch older adults from relying on executive function and working memory processes (that show effects of cognitive aging) to mostly automatic associative processes (that are relatively spared with normal aging) for remembering to take medications. Strategies included establishing a routine, establishing cues strongly associated with medication taking actions, performing the action immediately upon thinking about it, using a medication organizer, and imagining medication taking to enhance encoding and improve cuing. There was significant improvement in adherence in the intervention group (57% at baseline to 78% after the intervention), but most of these gains were lost after 5 months. The control condition started at 68% and was stable during the intervention, but dropped to 62%. Executive function and working memory moderated the intervention effect, with the intervention producing greater benefit for those with lower executive function and working memory. The intervention improved adherence, but the benefits were not sustained. Further research is needed to determine how to sustain the substantial initial benefits. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Using multifaceted education to improve management in acute viral bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Murch, Hannah; Oakley, Juliette; Pierrepoint, Marcus; Powell, Colin

    2015-07-01

    To establish current bronchiolitis management across hospitals in Wales, improve compliance with national guidelines and standardise evidence-based clinical practice. A complete audit cycle with implementation of a multifaceted education bundle prior to the follow-up audit. Twelve acute paediatric departments between 1 November and 31 December in 2012 and 2013. All infants under 12 months with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. The first audit assessed management of bronchiolitis with reference to both the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) guidelines and local hospital guidelines. Following analysis and dissemination of these results, an education bundle was implemented nationwide, with completion of the audit cycle to assess change. Compliance with SIGN recommendations for investigation, treatment and discharge. Compliance with the education bundle requirements also assessed in 2013. Data were collected for 1599 infants. The education bundle was delivered in all hospitals. The level of severity, defined by oxygen saturations in air at presentation, length of stay and paediatric intensive care unit transfers, was equivalent for both years. Mean compliance percentage (95% CI) across Wales significantly improved between 2012 and 2013, with compliance with investigations increasing from 50% (46% to 53%) to 71% (68% to 74%), with management increasing from 65% (61% to 68%) to 74% (71% to 77%), and overall compliance improving from 38% (37% to 39%) to 59% (56% to 62%) in 2013. This audit demonstrated a significant improvement in compliance following implementation of our educational bundle. This has enabled improvement in standardised and evidence-based patient care across Wales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Credit use: psychological perspectives on a multifaceted phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Consumer borrowing is a highly topical and multifaceted phenomenon as well as a popular subject for study. We focus on consumer credit use and review the existing literature. To categorize what is known we identify four main psychological perspectives on the phenomenon: credit use as (1) a reflection of the situation, (2) a reflection of the person, (3) a cognitive process, and (4) a social process. On top of these perspectives we view credit use as a process that entails three distinct phases: (1) processes before credit acquisition, (2) processes at credit acquisition, and (3) processes after credit acquisition. We review the international literature along a two-tier structure that aligns the psychological perspectives with a process view of credit. This structure allows us to identify systematic concentrations as well as gaps in the existing research. We consolidate what is known within each perspective and identify what seems to be most urgently missing. Some of the most important gaps relate to research studying credit acquisition from the perspective of credit use as a reflection of the person or as a social process. In particular, research on credit use as a reflection of the person appears to focus exclusively on the first stage of the credit process. We conclude with a discussion that reaches across perspectives and identifies overarching gaps, trends, and open questions. We highlight a series of implicit linkages between perspectives and the geographical regions in which studies related to the perspectives were conducted. Beyond diagnosing a geographical imbalance of research, we argue for future research that systematically addresses interrelations between perspectives. We conclude with a set of global implications and research recommendations.

  7. Aggression in schools: Cyberbullying and gender issues.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Drishti; Kishore, Jugal; Sharma, Nandini; Duggal, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Due to increasing internet and mobile penetration, children in India are at risk of cyberbullying. A survey of 174 middle graders in Delhi showed that, of total, 8% indulged in cyberbullying and 17% reported being victimized by such acts. However, prevalence of in-person bullying, fighting and victimization by either was 16%, 12% and 17% respectively. Males were more likely to bully and fight in-person than females. They were also more likely to be victims of both online and offline aggression. Interwoven modes of bullying along with safe use of technology need to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Stephen C.; D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Gerstein, Hilary; Stevenson, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT’s role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 μg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 μg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, icv injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 μg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 μg NT or vehicle. 13 of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  9. Music, substance use, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A; Grube, Joel W; Waiters, Elizabeth D

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N=1056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music and students' alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors. Respondents' age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking were included in the analyses as control variables. Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. In addition, alcohol and illicit-drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables (e.g., sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity) were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. The findings suggest that young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Music listening preference, conversely, may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. There is also the possibility that substance use, aggression, and music preference are independent constructs that share common "third factors".

  10. An aggression policy that works.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Denby A; Sykes, Sharon R; McEwan, Allan G

    2004-12-13

    In 1999, a survey of the clinical staff in Royal Darwin Hospital showed that most instances of aggressive and abusive behaviour by patients or visitors occurring in the hospital went unreported because staff believed there would not be any follow-up investigation or action taken by management, Australia. In response, a hospital working party was formed to develop and implement an aggression management policy with practical effective strategies. The principal tool used was an Action Plan that delineated an immediate response to the aggression, as well as long-term strategies such as negotiated care and behaviour modification programs. An advocate is provided for the patient and debriefing for staff members. If the aggressive behaviour continues, early discharge of the patient could be initiated. The fundamental principle of the policy is to prevent fostering a culture of acceptance of aggressive behaviour through appropriate early intervention. In 2002, a follow-up survey showed that 82% of aggressive incidents were being reported and dealt with by management in a timely manner -- a significant improvement.

  11. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  12. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Michael D; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-08

    The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2-5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required.

  13. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

  14. One Look at Aggression in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl R.

    1980-01-01

    The author defines classroom aggression, deals with the possible explanations as to why such behavior occurs, looks at possible misconceptions related to classroom aggression, and points out items which need to be looked at when analyzing classroom aggression. Two types of aggression--hostile and instrumental--are considered. Determinants of…

  15. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  16. Aggression in Children in an Urban Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Leonard; Wilensky, Harold

    1976-01-01

    The clinical records of aggressive and non-aggressive children were examined for evidence of parental and peer models, frustrating life experiences, and capacity for fantasy on projective tests. Striking group differences appeared in the high frequency of aggressive behavior in parents and peers of the aggressive children, but not nonaggressive…

  17. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  18. Attributional bias and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Hudley, C; Friday, J

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student

  19. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  20. Guest Editorial. How Do We Deal with Aggression and Violence in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviors are increasing among today's students. Some children maintain consistently high levels of aggressiveness that affect them academically and socially. Abundant technology exists for assessment and intervention, and it should be used on a schoolwide basis as part of early intervention. The paper describes two types of…

  1. Mapping Developmental Precursors of Cyber-Aggression: Trajectories of Risk Predict Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-01-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…

  2. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  3. Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Denson, Thomas F.; O’Dean, Siobhan M.; Blake, Khandis R.; Beames, Joanne R.

    2018-01-01

    We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors) than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression. Fear of being harmed is a robust inhibitor of direct aggression in women. There are too few studies and most are underpowered to detect unique neural mechanisms associated with aggression in women. Testosterone shows the same small, positive relationship with aggression in women as in men. The role of cortisol is unclear, although some evidence suggests that women who are high in testosterone and low in cortisol show heightened aggression. Under some circumstances, oxytocin may increase aggression by enhancing reactivity to provocation and simultaneously lowering perceptions of danger that normally inhibit many women from retaliating. There is some evidence that high levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with low levels of aggression. We highlight that more gender-specific theory-driven hypothesis testing is needed with larger samples of women and aggression paradigms relevant to women. PMID:29770113

  4. Aggression in Women: Behavior, Brain and Hormones.

    PubMed

    Denson, Thomas F; O'Dean, Siobhan M; Blake, Khandis R; Beames, Joanne R

    2018-01-01

    We review the literature on aggression in women with an emphasis on laboratory experimentation and hormonal and brain mechanisms. Women tend to engage in more indirect forms of aggression (e.g., spreading rumors) than other types of aggression. In laboratory studies, women are less aggressive than men, but provocation attenuates this difference. In the real world, women are just as likely to aggress against their romantic partner as men are, but men cause more serious physical and psychological harm. A very small minority of women are also sexually violent. Women are susceptible to alcohol-related aggression, but this type of aggression may be limited to women high in trait aggression. Fear of being harmed is a robust inhibitor of direct aggression in women. There are too few studies and most are underpowered to detect unique neural mechanisms associated with aggression in women. Testosterone shows the same small, positive relationship with aggression in women as in men. The role of cortisol is unclear, although some evidence suggests that women who are high in testosterone and low in cortisol show heightened aggression. Under some circumstances, oxytocin may increase aggression by enhancing reactivity to provocation and simultaneously lowering perceptions of danger that normally inhibit many women from retaliating. There is some evidence that high levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with low levels of aggression. We highlight that more gender-specific theory-driven hypothesis testing is needed with larger samples of women and aggression paradigms relevant to women.

  5. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurobiological factors in aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Garza-Treviño, E S

    1994-07-01

    The author's aim was to review literature in the neurosciences and psychiatric clinical research reports about biological factors in aggression and the pathophysiological mechanisms that accompany aggression in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Studies were located through computer searches of relevant experimental reports and review articles mainly from the last 25 years. Several studies using neuroimaging and neurophysiological and neuropathological research techniques have identified lesions in the limbic structures, temporal lobes, and frontal lobes of the brain in abnormally aggressive individuals. Several reports have associated deficiency or dysregulation of serotonin with homicidal, suicidal, and impulsive behavior. However, few studies have focused on polypeptides or second messenger systems, although abnormalities in these systems have been reported in patients with neuropsychiatric syndromes who have shown aggressive behavior. Even fewer studies focus on the correlation of brain structures and metabolic markers. The understanding of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients is fragmented. Some explanations are speculative and extrapolated to clinical psychiatric syndromes from experimental data on the neurophysiology of cats, rats, and other mammals. Identification of biochemical markers that can be used in predicting patients' response to pharmacological interventions may be the next step in developing more rational treatment of violent patients.

  7. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  8. Multifaceted regulation of V(D)J recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guannan

    V(D)J recombination is responsible for generating an enormous repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, therefore it is a centerpiece to the formation of the adaptive immune system. The V(D)J recombination process proceeds through two steps, site-specific cleavage at RSS (Recombination Signal Sequence) site mediated by the RAG recombinase (RAG1/2) and the subsequent imprecise resolution of the DNA ends, which is carried out by the ubiquitous non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ). The V(D)J recombination reaction is obliged to be tightly controlled under all circumstances, as it involves generations of DNA double strand breaks, which are considered the most dangerous lesion to a cell. Multifaceted regulatory mechanisms have been evolved to create great diversity of the antigen receptor repertoire while ensuring genome stability. The RAG-mediated cleavage reaction is stringently regulated at both the pre-cleavage stage and the post-cleavage stage. Specifically, RAG1/2 first forms a pre-cleavage complex assembled at the boarder of RSS and coding flank, which ensures the appropriate DNA targeting. Subsequently, this complex initiates site-specific cleavage, generating two types of double stranded DNA breaks, hairpin-ended coding ends (HP-CEs) and blunt signal ends (SEs). After the cleavage, RAG1/2 proteins bind and retain the recombination ends to form post-cleavage complexes (PCC), which collaborates with the NHEJ machinery for appropriate transfer of recombination ends to NHEJ for proper end resolution. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this collaboration, partly attributed to the lack of sensitive assays to reveal the interaction of PCC with HP-CEs. Here, for the first time, by using two complementary fluorescence-based techniques, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), I managed to monitor the RAG1/2-catalyzed cleavage reaction in real time, from the pre-cleavage to the post-cleavage stages. By

  9. The frontal lobe and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2014-01-01

    Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal structural and functional underpinnings of antisocial behaviour. Careful characterization of antisocial behaviour subtypes seems to indicate that cognitive-neuropsychological function is systematically poor in physical aggression and hyperactivity. Recent refinements point to biological and genetic moderators of that association. PMID:24976846

  10. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  11. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  12. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  13. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  14. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  15. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  16. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  17. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  18. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization…

  19. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  1. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  2. Development and evaluation of a multifaceted ergonomics program to prevent injuries associated with patient handling tasks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Audrey; Matz, Mary; Chen, Fangfei; Siddharthan, Kris; Lloyd, John; Fragala, Guy

    2006-08-01

    Nurses have one of the highest rates of work-related musculoskeletal injury of any profession. Over the past 30 years, efforts to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders in nurses have been largely unsuccessful. The primary goal of this program was to create safer working environments for nursing staff who provide direct patient care. Our first objective was to design and implement a multifaceted program that successfully integrated evidence-based practice, technology, and safety improvement. The second objective was to evaluate the impact of the program on injury rate, lost and modified work days, job satisfaction, self-reported unsafe patient handling acts, level of support for program, staff and patient acceptance, program effectiveness, costs, and return on investment. The intervention included six program elements: (1) Ergonomic Assessment Protocol, (2) Patient Handling Assessment Criteria and Decision Algorithms, (3) Peer Leader role, "Back Injury Resource Nurses", (4) State-of-the-art Equipment, (5) After Action Reviews, and (6) No Lift Policy. A pre-/post design without a control group was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a patient care ergonomics program on 23 high risk units (19 nursing home care units and 4 spinal cord injury units) in 7 facilities. Injury rates, lost work days, modified work days, job satisfaction, staff , and patient acceptance, program effectiveness, and program costs/savings were compared over two nine month periods: pre-intervention (May 2001-January 2002) and post-intervention (March 2002-November 2002). Data were collected prospectively through surveys, weekly process logs, injury logs, and cost logs. The program elements resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the rate of musculoskeletal injuries as well as the number of modified duty days taken per injury. While the total number of lost workdays decreased by 18% post-intervention, this difference was not statistically significant. There were statistically

  3. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  4. Understanding and Effectively Managing the Aggressive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mitchell A; Roblee, Cathy

    1983-01-01

    Identifies specific behavioral characteristics of both aggressive and passive-aggressive students, delineates a four-step process that most aggressive students go through as they lose control of their emotions, and describes intervention strategies that teachers can use to deal with each step of the breakdown of control. (FL)

  5. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  6. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  7. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  8. P3 and provoked aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Long, James M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and biological processes play a role in human aggression. However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive processes in aggressive individuals, particularly as they unfold during an aggressive encounter. We investigated whether the P3 event-related potential (ERP) discriminates aggressive versus nonaggressive individuals during a provocative, aggressive encounter. Forty-eight participants (23 men and 25 women) were classified as aggressive or nonaggressive based on self-reported life history of aggression. Aggressive behavior was assessed using a modification of a well-validated laboratory task during which the participant and a fictitious opponent ostensibly delivered and received noise blasts of low, medium, and high intensity. Provocation was manipulated by altering the level of noise set by the opponent. Aggression was defined as the number of high-intensity noise blasts the participant set for the opponent. As predicted, P3 amplitude in response to provocation differed as a function of aggressive history. Nonaggressive individuals showed enhanced P3 when provoked by the opponent relative to low provocation, but this effect was absent in aggressive individuals. The results suggest that aggressive individuals engage fewer neural processing resources in response to provoking social cues, which may reflect aberrant cognitive and emotional processes.

  9. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    PubMed

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  11. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  12. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  13. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  14. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  15. John Grant and the multifaceted nature of true professionalism: Personal perspective

    SciT

    Baer, Donald R.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Fulghum, Julia E.

    Consideration of the elements that contribute to professional and scientific impact is relevant in a volume honoring John Grant for two reasons. First, John has contributed in many ways to both advancing the methodology and the practical application of surface-analytical tools to understanding surfaces and interfaces of technological importance. The second reason is a little more complex. In an era when there is an effort to quantify contributions in various ways (e.g., citations, H-index, number of publications) and when social media seems, at least anecdotally, to lead a younger generation of scientists to be less involved in traditional professional activities,more » it is appropriate to examine the nature of the activities that make a lasting contribution to the advancement of science and technology and the professional community that makes progress possible. The multifaceted nature of John’s professional activities provides an appropriate background for exploring the nature of professionalism. With no reservations one can say that the foundation of professionalism is rooted in a scientist’s expertise in some area of research or practice. This expertise might be measured in numerous ways depending upon the field and could include numbers of publications, citations, patents, problems solved, research support obtained, or students produced. These “products” may or may not be readily visible to the community at large. Chuck Wagner – a pioneer in XPS, developer of an empirical set of XPS sensitivity factors and the modified Auger-parameter plot, and winner of the AVS Nerken Award in 1989 – observed that he could not publish or talk about 90% of the work he had done when working for Shell Oil. However, based on XPS capability developments that he could publish, he had a major impact on the development and application of XPS. To some degree John Grant’s research fits this model as well. Much of his early work at the Air Force Materials Research

  16. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  17. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  18. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  19. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  20. The Multifaceted Variable Approach: Selection of Method in Solving Simple Linear Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahir, Salma; Cavanagh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the solution strategies used by two groups of Year 8 students as they solved linear equations. The experimental group studied algebra following a multifaceted variable approach, while the comparison group used a traditional approach. Students in the experimental group employed different solution strategies,…

  1. A Multi-Faceted Formative Assessment Approach: Better Recognising the Learning Needs of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Students are increasingly subject to a series of learning pressures that prevent effective engagement in assessment. Thus, the aim of this study was to create a multi-faceted formative assessment approach that better enabled students to engage in the assessment process. A formative assessment approach, consisting of six key initiatives, is…

  2. Classical, Generalizability, and Multifaceted Rasch Detection of Interrater Variability in Large, Sparse Data Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Compared classical test theory (CTT), generalizability theory (GT), and multifaceted Rasch model (MFRM) approaches to detecting and correcting for rater variability using responses of 4,930 high school students graded by 3 raters on 9 scales. The MFRM approach identified far more raters as different than did the CTT analysis. GT and Rasch…

  3. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Successful Transition for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubberly, Russell G.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the multi-faceted, dynamic instructional model implemented to increase positive transition outcomes for high school students with intellectual disabilities. This report is based on the programmatic methods implemented within a secondary-level school in an urban setting. This pedagogical model facilitates the use of…

  4. THE DEPENDABILITY OF BEHAVIORAL MEASUREMENTS--MULTIFACET STUDIES OF GENERALIZABILITY. TECHNICAL REPORT, PRELIMINARY VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRONBACH, LEE J.; AND OTHERS

    A MEASURING OPERATION IS A SAMPLE FROM A UNIVERSE OF ADMISSIBLE OBSERVATIONS....GENERALIZABILITY STUDIES ESTIMATE THE MAGNITUDE OF THE DISCREPENCIES LIKELY TO ARISE UNDER A GIVEN MEASURING PROCEDURE, AND PROVIDE FORMULAS FOR ESTABLISHING INTERVAL AND POINT ESTIMATES OF THE UNIVERSE SCORE. A MULTIFACET GENERALIZABILITY ANALYSIS DEPARTS IN SEVERAL…

  5. A Multifaceted Approach to Teamwork Assessment in an Undergraduate Business Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemery, Edward R.; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multifaceted, multilevel approach to teamwork learning and assessment. It includes teamwork knowledge, peer and self-appraisal of teamwork behavior, and individual and team performance on objective tests for teaching and assessing teamwork in an undergraduate business program. At the beginning of this semester-long process, students…

  6. A Multifaceted Approach to Investigating Pre-Task Planning Effects on Paired Oral Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitta, Ryo; Nakatsuhara, Fumiyo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of paired format speaking assessments, the effects of pre-task planning time on performance in these formats are not yet well understood. For example, some studies have revealed the benefits of planning but others have not. Using a multifaceted approach including analysis of the process of speaking performance, the…

  7. Multifaceted spiral suture: A hemostatic technique in managing placenta praevia or accrete

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yifan; Wu, Peng; Deng, Dongrui; Wu, Jianli; Lin, Xingguang; Beejadhursing, Rajluxmee; Zha, Ying; Qiao, Fuyuan; Feng, Ling; Liu, Haiyi; Zeng, Wanjiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Patients with total placenta previa and past history of cesarean delivery often experience overwhelming hemorrhage during childbirth. In order to control intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, we propose a novel multifaceted spiral suture of the lower uterine segment which directly sutures the bleeding site. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multifaceted spiral suture, a retrospective study was conducted using data from 33 patients with total placenta praevia and caesarean history. All participants underwent multifaceted spiral suture and no patient experienced uncontrollable bleeding or underwent hysterectomy. The average blood loss of all patients involved was 1327.3 ± 1244.1 mL. Five patients reported blood loss exceeding 3000 mL (15.15%), and the highest reached to 4000 mL. No complications such as fever, pyometra, synechiae, or uterine necrosis were observed. Three cases (3/33, 9.09%) reported hematuria in the first 3 days following surgery and spontaneous resolution were observed within 3 to 7 days following insertion of indwelling catheters. No complaints were received during 6-month follow-up visits. These findings suggest that multifaceted spiral suture is a practical, feasible, and promising technique in potentially minimizing postpartum bleeding and avoiding hysterectomy for patients with placenta praevia or accrete. PMID:29245338

  8. Infinity as a Multi-Faceted Concept in History and in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Bussi, Maria G., Bartolini; Robutti, Ornella

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation of infinity as a multi-faceted concept, discussing two examples. The first is from history and illustrates the work of Euler, when using infinity in an algebraic context. The second sketches an activity in a school context, namely students who approach the definite integral with symbolic-graphic…

  9. A Multifaceted Partner Presentation Assignment for Improving Educational Outcomes among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Claire A.; Perlman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a multifaceted course assignment involving the development of information literacy skills, speed partnering, a brief team VoiceThread presentation, and peer evaluations of the presentations. The assignment was rooted in Chickering and Gamson's (1989) highly regarded principles of good educational practice, as well as the…

  10. One Iota Fills the Quota: A Paradox in Multifacet Reliability Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    A paradoxical phenomenon of decreases in reliability as the number of elements averaged over increases is shown to be possible in multifacet reliability procedures (intraclass correlations or generalizability coefficients). Conditions governing this phenomenon are presented along with implications and cautions. (Author)

  11. Terminological Multifaceted Educational Dictionary of Active Type as a Possible Way of Special Discourse Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatkullina, Flyuza; Morozkina, Eugenia; Suleimanova, Almira; Khayrullina, Rayca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to disclose the scientific basis of the author's academic terminological dictionary for future oil industry experts. Multifaceted terminological dictionary with several different entries is considered to be one of the possible ways to present a special discourse in the classroom. As a result of the study the authors…

  12. Naked aggression: Personality and portfolio manager performance

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that a personality trait, aggression, has a first-order effect on group financial decision making. In a laboratory experiment on group portfolio choice, highly aggressive subjects (measured by a standard psychology test) were much more likely to recommend risky investment strategies consistent with their own personal information, regardless of the information received by other group members. Outside of this group context, aggression had no effect on subject behavior. Thus, our aggression measure appears to capture an aggressive disposition, which seeks to dominate group decisions, rather than simply reflect risk attitudes or cognitive biases. PMID:29432449

  13. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  14. Naked aggression: Personality and portfolio manager performance.

    PubMed

    Noe, Thomas; Vulkan, Nir

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that a personality trait, aggression, has a first-order effect on group financial decision making. In a laboratory experiment on group portfolio choice, highly aggressive subjects (measured by a standard psychology test) were much more likely to recommend risky investment strategies consistent with their own personal information, regardless of the information received by other group members. Outside of this group context, aggression had no effect on subject behavior. Thus, our aggression measure appears to capture an aggressive disposition, which seeks to dominate group decisions, rather than simply reflect risk attitudes or cognitive biases.

  15. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  16. Aggression and Agitation in Dementia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M Uri; Goldberg, Yael; Freedman, Morris

    2018-06-01

    This article reviews the treatment of aggression and agitation in dementia. Both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to responsive behaviors are discussed. Practical treatment strategies are applied to common behavioral symptoms. Aggressive and agitated behavior is common in dementia. Behavioral symptoms lead to reduced quality of life and distress for both patients and caregivers. They can also lead to poor outcomes and are associated with significant financial implications for the individual and health care system. A wide range of difficult behaviors exists, with limited evidence for deciding on treatment. Clinicians should integrate the available evidence with practical and commonsense strategies to target these difficult-to-treat behaviors. Treating aggression and agitation in dementia is challenging. Viewing behaviors as a response to either internal or external stimuli can help guide treatment. Treatment should emphasize nonpharmacologic approaches as an initial step, using practical and commonsense strategies. Caregivers and family should be actively involved in the planning and implementation of behavioral plans. It is essential to minimize both medical and nonmedical factors that may be contributing to behaviors. When pharmacologic options are required, it is important to choose medications that will target specific behavioral goals, having both practical consideration and the best evidence in mind.

  17. Borderline Personality and Externalized Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder are diagnostically and clinically characterized by self-harm behavior, as indicated by the criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, “recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior.” However, individuals with borderline personality disorder can display externalized aggressive behavior, as well. In an area characterized by considerably less research, empirical evidence indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder may exhibit physical violence toward partners, physical violence toward known but nonintimate individuals, criminal behaviors that embody externalized violence (e.g., property damage), and, on very rare occasion, murderous behavior (either of family members or anonymous others through serial killing). Given this under-researched area, there are probably other types of externalized aggressive behaviors that have not been empirically revealed. However, externalized aggressive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder clearly exist and need to be assessed in both psychiatric and primary care settings in an effort to promote safety of medical personnel and effective patient management. PMID:22567607

  18. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  19. A multifaceted program for improving quality of care in intensive care units: IATROREF study.

    PubMed

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maite; Soufir, Lilia; Tabah, Alexis; Schwebel, Carole; Vesin, Aurelien; Adrie, Christophe; Thuong, Marie; Timsit, Jean Francois

    2012-02-01

    To test the effects of three multifaceted safety programs designed to decrease insulin administration errors, anticoagulant prescription and administration errors, and errors leading to accidental removal of endotracheal tubes and central venous catheters, respectively. Medical errors and adverse events are associated with increased mortality in intensive care patients, indicating an urgent need for prevention programs. Multicenter cluster-randomized study. One medical intensive care unit in a university hospital and two medical-surgical intensive care units in community hospitals belonging to the Outcomerea Study Group. Consecutive patients >18 yrs admitted from January 2007 to January 2008 to the intensive care units. We tested three multifaceted safety programs vs. standard care in random order, each over 2.5 months, after a 1.5-month observation period. Incidence rates of medical errors/1000 patient-days in the multifaceted safety program and standard-care groups were compared using adjusted hierarchical models. In 2117 patients with 15,014 patient-days, 8520 medical errors (567.5/1000 patient-days) were reported, including 1438 adverse events (16.9%, 95.8/1000 patient-days). The insulin multifaceted safety program significantly decreased errors during implementation (risk ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.82; p = .0003) and after implementation (risk ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.35-0.73; p = .0004). A significant Hawthorne effect was found. The accidental tube/catheter removal multifaceted safety program decreased errors significantly during implementation (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% CI 0.15-0.81; p = .01]) and nonsignificantly after implementation (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.78-3.48). The anticoagulation multifaceted safety program was not significantly effective (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.26-1.59) but produced a significant Hawthorne effect. A multifaceted program was effective in preventing insulin errors and accidental tube/catheter removal. Significant Hawthorne

  20. Aggressive challenging behaviour and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Benson, Betsey A; Brooks, Whitney T

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this article is to review reports of aggressive challenging behaviour in individuals with intellectual disability from September 2006 to March 2008. Studies continued to demonstrate the prevalence and significance of aggressive challenging behaviour in persons with intellectual disability. Over half of the population engages in some form of aggression, but only a small number is responsible for frequent or severe acts. A publication that identified aggression profiles offered a promising new approach. Aggressive behaviour in adults often has multiple functions. The most frequently studied interventions were either behavioural or somatic. Parents learned skills to effectively intervene with their aggressive preschool child. Reviews of medication efficacy studies concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend a single medication. Psychiatrists agreed that medication should not be the first treatment option. In one study, a class of medication was found to reduce aggression, but not aggression with self-injury, or self-injury alone. Research on aggressive challenging behaviour requires assessment instruments that address the topography and severity of aggression. Identifying aggression types may clarify mixed results of previous research and improve treatment effectiveness. Greater access to effective, nonmedication treatments is needed.

  1. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  2. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  3. Hypervideo for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review on a Multifaceted Technological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauli, Florinda; Cattaneo, Alberto; van der Meij, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The term "hypervideo" has different interpretations in the scientific literature. The aim of this contribution is to define hypervideo as it is and can be (more optimally) used for teaching and learning purposes. Videos can promote learning by recreating real experiences and dynamic processes, although they do not necessarily enable…

  4. Sustainable intensification: a multifaceted, systemic approach to international development.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, Jennifer; Ares, Adrian; van Houweling, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used to describe a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, there is still little understanding or knowledge of the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles that convey the current characterization of SI, comprising a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, in addition to various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this review explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition throughout the process. To properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to different cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of the effective execution of SI strategies can assist with the successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A multifaceted independent performance analysis of facial subspace recognition algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Anwar, Muhammad Waqas; Wang, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition has emerged as the fastest growing biometric technology and has expanded a lot in the last few years. Many new algorithms and commercial systems have been proposed and developed. Most of them use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a base for their techniques. Different and even conflicting results have been reported by researchers comparing these algorithms. The purpose of this study is to have an independent comparative analysis considering both performance and computational complexity of six appearance based face recognition algorithms namely PCA, 2DPCA, A2DPCA, (2D)(2)PCA, LPP and 2DLPP under equal working conditions. This study was motivated due to the lack of unbiased comprehensive comparative analysis of some recent subspace methods with diverse distance metric combinations. For comparison with other studies, FERET, ORL and YALE databases have been used with evaluation criteria as of FERET evaluations which closely simulate real life scenarios. A comparison of results with previous studies is performed and anomalies are reported. An important contribution of this study is that it presents the suitable performance conditions for each of the algorithms under consideration.

  6. Muscarine- and carbachol-induced aggressions: fear and irritable kinds of aggressions.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R

    1977-12-28

    In unaneasthetized and unrestrained cats, muscarine and carbachol were injected into the cerebral ventricles. The kind of aggressive behaviour depended on the cholinomimetic drug and was classified as fear and an irritable kind of aggression. Muscarine induced the fear kind of aggression. The aggressive behaviour was usually preceded by attempts to escape and the attack was relevant to the situation. For the attack the presence of some threatening agent was needed. The aggression was accompanied by intense motor but less autonomic activation. On the other hand, carbachol induced an irritable kind of aggression and had the following characteristics: for the attack the presence of some threatening agent was not needed; the attack was not relevant to the situation; the aggression was not preceded by attempts to escape; and the aggressive behaviour was accompanied by intense motor and autonomic activation. It is concluded that cholinoceptive mechanisms are involved in the control of aggressive behaviour.

  7. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  8. Clinical correlates of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Young, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationships between verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury. Multivariate statistical modelling of observed verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour utilizing demographic, pre-morbid, injury-related and neurocognitive predictors. Clinical records of 152 participants with acquired brain injury were reviewed, providing an important data set as disordered behaviours had been recorded at the time of occurrence with the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) Aggression Rating Scale and complementary measures of inappropriate sexual behaviour. Three behavioural components (verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour) were identified and subjected to separate logistical regression modelling in a sub-set of 77 participants. Successful modelling was achieved for both verbal and physical aggression (correctly classifying 74% and 65% of participants, respectively), with use of psychotropic medication and poorer verbal function increasing the odds of aggression occurring. Pre-morbid history of aggression predicted verbal but not physical aggression. No variables predicted inappropriate sexual behaviour. Verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour following acquired brain injury appear to reflect separate clinical phenomena rather than general behavioural dysregulation. Clinical markers that indicate an increased risk of post-injury aggression were not related to inappropriate sexual behaviour.

  9. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  10. Two types of aggression in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard W

    2018-01-09

    Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression. Compared with many primates, humans have a high propensity for proactive aggression, a trait shared with chimpanzees but not bonobos. By contrast, humans have a low propensity for reactive aggression compared with chimpanzees, and in this respect humans are more bonobo-like. The bimodal classification of human aggression helps solve two important puzzles. First, a long-standing debate about the significance of aggression in human nature is misconceived, because both positions are partly correct. The Hobbes-Huxley position rightly recognizes the high potential for proactive violence, while the Rousseau-Kropotkin position correctly notes the low frequency of reactive aggression. Second, the occurrence of two major types of human aggression solves the execution paradox, concerned with the hypothesized effects of capital punishment on self-domestication in the Pleistocene. The puzzle is that the propensity for aggressive behavior was supposedly reduced as a result of being selected against by capital punishment, but capital punishment is itself an aggressive behavior. Since the aggression used by executioners is proactive, the execution paradox is solved to the extent that the aggressive behavior of which victims were accused was frequently reactive, as has been reported. Both types of killing are important in humans, although proactive killing appears to be typically more frequent in war. The biology of proactive aggression is less well known and merits increased attention.

  11. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  12. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  13. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  14. Determination of the neutralization depth of concrete under the aggressive environment influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzhukhina, Anastasia; Nikitin, Stanislav; Akimova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Aggressive environments have a significant impact on destruction of many reinforced concrete structures, such as high-rise constructions or chemical plants. For example, some high-rise constructions are equipped with a swimming pool, so they are exposed to chloride ions in the air. Penetration of aggressive chemical substances into the body of concrete contributes to acceleration of reinforced concrete structure corrosion that in turn leads to load bearing capacity loss and destruction of the building. The article considers and analyzes the main technologies for calculating penetration depth of various aggressive substances into the body of concrete. The calculation of corrosion depth was made for 50-year service life.

  15. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  16. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Aggression in the work environment of physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Szczegielniak, Anna; Skowronek, Anna; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Aggression in the medical environment can take on different forms. It can be inflicted both by patients and workmates and may also cause a rise of aggressive behavior performed by the physiotherapists themselves. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible danger that may occur in the working environment of physiotherapists as well as to assess the correlation between such factors as the length of professional experience and exposure to the aggression inflicted by patients and workmates in the workplace with the level of aggression occurring within the professional group of physiotherapists. The study was conducted among 50 physiotherapists from Opole and the Silesian Voivodships in Poland. Two types of questionnaires were used: the author's own questionnaire, assessing exposure of the physiotherapists to aggression in the workplace, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results were analyzed with the Statistica 8.0 application. 60% of participants suffered from patients' verbal aggression, 8% from physical aggression and 26% from the patients' emotional self-aggression at least twice a month. The study showed a minor correlation between the duration of the length of professional experience and the level of hostility (r=0.2; p>0.05). There is a considerable impact of negative emotions present in relations with workmates at the workplace causing mainly increase of general aggression among physiotherapists and hostility. Similarly, negative emotions that may appear in relations between psychiatrists and patients show a positive correlation with the level of general aggression developed by doctors. It can be observed that there is a huge impact of the impulsive behaviour and attitude (presented both by patients and workmates in the workplaces) on the appearance of aggressive actions by physiotherapists (especially anger and hostility). Further research in this field is needed.

  18. [Lorenz was right, or does aggressive energy accumulate?].

    PubMed

    Kudriavtseva, N N

    2004-06-01

    Evidence supporting the fact that inherited mechanisms of regulation of aggressive behavior as a result of a repeated experience of aggression ending in victories are transformed into pathological mechanisms based on accumulation of neurochemical shifts in the brain, enhancing aggressiveness, and forming aggressive motivation in aggressive winners. This confirms the concept by Lorenz on the existence of a mechanism (but not instinct) of a spontaneous accumulation of aggressive energy that needs a discharge and formation of permanent attraction to manifestation of aggression.

  19. Effects of a multifaceted minimal-lift environment for nursing staff: pilot results.

    PubMed

    Zadvinskis, Inga M; Salsbury, Susan L

    2010-02-01

    Nursing staff are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries because of the physical nature of patient handling. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a multifaceted minimal-lift environment on reported equipment use, musculoskeletal injury rates, and workers' compensation costs for patient-handling injuries. The pilot study consists of a mixed measures design, with both descriptive and quasi-experimental design elements. The intervention consists of engineering (minimal-lift equipment), administrative (nursing policy), and behavioral (peer coach program) controls. The comparison nursing unit has received engineering controls only. The convenience sample includes nursing staff employed on two medical-surgical nursing units, who provide direct patient care at least 50% of the time. Nursing staff employed in a multifaceted lift environment report greater lift equipment use and experience less injury, with reduced worker's compensation costs.

  20. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that in order to continue aggressive growth in our Nation's telecommunications and technology industries, the United States Government should "Get Out of the Way and Stay Out of the Way".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Latta, Robert E. [R-OH-5

    2009-01-07

    House - 01/14/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that in order to continue aggressive growth in our Nation's telecommunications and technology industries, the United States Government should "Get Out of the Way and Stay Out of the Way".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Latta, Robert E. [R-OH-5

    2009-02-13

    House - 02/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Forming groups of aggressive sows based on a predictive test of aggression does not affect overall sow aggression or welfare.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Megan; Morrison, R S; Hemsworth, P H

    2018-05-01

    This experiment examined the effects of group composition on sow aggressive behaviour and welfare. Over 6 time replicates, 360 sows (parity 1-6) were mixed into groups (10 sows per pen, 1.8 m 2 /sow) composed of animals that were predicted to be aggressive (n = 18 pens) or groups composed of animals that were randomly selected (n = 18 pens). Predicted aggressive sows were selected based on a model-pig test that has been shown to be related to the aggressive behaviour of parity 2 sows when subsequently mixed in groups. Measurements were taken on aggression delivered post-mixing, and aggression delivered around feeding, fresh skin injuries and plasma cortisol concentrations at days 2 and 24 post-mixing. Live weight gain, litter size (born alive, total born, stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. Manipulating the group composition based on predicted sow aggressiveness had no effect (P > 0.05) on sow aggression delivered at mixing or around feeding, fresh injuries, cortisol, weight gain from day 2 to day 24, farrowing rate, or litter size. The lack of treatment effects in the present experiment could be attributed to (1) a failure of the model-pig test to predict aggression in older sows in groups, or (2) the dependence of the expression of the aggressive phenotype on factors such as social experience and characteristics (e.g., physical size and aggressive phenotype) of pen mates. This research draws attention to the intrinsic difficulties associated with predicting behaviour across contexts, particularly when the behaviour is highly dependent on interactions with conspecifics, and highlights the social complexities involved in the presentation of a behavioural phenotype. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  4. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; She, Yihan; Colarelli, Stephen M; Fang, Yuan; Meng, Hui; Chen, Qiuju; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Acts of self-control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self-control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non-depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self-control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction-time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non-depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non-depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self-control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  7. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  8. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care.

    PubMed

    Farrell Miller, M

    1997-05-01

    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  9. Harm, intent, and the nature of aggressive behavior: measuring naturally occurring aggression in barroom settings.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F; Wells, Samantha; Pernanen, Kai; Purcell, John; Jelley, Jennifer

    2006-09-01

    The research goals were to use the constructs of harm and intent to quantify the severity of aggression in the real-world setting of the bar/club, to describe the range of aggressive behaviors and their relationship to harm and intent, and to examine gender differences in the form and severity of aggression. Systematic observations were conducted by trained observers on 1,334 nights in 118 bars/clubs. Observers documented a range of aggressive acts by 1,754 patrons in 1,052 incidents, with many forms of aggression occurring at more than one harm and intent level. Women used different forms of aggression, inflicted less harm, and were more likely to have defensive intent compared with men. Implications of the findings for research and measurement of aggression and applications to preventing aggression and violence are discussed.

  10. Multifaceted free-space image distributor for optical interconnects in massively parrallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Frietman, Edward E. E.; Han, Zhong; Chen, Ray T.

    1999-04-01

    A characteristic feature of a conventional von Neumann computer is that computing power is delivered by a single processing unit. Although increasing the clock frequency improves the performance of the computer, the switching speed of the semiconductor devices and the finite speed at which electrical signals propagate along the bus set the boundaries. Architectures containing large numbers of nodes can solve this performance dilemma, with the comment that main obstacles in designing such systems are caused by difficulties to come up with solutions that guarantee efficient communications among the nodes. Exchanging data becomes really a bottleneck should al nodes be connected by a shared resource. Only optics, due to its inherent parallelism, could solve that bottleneck. Here, we explore a multi-faceted free space image distributor to be used in optical interconnects in massively parallel processing. In this paper, physical and optical models of the image distributor are focused on from diffraction theory of light wave to optical simulations. the general features and the performance of the image distributor are also described. The new structure of an image distributor and the simulations for it are discussed. From the digital simulation and experiment, it is found that the multi-faceted free space image distributing technique is quite suitable for free space optical interconnection in massively parallel processing and new structure of the multifaceted free space image distributor would perform better.

  11. A multifaceted intervention model can give a lasting improvement of older peoples' nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, B; Wilhelmsson, S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was with a multifaceted intervention model improve the nutritional status of elderly people living in residential homes to increase their energy intake and to maintain improvements over time. Three different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden. The study population consisted of 67 elderly people. A within-subjects design was used which means that the participants were their own controls. A multifaceted intervention model was chosen, which included education on both theoretical and practical issues, training and support for staff, and individualized snacks to the residents. Nutritional status was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the consumption of food was recorded by the staff using a food record method for 3 consecutive days. The length of night-time fasting has been calculated from the food records. Nutritional status improved after 3 months of intervention and was maintained after 9 months. Weight increased during the whole study period. Night-time fasting decreased but not to the recommended level. This study shows that it is possible by a multifaceted intervention model to increase energy intake including expanding snacks and thereby improve and maintain nutritional status over a longer period in the elderly living in residential homes. This result was possible to achieve because staff received education and training in nutritional issues and by provision of support during a period when new routines were introduced.

  12. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  13. Characterizing Aggressive Behavior with the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014

  14. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  15. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  16. Daily Associations among Anger Experience and Intimate Partner Aggression within Aggressive and Nonaggressive Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate partner aggression using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner aggression perpetration among male and female participants as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both Actor and Partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily Partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among females who reported high anger and males, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in Actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive females. Previously aggressive males and females consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high Actor anger experience. Results emphasize the importance of both Actor and Partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level. PMID:24866529

  17. Aggression Levels in College Students after Exposure or Non-Exposure to an Aggressive Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.; Nolden, Wesley L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined what types of aggressive behaviors are learned from an individual's social environment in a sample of 14 college students who were Vietnam veterans and 66 non-Vietnam veterans and nonveteran students. Results indicated assault is clearly one aggressive behavior that increases with exposure to aggressive life experience. (JAC)

  18. Harm, Intent, and the Nature of Aggressive Behavior: Measuring Naturally Occurring Aggression in Barroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathryn; Tremblay, Paul F.; Wells, Samantha; Pernanen, Kai; Purcell, John; Jelley, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The research goals were to use the constructs of harm and intent to quantify the severity of aggression in the real-world setting of the bar/club, to describe the range of aggressive behaviors and their relationship to harm and intent, and to examine gender differences in the form and severity of aggression. Systematic observations were conducted…

  19. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  20. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  1. Role Stress and Aggression among Young Adults: The Moderating Influences of Gender and Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…

  2. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  3. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  4. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    PubMed

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  5. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  6. Stress and Intimate Partner Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that stressed couples also tend to be aggressive couples. Chronic external stresses interact with individuals’ dispositional and regulatory deficiencies, resulting in a spillover of these stresses into the relationship. High individual stress in combination with problematic interaction styles and problem-solving abilities increases the likelihood of IPA. We applied the I3 Model to better organize the instigating, impelling, and inhibiting factors and processes that moderate the stress-IPA association. Evidence suggests that certain forms of stress, such as IPA victimization, reliably instigate IPA perpetration, with weak inhibitory processes and impaired problem solving moderating the stress-IPA association. More research is needed that specifies the ‘perfect storm’ of factors that increase our understanding of how, and for whom, stress increases IPA risk. PMID:28497106

  7. Stress and Intimate Partner Aggression.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Parrott, Dominic J

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that stressed couples also tend to be aggressive couples. Chronic external stresses interact with individuals' dispositional and regulatory deficiencies, resulting in a spillover of these stresses into the relationship. High individual stress in combination with problematic interaction styles and problem-solving abilities increases the likelihood of IPA. We applied the I 3 Model to better organize the instigating, impelling, and inhibiting factors and processes that moderate the stress-IPA association. Evidence suggests that certain forms of stress, such as IPA victimization, reliably instigate IPA perpetration, with weak inhibitory processes and impaired problem solving moderating the stress-IPA association. More research is needed that specifies the 'perfect storm' of factors that increase our understanding of how, and for whom, stress increases IPA risk.

  8. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  9. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  10. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  11. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  12. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  13. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  14. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  15. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  16. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  17. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Displaced Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael G.; Miller, Patricia H.

    1983-01-01

    Examines early phases of understanding of causes of moderately and extremely displaced aggression. Preschool and kindergarten children three to five years of age viewed eight videotaped episodes of displaced aggression. Comprehension was assessed by means of open-ended questions and forced-choice picture selections. (Author/RH)

  19. Nursing students' experiences in managing patient aggression.

    PubMed

    Nau, Johannes; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud; Needham, Ian

    2007-11-01

    Nursing students are at high risk to become a victim of patient aggression. There is little evidence that training programmes developed for post-registered nurses or nurses in psychiatric or forensic settings can meet the needs of nursing students. To gain more insight into student nurses' educational outcomes in Germany the view of the target group was explored. Twelve nursing students participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were evaluated by qualitative content analysis. Managing patient aggression is a general challenge for nursing students and is not confined to psychiatric settings. Specific problems of beginners became evident. Additionally, general issues were addressed on control of causes of aggression, interpretation aggressive situations, dealing with the aggressive patient, coping with stress, and organizational issues. Nursing students need preparation and training in handling patient aggression. They should acquire knowledge about aggression, awareness of contributing problems, self-confidence in dealing with aggressive patients, assertiveness and empathy in communication and the ability to cope in an appropriate manner. In addition the safety policy of hospital placements should be examined for appropriateness to support nursing students.

  20. School-Based Aggression Replacement Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Becky Sue; Striepling-Goldstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a potent K-12 intervention that responds to many of the developmental and natural needs of aggressive and antisocial students. Woven into the curriculum preventatively or as a stand-alone course in response to an antisocial school climate, ART facilitates the learning necessary to reach and provide lasting…

  1. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  2. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  3. Student Aggression: Prevention, Management, and Replacement Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; And Others

    American society is violent, a fact which is well-reflected in schools. This book, designed specifically for school personnel, presents the primary techniques currently being employed by educators to prevent, manage, and replace student aggression. The volume opens with a description of the origins of aggressive behavior and offers some…

  4. Melatonin increases reactive aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinting; Zhong, Ru; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Haibo; Eisenegger, Christoph; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intruder aggression, this study aimed to investigate the impact of melatonin treatment on human aggression. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled between-participant design, 63 healthy male volunteers completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) after oral administration of melatonin or placebo. We found that when given the opportunity to administer high or low punishments to an opponent, participants who ingested melatonin selected the high punishment more often than those who ingested placebo. The increased reactive aggression under melatonin administration remained after controlling for inhibitory ability, trait aggression, trait impulsiveness, circadian preference, perceptual sensibility to noise, and changes in subjective sleepiness and emotional states. This study provides novel and direct evidence for the involvement of melatonin in human social processes.

  5. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    PubMed

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  6. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases.

  7. 'Hotspots' for aggression in licensed drinking venues.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D Wayne; Wells, Samantha

    2012-06-01

    In order to better understand the social context of barroom aggression, the aim was to identify common locations ('hotspots') for aggression in bars and examine the association of hotspots with aggression severity and environmental characteristics. Aggression hotspots were identified using narrative descriptions and data recorded on premises' floor plans for 1057 incidents of aggression collected in the Safer Bars evaluation. Hierarchical Linear Modelling was used to identify bar-level and night-level characteristics associated with each hotspot. The most common location for aggression was the dance floor (20.0% of incidents) or near the dance floor (11.5%), followed by near the serving bar (15.7%), at tables (13.1%), aisles, hallways and other areas of movement (6.2%), entrance (4.5%) and the pool playing area (4.1%). Hotspots were predicted mainly by bar-level characteristics, with dance floor aggression associated with crowded bars, a high proportion of female and young patrons, lots of sexual activity, a large number of patrons and staff, security staff present, better monitoring and coordination by staff, and people hanging around at closing. Incidents at tables and pool tables tended to occur in bars with the opposite characteristics. Nightly variations in patron intoxication and rowdiness were associated with aggression at tables while variations in crowding and sexual activity were associated with aggression in areas of movement. Incidents outside tended to be more severe. Each aggression location and their associated environments have somewhat different implications for staff training, premises design, policy and prevention. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Focus on aggressive behaviour in mental illness.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Enrico; Carlone, Cristiano; Silvestrini, Cristiana; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a behaviour with evolutionary origins, but in today’s society it is often both destructive and maladaptive. Increase of aggressive behaviour has been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses, and it represents a clinical challenge for mental healthcare provider. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviours, including violence, thus representing a serious public health concern. Aggression is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Moreover, it has an effect on healthcare use and costs in terms of longer length of stay, more readmissions and higher drug use. In this review, based on a selective search of 2010-2016 pertinent literature on PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about aggression and psychiatric disorders, discussing neurobiological basis and therapy of aggressive behaviour. A great challenge has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately improve clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. The great heterogeneity of aggressive behaviour still hampers our understanding of its causal mechanisms. Still, over the past years, the identification of specific subtypes of aggression has released possibilities for new and individualized treatment approaches. Neuroimaging studies may help to further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behaviour. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. These combined approaches could improve treatment efficacy. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are

  9. Children's aggressive responses to neutral peer behavior: a form of unprovoked reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Kempes, Maaike; Matthys, Walter; de Vries, Han; van Engeland, Herman

    2010-04-30

    Previous studies that operationalized reactive aggression using behavioral observations in general populations have not taken into account the type of stimulus that elicits reactive aggression. In the present study we define a specific form of reactive aggression, i.e., reactive aggression in response to neutral behavior of a peer, which we will call unprovoked reactive aggression. We were specifically interested in children with severe aggressive behavior problems, since they may respond with reactive aggression even though the opponent did not clearly provoke them, but instead showed neutral behavior. Children with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and normal control (NC) children participated in separate play sessions in which they played with a normal peer (NP). Children with DBD showed more unprovoked reactive aggression than NC children, during a cooperative game. Moreover, for children with DBD, unprovoked reactive aggressive behavior in this game correlated with parent-rated reactive aggression. Results of this study suggest that an unprovoked reactive form of aggression can be identified in children with DBD. Copyright (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Aggression after traumatic brain injury: analysing socially desirable responses and the nature of aggressive traits.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kevin F W; Bell, Rob; McCann, John; Rauch, Robert

    2006-10-01

    To compare patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with controls on sub-types of aggression and explore the role of social desirability. Quasi-experimental, matched-participants design. Sixty-nine participants were included in the study. The sample comprised a TBI group (n = 24), a spinal cord injury (SCI) group (n = 21) and an uninjured (UI) group of matched healthy volunteers (n = 24). Participants were given self-report measures of aggression, social desirability and impulsivity. Sixty-one independent 'other-raters' were nominated, who rated participant pre-morbid and post-morbid aggression. Using standardized norms, 25-39% of participants with TBI were classified as high average-very high on anger and 35-38% as high average-very high on verbal aggression. Other-raters rated participants with TBI as significantly higher on verbal aggression than SCI and UI participants. There were no differences between the groups on physical aggression. The TBI group also had higher levels of impulsivity than SCI and UI groups. Social desirability was a highly significant predictor of self-reported aggression for the entire sample. Impulsive verbal aggression and anger are the principal aggressive traits after brain injury. Physical aggression may present in extreme cases after TBI, but appears less prominent overall in this population. Social desirability, previously overlooked in research examining TBI aggression, emerged as an influential variable that should be considered in future TBI research.

  11. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Influence of Classroom Aggression and Classroom Climate on Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Powers, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5–8) this study examined the impact of two important features of the classroom context–aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of grade 1. HLM analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21434887

  13. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  14. The influence of classroom aggression and classroom climate on aggressive-disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Powers, C J

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that early classroom experiences influence the socialization of aggression. Tracking changes in the aggressive behavior of 4,179 children from kindergarten to second-grade (ages 5-8), this study examined the impact of 2 important features of the classroom context--aggregate peer aggression and climates characterized by supportive teacher-student interactions. The aggregate aggression scores of children assigned to first-grade classrooms predicted the level of classroom aggression (assessed by teacher ratings) and quality of classroom climate (assessed by observers) that emerged by the end of Grade 1. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that first-grade classroom aggression and quality of classroom climate made independent contributions to changes in student aggression, as students moved from kindergarten to second grade. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  18. Safe-Play Knowledge, Aggression, and Head-Impact Biomechanics in Adolescent Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julianne D; Pierce, Alice F; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Pamukoff, Derek N; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-05-01

    Addressing safe-play knowledge and player aggression could potentially improve ice hockey sport safety. To compare (1) safe-play knowledge and aggression between male and female adolescent ice hockey players and (2) head-impact frequency and severity between players with high and low levels of safe-play knowledge and aggression during practices and games. Cohort study. On field. Forty-one male (n = 29) and female (n = 12) adolescent ice hockey players. Players completed the Safe Play Questionnaire (0 = less knowledge, 7 = most knowledge) and Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (12 = less aggressive, 60 = most aggressive) at midseason. Aggressive penalty minutes were recorded throughout the season. The Head Impact Telemetry System was used to capture head-impact frequency and severity (linear acceleration [g], rotational acceleration [rad/s(2)], Head Impact Technology severity profile) at practices and games. One-way analyses of variance were used to compare safe play knowledge and aggression between sexes. Players were categorized as having high or low safe-play knowledge and aggression using a median split. A 2 × 2 mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare head-impact frequency, and random-intercept general linear models were used to compare head-impact severity between groups (high, low) and event types (practice, game). Boys (5.8 of 7 total; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3, 6.3) had a trend toward better safe-play knowledge compared with girls (4.9 of 7 total; 95% CI = 3.9, 5.9; F1,36 = 3.40, P = .073). Less aggressive male players sustained significantly lower head rotational accelerations during practices (1512.8 rad/s (2) , 95% CI = 1397.3, 1637.6 rad/s(2)) versus games (1754.8 rad/s (2) , 95% CI = 1623.9, 1896.2 rad/s(2)) and versus high-aggression players during practices (1773.5 rad/s (2) , 95% CI = 1607.9, 1956.3 rad/s (2) ; F1,26 = 6.04, P = .021). Coaches and sports medicine professionals should ensure that athletes of all levels

  19. Safe-Play Knowledge, Aggression, and Head-Impact Biomechanics in Adolescent Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julianne D.; Pierce, Alice F.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Register-Mihalik, Johna K.; Pamukoff, Derek N.; Mihalik, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Addressing safe-play knowledge and player aggression could potentially improve ice hockey sport safety. Objectives:  To compare (1) safe-play knowledge and aggression between male and female adolescent ice hockey players and (2) head-impact frequency and severity between players with high and low levels of safe-play knowledge and aggression during practices and games. Design:  Cohort study. Setting:  On field. Patients or Other Participants:  Forty-one male (n = 29) and female (n = 12) adolescent ice hockey players. Intervention(s):  Players completed the Safe Play Questionnaire (0 = less knowledge, 7 = most knowledge) and Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale (12 = less aggressive, 60 = most aggressive) at midseason. Aggressive penalty minutes were recorded throughout the season. The Head Impact Telemetry System was used to capture head-impact frequency and severity (linear acceleration [g], rotational acceleration [rad/s2], Head Impact Technology severity profile) at practices and games. Main Outcome Measure(s):  One-way analyses of variance were used to compare safe play knowledge and aggression between sexes. Players were categorized as having high or low safe-play knowledge and aggression using a median split. A 2 × 2 mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare head-impact frequency, and random-intercept general linear models were used to compare head-impact severity between groups (high, low) and event types (practice, game). Results:  Boys (5.8 of 7 total; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3, 6.3) had a trend toward better safe-play knowledge compared with girls (4.9 of 7 total; 95% CI = 3.9, 5.9; F1,36 = 3.40, P = .073). Less aggressive male players sustained significantly lower head rotational accelerations during practices (1512.8 rad/s2, 95% CI = 1397.3, 1637.6 rad/s2) versus games (1754.8 rad/s2, 95% CI = 1623.9, 1896.2 rad/s2) and versus high-aggression players during practices (1773.5 rad/s2, 95% CI = 1607

  20. Lower light intensity reduces larval aggression in matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Caroliny C; Villacorta-Correa, Marle Angélica; Carvalho, Thaís B

    2018-06-01

    Brycon amazonicus shows a high frequency of aggressive behavior, which can be a limiting factor in intensive farming systems. Environmental changes can modulate the social interactions of fish and reduce aggression during the different stages of production. Groups of three larvae at 12 h after hatching (HAH) were subjected to different levels of light intensity: low (17 ± 3 lx), intermediate (204 ± 12.17 lx) and high (1,613.33 ± 499.03 lx), with eight replicates for each level. The lower light intensity reduced the frequency of aggressive interactions and locomotor activity exhibited by the animals. Based on these results, light intensity modulates aggression in B. amazonicus larvae. Manipulation of this factor could improve the social conditions of this species during farming and contribute to the development of new production technologies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partners in Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Deere and Company scientists are working with various NASA centers in a multifaceted technical exchange program investigating areas of aerospace technology that can be applied to company's products. This is a non-traditional type spinoff in that it does not simply reapply existing technology but development of new technology using Deere's extensive R & D capability to complement NASA's efforts, adapting NASA information to new research paths and providing feedback of importance to NASA's own work. NASA/Deere exchange extends to these areas: Composite materials, ceramics, wear and lubrication, plasma coatings and sensors, and electronics.

  2. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-09-05

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

  3. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  4. Affective dependence and aggression: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  5. Gendered Perceptions of Drugs, Aggression, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai‘i samples. In addition, aggression and violence appear to be gendered experiences perceived differently by girls and boys. This paper explores the intersection of drug offers/drug refusals with aggression and violence with specific attention paid to gendered perceptions of drug use situations as a context for aggression and violence. Methods A qualitative study, in which fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held, focused on rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students were asked to discuss drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Feminist theories and approaches were used to examine the role of aggression and violence in drug refusal as perceived by Native Hawaiian girls as compared to boys. Results Girls and boys differed in their perceptions of aggression and violence in drug offer situations, initially as evidenced by the extent to which the girls groups focused on the intersection of drugs and violence. Further, qualitative analyses reflected gender norms and stereotypes about aggression and violence perpetration, and girls' apparently unique concerns about sexual violence victimization. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention research and practice, specifically in terms of school-based prevention curricula. PMID:27456534

  6. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  7. Neurogenomic Mechanisms of Aggression in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Maney, Donna L.; Goodson, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biological basis of aggression in all vertebrates, including humans, has been built largely upon discoveries first made in birds. A voluminous literature now indicates that hormonal mechanisms are shared between humans and a number of avian species. Research on genetics mechanisms in birds has lagged behind the more typical laboratory species because the necessary tools have been lacking until recently. Over the past 30 years, three major technical advances have propelled forward our understanding of the hormonal, neural, and genetic bases of aggression in birds: (1) the development of assays to measure plasma levels of hormones in free-living individuals, or “field endocrinology”; (2) the immunohistochemical labeling of immediate early gene products to map neural responses to social stimuli; and (3) the sequencing of the zebra finch genome, which makes available a tremendous set of genomic tools for studying gene sequences, expression, and chromosomal structure in species for which we already have large datasets on aggressive behavior. This combination of hormonal, neuroendocrine, and genetic tools has established songbirds as powerful models for understanding the neural basis and evolution of aggression in vertebrates. In this chapter, we discuss the contributions of field endocrinology toward a theoretical framework linking aggression with sex steroids, explore evidence that the neural substrates of aggression are conserved across vertebrate species, and describe a promising new songbird model for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying aggression. PMID:22078478

  8. Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Generation of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hashikawa, Yoshiko; Hashikawa, Koichi; Falkner, Annegret L.; Lin, Dayu

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a costly behavior, sometimes with severe consequences including death. Yet aggression is prevalent across animal species ranging from insects to humans, demonstrating its essential role in the survival of individuals and groups. The question of how the brain decides when to generate this costly behavior has intrigued neuroscientists for over a century and has led to the identification of relevant neural substrates. Various lesion and electric stimulation experiments have revealed that the hypothalamus, an ancient structure situated deep in the brain, is essential for expressing aggressive behaviors. More recently, studies using precise circuit manipulation tools have identified a small subnucleus in the medial hypothalamus, the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), as a key structure for driving both aggression and aggression-seeking behaviors. Here, we provide an updated summary of the evidence that supports a role of the VMHvl in aggressive behaviors. We will consider our recent findings detailing the physiological response properties of populations of VMHvl cells during aggressive behaviors and provide new understanding regarding the role of the VMHvl embedded within the larger whole-brain circuit for social sensation and action. PMID:29375329

  9. Aggressive Marital Conflict, Maternal Harsh Punishment, and Child Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations

    PubMed Central

    Erath, Stephen A.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Direct associations between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school were explored in this cross-sectional study of 360 kindergarten children. In addition, mediated pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to maternal harsh punishment to child aggressive-disruptive behavior were examined. Moderation analyses explored how the overall frequency of marital disagreement might buffer or exacerbate the impact of aggressive marital conflict on maternal harsh punishment and child aggressive-disruptive behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed direct pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school and a partially mediated pathway linking aggressive marital conflict to child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home. Further analyses revealed that rates of marital disagreement moderated the association between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home, with an attenuated association at high rates of marital disagreement as compared with low rates of marital disagreement. PMID:16756397

  10. Deconstructing the associations between executive functioning, problematic alcohol use and intimate partner aggression: A dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Swartout, Kevin M; Eckhardt, Christopher I; Subramani, Olivia S

    2017-01-01

    Problematic drinking and executive functioning deficits are two known risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA). However, executive functioning is a multifaceted construct, and it is not clear whether deficits in specific components of executive functioning are differentially associated with IPA perpetration generally and within the context of problematic alcohol use. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of problematic drinking and components of executive functioning on physical IPA perpetration within a dyadic framework. Participants were 582 heavy drinking couples (total n = 1164) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical IPA recruited from two metropolitan cities in the USA. Multilevel models were used to examine effects within an actor-partner interdependence framework. The highest levels of physical IPA were observed among actors who reported everyday consequences of executive functioning deficits related to emotional dysregulation whose partners were problematic drinkers. However, the association between executive functioning deficits related to emotional dysregulation and IPA was stronger towards partners who were non-problematic drinkers relative to partners who were problematic drinkers. No such effect was found for executive functioning deficits related to behavioural regulation. Results provide insight into how problematic drinking and specific executive functioning deficits interact dyadically in relation to physical IPA perpetration. [Parrott DJ, Swartout KM, Eckhardt CI, Subramani OS. Deconstructing the associations between executive functioning, problematic alcohol use and intimate partner aggression: A dyadic analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:88-96]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Global. SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global scale.

  12. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to ‘classical’ hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Location Global Methods SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. Main conclusions The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global

  13. Predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. Methods The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Results Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Conclusions Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  14. Predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people.

    PubMed

    Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B

    2011-08-26

    Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.

  15. Multifaceted intervention including education, rounding checklist implementation, cost feedback, and financial incentives reduces inpatient laboratory costs.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Peter M; Kukhareva, Polina V; Horton, Devin; Edholm, Karli; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate laboratory testing is a contributor to waste in healthcare. To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted laboratory reduction intervention on laboratory costs. A retrospective, controlled, interrupted time series (ITS) study. University of Utah Health Care, a 500-bed academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah. All patients 18 years or older admitted to the hospital to a service other than obstetrics, rehabilitation, or psychiatry. Multifaceted quality-improvement initiative in a hospitalist service including education, process change, cost feedback, and financial incentive. Primary outcomes of lab cost per day and per visit. Secondary outcomes of number of basic metabolic panel (BMP), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio tests per day; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day readmissions. A total of 6310 hospitalist patient visits (intervention group) were compared to 25,586 nonhospitalist visits (control group). Among the intervention group, the unadjusted mean cost per day was reduced from $138 before the intervention to $123 after the intervention (P < 0.001), and the unadjusted mean cost per visit decreased from $618 to $558 (P = 0.005). The ITS analysis showed significant reductions in cost per day, cost per visit, and the number of BMP, CMP, and CBC tests per day (P = 0.034, 0.02, <0.001, 0.004, and <0.001). LOS was unchanged and 30-day readmissions decreased in the intervention group. A multifaceted approach to laboratory reduction demonstrated a significant reduction in laboratory cost per day and per visit, as well as common tests per day at a major academic medical center. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:348-354. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  17. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  18. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  19. Agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression: the mediating effect of trait aggressivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cameron A; Parrott, Dominic J; Giancola, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality.

  20. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    PubMed

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

  1. Evidence of Big Five and Aggressive Personalities in Gait Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Satchell, Liam; Morris, Paul; Mills, Chris; O'Reilly, Liam; Marshman, Paul; Akehurst, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral observation techniques which relate action to personality have long been neglected (Furr and Funder in Handbook of research methods in personality psychology, The Guilford Press, New York, 2007) and, when employed, often use human judges to code behavior. In the current study we used an alternative to human coding (biomechanical research techniques) to investigate how personality traits are manifest in gait. We used motion capture technology to record 29 participants walking on a treadmill at their natural speed. We analyzed their thorax and pelvis movements, as well as speed of gait. Participants completed personality questionnaires, including a Big Five measure and a trait aggression questionnaire. We found that gait related to several of our personality measures. The magnitude of upper body movement, lower body movement, and walking speed, were related to Big Five personality traits and aggression. Here, we present evidence that some gait measures can relate to Big Five and aggressive personalities. We know of no other examples of research where gait has been shown to correlate with self-reported measures of personality and suggest that more research should be conducted between largely automatic movement and personality.

  2. Alcohol's effect on triggered displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Fredy; Earleywine, Mitchell; Pollock, Vicki; Stratton, Joy; Miller, Norman

    2005-03-01

    The authors examined alcohol's effect on triggered displaced aggression, the hostile reaction to a second provoking person after provocation from a first. Participants consumed an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage. Subsequently, one individual provoked all of them with moderate intensity. Then, 2 groups were studied: those who received or who failed to receive a second provocation of minimal intensity. Consistent with prior research, participants who received a second, minimal provocation displayed more aggression than those who did not. After participants drank alcohol, the magnitude of this difference was significantly greater, indicating that alcohol increases triggered displaced aggression. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Prospective associations between peer victimization and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ostrov, Jamie M

    2010-01-01

    The current study involved a short-term longitudinal study of young children (M = 44.56 months, SD = 11.88, N = 103) to test the prospective associations between peer victimization and aggression subtypes. Path analyses documented that teacher-reported physical victimization was uniquely associated with increases in observed physical aggression over time. The path model also revealed that teacher-reported relational victimization was uniquely associated with statistically significant increases in observed relational aggression over time. Ways in which these findings extend the extant developmental literature are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Emotion regulation and childhood aggression: longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Röll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and aggressive behavior, moderating and mediating factors like gender and peer rejection have been established. Furthermore, results suggest emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior. Several directions for future research are pointed out to further validate and refine the reviewed relationships.

  5. Managing Canine Aggression in the Home.

    PubMed

    Pike, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Canine aggression occurring in the home can be a dangerous diagnosis with costly consequences to all members of the household. Management is a key modality in the treatment of canine aggression in the home. A thorough history will detail each trigger, target, and context and allow for the veterinary team to put together a comprehensive management plan. Management allows for the avoidance of future aggressive episodes and minimizes the risks associated with living with a patient with these diagnoses. Although risk cannot be mitigated 100%, thorough management can create a safe environment for the implementation of the behavior treatment plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Alcohol Expectancies and Evaluations of Aggression in Alcohol-Related Intimate-Partner Verbal and Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191

  8. [Aggression and mobbing among correctional officers].

    PubMed

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Cebrzyńska, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of violence among correctional officers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of exposure to violence in this professional group. The study comprised the sample of 222 correctional officers who voluntary and anonymously fulfilled the MDM questionnaire. The MDM Questionnaire allows for assessing exposure to aggression and mobbing at work. Preliminary assessment of exposure to single aggressive acts and mobbing shows a quite alarming tendency--around one third of subjects under the study experienced repetitive aggressive acts from coworkers and/or superiors. The problem of organizational aggression in correctional institutions should be recognized in details to develop effective preventive measures against violent behaviors occurring at work.

  9. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  10. Behavioral and Pharmacogenetics of Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Quadros, Isabel M.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT1A receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to “phasic” effects of pharmacological agents vs “trait”-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A and 5-HT1B) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene × environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters (e.g., MAO A) or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate, and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT1B, 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or

  11. Followers are not enough: a multifaceted approach to community detection in online social networks.

    PubMed

    Darmon, David; Omodei, Elisa; Garland, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In online social media networks, individuals often have hundreds or even thousands of connections, which link these users not only to friends, associates, and colleagues, but also to news outlets, celebrities, and organizations. In these complex social networks, a 'community' as studied in the social network literature, can have very different meaning depending on the property of the network under study. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of these networks, we claim that community detection in online social networks should also be multifaceted in order to capture all of the different and valuable viewpoints of 'community.' In this paper we focus on three types of communities beyond follower-based structural communities: activity-based, topic-based, and interaction-based. We analyze a Twitter dataset using three different weightings of the structural network meant to highlight these three community types, and then infer the communities associated with these weightings. We show that interesting insights can be obtained about the complex community structure present in social networks by studying when and how these four community types give rise to similar as well as completely distinct community structure.

  12. A multifaceted approach to education, observation, and feedback in a successful hand hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Doron, Shira I; Kifuji, Kayoko; Hynes, Brooke Tyson; Dunlop, Dan; Lemon, Tricia; Hansjosten, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Curley, Barbara; Snydman, David R; Fairchild, David G

    2011-01-01

    Prevention of health care-associated infections starts with scrupulous hand hygiene (HH). Improving HH compliance is a major target for the World Health Organization Patient Safety Challenge and is one of The Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals. Yet, adherence to HH protocols is generally poor for health care professionals, despite interventions designed to improve compliance. At Tufts Medical Center (Boston), HH compliance rates were consistently low despite the presence of a traditional HH campaign that used communication and education. A comprehensive program incorporated strong commitment by hospital leadership-who were actively involved in responsibilities previously only performed by infection preventionists and quality and patient safety staff-dedication of financial resources, including securing a grant; collaborating with a private advertising firm in a marketing campaign; and employing a multifaceted approach to education, observation, and feedback. This campaign resulted in a rapid and sustained improvement in HH compliance: Compared with the mean HH compliance rate for the six months before the campaign (72%), postcampaign HH compliance (mean = 94%) was significantly greater (p < .0001). Factors contributing to the success of the campaign included the development of the marketing campaign to fit this academic medical center's particular culture, strong support from the medical center leadership, a multifaceted educational approach, and monthly feedback on HH compliance. A comprehensive campaign resulted in rapid and sustained improvement in HH compliance at an academic medical center after traditional communication and education strategies failed to improve HH performance.

  13. A practical scale for Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zweber, Zandra M; Henning, Robert A; Magley, Vicki J

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure 3 facets of workplace health climate from the employee perspective as an important component of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, usable yet comprehensive scale that organizations and occupational health professionals could use to determine if workplace health interventions were needed. The proposed Multi-faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment (MOHCA) scale assesses facets that correspond to 3 organizational levels: (a) workgroup, (b) supervisor, and (c) organization. Ten items were developed and tested on 2 distinct samples, 1 cross-organization and 1 within-organization. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 9-item, hierarchical 3-factor structure. Tests confirmed MOHCA has convergent validity with related constructs, such as perceived organizational support and supervisor support, as well as discriminant validity with safety climate. Lastly, criterion-related validity was found between MOHCA and health-related outcomes. The multi-faceted nature of MOHCA provides a scale that has face validity and can be easily translated into practice, offering a means for diagnosing the shortcomings of an organization or workgroup's health climate to better plan health and well-being interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. MultiFacet: A Faceted Interface for Browsing Large Multimedia Collections

    SciT

    Henry, Michael J.; Hampton, Shawn D.; Endert, Alexander

    2013-10-31

    Faceted browsing is a common technique for exploring collections where the data can be grouped into a number of pre-defined categories, most often generated from textual metadata. Historically, faceted browsing has been applied to a single data type such as text or image data. However, typical collections contain multiple data types, such as information from web pages that contain text, images, and video. Additionally, when browsing a collection of images and video, facets are often created based on the metadata which may be incomplete, inaccurate, or missing altogether instead of the actual visual content contained within those images and video.more » In this work we address these limitations by presenting MultiFacet, a faceted browsing interface that supports multiple data types. MultiFacet constructs facets for images and video in a collection from the visual content using computer vision techniques. These visual facets can then be browsed in conjunction with text facets within a single interface to reveal relationships and phenomena within multimedia collections. Additionally, we present a use case based on real-world data, demonstrating the utility of this approach towards browsing a large multimedia data collection.« less

  15. Description of a multifaceted intervention programme for fatigue after acquired brain injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stubberud, Jan; Edvardsen, Espen; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Lerdal, Anners; Kjeverud, Anita; Schillinger, Andreas; Løvstad, Marianne

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and explore a group-based multifaceted intervention for patients with fatigue after acquired brain injury (ABI). We hypothesised that post-intervention changes would result in reduced fatigue, in addition to improved emotional health, sleep and attentional control. Eight subjects with traumatic brain injury (n = 3) and cerebrovascular insults (n = 5) were included. Inclusion was based upon the presence of fatigue complaints. The participants received 36 hours of intervention. Changes related to fatigue, emotional health and sleep was assessed with self-rating measures. Additionally, a neuropsychological test (Conners' Continuous Performance Test II) was included as a measure of attentional control. All subjects were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at 3 and 9 months follow-up. Findings indicated reduced fatigue levels (post-intervention and 3 months follow-up), anxiety (9 months follow-up), and daytime sleepiness (3 and 9 months follow-up). Pilot results suggest that multifaceted group-based interventions may have the potential to alleviate symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and sleepiness after ABI. At an individual level, a low load of psychological distress, insomnia symptoms, dysexecutive symptoms, in addition to a strong sense of self-efficacy, may be central in order to reduce levels of fatigue.

  16. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Multi-faceted Approach to Promote Comprehension of Online Health Information Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessie; Moeller, Darcie D; Johnson, Jessica; Duwe, Elise A G; Graumlich, James F; Murray, Michael D; Morrow, Daniel G

    2017-03-10

    Older adults' self-care often depends on understanding and utilizing health information. Inadequate health literacy among older adults poses a barrier to self-care because it hampers comprehension of this information, particularly when the information is not well-designed. Our goal was to improve comprehension of online health information among older adults with hypertension who varied in health literacy abilities. We identified passages about hypertension self-care from credible websites (typical passages). We used a multi-faceted approach to redesign these passages, revising their content, language, organization and format (revised passages). Older participants read both versions of the passages at their own pace. After each passage, they summarized the passage and then answered questions about the passage. Participants better remembered the revised than the typical passages, summarizing the passages more accurately and uptaking information more efficiently (less reading time needed per unit of information remembered). The benefits for reading efficiency were greater for older adults with more health knowledge, suggesting knowledge facilitated comprehension of information in the revised passages. A systematic, multi-faceted approach to designing health documents can promote online learning among older adults with diverse health literacy abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Followers Are Not Enough: A Multifaceted Approach to Community Detection in Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In online social media networks, individuals often have hundreds or even thousands of connections, which link these users not only to friends, associates, and colleagues, but also to news outlets, celebrities, and organizations. In these complex social networks, a ‘community’ as studied in the social network literature, can have very different meaning depending on the property of the network under study. Taking into account the multifaceted nature of these networks, we claim that community detection in online social networks should also be multifaceted in order to capture all of the different and valuable viewpoints of ‘community.’ In this paper we focus on three types of communities beyond follower-based structural communities: activity-based, topic-based, and interaction-based. We analyze a Twitter dataset using three different weightings of the structural network meant to highlight these three community types, and then infer the communities associated with these weightings. We show that interesting insights can be obtained about the complex community structure present in social networks by studying when and how these four community types give rise to similar as well as completely distinct community structure. PMID:26267868

  19. Real-Time Aggressive Image Data Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-31

    implemented with higher degrees of modularity, concurrency, and higher levels of machine intelligence , thereby providing higher data -throughput rates...Project Summary Project Title: Real-Time Aggressive Image Data Compression Principal Investigators: Dr. Yih-Fang Huang and Dr. Ruey-wen Liu Institution...Summary The objective of the proposed research is to develop reliable algorithms !.hat can achieve aggressive image data compression (with a compression

  20. [Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating].

    PubMed

    Hilgert, R E; Besch, L; Behnke, B; Egbers, H-J

    2004-12-01

    In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

  1. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  2. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  3. Understanding human aggression: New insights from neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Allan; Victoroff, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reviews and summarizes the basic findings concerning the nature of the neurobiological and behavioral characteristics of aggression and rage. For heuristic purposes, the types of aggression will be reduced to two categories - defensive rage (affective defense) and predatory attack. This approach helps explain both the behavioral properties of aggression as well as the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms of aggression both in animals and humans. Defensive rage behavior is activated by a threatening stimulus that is real or perceived and is associated with marked sympathetic output. This yields impulsivity with minimal cortical involvement. Predatory attack behavior in both animals and humans is generally planned, taking minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or even years (with respect to humans) for it to occur and is directed upon a specific individual target; it reflects few outward sympathetic signs and is believed to require cortical involvement for its expression. Predatory attack requires activation of the lateral hypothalamus, while defensive rage requires activation of the medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Both forms of aggressive behavior are controlled by components of the limbic system, a region of the forebrain that is influenced by sensory inputs from the cerebral cortex and monoaminergic inputs from the brainstem reticular formation. Control of aggressive tendencies is partly modifiable through conditioning and related learning principles generated through the cerebral cortex.

  4. Examining Implicit and Explicit Evaluations of Sexual Aggression and Sexually Aggressive Behavior in Men Recruited Online.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Chantal A; Nunes, Kevin L; Maimone, Sacha

    2016-12-05

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluations of sexual aggression and indicators of sexually aggressive behavior in samples of students and community men recruited online. Participants were male undergraduate students recruited online from a Canadian University (N = 150) and men recruited from the community via an online panel (N = 378). Participants completed measures of implicit and explicit evaluations of sexual aggression, cognitive distortions regarding rape, self-reported past sexually aggressive behavior, and self-reported proclivity to commit sexually aggressive behavior. We found that more positive explicit evaluations and more cognitive distortions were moderately to strongly associated with sexual aggression; however, this was not the case for implicit evaluations of rape. Our results suggest that explicit evaluations of sexual aggression and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual aggression against adults, and that more research is needed exploring whether or not implicit evaluations are associated with sexually aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of multifaceted hybrid agents targeting MAO, cholinesterase, iron and β-amyloid in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Orly; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accepted nowadays as a complex neurodegenerative disorder with multifaceted cerebral pathologies, including extracellular deposition of amyloid β peptide-containing plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, metal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitoxicity, oxidative stress and increased MAO enzyme activity. This may explain why it is currently widely accepted that a more effective therapy for AD would result from the use of multifunctional drugs, which may affect more than one brain target involved in the disease pathology. The current review will discuss the potential benefits of novel multimodal neuroprotective, brain permeable drugs, recently developed by Youdim and collaborators, as a valuable therapeutic approach for AD treatment. The pharmacological and neuroprotective properties of these multitarget-directed ligands, which target MAO enzymes, the cholinergic system, iron accumulation and amyloid β peptide generation/aggregation are described, with a special emphasis on their potential therapeutic value for ageing and AD-associated cognitive functions. This review is conceived as a tribute to the broad neuropharmacology work of Professor Moussa Youdim, Professor Emeritus in the Faculty of Medicine and Director of Eve Topf Center of Excellence in Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, and Chief Scientific Officer of ABITAL Pharma Pipeline Ltd., at the occasion of his 75th birthday. This article is part of a themed section on Updating Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology of Monoaminergic Systems. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.13/issuetoc. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  8. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  9. Multivariate Differential Analyses of Adolescents' Experiences of Aggression in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie; du Plessis, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Aggression is part of South African society and has implications for the mental health of persons living in South Africa. If parents are aggressive adolescents are also likely to be aggressive and that will impact negatively on their mental health. In this article the nature and extent of adolescents' experiences of aggression and aggressive…

  10. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  11. Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms.

    PubMed

    Henry, D; Guerra, N; Huesmann, R; Tolan, P; VanAcker, R; Eron, L

    2000-02-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms had no effect on either. In classrooms where students and teachers made norms against aggression salient, aggressive behavior diminished over time. Implications for classroom behavior management and further research are discussed.

  12. Understanding maladaptive responses to rejection: Aggression with an audience.

    PubMed

    DeBono, Amber; Layton, Rebekah L; Freeman, Nicholas; Muraven, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Logically, responding aggressively to rejection is maladaptive because one is unlikely to seek a relationship with an aggressor. We predict that when concealed, the illogical aggressive response to rejection is more likely, whereas when the rejected individuals' aggressive responses are perceived as public, the aggressive acts may be reduced. Participants were rejected by others (Experiment 1) or were either accepted or rejected during an online ball-tossing game (Experiment 2) and were then given an opportunity to aggress publicly or privately. Across experiments, when the opportunity to aggress was made public, rejected participants exhibited less aggressive behavior. When concerned about the perception of their public aggressive responses by others, rejected individuals' aggressive responses diminished compared with those whose actions were private. Crucially, this extended to aggression visible only to neutral others, suggesting that effects cannot solely be due to fear of retribution.

  13. Learning to See Differently: Viewing Technology Diffusion in Teacher Education through the Lens of Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei; Patterson, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    While the discussion on the topic of technology diffusion in teacher education primarily centers on course design, program development, and faculty technology training, this article explores technology diffusion from the perspective of organizational change. Technology diffusion in teacher education is a multi-faceted task and, therefore, requires…

  14. FAM5C Contributes to Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Flavia M.; Tinoco, Eduardo M. B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Duarte, Poliana M.; Faveri, Marcelo; Marques, Marcelo R.; Mendonça, Adriana C.; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen; Menezes, Renato; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03) was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009). Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:20383335

  15. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 6-hydroxydopamine and aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Beleslin, D B; Samardzić, R; Stefanović-Denić, K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the cerebral ventricles on behaviour of singly- and group-housed cats was investigated. 6-OHDA in doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg was administered every morning for 5 to 8 days. In small doses 6-OHDA in singly- and group-housed cats evoked motor phenomena such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, weakness and sometimes clonic-tonic convulsions. Occasionally restlessness, irritability and rage were observed. Large doses of 6-OHDA in group-housed cats, after a short latent period (2-3 days) produced aggression which intensified on subsequent injections, and thereafter, on repeated administrations, no longer occurred. The aggression consisted of restlessness, irritability, anger, rage, apprehension, threat, attack, fighting, flight and crying. Of autonomic phenomena mydriasis, dyspnea and sometimes piloerection were observed. The aggression was initiated by the most restless cat, or by disturbing the animals, such as by moving the cage. When 6-OHDA no longer produced aggressive behaviour, motor changes such as tremor, ataxia, rigidity, walking on broad base, weakness with adynamia and clonic-tonic convulsions developed. These latter symptoms were produced by large doses of 6-OHDA in singly-housed cats. In these animals spontaneous signs of aggressive behaviour usually were not observed, although if handled they showed rage, snarling and hissing. When singly-housed cats were kept in the same cage with group-housed animals, the singly-housed cats usually became aggressive. It appears that hyperactivity induced aggression in 6-OHDA-treated cats.

  17. Popular and Nonpopular Subtypes of Physically Aggressive Preadolescents: Continuity of Aggression and Peer Mechanisms during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…

  18. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  19. Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotion Attributions in Situations Involving Retaliation and Unprovoked Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was…

  20. The Effect of Television-Mediated Aggression and Real-Life Aggression on the Behavior of Lebanese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard C.; Ghandour, Maryam

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the effect of television-mediated aggression and real-life aggression on the behavior of Lebanese children. Observations made of 48 boys and 48 girls six to eight years of age revealed that boys as a group were more aggressive than girls and exhibited more imitative aggression. Girls were more violent after viewing real-life violence.…

  1. The evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to promote "speaking up" and strengthen interprofessional teamwork climate perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Liane; Bain, Lorna

    2017-03-01

    Communication failure is a leading cause of error and is often due to inhibition of individuals to speak up in interprofessional healthcare environments. The present study sought to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention designed to promote speaking up on teamwork climate in one clinical department of a large community hospital based in Canada. The multifaceted intervention included a role-playing simulation workshop, teamwork climate data feedback and facilitated discussion with the interprofessional team (discussion briefings), and other department-led initiatives to promote trust, teamwork, and speaking up among interprofessional team members. A quasi-experiment (pretest-posttest control group design, using two posttests several months apart) was used to evaluate the impact of the complete intervention on individual teamwork climate perceptions. The intervention was implemented with an intact interprofessional team (the Emergency Department-ED) in 2014. The intensive care unit (ICU) was used as the control unit. Survey response rates were the highest at time 1 (83/102 = 81% for the ED and 29/31 = 94% for the ICU) and the lowest at time 3 (38/105 = 36% for the ED and 14/30 = 47% for the ICU). The results obtained from paired and unpaired analyses suggest that this type of multifaceted approach can improve staff perceptions of teamwork climate. The teamwork climate score in the ED was significantly higher at follow-up (Mt2 = 3.42, SD = 0.66) compared to baseline (Mt1 = 3.13, SD = 0.72), (F(1, 34) = 12.2, p = .001, eta 2 p = .263), while baseline and follow-up scores were not significantly different between baseline and follow-up for the ICU group (Mt1 = 4.12, SD = 0.60; Mt2 = 4.15, SD = 0.56; F(1, 34) = 0.06, p = .806, eta 2 p = .002). Sustaining high levels of participation in interprofessional initiatives and engaging physicians remain challenging when interventions are used in context. Improving team

  2. Considering theories of aggression in an emergency department context.

    PubMed

    Ferns, Terry

    2007-10-01

    Internationally literature emphasises concern regarding the phenomenon of violence and aggression within the emergency field. This paper emphasises the important role education and training may play in reducing the risk of staff being exposed to violent or aggressive experiences. Furthermore, the paper emphasises, explores and discusses well recognised theories relating to aggression development. These theories can be used to explain both organisational strategies designed to minimise aggression in the emergency department and situational factors contributing to the development of aggressive interactions.

  3. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions. PMID:16600064

  4. The object of my aggression: Sexual objectification increases physical aggression toward women.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Ball, Louisa; Loughnan, Steve; Pina, Afroditi

    2018-01-01

    Objectification involves reducing someone to a sexual object, rather than seeing them as a full person. Despite numerous theoretical claims that people are more aggressive toward the objectified, and empirical evidence that objectification is linked to high willingness to aggress, rape proclivity, and aggressive attitudes, no research has examined a causal link between objectification and physical aggression, particularly in the context of provocation. In two experiments, we examined this predicted link. In Experiment 1, using a 2 (objectification: no/yes) × 2 (provocation: no/yes) factorial between-subjects design, we investigated the effects of objectification, induced via body focus during a face-to-face interaction, and provocation on physical aggression toward a female confederate. Our results revealed a significant main effect of provocation, a marginal main effect of objectification, and a significant interaction between these variables. In the absence of a provocation, focusing on a woman's body increased aggression toward her. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 using a video of a target woman instead of a face-to-face interaction. Again, our results showed a significant two-way interaction between objectification and provocation, wherein objectification increased aggression in the absence of provocation. Overall, this research indicates that objectification can lead to heightened physical aggression toward objectified women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early Correlates of Preschool Aggressive Behavior According to Type of Aggression and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliano, Mariel; Stetson Werner, Rebecca; Wright Cassidy, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated both relational and physical aggression in preschool children, explored potential differences in informant reporting and child sex on these subtypes, and examined relationships between types of aggressive behaviors and other types of negative and positive social behaviors. Naturalistic observations of social behavior,…

  6. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  7. Analysis of Component of Aggression in the Stories of Elementary School Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamandar, Fateme; Jabbari, D. Susan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the content analysis of children's stories based on the components of aggression. Participants are 66 elementary school students (16 girls and 50 boys) selected from fourth and fifth grades, using the Relational and Overt Aggression Questionnaire; completed by the teachers. Draw a Story Test (Silver, 2005) is…

  8. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  9. Disentangling functions of online aggression: The Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ).

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Bak, Michal; Shaw, Thérèse

    2017-01-01

    Aggression in online contexts has received much attention over the last decade, yet there is a need for measures identifying the proximal psychological drivers of cyber-aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to present data on the newly developed Cyber-Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ) designed to distinguish between four distinct types of cyber-aggression on dimensions of motivational valence and self-control. A sample 314 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results confirmed the predicted four-factor structure providing evidence for distinct and independent impulsive-aversive, controlled-aversive, impulsive-appetitive, and controlled-appetitive cyber-aggression types. Further analyses with the Berlin Cyberbullying Questionnaire, Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems Scale provide support for convergent and divergent validity. Understanding the motivations facilitating cyber-aggressive behavior could aid researchers in the development of new prevention and intervention strategies that focus on individual differences in maladaptive proximal drivers of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:74-84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  11. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    PubMed

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Trait aggressiveness modulates neurophysiological correlates of laboratory-induced reactive aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Ulrike M; Büttner, Sarah; Roth, Gerhard; Münte, Thomas F

    2008-08-01

    Reactive aggression following provocation is a frequent form of human social behavior. The neural basis of reactive aggression, especially its control, remains poorly understood, however. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study using a competitive reaction time task that elicits aggression through provocation. Participants were selected from a larger sample because of extreme scores in trait aggressiveness, yielding high and low trait aggressive groups. As each trial in the task is separated into a decision phase, during which the punishment level for the opponent is set, and an outcome phase, during which the punishment is applied or received, we were able to disentangle provocation-related and evaluation-related modulations of the ERPs during the aggressive interaction. Specifically, we observed an enhanced frontal negativity during the decision phase under high provocation that was positively correlated with the participants' ability to refrain from retaliation. This held true for high trait aggressive participants only, pointing to a higher need for inhibitory and control processes in these people when provoked. During the outcome phase, we detected a mediofrontal negativity in loss compared to win trials, resembling previous ERP findings to negative feedback stimuli, which have been linked to the evaluation of an outcome's valence. This mediofrontal negativity was differentially pronounced in aggressive and nonaggressive participants: Nonaggressive participants showed only a slightly smaller mediofrontal negativity in win than in loss trials, suggesting that for them punishing the opponent had a similar negative valence as being punished.

  13. Aggressive and Prosocial Peer Norms: Change, Stability, and Associations with Adolescent Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Harakeh, Zeena; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, M[subscript age] = 12.66). A distinction was made between descriptive…

  14. Beliefs about Aggression and Submissiveness: A Comparison of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Jamie; Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relevance of the social information processing model of aggression to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated the "response access" and "response decision" steps of this model. Photo stories were used to compare aggressive and nonaggressive individuals' beliefs about the outcomes of…

  15. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

  16. Sampling in research on interpersonal aggression.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of convenience samples in research on interpersonal aggression among adults. It was hypothesised that convenience sampled targets of aggression differs from targets in general with regards to both demographic characteristics and degree of aggression exposed to. A convenience sample comprising support-seeking targets of workplace bullying was compared with a representative sample of Norwegian targets of bullying. The results showed that the two samples differed significantly on all demographic variables investigated, except gender. A far higher percentage of the convenience sample had blown the whistle on illegal, immoral or illegitimate practice at their workplace, whereas they also reported significantly more frequent and more intense exposure to aggression. The findings confirm that convenience samples have low external validity when generalising to the general population. Such samples should therefore mainly be used to investigate tendencies in, and the phenomenology of, interpersonal aggression, in studies where generalisability is not the principal objective. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Maternal Depression and Childhood Aggression: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Katherine; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing depression (CBD) and childhood aggression are serious and international problems that encumber public health. Although maternal depression has received much attention in the literature in the last three decades, clinically it remains under-diagnosed and under-treated, especially during pregnancy. As a result, many mothers and families are left to suffer its long-lasting physical and psychosocial effects. This article's aim is to review the current literature on whether CBD increases the likelihood of childhood aggression in children ages six years and younger. Methods Using keywords, an electronic search was performed using Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Search limits included the following: 2000-2010, English, peer-review, human, All Child: 0-18. From more than 2,000 search results, 13 articles were reviewed based on relevance to paper's inquiry and sample size greater than 50. Results In all, the articles agreed that depression in women increases the likelihood of early childhood aggression by causing negative parenting behaviors. However, this finding is tempered by a number of weaknesses in the quality of articles reviewed and by the complexity of the topic. Conclusion More research is needed to determine the etiology and interplay of mediating factors between CBD and childhood aggression. This could inform the study and implementation of effective and early prevention, screening, and treatment measures and programs for maternal depression and childhood aggression. PMID:22739482

  18. Interspecific aggression in hermatypic corals from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, A.

    1984-11-01

    Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.

  19. Neuropharmacology of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A; Roeling, T A; Gregg, T R; Kruk, M R

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed concerning the brain areas and neurotransmitters involved in aggressive behavior in the cat and rodent. In the cat, two distinct neural circuits involving the hypothalamus and PAG subserve two different kinds of aggression: defensive rage and predatory (quiet-biting) attack. The roles played by the neurotransmitters serotonin, GABA, glutamate, opioids, cholecystokinin, substance P, norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine in the modulation and expression of aggression are discussed. For the rat, a single area, largely coincident with the intermediate hypothalamic area, is crucial for the expression of attack; variations in the rat attack response in natural settings are due largely to environmental variables. Experimental evidence emphasizing the roles of serotonin and GABA in modulating hypothalamically evoked attack in the rat is discussed. It is concluded that significant progress has been made concerning our knowledge of the circuitry underlying the neural basis of aggression. Although new and important insights have been made concerning neurotransmitter regulation of aggressive behavior, wide gaps in our knowledge remain.

  20. minSKIN does a multifaceted intervention improve the competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by general practitioners? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Badertscher, Nina; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Braun, Ralph P

    2011-06-30

    In Switzerland, skin cancer is one of the most common neoplasms. Melanoma is the most aggressive one and can be lethal if not detected and removed on time. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is more frequent as melanoma; it is seldom lethal but can disfigure patients in advanced stages. General practitioners (GPs) are often faced with suspicious skin lesions of their patients. Randomised controlled trial (RCT). 60 GPs, randomised into intervention group and control group. GPs get a Lumio loupe, a digital camera and continuous feedback based on pictures of skin lesions they send to the Dermatologist. Competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs, measured as the percentage of correctly classified pictures of skin lesions. At baseline, and prior to any intervention (T0), GPs will be asked to rate 36 pictures of skin lesions according to their likelihood of malignancy on a visual analogue scale (VAS). After a full day training course with both groups (T1) and after one year of continuous feedback (T2) with the intervention group, we will repeat the picture scoring session with both groups, using new pictures. We want to determine whether a multifaceted intervention (including technical equipment and a continuous feedback on skin lesions) leads to an improved competence in the diagnosis of skin cancer by GPs. This study addresses the hypothesis that an additional feedback loop, based on pictures performed in daily practice by GPs is superior to a simple educational intervention regarding diagnostic competence. We expect an improvement of the competence in skin cancer diagnosis by GPs in both groups after the full day training course. Beside this immediate effect, we also expect a long term effect in the intervention group because of the continuous problem based feedback. ISRCTN29854485.

  1. A person-centered approach to the multifaceted nature of young adult sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jenifer K; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-07-01

    Young adult sexual relationships were examined using a multifaceted, person-centered approach with data from Wave 7 (aged 20-21; N = 1,126) of the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions. The study utilized hierarchical cluster analyses based on the following measured variables: frequency of sex, importance of regularly having sex, satisfaction with sex life, experience of coercion for sex, and sexual risk reduction. Five distinct clusters emerged for females (Satisfied, Moderate, Active Unprotected, Pressured, and Inactive) and represented patterns such as more partners paired with less risk reduction (Active Unprotected), high satisfaction paired with frequent sex and high-risk reduction (Satisfied), or higher levels of coercion paired with low satisfaction and low-risk reduction (Pressured). Similar clusters emerged for males, with one additional cluster: the Dissatisfied cluster. Clusters differed with respect to relationship status, marital status, and psychological well-being (both males and females) and parental divorce, living situation, and sexual orientation (females only).

  2. Multifaceted catalytic hydrogenation of amides via diverse activation of a sterically confined bipyridine-ruthenium framework.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takashi; Naruto, Masayuki; Toda, Katsuaki; Shimomura, Taiki; Saito, Susumu

    2017-05-16

    Amides are ubiquitous and abundant in nature and our society, but are very stable and reluctant to salt-free, catalytic chemical transformations. Through the activation of a "sterically confined bipyridine-ruthenium (Ru) framework (molecularly well-designed site to confine adsorbed H 2 in)" of a precatalyst, catalytic hydrogenation of formamides through polyamide is achieved under a wide range of reaction conditions. Both C=O bond and C-N bond cleavage of a lactam became also possible using a single precatalyst. That is, catalyst diversity is induced by activation and stepwise multiple hydrogenation of a single precatalyst when the conditions are varied. The versatile catalysts have different structures and different resting states for multifaceted amide hydrogenation, but the common structure produced upon reaction with H 2 , which catalyzes hydrogenation, seems to be "H-Ru-N-H."

  3. Adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells - multifaceted regulators of the CNS in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Castaneda, Anthony; Gaultier, Alban

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are the often-overlooked fourth glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), comprising about 5% of the CNS. For a long time, our vision of OPC function was limited to the generation of mature oligodendrocytes. However, new studies have highlighted the multifaceted nature of the OPCs. During homeostatic and pathological conditions, OPCs are the most proliferative cell type in the CNS, a property not consistent with the need to generate new oligodendrocytes. Indeed, OPCs modulate neuronal activity and OPC depletion in the brain can trigger depressive-like behavior. More importantly, OPCs are actively recruited to injury sites, where they orchestrate glial scar formation and contribute to the immune response. The following is a comprehensive analysis of the literature on OPC function beyond myelination, in the context of the healthy and diseased adult CNS. PMID:26796621

  4. Stationary multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge and improved confinement mode in a superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Xie, J K; Wan, Y X; Ushigusa, K; Wan, B N; Zhang, S Y; Li, J; Kuang, G L

    2002-01-01

    Stationary multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) is studied by gas-puffing feedback control according to an empirical MARFE critical density ( approximately 1.8 x 10(13) cm(-3)) in the HT-7 Ohmic discharges (where the plasma current I(p) is about 170 kA, loop voltage V(loop)=2-3 V, toroidal field B(T)=1.9 T, and Z(eff)=3-4). It is observed that an improved confinement mode characterized by D(alpha) line emissions drops and the line-averaged density increase is triggered in the stationary MARFE discharges. The mode is not a symmetric "detachment" state, because the quasi-steady-state poloidally asymmetric radiation (e.g., C III line emissions) still exists. This phenomenon has not been predicted by the current MARFE theory.

  5. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  6. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  7. Using a Multifaceted Approach to Working With Children Who Have Differences in Sensory Processing and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, Tara J.; Ausderau, Karla; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Pfeiffer, Beth; Watling, Renee; Wilkinson, Kimberly; Bodison, Stefanie C.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric occupational therapy practitioners frequently provide interventions for children with differences in sensory processing and integration. Confusion exists regarding how best to intervene with these children and about how to describe and document methods. Some practitioners hold the misconception that Ayres Sensory Integration intervention is the only approach that can and should be used with this population. The issue is that occupational therapy practitioners must treat the whole client in varied environments; to do so effectively, multiple approaches to intervention often are required. This article presents a framework for conceptualizing interventions for children with differences in sensory processing and integration that incorporates multiple evidence-based approaches. To best meet the needs of the children and families seeking occupational therapy services, interventions must be focused on participation and should be multifaceted. PMID:28218599

  8. Sleeping on the motor engram: The multifaceted nature of sleep-related motor memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    King, Bradley R; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Hirschauer, Franziska; Dolfen, Nina; Albouy, Genevieve

    2017-09-01

    For the past two decades, it has generally been accepted that sleep benefits motor memory consolidation processes. This notion, however, has been challenged by recent studies and thus the sleep and motor memory story is equivocal. Currently, and in contrast to the declarative memory domain, a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the effects of post-learning sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of motor memory consolidation is not available. We therefore provide an extensive review of the literature in order to highlight that sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation depends upon multiple boundary conditions, including particular features of the motor task, the recruitment of relevant neural substrates (and the hippocampus in particular), as well as the specific architecture of the intervening sleep period (specifically, sleep spindle and slow wave activity). For our field to continue to advance, future research must consider the multifaceted nature of sleep-related motor memory consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perpetration of Alcohol-Related Aggression by Male and Female College Students: An Examination of Overt and Relational Aggression.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree

    2017-03-01

    Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression

  10. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  11. Clean Hands for Life: results of a large, multicentre, multifaceted, social marketing hand-hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Forrester, L A; Bryce, E A; Mediaa, A K

    2010-03-01

    A year-long multifaceted hand-hygiene campaign entitled Clean Hands for Life targeting individual, environmental and organisational factors that influence healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour was implemented in 36 acute and long-term care facilities in Vancouver Coastal Health region. The campaign involved rotation of ten novel posters, two poster contests, and distribution of multiple promotional items. A social marketing approach was used to implement and monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. Evaluation included quality assurance surveys, staff surveys (baseline, mid- and post-campaign), and focus groups. A total of 141 poster contest submissions was received, 5452 staff surveys completed and 14 focus groups conducted. Overall knowledge of the importance of hand-hygiene and intention to clean hands was high at baseline. No significant differences were observed when mid- and post-campaign scores were compared to baseline. The majority (89.5%) of HCWs reported that they preferred soap and water over alcohol hand gel. A significant increase in the self-reported use of hand-hygiene products was observed particularly among HCWs not providing direct patient care. Barriers to hand-hygiene included inappropriate placement of sinks, traffic flow issues, inadequately stocked washrooms, workload and time constraints. Organisational support was visible throughout the campaign. The results showed that social marketing is an effective approach in engaging HCWs. Hand-hygiene campaigns that focus almost exclusively on increasing awareness among HCWs may not be as successful as multifaceted campaigns or campaigns that target identified barriers to hand-hygiene. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Susana; Apatsidou, Areti; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Jeffay, Eliyas; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Remington, Gary; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George

    2018-01-01

    Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds. Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation. Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation. Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of results will

  13. An Examination of the Multi-Faceted Motivation System in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Susana; Apatsidou, Areti; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Jeffay, Eliyas; Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Remington, Gary; Zakzanis, Konstantine K.; Foussias, George

    2018-01-01

    Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent. Thus, the present study adopted a person-centered approach, and comprehensively examined the reward system in a non-clinical sample in an attempt to explore potential subtypes of motivation impairments, while minimizing the effects of illness-related confounds. Methods: Ninety-six healthy undergraduate students were evaluated for amotivation, schizotypal traits, depressive symptoms, and cognition, and administered objective computerized tasks to measure the different facets of motivation. Cluster analysis was performed to explore subgroups of individuals based on similar motivation task performance. Additionally, correlational analyses were conducted in order to examine inter-relationships between motivation facets, and relations between clinical measures and facets of motivation. Results: Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of individuals with differential motivation performance profiles. Correlational analyses revealed that reward responsiveness was associated with amotivation, depressive symptoms, and negative schizotypy. Further, significant inter-correlations were found between reward responsiveness and reward expectancy, as well as between reward valuation and effort valuation. Conclusions: Our results mark important steps forward in understanding motivation in a non-clinical sample, and guide future dimensional and comprehensive analyses of the multi-faceted reward system. It remains to be seen whether these patterns of results will

  14. A multifaceted intervention package to improve the diagnosis and management of delirium.

    PubMed

    Fleet, J; Chen, S; Martin, F C; Ernst, T

    2014-10-02

    ABSTRACT Background: Delirium is a major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst hospital patients. Previous studies have shown that it is often poorly recognized and managed. We wanted to assess the impact of a multifaceted intervention on delirium management. Methods: A pre/post-intervention design was used. The local hospital delirium guideline was adapted into A7 sized cards and A3/A2 posters. Cards were distributed to junior doctors and teaching sessions were held. Computer screen savers were displayed and delirium promotion days held. The pre/post-intervention data were used to audit the following: delirium knowledge through questionnaires, documented use of the confusion assessment method (CAM) and identification and management of eight common precipitating factors. Re-audit was four months post baseline with interventions within this period. χ2 tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: A convenience sample of randomly selected doctors in postgraduate training posts completed 100 questionnaires and 25 clinical notes were selected via retrospective identification of delirium. Results from questionnaires demonstrated significant improvements in: recognizing CAM as the diagnostic tool for delirium (24% vs. 71%, p < 0.01); identifying haloperidol as first line in pharmacological management (55% vs. 98%, p <0.01) and its correct dose (40% vs. 67%, p <0.01). In clinical practice, there was significant improvement in documentation of CAM for inpatient delirium assessments (0% vs. 77%, p <0.01). Trainees found the delirium card "very helpful" (82%) and carried it with them at all times (70%). Conclusion: This multifaceted intervention increased CAM use in delirium recognition and improved the knowledge of pharmacological management. The delirium card was highly popular.

  15. Learning Generation: Fostering Innovation with Tomorrow's Teachers and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aust, Ronald; Newberry, Brian; O'Brien, Joseph; Thomas, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the context, conception, implementation, and research used to refine and evaluate a systemic model for fostering technology integration in teacher education. The Learning Generation model identifies conditions where innovations for using technology emerge in small group dialogues. The model uses a multifaceted implementation with…

  16. On Young People's Experience of Systems in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Maria; Zetterqvist, Ann; Ingerman, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Immersed in a technologically complex world, young people make sense of a multi-faceted set of events in everyday life. This article investigates the variation in how Swedish young people experience technological systems and is based on interviews focusing three systems concerning transport, energy and communication--contextualised in relation to…

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and testosterone in men exposed to an aggressive video stimulus.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Hopp, Renato N; Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T; Manning, John T

    2013-10-10

    The relative lengths of the 2(nd) and 4(th) digits (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in "challenge" situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a "challenge" is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  18. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors.

  19. Psychophysiological correlates of interpersonal cooperation and aggression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Roberts, Kathryn; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Wenxin; Shen, Deli; Simons, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Mimicking real world situations, the Chicken Game allows scientists to examine human decision-making when the outcome is not entirely within one person's control. In this social dilemma task, two players independently choose either to safely cooperate with, or riskily aggress against, the other player, and the unique combination of their choices specifies the outcome for each. Coupling the Chicken Game with psychophysiological measures, we confirmed our two hypotheses: that an individual perceives an outcome as most negative when she chooses to cooperate and the other player violates that trust and aggresses, and that motivational salience of an outcome is greater when an individual chooses to aggress and when she gains money. Collectively, the data demonstrate the utility of pairing true social dilemma tasks like the Chicken Game with psychophysiological measures to better understand decision-making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of Aggressive Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarur, Andres J.; Strobel, Sebastian G.; Deshpande, Amar R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of conditions characterized by idiopathic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The natural course of disease can range from an indolent course with prolonged periods of remission to aggressive, incapacitating disease. Predicting which patients are more susceptible to developing severe disease is important, especially when choosing therapeutic agents and treatment strategies. This paper reviews current evidence on the main demographic, clinical, endoscopic, histologic, serologic, and genetic markers that predict aggressive inflammatory bowel disease. In ulcerative colitis, we considered disease to be aggressive when patients had a high relapse rate, need for admission and/or surgery, development of colon cancer, or extraintestinal manifestations. We defined aggressive Crohn's disease as having a high relapse rate, development of penetrating disease, need for repeat surgery, or multiple admissions for flares. In Crohn's disease, involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract and ileum, penetrating disease, early age at diagnosis, smoking, extensive ulceration of the mucosa, high titers of serum antibodies, and mutations of the NOD2 gene are markers of aggressive disease. In ulcerative colitis, patients with more extensive involvement of the colon (pancolitis) have more symptomatology and are at higher risk for needing a colectomy and developing colon cancer. Also, plasmocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa and crypt atrophy predict treatment failure. As with diagnosis, no single method can predict disease aggressiveness. Multiple serologic and genetic tests are being developed to refine the accuracy of prediction. Endoscopic findings can also predict the future course of disease. At present, clinical manifestations are the most useful way to make therapeutic decisions. PMID:22298958

  1. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2018-01-01

    Background No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Materials and methods Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation. Conclusion LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the violence associated with LD can be avoided with better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of LD. PMID:29576731

  2. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    PubMed

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  3. Patient initiated aggression - prevalence and impact for general practice staff.

    PubMed

    Herath, Pushpani; Forrest, Laura; McRae, Ian; Parker, Rhian

    2011-06-01

    Patient initiated aggression toward general practice staff can cause distress among staff, however, it is unknown how frequently practice staff experience patient aggression in the workplace. The aim of this study is to determine the national prevalence of patient aggression toward general practice staff. A clustered cross sectional survey involving general practice staff working in Australia. A questionnaire was posted to 1109 general practices nationally and 217 questionnaires were completed and returned (19.6% response rate). It was found that verbal aggression is commonly experienced by practice staff, particularly receptionists, whereas physical aggression is infrequent. Staff working in larger practices experience more verbal aggression and property damage or theft and it was reported that verbal aggression has a greater impact on staff wellbeing than physical aggression. This study provides some national evidence of the prevalence of patient aggression toward general practice staff. This may inform the development of policy and procedures.

  4. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  5. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  6. Paratesticular aggressive angiomyxoma: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Muhamad Izwan; Wong, Yin Ping; Tan, Guan Hee; Fam, Xeng Inn

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) particularly testicular origin is a rare benign mesenchymal myxoid tumor which is locally aggressive, blatant for local recurrence, and may metastasize. It occurs mostly in females of childbearing age and extremely rare in males. AMM particular testicular origin is not reported in literature yet. This is a 65-year-old man who had a right scrotal swelling. Ultrasound scrotum showed a soft tissue tumor of the right testis. The patient underwent radical right orchidectomy of which histopathologically confirmed to be a paratesticular AAM with clear resection margins. There were no signs of local recurrence or metastasis 2 years postsurgical resection. PMID:28479778

  7. Aggressive hemangioma of the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Wesley B; Wetzel, Raun J; Tanner, Stephanie C; Khan, Majid A

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common lesions and usually considered benign. A rare subset of them, however, are characterized by extra-osseous extension, bone expansion, disturbance of blood flow, and occasionally compression fractures and thereby referred to as aggressive hemangiomas. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman with progressive paraplegia and an infiltrative mass of T4 vertebra causing mass effect on the spinal cord. Multiple conventional imaging modalities were utilized to suggest the diagnosis of aggressive hemangioma. Final pathologic diagnosis after decompressive surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an osseous hemangioma.

  8. Aggressive hemangioma of the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Wesley B.; Wetzel, Raun J.; Tanner, Stephanie C.; Khan, Majid A.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are common lesions and usually considered benign. A rare subset of them, however, are characterized by extra-osseous extension, bone expansion, disturbance of blood flow, and occasionally compression fractures and thereby referred to as aggressive hemangiomas. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman with progressive paraplegia and an infiltrative mass of T4 vertebra causing mass effect on the spinal cord. Multiple conventional imaging modalities were utilized to suggest the diagnosis of aggressive hemangioma. Final pathologic diagnosis after decompressive surgery confirmed the diagnosis of an osseous hemangioma. PMID:22470764

  9. Paratesticular aggressive angiomyxoma: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhamad Izwan; Wong, Yin Ping; Tan, Guan Hee; Fam, Xeng Inn

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) particularly testicular origin is a rare benign mesenchymal myxoid tumor which is locally aggressive, blatant for local recurrence, and may metastasize. It occurs mostly in females of childbearing age and extremely rare in males. AMM particular testicular origin is not reported in literature yet. This is a 65-year-old man who had a right scrotal swelling. Ultrasound scrotum showed a soft tissue tumor of the right testis. The patient underwent radical right orchidectomy of which histopathologically confirmed to be a paratesticular AAM with clear resection margins. There were no signs of local recurrence or metastasis 2 years postsurgical resection.

  10. Callous-Unemotional Traits, Proactive Aggression, and Treatment Outcomes of Aggressive Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blader, Joseph C.; Pliszka, Steven R.; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A.; Crowell, Judith A.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Sauder, Colin; Margulies, David M.; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L.; Bailey, Brigitte Y.; Daviss, W. Burleson

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to their aggressive behavior. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study’s objective was to determine if pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. Method We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 6- to 13-year-olds (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% males) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. Primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. Results 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio=0.94, 95% CI=0.80–1.11; proactive aggression, odds ratio=1.05, 95% CI=0.86–1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size=−0.379, 95% CI=−0.60 to −0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size=−0.463, 95% CI=−0.69 to −0.23). Conclusions Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  11. A Multifaceted Program To Improve Self-Esteem and Social Skills while Reducing Anxiety in Emotionally Handicapped Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Lynn

    A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…

  12. The Structural Validity of the Perceived Traits of the "Ideal Student" Multi-Faceted Theory among Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava; Cohen, Arie; Furman, Sari

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a multi-faceted theory of "ideal high school student" traits. The trait system, as defined by several theories, is a translation of the teachers' belief system into educational objectives. The study focused on Bloom's taxonomies and the structural validity of its principles, using Similarity Structure Analysis. Aware of the…

  13. Teaching Tree Thinking in an Upper Level Organismal Biology Course: Testing the Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to interpret and reason from Tree of Life diagrams is a key component of twenty-first century science literacy. This article reports on the authors' continued development of a multifaceted research-based curriculum--including an instructional booklet, lectures, laboratories and a field activity--to teach such tree thinking to biology…

  14. Exploring a Multifaceted Syllabus Design for Teaching Short Surahs of Qur'an to Novice-Non-Arabic-Speaking Muslims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Amira A.; Elyas, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The paper's aim is to propose a design for a syllabus for the new Muslims who have recently converted to Islam. The syllabus is multifaceted, addressing the basic linguistic, stylistic, and lexical features of 3 Surahs (chapters) in the holy book in addition to highlighting the most basic information a new Muslim has to know about the sacred book.…

  15. A multifaceted approach to prioritize and design bank stabilization measures along the Big Sioux River, South Dakota, USA

    A multifaceted approach was used to manage fine-grained sediment loadings from river bank erosion along the Big Sioux River between Dell Rapids and Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA. Simulations with the RVR Meander and CONCEPTS river-morphodynamics computer models were conducted to identify stream-ban...

  16. [Effect of sodium valproate on aggressive behavior of male mice with various aggression experience].

    PubMed

    Smagin, D A; Bondar', N P; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2010-01-01

    Sector of Social Behavior Neurogenetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch, Effects of sodium valproate on the aggressive behavior of male mice with 2- and 20-day positive fighting experience have been studied. It is established that valproate administered in a singe dose of 100 mg/kg has no effect on the behavior of male mice with a 2-day experience of aggression. The treatment of mice with 300 mg/kg of valproate significantly decreased the level of aggressive motivation and the percentage of animals demonstrating attacks and threats. In male mice with a 20-day experience of aggression, valproate decreased the time of hostile behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Valproate in a single dose of 300 mg/kg significantly decreased the level of aggressive motivation, but also produced a toxic effect, whereby 73% of aggressive males demonstrated long-term immobility and 45% exhibited movement abnormalities (falls) upon the treatment. It is suggested that changes in the brain neurochemical activity, which are caused by a prolonged experience of aggression, modify the effects of sodium valproate.

  17. Does war beget child aggression? Military violence, gender, age and aggressive behavior in two Palestinian samples.

    PubMed

    Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Miller, Thomas; El-Sarraj, Eyad

    2008-01-01

    We examined, first, the relations between children's exposure to military violence and their aggressive behavior and the role of age and gender in that relation in two Palestinian samples. Second, we tested parenting practices as a moderator of the relation between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior, and third, whether exposure to military violence of different nature (direct victimization versus witnessing) has specific associations with different forms of aggression (reactive, proactive and aggression-enjoyment). Study I was conducted in a relatively calm military-political atmosphere in Palestine-Gaza, and included 640 children, aged 6-16 years whose parents (N=622) and teachers (N=457) provided reports. Older children (> or =12 years) provided self-reports (N=211). Study II included 225 Palestinian children aged 10-14-year, who participated during a high-violence period of the Al Aqsa Intifada characterized by air raids, killing and destruction. Results showed that witnessing severe military violence was associated with children's aggressive and antisocial behavior (parent-reported) in study I, and with proactive, reactive and aggression-enjoyment (child-reported) in the study II. As hypothesized, good and supporting parenting practices could moderate the link between exposure to military violence and aggressive behavior. Aggr. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  19. Effect of algorithm aggressiveness on the performance of the Hypoglycemia-Hyperglycemia Minimizer (HHM) System.

    PubMed

    Finan, Daniel A; McCann, Thomas W; Rhein, Kathleen; Dassau, Eyal; Breton, Marc D; Patek, Stephen D; Anhalt, Henry; Kovatchev, Boris P; Doyle, Francis J; Anderson, Stacey M; Zisser, Howard; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2014-07-01

    The Hypoglycemia-Hyperglycemia Minimizer (HHM) System aims to mitigate glucose excursions by preemptively modulating insulin delivery based on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) measurements. The "aggressiveness factor" is a key parameter in the HHM System algorithm, affecting how readily the system adjusts insulin infusion in response to changing CGM levels. Twenty adults with type 1 diabetes were studied in closed-loop in a clinical research center for approximately 26 hours. This analysis focused on the effect of the aggressiveness factor on the insulin dosing characteristics of the algorithm and, to a lesser extent, on the glucose control results observed. As the aggressiveness factor increased from conservative to medium to aggressive: the maximum observed insulin dose delivered by the algorithm—which is designed to give doses that are corrective in nature every 5 minutes—increased (1.00 vs 1.15 vs 2.20 U, respectively); tendency to adhere to the subject's nominal basal dose decreased (61.9% vs 56.6% vs 53.4%); and readiness to decrease insulin below basal also increased (18.4% vs 19.4% vs 25.2%). Glucose analyses by both CGM and Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) indicated that the aggressive setting of the algorithm resulted in the least time spent at levels >180 mg/dL, and the most time spent between 70-180 mg/dL. There was no severe hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or severe hypoglycemia for any of the aggressiveness values investigated. These analyses underscore the importance of investigating the sensitivity of the HHM System to its key parameters, such as the aggressiveness factor, to guide future development decisions. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Differences in cortisol response affect the distinction of observed reactive and proactive aggression in children with aggressive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J

    2008-01-01

    Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations.

  1. Aggressive and nonaggressive children's moral judgments and moral emotion attributions in situations involving retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated 7- and 9-year-old children's moral understanding of retaliation as compared to unprovoked aggression with regard to their aggressive behavior status. Based on peer ratings, 48 children were selected as overtly aggressive and 91 as nonaggressive. Their moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression was assessed by an interview including questions about their moral judgments and emotion attributions. Aggressive children judged retaliations as less serious than did nonaggressive children. They also referred less often to the harmful consequences of retaliation and were more likely to excuse the retaliation because of the provocation. In unprovoked aggressive situations younger aggressive children, compared with the younger nonaggressive children, attributed more happiness to transgressors, more anger to victims, and less sadness to transgressors and victims. The results are discussed in terms of previous research on aggressive children's moral understanding of retaliation and unprovoked aggression.

  2. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Moderating effects of family environment on the association between children's aggressive beliefs and their aggression trajectories from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how children's aggressive beliefs and their family environments combine to influence the development of child aggression from middle childhood into adolescence. We utilized a "variable-centered" empirical approach, specifically examining whether children's aggressive beliefs represent a risk factor for their aggressive behaviors and whether this risk can be moderated by children's family environment. These questions were tested with individual growth modeling, using the data from a community-representative sample of 440 mother-child dyads, interviewed four times over a 6-year study period. The accelerated longitudinal design of the study enabled examination of children's aggression trajectories from age 7 to age 19. The results supported the hypothesis that elevated aggressive beliefs in children represent a risk factor for aggression, as higher aggressive beliefs were associated with greater aggression at the youngest age, as well as with increased aggression over time. However, as hypothesized, family environment moderated this association, such that changes in children's aggression over time were contingent upon the interaction of their aggressive beliefs with family environment. Specifically, aggression was reduced in children with high aggressive beliefs if they experienced better than average family environment, which included less family conflict and more family cohesion.

  4. A Daily Process Examination of the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Verbal and Physical Aggression in Community Couples

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression perpetration and victimization; however, much of the evidence is based on survey research. Few studies have addressed the proximal effects of drinking episodes on the subsequent occurrence of partner aggression. The current study used daily diary methodology to consider the daily and temporal association between drinking episodes and episodes of partner verbal and physical aggression among a community sample of married and cohabiting couples (N = 118). Male and female partners each provided 56 days of independent daily reports of drinking and partner conflict episodes, including verbal and physical aggression, using interactive voice response technology. Dyadic data analyses, guided by the actor-partner interdependence model, were conducted using hierarchical generalized linear modeling with multivariate outcomes. Daily analyses revealed that alcohol consumption was associated with perpetration of verbal and physical aggression the same day, but not with victimization. Temporal analyses revealed that the likelihood of perpetrating verbal and physical aggression, and the likelihood of being verbally and physically victimized, increased significantly when alcohol was consumed in the previous four hours. Findings did not differ according to gender of perpetrator or victim, and the interaction between perpetrator and victim's alcohol use was not significant in any analysis. The study provides clear evidence that, within a sample of community couples without substance-use disorders or other psychopathology, alcohol consumption by men and women contributes to the occurrence of partner aggression episodes. PMID:24341618

  5. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  6. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  7. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  8. Aggressive Adolescents Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…

  9. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  10. Violent Comic Books Influence Relational Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Olczak, Paul V.

    This paper assesses the impact that reading violent comic books has on hostile attributional bias using relationally aggressive scenarios. College students (N=85) read either very violent or mildly violent comic books. Participants rated the comic books on levels of violence, humor, interest level, and overall likeability. They also read five…

  11. Identifying and Intervening in Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or…

  12. Relational Aggression: A Different Kind of Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin-Rindler, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Relational aggression is a form of bullying that includes both overt name-calling and verbal attacks as well as such indirect strategies as spreading gossip and rumors, manipulating friendships, or intentionally excluding or isolating someone. Educators must become more attuned and vigilant in their responses to it. Offers successful strategies.…

  13. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  14. Psychological Skill Training and the Aggressive Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…

  15. PROGRAMED EXCHANGES AND THE CONTROL OF AGGRESSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, DESMOND P.; HAMBLIN, ROBERT L.

    SYSTEMS OF EXCHANGE - USING THE EXTINCTION, DISTRACTION, AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS SYSTEMS - WERE IMPLEMENTED TO DECREASE AGGRESSION AND PROMOTE COOPERATION AND SCHOLARLY BEHAVIOR, THREE SYSTEMS WERE TESTED USING EXCHANGE THEORY AS A GUIDE. THE SUBJECTS WERE FIVE 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD BOYS DIAGNOSED AS HYPERAGGRESSIVE. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS INCLUDED…

  16. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  17. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  18. A Jagged road to lymphoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Cao and colleagues identifyanFGF4/Jagged1-driven crosstalk between tumor cells and their vascular niche that activates Notch signaling, sustaining the aggressiveness of certain mouse and human B cell lymphomas. These findings identify new therapeutic opportunities to target pathogenic angiocrine functions in cancer. PMID:24651005

  19. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  20. [Aggressive fibromatosis of the nasal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Artazkoz del Toro, J J; Pons Rocher, F; Dalmau Galofré, J; Mompó Romero, L; Guallart Domènech, F; Serrano Badía, E

    1994-01-01

    A case report of a feminine patient who complained of nasal ventilatory obstruction and nasosinusal polyposis is presented. She underwent surgery and the pathological study revealed the existence of an aggressive fibromatosis. The AA. review the literature dealing with this illness and explain an update state of the clinical features, treatment and the course of this rare entity, closely related to fibrosarcoma.

  1. Authoritarianism Revisited: Evidence for an Aggression Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raden, David

    1981-01-01

    Performed a principal components factor analysis on scores of 245 undergraduates to a short version of the F Scale and measures of prejudice, attitude toward welfare, toleration of political deviance, punitiveness toward criminals, and support of the Vietnam War. Analysis produced two factors: authoritarian aggression and attitude toward welfare.…

  2. Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Adults who work in positions of authority with young people must be prepared for the possibility of conflict, which could lead to aggressive behavior. Incorrect handling of a crisis will produce a conflict cycle, the four stages of which are described. Legal issues surrounding physical intervention (in the United Kingdom) are summarized, and…

  3. The clinical assessment of aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chan-Myung; You, Hyung-Keun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Few epidemiologic studies have investigated aggressive periodontitis in Koreans, but such studies of disease prevalence and other clinical characteristics would be invaluable in providing proper treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and to measure the extent of associated periodontal breakdown. Methods The study population consisted of 1,692 patients who visited the Department of Periodontology, Wonkwang Daejeon Dental Hospital from January to December, 2010. Clinical parameters (probing depth, gingival recession, periodontal attachment loss) were measured by a single examiner, and radiographic examination was performed at the baseline. Results Twenty-eight (1.65%) patients showed clinical features of aggressive periodontitis, of which 27 patients exhibited the generalized form, and 1 exhibited the localized form. There was no significant difference between the percentage of male and female patients. The probing pocket depth of the maxillary first molar was deeper than that of the other teeth and gingival recession was also the most serious at the maxillary first molar. The periodontal attachment loss was the highest at the maxillary first molar. The average number of missing teeth was 1.29 per subject. Loss of the second molar was prominent. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the periodontal breakdown evaluated by attachment loss was found to be most severe at the first molars of aggressive periodontitis patients. However, further large scale multicenter studies are necessary to access more precise data, including prevalence. PMID:21811690

  4. Sequelae of Aggression in Acutely Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…

  5. The effect of online violent video games on levels of aggression.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.

  6. Dead certain: confidence and conservatism predict aggression in simulated international crisis decision-making.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dominic D P; McDermott, Rose; Cowden, Jon; Tingley, Dustin

    2012-03-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that confidence and conservatism promoted aggression in our ancestral past, and that this may have been an adaptive strategy given the prevailing costs and benefits of conflict. However, in modern environments, where the costs and benefits of conflict can be very different owing to the involvement of mass armies, sophisticated technology, and remote leadership, evolved tendencies toward high levels of confidence and conservatism may continue to be a contributory cause of aggression despite leading to greater costs and fewer benefits. The purpose of this paper is to test whether confidence and conservatism are indeed associated with greater levels of aggression-in an explicitly political domain. We present the results of an experiment examining people's levels of aggression in response to hypothetical international crises (a hostage crisis, a counter-insurgency campaign, and a coup). Levels of aggression (which range from concession to negotiation to military attack) were significantly predicted by subjects' (1) confidence that their chosen policy would succeed, (2) score on a liberal-conservative scale, (3) political party affiliation, and (4) preference for the use of military force in real-world U.S. policy toward Iraq and Iran. We discuss the possible adaptive and maladaptive implications of confidence and conservatism for the prospects of war and peace in the modern world.

  7. Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk predict perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-05-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date.

  8. The Effect of Online Violent Video Games on Levels of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Methods/Principal Findings Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game—offline, neutral video game—online, violent video game—offline and violent video game—online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression. PMID:25391143

  9. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour.

  10. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  11. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Limbic system seizures and aggressive behavior (superkindling effects).

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Velamati, S

    1978-01-01

    This study was done to further analyze the neural mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior associated with psychomotor or temporal lobe seizures. The studies revealed that superkindling the aggressive system by sequential stimulations at seizure-inducing thresholds, of two or more sites in the limbic, hypothalamic, and basal ganglia structures facilitated the production of aggressive seizures. Aggressive behavior in the freely moving cat was evaluated in relation to the occurrence of hissing and growling during stimulation, after-discharge and postictal period. The behavior was correlated with the frequency of the elicited seizures and the seizure durations. Aggression did develop as a component behavioral manifestation of the limbic (psychomotor) seizure. Development of aggressive seizures was facilitated by "priming" the aggressive system. Optimum levels of aggressive behavior occurred with seizures of medium duration. Catecholamine blockers tended to attentuate the occurrence of aggression, whereas the agonist tended to facilitate it. Once the aggressive system was rendered hyperexcitable, exteroceptive stimuli also evoked aggressive attack behavior. It was concluded that repeatedly recurring limbic system seizures through superkindling mechanisms can eventually render the limbic-basal ganglia-preoptico-hypothalamic aggressive system hyper-responsive to both recurring seizures and to exteroceptive stimuli with resulting aggressive behavior with or without an accompanying seizure.

  13. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  14. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  15. MEVA - An Interactive Visualization Application for Validation of Multifaceted Meteorological Data with Multiple 3D Devices

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Carolin; Bilke, Lars; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Böttinger, Michael; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve more realistic simulations, meteorologists develop and use models with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. The analyzing, comparing, and visualizing of resulting simulations becomes more and more challenging due to the growing amounts and multifaceted character of the data. Various data sources, numerous variables and multiple simulations lead to a complex database. Although a variety of software exists suited for the visualization of meteorological data, none of them fulfills all of the typical domain-specific requirements: support for quasi-standard data formats and different grid types, standard visualization techniques for scalar and vector data, visualization of the context (e.g., topography) and other static data, support for multiple presentation devices used in modern sciences (e.g., virtual reality), a user-friendly interface, and suitability for cooperative work. Methods and Results Instead of attempting to develop yet another new visualization system to fulfill all possible needs in this application domain, our approach is to provide a flexible workflow that combines different existing state-of-the-art visualization software components in order to hide the complexity of 3D data visualization tools from the end user. To complete the workflow and to enable the domain scientists to interactively visualize their data without advanced skills in 3D visualization systems, we developed a lightweight custom visualization application (MEVA - multifaceted environmental data visualization application) that supports the most relevant visualization and interaction techniques and can be easily deployed. Specifically, our workflow combines a variety of different data abstraction methods provided by a state-of-the-art 3D visualization application with the interaction and presentation features of a computer-games engine. Our customized application includes solutions for the analysis of multirun data, specifically with respect to data

  16. A Multi-faceted Mentoring Program for Junior Faculty in Academic Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mary M.; Sandborg, Christy I.; Hudgins, Louanne; Sanford, Rania; Bachrach, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    Problem The departure of physician-scientists from education and research into clinical practice is a growing challenge for the future of academic medicine. Junior faculty face competing demands for clinical productivity, teaching, research and work-life integration which can undermine confidence in the value of an academic career. Mentorship is important to foster career development and satisfaction in junior faculty. Intervention The goals of this academic pediatrics department were to develop, implement, and evaluate a multi-faceted pediatric mentoring program to promote retention and satisfaction of junior faculty. Program elements included one-on-one mentor-mentee meetings, didactic workshops, grant review assistance, and facilitated peer-group mentoring. Program effectiveness was assessed using annual surveys of mentees, structured mentee exit interviews as well as retention data for assistant professors. Context The mentees were Instructors and Assistant Professors in the department of pediatrics Outcome Seventy-nine mentees participated in the program from 2007 through 2014. The response rate from seven annual surveys was 84%. Sixty-nine percent of mentees felt more prepared to advance their careers, 81% had a better understanding of the criteria for advancement, 84% were satisfied with the program, and 95% found mentors accessible. Mentees who exited the program reported they most valued the one-on-one mentoring and viewed the experience positively regardless of promotion. Retention of Assistant Professors improved after initiation of the program; 4 of 13 hired from 2002–2006 left the institution whereas 18 of 18 hired from 2007–2014 were retained. Lessons Learned This multi-faceted mentoring program appeared to bolster satisfaction and enhance retention of junior pediatric faculty. Mentees reported increased understanding of the criteria for promotion and viewed the program as a positive experience regardless of career path. Individual mentor

  17. Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn-Jones, Robert H; Baikie, Karen A; Smithers, Heather; Cohen, Jasmine; Snowdon, John; Tennant, Chris C

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a population based, multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care. Design Randomised controlled trial, with control and intervention groups studied one after the other and blind follow up after 9.5 months. Setting Population of residential facility in Sydney living in self care units and hostels. Participants 220 depressed residents aged ⩾65 without severe cognitive impairment. Intervention The shared care intervention included: (a) multidisciplinary consultation and collaboration, (b) training of general practitioners and carers in detection and management of depression, and (c) depression related health education and activity programmes for residents. The control group received routine care. Main outcome measure Geriatric depression scale. Results Intention to treat analysis was used. There was significantly more movement to “less depressed” levels of depression at follow up in the intervention than control group (Mantel-Haenszel stratification test, P=0.0125). Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant intervention effect after controlling for possible confounders, with the intervention group showing an average improvement of 1.87 points on the geriatric depression scale compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 2.97, P=0.0011). Conclusions The outcome of depression among elderly people in residential care can be improved by multidisciplinary collaboration, by enhancing the clinical skills of general practitioners and care staff, and by providing depression related health education and activity programmes for residents. Key messagesLarge numbers of depressed elderly people live in residential care but few receive appropriate managementA population based, multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression was more effective than routine care in improving depression outcomeThe outcome of late life depression can be improved by

  18. Multifaceted Therapeutic Benefits of Factors Derived From Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Mouse Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Marina; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takanori; Hattori, Hisashi; Hibi, Hideharu; Goto, Hidemi; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-10-01

    : Chronic liver injury from various causes often results in liver fibrosis (LF). Although the liver possesses endogenous tissue-repairing activities, these can be overcome by sustained inflammation and excessive fibrotic scar formation. Advanced LF leads to irreversible cirrhosis and subsequent liver failure and/or hepatic cancer. Here, using the mouse carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced LF model, we showed that a single intravenous administration of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or of SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) resulted in fibrotic scar resolution. SHED-CM suppressed the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS, and eliminated activated hepatic stellate cells by inducing their apoptosis, but protected parenchymal hepatocytes from undergoing apoptosis. In addition, SHED-CM induced tissue-repairing macrophages that expressed high levels of the profibrinolytic factor, matrix metalloproteinase 13. Furthermore, SHED-CM suppressed the CCl 4 -induced apoptosis of primary cultured hepatocytes. SHED-CM contained a high level of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Notably, HGF-depleted SHED-CM (dHGF-CM) did not suppress the proinflammatory response or resolve fibrotic scarring. Furthermore, SHED-CM, but not dHGF-CM, inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that HGF plays a central role in the SHED-CM-mediated resolution of LF. Taken together, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic benefits for the treatment of LF. This study demonstrated that a single intravenous administration of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or of the serum-free conditioned medium (CM) derived from SHEDs markedly improved mouse liver fibrosis (LF). SHED-CM suppressed chronic inflammation, eliminated activated hepatic stellate cells by inducing their apoptosis, protected hepatocytes from undergoing apoptosis, and induced

  19. Maternal defense: breast feeding increases aggression by reducing stress.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M; Lawson, E Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress.

  20. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  1. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  2. Aggressive behavior in transgenic animal models: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jager, Amanda; Maas, Dorien A; Fricke, Kim; de Vries, Rob B; Poelmans, Geert; Glennon, Jeffrey C

    2018-08-01

    Aggressive behavior is often core or comorbid to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Transgenic animal models are commonly used to study the neurobiological mechanisms underlying aggressive phenotypes and have led to new insights into aggression. This systematic review critically evaluates the available literature on transgenic animal models tested for aggression with the resident-intruder test. By combining the available literature on this topic, we sought to highlight effective methods for laboratory aggression testing and provide recommendations for study design as well as aggression induction and measurement in rodents that are translational to humans, taking into consideration possible confounding factors. In addition, we built a molecular landscape of interactions between the proteins encoded by the aggression-linked genes from our systematic search. Some molecular pathways within this landscape overlap with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and the landscapes point towards a number of putative (drug) targets for aggression that need to be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural mechanisms of the rejection-aggression link.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-05-01

    Social rejection is a painful event that often increases aggression. However, the neural mechanisms of this rejection-aggression link remain unclear. A potential clue may be that rejected people often recruit the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's (VLPFC) self-regulatory processes to manage the pain of rejection. Using functional MRI, we replicated previous links between rejection and activity in the brain's mentalizing network, social pain network and VLPFC. VLPFC recruitment during rejection was associated with greater activity in the brain's reward network (i.e. the ventral striatum) when individuals were given an opportunity to retaliate. This retaliation-related striatal response was associated with greater levels of retaliatory aggression. Dispositionally aggressive individuals exhibited less functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the right VLPFC during aggression. This connectivity exerted a suppressing effect on dispositionally aggressive individuals' greater aggressive responses to rejection. These results help explain how the pain of rejection and reward of revenge motivate rejected people to behave aggressively.

  4. The Multidimensional Aggression Scale for the Structured Doll Play Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A multidimensional aggression scoring system for preschool children's responses to the structured doll play interview is described. The system, which incorporates previous investigator's findings, scales doll play responses along three dimensions of aggression: intensity, agent, and directionality. (Author)

  5. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  6. Terror management and aggression: evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others.

    PubMed

    McGregor, H A; Lieberman, J D; Greenberg, J; Solomon, S; Arndt, J; Simon, L; Pyszczynski, T

    1998-03-01

    The hypothesis that mortality salience (MS) motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others was tested in 4 studies. In Study 1, the experimenters induced participants to write about either their own death or a control topic, presented them with a target who either disparaged their political views or did not, and gave them the opportunity to choose the amount of hot sauce the target would have to consume. As predicted, MS participants allocated a particularly large amount of hot sauce to the worldview-threatening target. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors found that following MS induction, the opportunity to express a negative attitude toward the critical target eliminated aggression and the opportunity to aggress against the target eliminated derogation. This suggests that derogation and aggression are two alternative modes of responding to MS that serve the same psychological function. Finally, Study 4 showed that MS did not encourage aggression against a person who allocated unpleasant juice to the participant, supporting the specificity of MS-induced aggression to worldview-threatening others.

  7. Personality correlates of revenge-seeking: Multidimensional links to physical aggression, impulsivity, and aggressive pleasure.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-05-01

    People differ in how much they seek retribution for interpersonal insults, slights, rejections, and other antagonistic actions. Identifying individuals who are most prone towards such revenge-seeking is a theoretically-informative and potentially violence-reducing endeavor. However, we have yet to understand the extent to which revenge-seeking individuals exhibit specific features of aggressiveness, impulsivity, and what motivates their hunt for retribution. Toward this end, we conducted three studies (total N = 673), in which revenge-seeking was measured alongside these other constructs. Analyses repeatedly demonstrated that revenge-seeking was associated with greater physical (but not verbal) aggressiveness, anger, and hostility. Revenge-seeking's link to physical aggression was partially accounted for by impulses toward enjoying aggression and the tendency to use aggression to improve mood. Dominance analyses revealed that sadism explained the most variance in revenge-seeking. Revenge-seeking was associated with greater impulsive responses to negative and positive affect, as well as greater premeditation of behavior. These findings paint a picture of revenge-seekers as physically aggressive curators of anger, whose retributive acts are performed with planned malice and motivated by the act's entertaining and therapeutic qualities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Dodge, Kenneth; Loeber, Rolf; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Lynam, Don; Reynolds, Chandra; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Liu, Jianghong

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the development of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive–reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 7 by initiation of fights, strong-arm tactics, delinquency, poor school motivation, poor peer relationships, single-parent status, psychosocial adversity, substance-abusing parents, and hyperactivity, and at age 16 by a psychopathic personality, blunted affect, delinquency, and serious violent offending. Reactive aggression was uniquely characterized at age 16 by impulsivity, hostility, social anxiety, lack of close friends, unusual perceptual experiences, and ideas of reference. Findings confirm and extend the differential correlates of proactive–reactive aggression, and demonstrate that this brief but reliable and valid self-report instrument can be used to assess proactive and reactive aggression in child and adolescent samples. PMID:20798781

  9. Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: implications for human aggression.

    PubMed

    Gregg, T R; Siegel, A

    2001-01-01

    1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.

  10. Nurse case-manager vs multifaceted intervention to improve quality of osteoporosis care after wrist fracture: randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S R; Johnson, J A; Bellerose, D; McAlister, F A; Russell, A S; Hanley, D A; Garg, S; Lier, D A; Maksymowych, W P; Morrish, D W; Rowe, B H

    2011-01-01

    Few outpatients with fractures are treated for osteoporosis in the years following fracture. In a randomized pilot study, we found a nurse case-manager could double rates of osteoporosis testing and treatment compared with a proven efficacious quality improvement strategy directed at patients and physicians (57% vs 28% rates of appropriate care). Few patients with fractures are treated for osteoporosis. An intervention directed at wrist fracture patients (education) and physicians (guidelines, reminders) tripled osteoporosis treatment rates compared to controls (22% vs 7% within 6 months of fracture). More effective strategies are needed. We undertook a pilot study that compared a nurse case-manager to the multifaceted intervention using a randomized trial design. The case-manager counseled patients, arranged bone mineral density (BMD) tests, and prescribed treatments. We included controls from our first trial who remained untreated for osteoporosis 1-year post-fracture. Primary outcome was bisphosphonate treatment and secondary outcomes were BMD testing, appropriate care (BMD test-treatment if bone mass low), and costs. Forty six patients untreated 1-year after wrist fracture were randomized to case-manager (n = 21) or multifaceted intervention (n = 25). Median age was 60 years and 68% were female. Six months post-randomization, 9 (43%) case-managed patients were treated with bisphosphonates compared with 3 (12%) multifaceted intervention patients (relative risk [RR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-11.5, p = 0.019). Case-managed patients were more likely than multifaceted intervention patients to undergo BMD tests (81% vs 52%, RR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4, p = 0.042) and receive appropriate care (57% vs 28%, RR 2.0, 95%CI 1.0-4.2, p = 0.048). Case-management cost was $44 (CDN) per patient vs $12 for the multifaceted intervention. A nurse case-manager substantially increased rates of appropriate testing and treatment for osteoporosis in

  11. Relational Aggression among Boys: Blind Spots and Hidden Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2018-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a 'girl problem', we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression…

  12. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  13. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  14. Aggression Replacement Training: Putting Theory and Research to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollin, Clive R.

    2003-01-01

    There are many problems posed by aggressive youth, the harm to victims and the loss of young people into the criminal justice system and penal confinement. Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by Arnold Goldstein and his colleagues as a means of working with aggressive young people to help them learn new, prosocial ways of behaving.…

  15. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of…

  16. Guidelines for Support Staff Experiencing Aggression in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolam-Babee, Hajira; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris P.H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss guidelines for support staff experiencing aggression in schools and to develop an approach for the support staff to deal with aggression to facilitate their mental health. The researchers explored the experience of aggression of the support staff in a chosen school by conducting phenomenological, unstructured…

  17. An Investigation of Turkish Preservice Teachers' Aggression Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyilmaz, Yildiz; Can, Gurhan

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate preservice teachers' aggressive behaviors. In addition, the contributions of variables to the aggressive behaviors were explored, including females' and males' patterns of explaining aggressive behaviors. Out of 3366 preservice teachers at Education Faculty of Anadolu University and Osmangazi…

  18. The Validity of Physical Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…

  19. Do You Have to be Angry to be Aggressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wienir, Paul L.

    Seven hypotheses regarding the role of anger for aggressive behavior were testes in an experimental exchange situation using male children as subjects. In previous studies, anger had not actually been employed as the intervening variable in a provocation/aggressive cue-aggression model. The results indicate a strong relationship between…

  20. Attentional Processes in Children's Overt and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenault, Darin J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined attention and memory processes assumed by the social information-processing model to be biased in aggressive children. We also explored whether similar biases were associated with overt and relational aggression. A total of 96 fourth through sixth graders saw videos of overtly and relationally aggressive child actors and…

  1. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  2. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  3. Aggression on haemodialysis units: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Nijman, Henk; Ross, Jamie; Ashman, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Aggression on haemodialysis units is a growing problem internationally that has received little research attention to date. Aggressive behaviour by patients or their relatives can compromise the safety and well-being of staff and other patients sharing a haemodialysis session. The objectives of the study were twofold: First, to identify the prevalance and nature of aggression on haemodialysis units; and second, to investigate factors that contribute to aggressive behaviour on haemodialysis units. A cross-sectional, sequential mixed method research design was adopted, with two research methods utilised. Incidents of aggressive behaviour were recorded over a 12-month period, using a renal version of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale. Six months after the incident data collection had commenced, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 29 multidisciplinary members of staff. Over 12 months, 74 aggressive incidents were recorded. The majority of incidents involved verbal aggression, and the perpetrators were a minority of patients, relatives and staff. Two patients were responsible for 38% of all incidents; both patients had mental health problems. Distinct temporal patterns to the aggressive behaviour were observed according to the day of the week and time of day. This study demonstrates that aggression is a significant problem on haemodialysis units, with verbal aggression most prevalent. The temporal patterns to aggression observed are related to the uniqueness of the haemodialysis setting, with a distinctly different treatment environment compared with other healthcare settings. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  4. Exploring Parental Aggression toward Teachers in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, David C.; Johnson, Jerry; Chen, Yanfen; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ricketts, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school…

  5. Effects of Attack and Uncontrollable Noise on Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    1978-01-01

    The past decade has been marked by mounting public concern over noise as a source of environmental pollution. Simultaneously, research has shown that noise is also a potent cause of physiological stress. This research relates noise to aggression concluding that noise facilitates aggression in subjects who have been instigated to aggress to the…

  6. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  7. Relationship between team identification and trait aggression: a replication.

    PubMed

    Wann, Daniel L; Shelton, Sarah; Smith, Tony; Walker, Rhonda

    2002-04-01

    Research yielded no significant relationship between sport fandom and trait aggression. The current study replicated previous efforts using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, an updated version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. In contrast to past work, the current study did yield a significant relationship between fandom and aggression for men.

  8. The Relation of Conceptual Tempo to Aggression and Its Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, Stanley B.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Fifth-grade boys and girls were administered the Matching Familiar Figures Test and a projective measure of fantasy aggression and its control. They were also rated sociometrically by peers and teachers on physical, verbal, and indirect forms of overt aggression. Results indicated that conceptual tempo was related to aggression and its control.…

  9. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  10. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  11. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  12. Females' Reasons for Their Physical Aggression in Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettrich, Emma L.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 32% of dating college females reported that they engaged in physical aggression against their partners and that they engaged in acts of physical aggression more often than their male partners engaged in aggression against them. However, the females also reported that their male partners attempted to force them to engage in oral sex…

  13. Developing the OORCC: A Multifaceted Astronomical Research and Outreach Facility at the University of Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Teiler J.; Bullis, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Annika; Fisher, Robert Scott

    2015-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) owns and operates Pine Mountain Observatory (PMO), located in central Oregon on the summit of Pine Mountain at an elevation of 1980 meters. PMO consists of four telescopes ranging in size from 0.35 - 0.8 meters. The Oregon Observatory Remote Control Center (OORCC) is a remote-observing center within the Department of Physics on the UO campus (~140 miles from the observatory) that has a direct connection to PMO through a dedicated fiber-optic cable. With this facility, we will enable UO undergraduate student researchers, UO faculty, and the non-scientific community to fully control and operate a newly installed robotic telescope on the summit of Pine Mountain from Eugene, or any other authorized site in Oregon. In addition to providing undergraduates with instrumentation and engineering experience, we will implement research by photometrically monitoring bright and variable astronomical sources including main belt comets, Herbig Ae/Be stars, and active galactic nuclei in extragalactic systems. The primary objective with the OORCC is to manage a multifaceted astronomy and astrophysics research facility, extending as a state-wide resource for K-12 STEM activities and public outreach programs. With the OORCC, we intend to bring unique and enriching astronomy exposure to many different groups of people throughout the state of Oregon.

  14. Multifaceted Roles of Glutathione and Glutathione-Based Systems in Carcinogenesis and Anticancer Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Elie; El Banna, Nadine; Huang, Meng-Er

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione is the most abundant antioxidant molecule in living organisms and has multiple functions. Intracellular glutathione homeostasis, through its synthesis, consumption, and degradation, is an intricately balanced process. Glutathione levels are often high in tumor cells before treatment, and there is a strong correlation between elevated levels of intracellular glutathione/sustained glutathione-mediated redox activity and resistance to pro-oxidant anticancer therapy. Recent Advances: Ample evidence demonstrates that glutathione and glutathione-based systems are particularly relevant in cancer initiation, progression, and the development of anticancer drug resistance. This review highlights the multifaceted roles of glutathione and glutathione-based systems in carcinogenesis, anticancer drug resistance, and clinical applications. The evidence summarized here underscores the important role played by glutathione and the glutathione-based systems in carcinogenesis and anticancer drug resistance. Future studies should address mechanistic questions regarding the distinct roles of glutathione in different stages of cancer development and cancer cell death. It will be important to study how metabolic alterations in cancer cells can influence glutathione homeostasis. Sensitive approaches to monitor glutathione dynamics in subcellular compartments will be an indispensible step. Therapeutic perspectives should focus on mechanism-based rational drug combinations that are directed against multiple redox targets using effective, specific, and clinically safe inhibitors. This new strategy is expected to produce a synergistic effect, prevent drug resistance, and diminish doses of single drugs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1217-1234.

  15. A Multifaceted Approach to Improving Outcomes in the NICU: The Pediatrix 100 000 Babies Campaign.

    PubMed

    Ellsbury, Dan L; Clark, Reese H; Ursprung, Robert; Handler, Darren L; Dodd, Elizabeth D; Spitzer, Alan R

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in neonatal medicine, infants requiring neonatal intensive care continue to experience substantial morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this initiative was to generate large-scale simultaneous improvements in multiple domains of care in a large neonatal network through a program called the "100,000 Babies Campaign." Key drivers of neonatal morbidity and mortality were identified. A system for retrospective morbidity and mortality review was used to identify problem areas for project prioritization. NICU system analysis and staff surveys were used to facilitate reengineering of NICU systems in 5 key driver areas. Electronic health record-based automated data collection and reporting were used. A quality improvement infrastructure using the Kotter organizational change model was developed to support the program. From 2007 to 2013, data on 422 877 infants, including a subset with birth weight of 501 to 1500 g (n = 58 555) were analyzed. Key driver processes (human milk feeding, medication use, ventilator days, admission temperature) all improved (P < .0001). Mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, bacteremia after 3 days of life, and catheter-associated infection decreased. Survival without significant morbidity (necrotizing enterocolitis, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, severe retinopathy of prematurity, oxygen use at 36 weeks' gestation) improved. Implementation of a multifaceted quality improvement program that incorporated organizational change theory and automated electronic health record-based data collection and reporting program resulted in major simultaneous improvements in key neonatal processes and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Impact of Context-Rich, Multifaceted Problems on Students' Attitudes Towards Problem-Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Craig

    2008-04-01

    Young scientists and engineers need strong problem-solving skills to enable them to address the broad challenges they will face in their careers. These challenges will likely be ill-defined and open-ended with either unclear goals, insufficient constraints, multiple possible solutions, and different criteria for evaluating solutions so that our young scientists and engineers must be able to make judgments and defend their proposed solutions. In contrast, many students believe that problem-solving is being able to apply set procedures or algorithms to tasks and that their job as students is to master an ever-increasing list of procedures. This gap between students' beliefs and the broader, deeper approaches of experts is a strong barrier to the educational challenge of preparing students to succeed in their future careers. To start to address this gap, we have used multi-faceted, context-rich problems in a sophomore calculus-based physics course. To assess whether there was any change in students' attitudes or beliefs towards problem-solving, students were asked to reflect on their problem-solving at the beginning and at the end of the semester. These reflections were coded as containing one or more problem-solving ideas. The change in students' beliefs will be shown in this talk.

  17. Multi-faceted Rasch measurement and bias patterns in EFL writing performance assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Gou, Wen Johnny; Chien, Ya-Chen; Chen, I-Shan Jenny; Chang, Shan-Mao

    2013-04-01

    This study applied multi-faceted Rasch measurement to examine rater bias in the assessment of essays written by college students learning English as a foreign language. Four raters who had received different academic training from four distinctive disciplines applied a six-category rating scale to analytically rate essays on an argumentative topic and on a descriptive topic. FACETS, a Rasch computer program, was utilized to pinpoint bias patterns by analyzing the rater-topic, rater-category, and topic-category interactions. Results showed: argumentative essays were rated more severely than were descriptive essays; the linguistics-major rater was the most lenient rater, while the literature-major rater was the severest one; and the category of language use received the severest ratings, whereas content was given the most lenient ratings. The severity hierarchies for raters, essay topics, and rating categories suggested that raters' academic training and their perceptions of the importance of categories were associated with their bias patterns. Implications for rater training are discussed.

  18. Process evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to improve cardiovascular disease prevention in general practice.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Claudia M; Euser, Lya; Kamp, Jeanine; Frijling, Bernard D; Severens, Johan L; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Grol, Richard P T M; Prins, Ad; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2003-09-01

    To perform a process evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to improve cardiovascular and diabetes care in general practice. The feasibility of the intervention, carried out by outreach visitors in 62 practices, was addressed by evaluating whether the intervention programme was performed as planned and the extent to which it was accepted by the practice team. In addition, the costs of the programme were determined. The intervention was largely carried out as planned, although the intervention period had to be extended by three months. Of the 18 topics that could be addressed during the intervention period, 12 (mean) were addressed. The number of outreach visits per practice was 15.2 (mean), each visit lasted about one hour. Most practice members endorsed both the key recommendations for clinical decision-making and cardiovascular risk profiling. The majority of GPs (range 63-98%) agreed with the guidelines for clinical decision-making, and 29-97% had a positive opinion about the guidelines for practice organisation. According to practice staff members, the outreach visitor had sufficient knowledge and skills to support them in changing the practice organisation. GPs were less positive about the outreach visitor's knowledge and skills in optimising clinical decision-making; however 78% believed that the outreach visitor contributed to effecting change in their clinical decision-making. The total costs of the intervention per practice were Euro 4317. This process evaluation demonstrated that the intervention was usually carried out as planned and achieved a high satisfaction rating from the participating practice members.

  19. Resolving the multifaceted mechanisms of the ferric chloride thrombosis model using an interdisciplinary microfluidic approach

    PubMed Central

    Ciciliano, Jordan C.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Myers, David R.; Fay, Meredith E.; Hechler, Beatrice; Meeks, Shannon; Li, Renhao; Dixon, J. Brandon; Lyon, L. Andrew; Gachet, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the widely used in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl3) thrombosis model remains poorly understood; although endothelial cell denudation is historically cited, a recent study refutes this and implicates a role for erythrocytes. Given the complexity of the in vivo environment, an in vitro reductionist approach is required to systematically isolate and analyze the biochemical, mass transfer, and biological phenomena that govern the system. To this end, we designed an “endothelial-ized” microfluidic device to introduce controlled FeCl3 concentrations to the molecular and cellular components of blood and vasculature. FeCl3 induces aggregation of all plasma proteins and blood cells, independent of endothelial cells, by colloidal chemistry principles: initial aggregation is due to binding of negatively charged blood components to positively charged iron, independent of biological receptor/ligand interactions. Full occlusion of the microchannel proceeds by conventional pathways, and can be attenuated by antithrombotic agents and loss-of-function proteins (as in IL4-R/Iba mice). As elevated FeCl3 concentrations overcome protective effects, the overlap between charge-based aggregation and clotting is a function of mass transfer. Our physiologically relevant in vitro system allows us to discern the multifaceted mechanism of FeCl3-induced thrombosis, thereby reconciling literature findings and cautioning researchers in using the FeCl3 model. PMID:25931587

  20. Mitochondrial multifaceted dysfunction in schizophrenia; complex I as a possible pathological target.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondria are key players in various essential cellular processes beyond being the main energy supplier of the cell. Accordingly, they are involved in neuronal synaptic transmission, neuronal growth and sprouting and consequently neuronal plasticity and connectivity. In addition, mitochondria participate in the modulation of gene transcription and inflammation as well in physiological responses in health and disease. Schizophrenia is currently regarded as a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired immune system, aberrant neuronal differentiation and abnormalities in various neurotransmitter systems mainly the dopaminergic, glutaminergic and GABAergic. Ample evidence has been accumulated over the last decade indicating a multifaceted dysfunction of mitochondria in schizophrenia. Indeed, mitochondrial deficit can be of relevance for the majority of the pathologies observed in this disease. In the present article, we overview specific deficits of the mitochondria in schizophrenia, with a focus on the first complex (complex I) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We argue that complex I, being a major factor in the regulation of mitochondrial ETC, is a possible key modulator of various functions of the mitochondria. We review biochemical, molecular, cellular and functional evidence for mitochondrial impairments and their possible convergence to impact in-vitro neuronal differentiation efficiency in schizophrenia. Mitochondrial function in schizophrenia may advance our knowledge of the disease pathophysiology and open the road for new treatment targets for the benefit of the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Jones, R H; Baikie, K A; Smithers, H; Cohen, J; Snowdon, J; Tennant, C C

    1999-09-11

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a population based, multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care. Randomised controlled trial, with control and intervention groups studied one after the other and blind follow up after 9.5 months. Population of residential facility in Sydney living in self care units and hostels. 220 depressed residents aged >/=65 without severe cognitive impairment. The shared care intervention included: (a) multidisciplinary consultation and collaboration, (b) training of general practitioners and carers in detection and management of depression, and (c) depression related health education and activity programmes for residents. The control group received routine care. Geriatric depression scale. Intention to treat analysis was used. There was significantly more movement to "less depressed" levels of depression at follow up in the intervention than control group (Mantel-Haenszel stratification test, P=0.0125). Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant intervention effect after controlling for possible confounders, with the intervention group showing an average improvement of 1.87 points on the geriatric depression scale compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 2.97, P=0.0011). The outcome of depression among elderly people in residential care can be improved by multidisciplinary collaboration, by enhancing the clinical skills of general practitioners and care staff, and by providing depression related health education and activity programmes for residents.

  2. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcomes of a Multi-faceted Educational Intervention to Increase Student Scholarship

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Melissa; Slack, Marion; Warholak, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To increase the percentage of state, national, or international student presentations and publications. Design. A multi-faceted intervention to increase student scholarly output was developed that included: (1) a 120-minute lecture on publication of quality improvement or independent study research findings; (2) abstract workshops; (3) poster workshops; and (4) a reminder at an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) meeting encouraging students to publish or present posters. The intervention effect was measured as the percent of students who presented at meetings and the number of student projects published. Assessment. A significant increase occurred in the percent of students who presented posters or published manuscripts after the intervention (64% vs 81%). Total student productivity increased from 84 to 147 posters, publications, and presentations. The number of projects presented or published increased from 50 to 77 in one year. Conclusion. This high-impact, low-cost intervention increased scholarly output and may help students stand out in a competitive job market. PMID:26430267

  4. A multifaceted FISH approach to study endogenous RNAs and DNAs in native nuclear and cell structures.

    PubMed

    Byron, Meg; Hall, Lisa L; Lawrence, Jeanne B

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not a singular technique, but a battery of powerful and versatile tools for examining the distribution of endogenous genes and RNAs in precise context with each other and in relation to specific proteins or cell structures. This unit offers the details of highly sensitive and successful protocols that were initially developed largely in our lab and honed over a number of years. Our emphasis is on analysis of nuclear RNAs and DNA to address specific biological questions about nuclear structure, pre-mRNA metabolism, or the role of noncoding RNAs; however, cytoplasmic RNA detection is also discussed. Multifaceted molecular cytological approaches bring precise resolution and sensitive multicolor detection to illuminate the organization and functional roles of endogenous genes and their RNAs within the native structure of fixed cells. Solutions to several common technical pitfalls are discussed, as are cautions regarding the judicious use of digital imaging and the rigors of analyzing and interpreting complex molecular cytological results.

  5. Observation of early childhood physical aggression: a psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical aggression was observed twice in a laboratory setting, the first time when children were 1-3 years old, and again 1 year later. Observed physical aggression was significantly related to concurrent mother-rated physical aggression for 2- to 4-year-olds, but not to maternal ratings of nonaggressive externalizing problems, indicating the measure's discriminant validity. However, we did not find significant 1-year stability of observed physical aggression in any of the age groups, whereas mother-rated physical aggression was significantly stable for all ages. The observational measure shows promise, but may have assessed state rather than trait aggression in our study. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Intoxicated aggression: Do alcohol and stimulants cause dose-related aggression? A review.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Kpc; Verkes, R J; van den Brink, W; van Amsterdam, Jgc; Ramaekers, J G

    2018-06-22

    Violence and drug use are significant public health challenges that are strongly linked. It is known that alcohol plays a major role in the causation of unnatural deaths and that stimulants like cocaine and amphetamine are often implicated in aggressive acts or violence. However, a clear causal relationship between these substances and aggression, and more specifically a blood concentration threshold at which intoxicated aggression emerges is lacking. In case of a crime and subsequent law enforcement, knowledge about dose-response relationships could be of pivotal importance when evaluating the role of alcohol and drugs in aggressive offences. The present review aimed to determine whether there is a causal relation between intoxication with these psychoactive substances and aggression, and to define blood concentration thresholds above which these substances elicit aggression. Empirical articles published between 2013 and 2017 and review papers containing the predefined search strings were identified through searches in the PubMed and Embase databases and additional reference list searches. The complete search query yielded 1578 publications. Initially all articles were manually screened by title and abstract. Articles with irrelevant titles, given the selected search terms and review aims were discarded. Remaining articles were carefully studied and those that did not comply with the main objectives of this review were discarded. At the end of this process, 167 titles were found eligible for review. While placebo-controlled experimental studies clearly showed a causal link between alcohol and aggression, it is evident that such a link has not yet been established for cocaine and amphetamines. In case of alcohol, it is clear that there are various individual and contextual factors that may contribute to the occurrence of an aggressive act during intoxication. A clear threshold blood alcohol concentration has not been defined yet for alcohol, but a statistically

  7. Deconstructing the Associations Between Executive Functioning, Problematic Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Aggression: A Dyadic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Subramani, Olivia S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Problematic drinking and executive functioning deficits are two known risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA). However, executive functioning is a multifaceted construct, and it is not clear whether deficits in specific components of executive functioning are differentially associated with IPA perpetration generally and within the context of problematic alcohol use. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of problematic drinking and components of executive functioning on physical IPA perpetration within a dyadic framework. Design and Methods Participants were 582 heavy drinking couples (total N = 1,164) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical IPA recruited from two metropolitan cities in the United States. Multilevel models were used to examine effects within an Actor-Partner Interdependence framework. Results The highest levels of physical IPA were observed among Actors who reported everyday consequences of executive functioning deficits related to emotional dysregulation whose partners were problematic drinkers. However, the association between executive functioning deficits related to emotional dysregulation and IPA was stronger toward partners who were non-problematic drinkers relative to partners who were problematic drinkers drinkers. No such effect was found for executive functioning deficits related to behavioral regulation. Discussion and Conclusions Results provide insight into how problematic drinking and specific executive functioning deficits interact dyadically in relation to physical IPA perpetration. PMID:28116760

  8. Neurogenetics of Aggressive Behavior – Studies in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals’ survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques e.g. immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), major inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie

  9. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  10. Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

  11. The Effects of Online Discussion Forum Aggressive Messages and Cognitive Distortion on Users' Negative Affect and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This research is comprised of two studies designed to explore the effects of online discussion forum aggressive messages and Internet cognitive distortion on users' negative affect and aggression. The results of study 1 revealed 69 users could perceive both disgust and hostility feelings toward aggressive messages conducted by the authors, and…

  12. A cross-lagged structural equation model of relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status in a Chinese culture.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  14. Workplace victimization: aggression from the target's perspective.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Karl; Thau, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research on workplace victimization, which we define as acts of aggression perpetrated by one or more members of an organization that cause psychological, emotional, or physical harm to their intended target. We compare several types of victimizing behaviors that have been introduced into the organizational psychology literature to illustrate differences and similarities among them. We then review studies looking at who is likely to become a victim of aggression. Predictors include personality, demographic, behavioral, structural, and organizational variables. We also review research on coping strategies for victimization, which include problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. We conclude with a summary of challenges for victimization research. These include addressing the proliferation of constructs and terms into the literature, attempting to clarify inconclusive findings, and using theory to guide the selection of study variables.

  15. A Multifaceted School-based Intervention to Reduce Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in At-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Dziura, James; Northrup, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted, school-based intervention on inner city youth at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to determine whether the addition of coping skills training (CST) and health coaching improves outcomes. Method 198 students in New Haven, CT at risk for T2DM (BMI > 85th percentile and family history of diabetes) were randomized by school to an educational intervention with or without the addition of CST and health coaching. Students were enrolled from 2004–2007 and followed for 12 months. Results Students in both groups showed some improvement in anthropometric measures, lipids, and depressive symptoms over 12 months. BMI was not improved by the intervention. Students who received CST showed greater improvement on some indicators of metabolic risk than students who received education only. Conclusion A multifaceted, school-based intervention may hold promise for reducing metabolic risk in urban, minority youth. PMID:19643125

  16. Metabolomic signatures of aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McDunn, Jonathan E; Li, Zhen; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Neri, Bruce P; Wolfert, Robert L; Milburn, Michael V; Lotan, Yair; Wheeler, Thomas M

    2013-10-01

    Current diagnostic techniques have increased the detection of prostate cancer; however, these tools inadequately stratify patients to minimize mortality. Recent studies have identified a biochemical signature of prostate cancer metastasis, including increased sarcosine abundance. This study examined the association of tissue metabolites with other clinically significant findings. A state of the art metabolomics platform analyzed prostatectomy tissues (331 prostate tumor, 178 cancer-free prostate tissues) from two independent sites. Biochemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses identified metabolites associated with cancer aggressiveness: Gleason score, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement. Prostate tumors had significantly altered metabolite profiles compared to cancer-free prostate tissues, including biochemicals associated with cell growth, energetics, stress, and loss of prostate-specific biochemistry. Many metabolites were further associated with clinical findings of aggressive disease. Aggressiveness-associated metabolites stratified prostate tumor tissues with high abundances of compounds associated with normal prostate function (e.g., citrate and polyamines) from more clinically advanced prostate tumors. These aggressive prostate tumors were further subdivided by abundance profiles of metabolites including NAD+ and kynurenine. When added to multiparametric nomograms, metabolites improved prediction of organ confinement (AUROC from 0.53 to 0.62) and 5-year recurrence (AUROC from 0.53 to 0.64). These findings support and extend earlier metabolomic studies in prostate cancer and studies where metabolic enzymes have been associated with carcinogenesis and/or outcome. Furthermore, these data suggest that panels of analytes may be valuable to translate metabolomic findings to clinically useful diagnostic tests

  17. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  18. Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson

    2013-12-01

    Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements

  19. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ∼100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin’s first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE’s active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans. PMID:25646463

  20. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Treatment of impulsive aggression in correctional settings.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah; Sampl, Susan; Kesten, Karen L; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the implementation of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) for difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive correctional populations. Participants were English-speaking women (n = 18) and men (n = 45) of diverse cultural backgrounds between the ages of 16 and 59 years old retained in state-run prisons in Connecticut. Following consent, and a psychological assessment battery, twice-weekly DBT-CM groups were held over 16 weeks followed by random assignment to DBT coaching or case management condition, with sessions taking place individually for eight weeks. Data analysis. A mixed effects regression model was used to test the hypotheses: participants will show decreased aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathology, as well as improved coping, after completing the DBT-CM groups; and will show greater reduction in targeted behaviors than those receiving case management at the six month and 12 month follow-up assessment periods. Significant reduction in targeted behavior was found from baseline to following the 16 week DBT-CM skills treatment groups. Both case management and DBT coaching were significant at 12 month follow-up. A significant difference was found for adult men and women. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of aggressive behaviors in prison settings. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes.

  3. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  4. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    PubMed

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  5. Psychotherapeutic approaches to aggressive and violent patients.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J E; Spillmann, M K

    1997-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral strategies and a broad range of group, family, couples, and milieu treatment approaches have been developed for the psychotherapy of aggressive and violent patients. These methods have been carried out in diverse settings ranging from hospitals and prisons to individual outpatient practices and have been applied across diverse populations including adults with mental retardation, dementia, and brain injury; children with attention deficit and conduct disorders and autism; recurrent violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder; and individuals with chronic psychotic disorders, mood disorders, or medical illnesses such as hypertension. Bridging these different strategies are the underlying principles of psychotherapy with aggressive and violent patients. These include ensuring the safety of clinician, patient, and potential victims as the foremost concern; developing a finely detailed assessment of aggressive and violent acts and of the antecedents, assumptions, and consequences that are attached to them; formulating well-defined goals and striving for clear communication to achieve consistency in the pursuit of these goals between therapist and patient, and among therapist and other clinicians, staff, and relevant family members or agencies; specifying ahead of time well-considered outcome measures to be used to gauge the effectiveness of treatment; and maintaining a healthy vigilance for countertransferential and similar reactions and a willingness to use consultation as an integral part of treatment.

  6. Effect of a multifaceted educational intervention for anti-infectious measures on sepsis mortality: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bloos, Frank; Rüddel, Hendrik; Thomas-Rüddel, Daniel; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Pausch, Christine; Harbarth, Stephan; Schreiber, Torsten; Gründling, Matthias; Marshall, John; Simon, Philipp; Levy, Mitchell M; Weiss, Manfred; Weyland, Andreas; Gerlach, Herwig; Schürholz, Tobias; Engel, Christoph; Matthäus-Krämer, Claudia; Scheer, Christian; Bach, Friedhelm; Riessen, Reimer; Poidinger, Bernhard; Dey, Karin; Weiler, Norbert; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Häberle, Helene H; Wöbker, Gabriele; Kaisers, Udo X; Reinhart, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    Guidelines recommend administering antibiotics within 1 h of sepsis recognition but this recommendation remains untested by randomized trials. This trial was set up to investigate whether survival is improved by reducing the time before initiation of antimicrobial therapy by means of a multifaceted intervention in compliance with guideline recommendations. The MEDUSA study, a prospective multicenter cluster-randomized trial, was conducted from July 2011 to July 2013 in 40 German hospitals. Hospitals were randomly allocated to receive conventional continuous medical education (CME) measures (control group) or multifaceted interventions including local quality improvement teams, educational outreach, audit, feedback, and reminders. We included 4183 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in an intention-to-treat analysis comparing the multifaceted intervention (n = 2596) with conventional CME (n = 1587). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. The 28-day mortality was 35.1% (883 of 2596 patients) in the intervention group and 26.7% (403 of 1587 patients; p = 0.01) in the control group. The intervention was not a risk factor for mortality, since this difference was present from the beginning of the study and remained unaffected by the intervention. Median time to antimicrobial therapy was 1.5 h (interquartile range 0.1-4.9 h) in the intervention group and 2.0 h (0.4-5.9 h; p = 0.41) in the control group. The risk of death increased by 2% per hour delay of antimicrobial therapy and 1% per hour delay of source control, independent of group assignment. Delay in antimicrobial therapy and source control was associated with increased mortality but the multifaceted approach was unable to change time to antimicrobial therapy in this setting and did not affect survival.

  7. Evaluation of an effective multifaceted implementation strategy for elective single-embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kreuwel, I A M; van Peperstraten, A M; Hulscher, M E J L; Kremer, J A M; Grol, R P T M; Nelen, W L D M; Hermens, R P M G

    2013-02-01

    What is the relationship between the rate of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) and couples' exposure to different elements of a multifaceted implementation strategy? Additional elements in a multifaceted implementation strategy do not result in an increased eSET rate. A multifaceted eSET implementation strategy with four different elements is effective in increasing the eSET rate by 11%. It is unclear whether every strategy element contributes equally to the strategy's effectiveness. An observational study was performed among 222 subfertile couples included in a previously performed randomized controlled trial. Of the 222 subfertile couples included, 109 couples received the implementation strategy and 113 couples received standard IVF care. A multivariate regression analysis assessed the effectiveness of four different strategy elements on the decision about the number embryos to be transferred. Questionnaires evaluated the experiences of couples with the different elements. Of the couples who received the implementation strategy, almost 50% (52/109) were exposed to all the four elements of the strategy. The remaining 57 couples who received two or three elements of the strategy could be divided into two further classes of exposure. Our analysis demonstrated that additional elements do not result in an increased eSET rate. In addition to the physician's advice, couples rated a decision aid and a counselling session as more important for their decision to transfer one or two embryos, compared with a phone call and a reimbursement offer (P < 0.001). The differences in eSET rate between exposure groups failed to reach significance, probably because of the small numbers of couples in each exposure group. Adding more elements to an implementation strategy does not always result in an increased effectiveness, which is in concordance with recent literature. This in-depth evaluation of a multifaceted intervention strategy could therefore help to modify strategies, by

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for falls prevention in older people: a multicentre cohort randomised controlled trial (the REducing Falls with ORthoses and a Multifaceted podiatry intervention trial).

    PubMed

    Cockayne, Sarah; Rodgers, Sara; Green, Lorraine; Fairhurst, Caroline; Adamson, Joy; Scantlebury, Arabella; Corbacho, Belen; Hewitt, Catherine E; Hicks, Kate; Hull, Robin; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony; Richardson, Zoe; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David J

    2017-04-01

    Falls are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to individuals and society. Evidence suggests that foot problems and inappropriate footwear may increase the risk of falling. Podiatric interventions could help reduce falls; however, there is limited evidence regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention for preventing falls in community-dwelling older people at risk of falling, relative to usual care. A pragmatic, multicentred, cohort randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation and qualitative study. Nine NHS trusts in the UK and one site in Ireland. In total, 1010 participants aged ≥ 65 years were randomised (intervention, n  = 493; usual care, n  = 517) via a secure, remote service. Blinding was not possible. All participants received a falls prevention leaflet and routine care from their podiatrist and general practitioner. The intervention also consisted of footwear advice, footwear provision if required, foot orthoses and foot- and ankle-strengthening exercises. The primary outcome was the incidence rate of falls per participant in the 12 months following randomisation. The secondary outcomes included the proportion of fallers and multiple fallers, time to first fall, fear of falling, fracture rate, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost-effectiveness. The primary analysis consisted of 484 (98.2%) intervention and 507 (98.1%) usual-care participants. There was a non-statistically significant reduction in the incidence rate of falls in the intervention group [adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.05; p  = 0.16]. The proportion of participants experiencing a fall was lower (50% vs. 55%, adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00; p  = 0.05). No differences were observed in key secondary outcomes. No serious, unexpected and related adverse events were reported. The

  9. Can vehicle longitudinal jerk be used to identify aggressive drivers? An examination using naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fred; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James R; Flannagan, Carol; Manser, Michael; Wunderlich, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated the characteristics of vehicle longitudinal jerk (change rate of acceleration with respect to time) by using vehicle sensor data from an existing naturalistic driving study. The main objective was to examine whether vehicle jerk contains useful information that could be potentially used to identify aggressive drivers. Initial investigation showed that there are unique characteristics of vehicle jerk in drivers' gas and brake pedal operations. Thus two jerk-based metrics were examined: (1) driver's frequency of using large positive jerk when pressing the gas pedal, and (2) driver's frequency of using large negative jerk when pressing the brake pedal. To validate the performance of the two metrics, drivers were firstly divided into an aggressive group and a normal group using three classification methods (1) traveling at excessive speed (speeding), (2) following too closely to a front vehicle (tailgating), and (3) their association with crashes or near-crashes in the dataset. The results show that those aggressive drivers defined using any of the three methods above were associated with significantly higher values of the two jerk-based metrics. Between the two metrics the frequency of using large negative jerk seems to have better performance in identifying aggressive drivers. A sensitivity analysis shows the findings were largely consistent with varying parameters in the analysis. The potential applications of this work include developing quantitative surrogate safety measures to identify aggressive drivers and aggressive driving, which could be potentially used to, for example, provide real-time or post-ride performance feedback to the drivers, or warn the surrounding drivers or vehicles using the connected vehicle technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Multifaceted Osteoporosis Group Education on Patients' Decision-Making regarding Treatment Options and Lifestyle Changes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annesofie L; Wind, Gitte; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    Patients with chronic diseases like osteoporosis constantly have to make decisions related to their disease. Multifaceted osteoporosis group education (GE) may support patients' decision-making. This study investigated multifaceted osteoporosis GE focusing on the impact of GE on patients' decision-making related to treatment options and lifestyle. An interpretive description design using ethnographic methods was utilized with 14 women and three men diagnosed with osteoporosis who attended multifaceted GE. Data consisted of participant observation during GE and individual interviews. Attending GE had an impact on the patients' decision-making in all educational themes. Patients decided on new ways to manage osteoporosis and made decisions regarding bone health and how to implement a lifestyle ensuring bone health. During GE, teachers and patients shared evidence-based knowledge and personal experiences and preferences, respectively, leading to a two-way exchange of information and deliberation about recommendations. Though teachers and patients explored the implications of the decisions and shared their preferences, teachers stressed that the patients ultimately had to make the decision. Teachers therefore refrained from participating in the final step of the decision-making process. Attending GE has an impact on the patients' decision-making as it can initiate patient reflection and support decision-making.

  11. Description of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including overground gait training for a child with cerebral palsy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Elizabeth; Naber, Erin; Geigle, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This case describes the outcomes of a multifaceted rehabilitation program including body weight-supported overground gait training (BWSOGT) in a nonambulatory child with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of this treatment on the child's functional mobility. The patient is a nonambulatory 10-year-old female with CP who during an inpatient rehabilitation stay participated in direct, physical therapy 6 days per week for 5 weeks. Physical therapy interventions included stretching of her bilateral lower extremities, transfer training, bed mobility training, balance training, kinesiotaping, supported standing in a prone stander, two trials of partial weight-supported treadmill training, and for 4 weeks, three to five times per week, engaged in 30 minutes of BWSOGT using the Up n' go gait trainer, Lite Gait Walkable, and Rifton Pacer gait trainer. Following the multifaceted rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated increased step initiation, increased weight bearing through bilateral lower extremities, improved bed mobility, and increased participation in transfers. The child's Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM) scores increased across four dimensions and her Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) increased significantly. This case report illustrates that a multifaceted rehabilitation program including BWSOGT was an effective intervention strategy to improve functional mobility in this nonambulatory child with CP.

  12. The effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on medication preparation and administration errors in neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Chedoe, Indra; Molendijk, Harry; Hospes, Wobbe; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Taxis, Katja

    2012-11-01

    To examine the effect of a multifaceted educational intervention on the incidence of medication preparation and administration errors in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Prospective study with a preintervention and postintervention measurement using direct observation. NICU in a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. A multifaceted educational intervention including teaching and self-study. The incidence of medication preparation and administration errors. Clinical importance was assessed by three experts. The incidence of errors decreased from 49% (43-54%) (151 medications with one or more errors of 311 observations) to 31% (87 of 284) (25-36%). Preintervention, 0.3% (0-2%) medications contained severe errors, 26% (21-31%) moderate and 23% (18-28%) minor errors; postintervention, none 0% (0-2%) was severe, 23% (18-28%) moderate and 8% (5-12%) minor. A generalised estimating equations analysis provided an OR of 0.49 (0.29-0.84) for period (p=0.032), (route of administration (p=0.001), observer within period (p=0.036)). The multifaceted educational intervention seemed to have contributed to a significant reduction of the preparation and administration error rate, but other measures are needed to improve medication safety further.

  13. The Social Values of Aggressive-Prosocial Youth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kristina L; Benish-Weisman, Maya; O'Brien, Christopher T; Ungvary, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has identified youth who utilize both aggressive and prosocial behavior with peers. Although the social values and motivations associated with aggression and prosocial behavior have been well studied, the values of youth who utilize both aggression and prosocial behavior are unknown. The current study identified groups of adolescents based on peer nominations of aggression and prosocial behavior from both Israel (n = 569; 56.94% Arab, 43.06% Jewish; 53.78% female) and the United States (n = 342; 67.54% African-American; 32.46% European-American; 50.88% female). Self-enhancement, self-transcendence, openness-to-change, and conservation values predicted behavioral group membership. Power values predicted membership in the aggressive group relative to the aggressive-prosocial, prosocial, and low-both groups. For Israeli boys, openness-to-change values predicted membership in the aggressive-prosocial group relative to the prosocial group. The values of aggressive-prosocial youth were more similar to the values of prosocial peers than to aggressive peers, suggesting that motivational interventions for aggressive-prosocial youth should differ in important ways than those for aggressive youth.

  14. Longitudinal effects of increases and decreases in intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Julia F; Karney, Benjamin R; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2018-04-01

    Interventions aimed at reducing interpartner aggression assume that within-couple declines in aggression enhance individual and relational outcomes, yet reductions in aggression may fail to yield these benefits when other risk-generating mechanisms remain intact. The present study evaluates this possibility by investigating whether naturally observed within-couple changes in aggression are associated with improved individual and relational outcomes in the manner assumed by intervention programs. Drawing upon 4 waves of data collected at 9-month intervals from a community sample of 431 newlywed couples (76% Hispanic) living in low-income neighborhoods, Actor-Partner-Interdependence Modeling (APIM) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that levels of aggression at the outset of marriage had limited associations with later outcomes. Changes in aggression, however, were associated with subsequent marital outcomes, such that decreases in aggression were beneficial and increases in aggression were costly. Individuals who experienced increases in aggression worsened in their observed communication over time and reported greater increases in stress. Reports of stress early in marriage predicted escalations in aggression over time. Thus, helping couples to contain increases in aggression might be particularly consequential for their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Relationship Between Emotion Regulation, Executive Functioning, and Aggressive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holley, Sarah R; Ewing, Scott T; Stiver, Jordan T; Bloch, Lian

    2015-06-30

    Emotion regulation deficits and executive functioning deficits have independently been shown to increase vulnerability toward engaging in aggressive behaviors. The effects of these risk factors, however, have not been evaluated in relation to one another. This study evaluated the degree to which each was associated with aggressive behaviors in a sample of 168 undergraduate students. Executive functioning (cognitive inhibition and mental flexibility) was assessed with a Stroop-like neuropsychological task. Emotion regulation and aggressive behaviors were assessed via self-report inventories. Results showed main effects for both emotion regulation and executive functioning, as well as a significant interaction, indicating that those who scored lowest in both domains reported engaging in aggressive behaviors the most frequently. When different types of aggression were examined, this interaction was only significant for acts of physical aggression, not for acts of verbal aggression. Therefore, for physical aggression, emotion regulation and executive functioning exerted a moderating effect on one another. The implications are that, at least for acts of physical aggression, relatively strong capabilities in either domain may buffer against tendencies to engage in aggressive behaviors. Thus, both emotion regulation skills and executive functioning abilities may be valuable targets for interventions aiming to reduce aggressive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  17. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  18. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Interpersonal aggression victimization within casual sexual relationships and experiences.

    PubMed

    Klipfel, Katherine M; Claxton, Shannon E; van Dulmen, Manfred H M

    2014-02-01

    The frequent occurrence of aggression within committed romantic relationships is well documented. However, little is known about experiences of interpersonal aggression within casual sexual relationships and experiences. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression victimization within committed romantic relationships, casual dating relationships, friends-with-benefit relationships, booty-calls, and one-night stands. College students (N = 172) provided data regarding the lifetime occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression across different forms of casual sexual relationships and experiences (friends-with-benefits, booty-call, casual dating, one-night stands, committed relationships). Emotional, physical, and sexual subtypes of aggression were reported across all casual sexual relationships and experiences. While a higher percentage of individuals who had been involved in committed relationships reported experiencing at least one form of aggression (approximately 69%), prevalence of at least one form of aggression ranged from approximately 31% to 36% for the various casual sexual relationships/experiences. Across relationships/experiences, emotional and sexual aggression were more common than physical aggression. The findings from this study indicate that emotional, physical, and sexual aggression occur across types of relationships and experiences. Thus, the current study underscores the importance of considering casual dating, friends-with-benefits, booty-calls, and one-night stands when assessing interpersonal aggression.

  20. Neural mediators of the intergenerational transmission of family aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents’ reduced neural activation when rating their parents’ emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents’ past aggression and adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents’ aggressive marital and parent–child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents’ aggression and youths’ subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression. PMID:26073067