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Sample records for aggressive multimodality therapy

  1. Multimodal Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Arnold A.

    The multimodal therapy (MMT) approach provides a framework that facilitates systematic treatment selection in a broad-based, comprehensive and yet highly focused manner. It respects science, and data driven findings, and endeavors to use empirically supported methods when possible. Nevertheless, it recognizes that many issues still fall into the…

  2. Central nervous system recurrence of desmoplastic small round cell tumor following aggressive multimodal therapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UMEDA, KATSUTSUGU; SAIDA, SATOSHI; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEKI; OKAMOTO, SHINYA; OKAMOTO, TAKESHI; KATO, ITARU; HIRAMATSU, HIDEFUMI; IMAI, TSUYOSHI; KODAIRA, TAKESHI; HEIKE, TOSHIO; ADACHI, SOUICHI; WATANABE, KEN-ICHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) have an extremely poor outcome despite the use of aggressive therapy. The current study presents the case of 16-year-old male with metastatic DSRCT, in which multimodal therapy, including intensive chemotherapies using frequent autologous stem cell support, gross resection of primary and metastatic lesions, and whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy, was administered. Subsequent to these treatments, there was no evidence of active disease. However, cerebellar and pineal body lesions, and bone metastasis to the left humerus were detected 1 year and 2 months after the initial diagnosis. Combination chemotherapy with irinotecan and temozolomide was initially effective against the central nervous system (CNS) metastatic lesions; however, the patient succumbed due to progressive CNS disease after seven courses of combination chemotherapy. Additional studies are required to accumulate information regarding CNS recurrence of DSRCT. PMID:26870296

  3. Locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum presenting with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum: successful management with early aggressive surgery and multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luís; Alexandrino, Henrique; Soares Leite, Júlio; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2015-12-16

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant neoplasm and its treatment usually involves surgery associated, in some cases, depending on the staging, with chemoradiotherapy. Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum is a highly lethal infection of the perineum, perirectal tissues and genitals, requiring emergency surgical debridement, broad-spectrum antibiotics and control of sepsis. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum as the first clinical manifestation of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, in which successful management consisted of early and aggressive surgical debridement, followed by multimodal therapy with curative intent. 2 years and 6 months after surgery the patient is well, with no evidence of local or systemic relapse.

  4. Small cell carcinoma of epididymis: multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Varkarakis, Ioannis M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fine, Samson W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-08-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an infrequent tumor that can occur in various organs. Although a few sporadic reports about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma have been published, much remains to be uncovered about the clinical features, optimal treatment, and natural history. We present a case of small cell carcinoma of the epididymis with retroperitoneal recurrence, an exceedingly rare tumor with behavior and treatment not well characterized. Multimodal therapy with chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was necessary to manage this aggressive disease.

  5. Multimodal treatment of aggressive forms of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, D; Voiculescu, S; Cristian, D; Constantinescu, F; Popa, E; Burcos, T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aggressive breast cancer is an invasive form with G3, G4 differentiation degree, the absence of receptors for estrogen and progesterone and the absence or presence of HER2 (+ or 3+) gene. The final diagnosis is established by cumulating the clinical, paraclinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis. Material and method: 84 out of 268 aggressive breast cancer cases were presented in the study, which were operated in October 2011-September 2013. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are exposed in the study lot and the treatment schemes. Results: For the study lot (lot A made up of 36 cases, lot B made up of 41 cases, lot C made up of 7 cases) the distribution was presented on age groups, histopathological and immunohistochemical classification, etiologic factors, type of surgery, postoperative staging and complications. Conclusions: The treatment of aggressive breast cancer depends on the level of the aggressiveness of the disease, the biologic status and the age that imposes the order of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical treatment and target therapy. PMID:25408768

  6. LSCI and Aggression Replacement Training: A Multi-Modal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention converts a conflict into a meaningful learning experience for the student by discovering what drives his/her behavior and by defining clear outcome goals. Aggression Replacement Training teaches alternatives to problematic behavior. The collaborative use of ART and LSCI is an effective strategy, specifically in stage…

  7. Multimodality Therapy: Bone-Targeted Radioisotope Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Podoloff, Donald A.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat prostate cancer bone metastasis and improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced prostate cancer. It remains to be elucidated whether radiopharmaceuticals enhance the disruption of the onco-niche or the eradication of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow. The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of bone-targeted radioisotope therapy in the setting of multimodality therapy for advanced prostate cancer. We examine available data and evaluate whether dose escalation, newer generations, or repeated dosing of radiopharmaceuticals enhance their antitumor effects and whether their combination with hormone ablative therapy, chemotherapy, or novel targeted therapy can improve clinical efficacy. PMID:20551894

  8. Multimodality Local Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paryani, Nitesh N.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Swanson, Erika L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Marcus, Robert B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. Although surgery continues as the mainstay of treatment, the large size of these tumors coupled with their proximity to critical structures make resection with wide margins difficult to achieve. The role and timing of radiotherapy are controversial. This study updates our institutional experience using multimodality local therapy for resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma and identifies prognostic factors impacting disease control and survival. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 2007, 58 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma were treated with surgery and radiation at University of Florida. The median age at radiotherapy was 57 years old (range, 18-80 years). Forty-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy and 16 received postoperative radiotherapy. Nineteen patients received 1.8 Gy once daily and 39 patients received 1.2 Gy twice daily. Variables analyzed for prognostic value included age, grade, kidney involvement, histology, de novo versus recurrent presentation, tumor diameter, margin status, radiotherapy sequencing (preoperative vs. postoperative), total radiation dose, fractionation scheme, and treatment era. Results: The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 49%, 58%, and 62%, respectively. Nearly two-thirds of disease failures involved a component of local progression. On multivariate analysis, only margin status was significantly associated with improved 5-year local control (85%, negative margins; 63%, microscopic positive margins; 0%, gross positive margins; p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival (64%, negative margins; 56%, microscopic positive margins; 13%, gross positive margins; p = 0.0012). Thirty-one Grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed in 22 patients, including two treatment-related deaths (3%). Conclusion: For retroperitoneal sarcoma, local control remains a

  9. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  10. [Multimodal therapy concepts for failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund

    2016-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a frequent complication (15-40 %) of lumbar disc surgery and is rarely successfully treated by surgery with the exception of a re-prolapse associated with radicular pain. Multimodal pain treatment, however, is indicated by a lack of pathoanatomical correlates, unclear cause and psychosocial risk factors.This review describes a standardized non-operative treatment starting with broad interdisciplinary clarification by medical, psychological and physiotherapeutic means (assessment).If the conditions for multimodal pain therapy are met, the OPS 8‑918-procedure can be applied to avoid chronic developing pain. In doing so, the already issued quality standards and guidelines for documentation should be respected. PMID:27514828

  11. Liposarcoma: Multimodality Management and Future Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Crago, Aimee M; Dickson, Mark A

    2016-10-01

    There are 3 biologic groups of liposarcoma: well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, and pleomorphic liposarcoma. In all 3 groups, complete surgical resection is central in treatment aimed at cure and is based on grade. Radiation can reduce risk of local recurrence in high-grade lesions or minimize surgical morbidity in the myxoid/round cell liposarcoma group. The groups differ in chemosensitivity, so adjuvant chemotherapy is selectively used in histologies with metastatic potential but not in the resistant subtype dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Improved understanding of the genetic aberrations that lead to liposarcoma initiation is allowing for the rapid development of targeted therapies for liposarcoma. PMID:27591497

  12. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Foon, Kenneth A.; Takeshita, Kenichi; Zinzani, Pier L.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL) comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence, there is a need for more effective therapies for all three diseases. Increased understanding of the molecular features of aggressive BCL has led to the development of a range of novel therapies, many of which target the tumor in a tailored manner and are summarized in this paper. PMID:22536253

  13. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Stem Cells Therapy for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating stroke. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Molecular imaging provides the possibility of the visual representation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand the stem cells therapeutic mechanisms, we need to further develop means of monitoring these cells noninvasively, longitudinally and repeatedly. Because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo imaging of stem cells therapy for stroke has unique challenges. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging (OI). Each of the imaging techniques has advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we describe multimodality imaging strategies as a more comprehensive and potential method to monitor transplanted stem cells for stroke. PMID:24222920

  14. Recent Advances and Prospects for Multimodality Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Awalpreet S; Khoo, Allison; Aliru, Maureen L; Arora, Harpreet K; Gunther, Jillian R; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for treatment of pancreatic cancer have not improved dramatically in many decades. However, the recent promising results with combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease increase optimism for future treatments. With greater control of overt or occult metastatic disease, there will likely be an expanding role for local treatment modalities, especially given that nearly a third of pancreatic cancer patients have locally destructive disease without distant metastatic disease at the time of death. Technical advances have allowed for the safe delivery of dose-escalated radiation therapy, which can then be combined with chemotherapy, targeted agents, immunotherapy, and nanoparticulate drug delivery techniques to produce novel and improved synergistic effects. Here we discuss recent advances and future directions for multimodality therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27619253

  15. Recent Advances and Prospects for Multimodality Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Awalpreet S; Khoo, Allison; Aliru, Maureen L; Arora, Harpreet K; Gunther, Jillian R; Krishnan, Sunil

    2016-10-01

    The outcomes for treatment of pancreatic cancer have not improved dramatically in many decades. However, the recent promising results with combination chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease increase optimism for future treatments. With greater control of overt or occult metastatic disease, there will likely be an expanding role for local treatment modalities, especially given that nearly a third of pancreatic cancer patients have locally destructive disease without distant metastatic disease at the time of death. Technical advances have allowed for the safe delivery of dose-escalated radiation therapy, which can then be combined with chemotherapy, targeted agents, immunotherapy, and nanoparticulate drug delivery techniques to produce novel and improved synergistic effects. Here we discuss recent advances and future directions for multimodality therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  17. Fatal progression of posttraumatic dural arteriovenous fistulas refractory to multimodal therapy. Case report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, J A; Meyer, F B; Nichols, D A; Coffey, R J; Hopkins, L N; Maher, C O; Meissner, I D; Pollock, B E

    2001-05-01

    The authors report the case of a man who suffered from progressive, disseminated posttraumatic dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) resulting in death, despite aggressive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatment. This 31-year-old man was struck on the head while playing basketball. Two weeks later a soft, pulsatile mass developed at his vertex, and the man began to experience pulsatile tinnitus and progressive headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent angiography revealed multiple AVFs in the scalp, calvaria, and dura, with drainage into the superior sagittal sinus. The patient was treated initially with transarterial embolization in five stages, followed by vertex craniotomy and surgical resection of the AVFs. However, multiple additional DAVFs developed over the bilateral convexities, the falx, and the tentorium. Subsequent treatment entailed 15 stages of transarterial embolization; seven stages of transvenous embolization, including complete occlusion of the sagittal sinus and partial occlusion of the straight sinus; three stages of stereotactic radiosurgery; and a second craniotomy with aggressive disconnection of the DAVFs. Unfortunately, the fistulas continued to progress, resulting in diffuse venous hypertension, multiple intracerebral hemorrhages in both hemispheres, and, ultimately, death nearly 5 years after the initial trauma. Endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments are successful in curing most patients with DAVFs. The failure of multimodal therapy and the fulminant progression and disseminated nature of this patient's disease are unique.

  18. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, R.J.; Neuman, P.; Spalding, P.; Novak, L.; Strandjord, S.; Coccia, P.F.

    1989-09-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex.

  19. Longitudinal, multimodal functional imaging of microvascular response to photothermal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Albert K.; Teves, Kathleen M.; Indrawan, Elmer; Jia, Wangcun; Choi, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have shown that photothermal therapy can coagulate selectively abnormal vasculature, the ability of this method to achieve consistent, complete removal of the vasculature is questionable. We present the use of multimodal, wide-field functional imaging to study, in greater detail, the biological response to selective laser injury. Specifically, a single-platform instrument capable of coregistered fluorescence imaging and laser speckle imaging was utilized to monitor vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression and blood flow, respectively, in a transgenic rodent model. Collectively, the longitudinal, in vivo data collected with our instrument suggest that the biological response to selective laser injury involves early-stage redistribution of blood flow, followed by increased vascular endothelial growth factor promoter activity to stimulate pro-angiogenic events. PMID:20890338

  20. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, R J; Neuman, P; Spalding, P; Novak, L; Strandjord, S; Coccia, P F

    1989-09-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex.

  1. Treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: multiple daily dose fractionated radiation therapy and sequential multimodal treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, M; Browde, S; Bezwoda, W R; de Moor, N G; Derman, D P

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with advanced head and neck cancer were entered into a randomised trial comparing chemotherapy (DDP + bleomycin) alone, multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy consisting of chemotherapy plus multiple fractionated radiation therapy. Multimodal therapy gave a significantly higher response rate (69%) than either single-treatment modality. The use of a multiple daily dose fractionation allowed radiation therapy to be completed over 10 treatment days, and the addition of chemotherapy to the radiation treatment did not significantly increase toxicity. Patients receiving multimodal therapy also survived significantly longer (median 50 weeks) than those receiving single-modality therapy (median 24 weeks).

  2. Thermoresponsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, S; Ramanujan, R V

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis, characterization and property evaluation of drug-loaded polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) relevant to multimodal cancer therapy has been studied. The hyperthermia and controlled drug release characteristics of these particles was examined. Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4))-poly-n-(isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) composite MNPs were synthesized in a core-shell morphology by dispersion polymerization of n-(isopropylacrylamide) chains in the presence of a magnetite ferrofluid. These core-shell composite particles, with a core diameter of approximately 13nm, were loaded with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (dox), and the resulting composite nanoparticles (CNPs) exhibit thermoresponsive properties. The magnetic properties of the composite particles are close to those of the uncoated magnetic particles. In an alternating magnetic field (AMF), composite particles loaded with 4.15 wt.% dox exhibit excellent heating properties as well as simultaneous drug release. Drug release testing confirmed that release was much higher above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the CNP, with a release of up to 78.1% of bound dox in 29h. Controlled drug release testing of the particles reveals that the thermoresponsive property can act as an on/off switch by blocking drug release below the LCST. Our work suggests that these dox-loaded polymer-coated MNPs show excellent in vitro hyperthermia and drug release behavior, with the ability to release drugs in the presence of AMF, and the potential to act as agents for combined targeting, hyperthermia and controlled drug release treatment of cancer. PMID:19596094

  3. Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Shimin; Zeng, Jianfeng; Duan, Guangxin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guanglin; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.

  4. Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Chimowitz, Marc I.; Lynn, Michael J.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Turan, Tanya N.; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F.; Janis, L. Scott; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Barnwell, Stanley L.; Waters, Michael F.; Hoh, Brian L.; Hourihane, J. Maurice; Levy, Elad I.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Harrigan, Mark R.; Chiu, David; Klucznik, Richard P.; Clark, Joni M.; McDougall, Cameron G.; Johnson, Mark D.; Pride, G. Lee; Torbey, Michel T.; Zaidat, Osama O.; Rumboldt, Zoran; Cloft, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis is an important cause of stroke that is increasingly being treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) to prevent recurrent stroke. However, PTAS has not been compared with medical management in a randomized trial. Methods We randomly assigned patients who had a recent transient ischemic attack or stroke attributed to stenosis of 70 to 99% of the diameter of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management alone or aggressive medical management plus PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system. The primary end point was stroke or death within 30 days after enrollment or after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during the follow-up period or stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. Results Enrollment was stopped after 451 patients underwent randomization, because the 30-day rate of stroke or death was 14.7% in the PTAS group (nonfatal stroke, 12.5%; fatal stroke, 2.2%) and 5.8% in the medical-management group (nonfatal stroke, 5.3%; non–stroke-related death, 0.4%) (P = 0.002). Beyond 30 days, stroke in the same territory occurred in 13 patients in each group. Currently, the mean duration of follow-up, which is ongoing, is 11.9 months. The probability of the occurrence of a primary end-point event over time differed significantly between the two treatment groups (P = 0.009), with 1-year rates of the primary end point of 20.0% in the PTAS group and 12.2% in the medical-management group. Conclusions In patients with intracranial arterial stenosis, aggressive medical management was superior to PTAS with the use of the Wingspan stent system, both because the risk of early stroke after PTAS was high and because the risk of stroke with aggressive medical therapy alone was lower than expected. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00576693.) PMID

  5. GIRLSS: A Study of the Effectiveness of a Multi-Modal Intervention to Reduce Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splett, Joni Williams

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression has quickly become a serious issue in schools. In response, school professionals have sought and developed interventions despite a dearth of empirical examination and support. The current study bolsters this area by examining the initial efficacy of GIRLSS, an intervention developed over multiple iterations incorporating the…

  6. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    PubMed

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  7. Radiation therapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors).

    PubMed

    Kiel, K D; Suit, H D

    1984-11-15

    Twenty-five patients with aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors) have been treated or followed in the Department of Radiation Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1972 and 1982. Seventeen patients were treated by radiation, 4 for primary and 13 for recurrent disease. Seven patients were treated in conjunction with surgery. Partial or complete regression was achieved in 76%, and 59% are without evidence of disease (NED) at 9 to 94 months follow-up. Eight of ten patients treated primarily with radiation have achieved complete response without an attempt at resection (five) or have achieved stabilization (three) of their disease after some regression. Consistent complete control was seen with doses above 60 Gy. Periods to 27 months were required to observe complete responses. Only three failures within the radiation field were observed, two after low doses (22 and 24 Gy, respectively). Eight patients were seen after resection but with uncertain or histologically minimum positive margins, and were followed regularly and not treated. One patient has failed to date and is NED after resection. Radiation therapy is recommended in those situations where wide-field resection without significant morbidity is not possible for gross local disease. If minimally positive margins exist after resection in a patient who may be followed carefully, frequent follow-up and prompt treatment at recurrence may be an effective alternative to immediate radiation therapy.

  8. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Nomi, Takeo; Hokuto, Daisuke; Yamato, Ichiro; Obara, Shinsaku; Yamada, Takatsugu; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) possesses a potential risk for spontaneous rupture, which leads to a life-threatening complication with a high mortality rate. In addition, a large HCC is frequently accompanied by intrahepatic metastases. Presentation of case We describe, the case of a 74-year-old woman with a huge extrahepatically expanding HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases who was treated by liver resection with repeated transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). To prevent tumor rupture or bleeding, we performed right hepatectomy. After the operation, TACE was applied for multiple intrahepatic metastases in the remnant liver. Furthermore, the elevated protein induced vitamin K absence (PIVKA II) level had decreased to limits within the normal range. Three months after the first TACE, computed tomography revealed several recurrences in the liver. TACE was applied for the second and third time and the tumors were well controlled. Discussion Although, liver resection is occasionally performed for patients with huge HCC to avoid spontaneous tumor rupture, only surgical approach might not be sufficient for such advanced HCC. To achieve long-term survival, it is necessary to control the residual intrahepatic tumors. We could control multiple intrahepatic metastases with repeated TACEs after hepatectomy. Conclusion Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26413921

  9. Spirituality and Multimodal Therapy: A Practical Approach To Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Russell C.; Davis, Keith M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the dimension of spirituality can be added to an existing counseling theory, multimodal therapy (MMT), to provide counselors with a practical approach to incorporating clients' religious and spiritual beliefs in the counseling process. Discusses the context of spirituality in counseling and explains the process by which it can be…

  10. Cu(II) doped polyaniline nanoshuttles for multimodal tumor diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Wang, Dandan; Li, Shuyao; Tang, Qi; Liu, Shuwei; Ge, Rui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Daqi; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-10-01

    Nanodevices for multimodal tumor theranostics have shown great potentials for noninvasive tumor diagnosis and therapy, but the libraries of multimodal theranostic building blocks should be further stretched. In this work, Cu(II) ions are doped into polyaniline (Pani) nanoshuttles (NSs) to produce Cu-doped Pani (CuPani) NSs, which are demonstrated as new multimodal building blocks to perform tumor theranostics. The CuPani NSs are capable of shortening the longitudinal relaxation (T1) of protons under magnetic fields and can help light up tumors in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the released Cu(II) ions from CuPani NSs lead to cytotoxicity, showing the behavior of chemotherapeutic agent. The good photothermal performance of CuPani NSs also makes them as photothermal agents to perform thermochemotherapy. By combining near-infrared laser irradiation, a complete tumor ablation is achieved and no tumor recurrence is observed.

  11. [Successful Multimodal Treatment for Aggressive Extrahepatic Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Gon, Hidetoshi; Kido, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Takumi; Takebe, Atsushi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Fukushima, Kenji; Urade, Takeshi; So, Shinichi; Shinzeki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Ku, Yonson

    2015-09-01

    A 38-year-old man underwent right hepatectomy for a huge hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)in the right hepatic lobe. Four months later, recurrent and metastatic disease were observed in the remnant liver and right lung, respectively. We performed a hepatectomy for the recurrent lesion because transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was not effective. After surgery, we initiated sorafenib treatment for the lung metastases. One year later, the lung metastases worsened and metastases were observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes, and both metastatic lesions were resected. Seven months later, para-aortic lymph nodal metastasis was observed and dissected. Three months later, metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph node was observed. We performed particle radiation therapy and a complete response was achieved. One year later, metastases in both lungs were observed and resected. Despite continued sorafenib administration throughout the clinical course, a metastasis to the left adrenal gland was observed. This lesion was extirpated because no other recurrent lesions were detected. At 4 years and 6 months after the first operation, no other recurrences have occurred. Currently, sorafenib is the initial drug of choice for HCC with extrahepatic metastases. It is possible to improve the prognosis of patients with HCC and extrahepatic metastases by applying surgical treatment during the course of sorafenib administration. PMID:26469171

  12. Effectiveness of a Multimodal Therapy for Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain Regarding Pre-Admission Healthcare Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Borys, Constanze; Lutz, Johannes; Strauss, Bernhard; Altmann, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an intensive inpatient three-week multimodal therapy. We focused especially on the impact on the multimodal therapy outcome of the pre-admission number of treatment types patients had received and of medical specialist groups patients had consulted. Methods 155 patients with chronic low back pain and indication for multimodal therapy were evaluated with respect to pain intensity, depression, anxiety, well-being, and pre-admission health care utilization. In our controlled clinical trial we compared N = 66 patients on the waiting list with N = 89 patients who received immediate treatment. The waiting list patients likewise attended multimodal therapy after the waiting period. Longitudinal post-treatment data for both were collected at three- and twelve-month follow-ups. The impact of pre-admission health care utilization on multimodal therapy outcome (post) was analysed by structural equation model. Results Compared to the control group, multimodal therapy patients’ pain intensity and psychological variables were significantly reduced. Longitudinal effects with respect to pre-measures were significant at three-month follow-up for pain intensity (ES = -0.48), well-being (ES = 0.78), anxiety (ES = -0.33), and depression (ES = -0.30). Effect sizes at twelve-month follow-up were small for anxiety (ES = -0.22), and moderate for general well-being (ES = 0.61). Structural equation model revealed that a higher number of pre-admission treatment types was associated with poorer post-treatment outcomes in pain intensity, well-being, and depression. Conclusion Multimodal therapy proved to be effective with regard to improvements in pain intensity, depression, anxiety, and well-being. The association between treatment effect and number of pre-admission pain treatment types suggests that patients would benefit more from attending multimodal therapy in an earlier stage of health care. PMID:26599232

  13. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Alipour, Abdolrasool; Edraki, Mitra; Tavakoli, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01), verbal (P=0.02) and physical (P=0.01) aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09) and impulsive anger (P=0.08) subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014042617436N1 PMID:26793733

  14. Aggressive family communication, weight gain, and improved eating attitudes during systemic family therapy for anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shugar, G; Krueger, S

    1995-01-01

    During systemic family therapy with 15 hospitalized anorexics, family communication was evaluated, using a Family Aggression Scale developed by one of the authors. Initially members communicated aggression covertly. This finding may partially explain the common clinical observation that the families of anorexics present a strong facade of togetherness and avoid overt conflict. During therapy members shifted from covert communication of aggression to covert communication of aggression. This shift correlated with improvement in subjects' eating attitudes reflected by their EAT-26 scores. All subjects gained weight. Greater weight gain occurred in subjects whose families had low levels of covert or indirect aggression. A regression analysis showed that 86% of the variance in weight gain was predicted by two leading indicators in the middle phase of treatment. Two other factors accounted for 64% of the variance in EAT scores. The findings of this study suggest that family aggression as measured by the Family Aggression Scale is a significant index of pathology in anorexics' families and is also a clinically meaningful measure of improved conflict resolution during systemic family therapy.

  15. Dual delivery of biological therapeutics for multimodal and synergistic cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bora; Kwon, Hyokyoung; Katila, Pramila; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-03-01

    Cancer causes >8.2 million deaths annually worldwide; thus, various cancer treatments have been investigated over the past decades. Among them, combination drug therapy has become extremely popular, and treatment with more than one drug is often necessary to achieve appropriate anticancer efficacy. With the development of nanoformulations and nanoparticulate-based drug delivery, researchers have explored the feasibility of dual delivery of biological therapeutics to overcome the current drawbacks of cancer therapy. Compared with the conventional single drug therapy, dual delivery of therapeutics has provided various synergistic effects in addition to offering multimodality to cancer treatment. In this review, we highlight and summarize three aspects of dual-delivery systems for cancer therapy. These include (1) overcoming drug resistance by the dual delivery of chemical drugs with biological therapeutics for synergistic therapy, (2) targeted and controlled drug release by the dual delivery of drugs with stimuli-responsive nanomaterials, and (3) multimodal theranostics by the dual delivery of drugs and molecular imaging probes. Furthermore, recent developments, perspectives, and new challenges regarding dual-delivery systems for cancer therapy are discussed.

  16. Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia following multimodality therapy for retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Ortega, J.A.; Ying, K.L.

    1985-02-01

    The genetic form of retinoblastoma carries a high risk of secondary malignant neoplasm, apparently not related to the use of chemotherapy. A child with unilateral non-genetic retinoblastoma who had received chemotherapy and radiation therapy and developed acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) is reported. The occurrence of ANLL and retinoblastoma has not been previously reported.

  17. Advanced multimodal nanoparticles delay tumor progression with clinical radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Detappe, Alexandre; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Sancey, Lucie; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Biancur, Douglas; Drane, Pascal; Guieze, Romain; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Tillement, Olivier; Langer, Robert; Berbeco, Ross

    2016-09-28

    Radiation therapy is a major treatment regimen for more than 50% of cancer patients. The collateral damage induced on healthy tissues during radiation and the minimal therapeutic effect on the organ-of-interest (target) is a major clinical concern. Ultra-small, renal clearable, silica based gadolinium chelated nanoparticles (SiGdNP) provide simultaneous MR contrast and radiation dose enhancement. The high atomic number of gadolinium provides a large photoelectric cross-section for increased photon interaction, even for high-energy clinical radiation beams. Imaging and therapy functionality of SiGdNP were tested in cynomolgus monkeys and pancreatic tumor-bearing mice models, respectively. A significant improvement in tumor cell damage (double strand DNA breaks), growth suppression, and overall survival under clinical radiation therapy conditions were observed in a human pancreatic xenograft model. For the first time, safe systemic administration and systematic renal clearance was demonstrated in both tested species. These findings strongly support the translational potential of SiGdNP for MR-guided radiation therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27423325

  18. Multi-modal imaging and cancer therapy using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles: current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Park, J Y; Chang, Y; Lee, G H

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is an essential tool for diagnosis and therapy of diseases such as cancers. It is likely true that medicine has developed with biomedical imaging methods. Sensitivity and resolution of biomedical imaging methods can be improved with imaging agents. Furthermore, it will be ideal if imaging agents could be also used as therapeutic agents. Therefore, one dose can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of diseases (i.e., theragnosis). This will simplify medical treatment of diseases, and will be also a benefit to patients. Mixed (Ln(1x)Ln(2y)O3, x + y = 2) or unmixed (Ln2O3) lanthanide (Ln) oxide nanoparticles (Ln = Eu, Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er) are potential multi-modal imaging and cancer therapeutic agents. The lanthanides have a variety of magnetic and optical properties, useful for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent imaging (FI), respectively. They also highly attenuate X-ray beam, useful for X-ray computed tomography (CT). In addition gadolinium-157 ((157)Gd) has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section among stable radionuclides, useful for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT). Therefore, mixed or unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles can be used for multi-modal imaging methods (i.e., MRI-FI, MRI-CT, CT-FI, and MRICT- FI) and cancer therapy (i.e., GdNCT). Since mixed or unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles are single-phase and solid-state, they can be easily synthesized, and are compact and robust, which will be beneficial to biomedical applications. In this review physical properties of the lanthanides, synthesis, characterizations, multi-modal imagings, and cancer therapy of mixed and unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles are discussed.

  19. Multi-modality tissue-mimicking phantom for thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mark; Lochhead, Shanna; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    A tissue-mimicking phantom material has been developed for use with thermal therapy devices and techniques. This material has magnetic resonance properties (primarily T2) which change drastically upon thermal coagulation, enabling its use for device characterization and treatment verification using simple T2-weighted imaging techniques. The coagulation temperature of the phantom can be changed from 50-60 °C by adjusting the pH from 4.3 to 4.7. The energy absorption properties can be adjusted to match the acoustical and optical properties of tissues. T2 relaxation measurements are provided as a function of temperature, along with T2-weighted MR images to illustrate the visualization of heating patterns. A complete recipe for fabricating phantoms is provided.

  20. Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis in a Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Successfully Treated with Multimodal Antimicrobial Therapy and Hyperbaric Oxygen▿

    PubMed Central

    Maritschnegg, P.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Benesch, M.; Nebl, A.; Schwinger, W.; Walochnik, J.; Urban, C.

    2011-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and usually fatal disease. We report a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed brain abscesses caused by Acanthamoeba during induction therapy. Multimodal antimicrobial chemotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulted in complete resolution of symptoms and of pathology as seen by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:21084511

  1. Gold–silica quantum rattles for multimodal imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hembury, Mathew; Chiappini, Ciro; Bertazzo, Sergio; Kalber, Tammy L.; Drisko, Glenna L.; Ogunlade, Olumide; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Krishna, Katla Sai; Jumeaux, Coline; Beard, Paul; Kumar, Challa S. S. R.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément; Stevens, Molly M.

    2015-01-01

    Gold quantum dots exhibit distinctive optical and magnetic behaviors compared with larger gold nanoparticles. However, their unfavorable interaction with living systems and lack of stability in aqueous solvents has so far prevented their adoption in biology and medicine. Here, a simple synthetic pathway integrates gold quantum dots within a mesoporous silica shell, alongside larger gold nanoparticles within the shell’s central cavity. This “quantum rattle” structure is stable in aqueous solutions, does not elicit cell toxicity, preserves the attractive near-infrared photonics and paramagnetism of gold quantum dots, and enhances the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. In vivo, the quantum rattles reduced tumor burden in a single course of photothermal therapy while coupling three complementary imaging modalities: near-infrared fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging. The incorporation of gold within the quantum rattles significantly enhanced the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. This innovative material design based on the mutually beneficial interaction of gold and silica introduces the use of gold quantum dots for imaging and therapeutic applications. PMID:25653336

  2. Gold-silica quantum rattles for multimodal imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hembury, Mathew; Chiappini, Ciro; Bertazzo, Sergio; Kalber, Tammy L; Drisko, Glenna L; Ogunlade, Olumide; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Krishna, Katla Sai; Jumeaux, Coline; Beard, Paul; Kumar, Challa S S R; Porter, Alexandra E; Lythgoe, Mark F; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-02-17

    Gold quantum dots exhibit distinctive optical and magnetic behaviors compared with larger gold nanoparticles. However, their unfavorable interaction with living systems and lack of stability in aqueous solvents has so far prevented their adoption in biology and medicine. Here, a simple synthetic pathway integrates gold quantum dots within a mesoporous silica shell, alongside larger gold nanoparticles within the shell's central cavity. This "quantum rattle" structure is stable in aqueous solutions, does not elicit cell toxicity, preserves the attractive near-infrared photonics and paramagnetism of gold quantum dots, and enhances the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. In vivo, the quantum rattles reduced tumor burden in a single course of photothermal therapy while coupling three complementary imaging modalities: near-infrared fluorescence, photoacoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging. The incorporation of gold within the quantum rattles significantly enhanced the drug-carrier performance of the silica shell. This innovative material design based on the mutually beneficial interaction of gold and silica introduces the use of gold quantum dots for imaging and therapeutic applications.

  3. The Role of Aggressive Corticosteroid Therapy in Patients With Juvenile Dermatomyositis: A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Roopa; Feldman, Brian M.; Ilowite, Norman; Cawkwell, Gail; Pachman, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes at 36 months in patients newly diagnosed with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) treated with aggressive versus standard therapy. Methods At diagnosis, 139 untreated juvenile DM patients were given aggressive therapy (intravenous methylprednisolone or oral prednisone 5–30 mg/kg/day; n = 76) or standard therapy (1–2 mg/kg/day; n = 63) by the treating physician. Aggressive therapy patients were more ill at diagnosis. Matching was based on the propensity for aggressive therapy because propensity scoring can reduce confounding by indication. Logistic regression of the matched data determined predictors of outcomes, controlling for clinical confounders and propensity score. Outcomes comprised Disease Activity Score (DAS) for skin and muscle, range of motion (ROM), and calcification. Results Sex, race, and age were similar between groups, and initial DAS weakness and ROM significantly predicted the therapy chosen. Based on propensity scores, 42 patients from each group were well matched. In the matched pairs, there were no significant differences in outcomes. Methotrexate use (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.15–11.5) and duration of untreated disease (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1–1.38) were associated with ROM loss, hydroxychloroquine use (OR 11.2, 95% CI 3.7–33) and calcification (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8–25.4) with persistent rash, abnormal baseline lactate dehydrogenase (OR 11.2, 95% CI 1.4–92) and age at onset (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1–1.4) with weakness, and duration of untreated disease (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1–1.39) with calcification. Conclusion Using a retrospective, nonrandomized design with propensity score matching, there was little difference in efficacy outcomes between aggressive and standard therapy; however, the sickest patients were treated with aggressive therapy and were not included in the matched analysis. Comprehensive clinical studies are needed to determine therapeutic pathways to the best outcome. PMID:18576304

  4. Comparing uni-modal and multi-modal therapies for improving writing in acquired dysgraphia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Writing therapy studies have been predominantly uni-modal in nature; i.e., their central therapy task has typically been either writing to dictation or copying and recalling words. There has not yet been a study that has compared the effects of a uni-modal to a multi-modal writing therapy in terms of improvements to spelling accuracy. A multiple-case study with eight participants aimed to compare the effects of a uni-modal and a multi-modal therapy on the spelling accuracy of treated and untreated target words at immediate and follow-up assessment points. A cross-over design was used and within each therapy a matched set of words was targeted. These words and a matched control set were assessed before as well as immediately after each therapy and six weeks following therapy. The two approaches did not differ in their effects on spelling accuracy of treated or untreated items or degree of maintenance. All participants made significant improvements on treated and control items; however, not all improvements were maintained at follow-up. The findings suggested that multi-modal therapy did not have an advantage over uni-modal therapy for the participants in this study. Performance differences were instead driven by participant variables. PMID:25854414

  5. Multi-modal data fusion for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy planning and assistance.

    PubMed

    Bruge, Sophie; Simon, Antoine; Lederlin, Mathieu; Betancur, Julian; Hernandez, Alfredo; Donal, Erwan; Leclercq, Christophe; Garreau, Mireille

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) has been validated as an efficient treatment for selected patients suffering from heart failure with cardiac dyssynchrony. In case of bi-ventricular stimulation, the response to the therapy may be improved by an optimal choice of the left ventricle (LV) pacing sites. The characterization of LV properties to select the best candidate sites and to precise their access modes would be useful for the clinician in pre- and per-operative stages. For that purpose, we propose a new pre-operative analysis solution integrating previously developed multi-modal data registration methods and a new segmentation process of their coronary venous access. Moreover, a novel visualization interface is proposed to help the clinician to visualize the most relevant pacing sites and their access during the implantation in the operating room. This work is illustrated on real CRT data patients. PMID:26736775

  6. Multifunctional nanoparticles for upconversion luminescence/MR multimodal imaging and magnetically targeted photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kai; Li, Yonggang; Zeng, Xiao; Shao, Mingwang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liu, Zhuang

    2012-03-01

    Theranostics, the combination of diagnostics and therapies, has become a new concept in the battles with various major diseases such as cancer. Herein, we develop multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs) with highly integrated functionalities including upconversion luminescence, superparamagnetism, and strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region with high photostability. In vivo dual modal optical/magnetic resonance imaging of mice uncovers that by placing a magnet nearby the tumor, MFNPs tend to migrate toward the tumor after intravenous injection and show high tumor accumulation, which is ~8 folds higher than that without magnetic targeting. NIR laser irradiation is then applied to the tumors grown on MFNP-injected mice under magnetic tumor-targeting, obtaining an outstanding photothermal therapeutic efficacy with 100% of tumor elimination in a murine breast cancer model. We present here a strategy for multimodal imaging-guided, magnetically targeted physical cancer therapy and highlight the promise of using multifunctional nanostructures for cancer theranostics.

  7. High-risk thyroid cancer. Prolonged survival with early multimodality therapy.

    PubMed

    Durie, B G; Hellman, D; Woolfenden, J M; O'Mara, R; Kartchner, M; Salmon, S E

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with high-risk thyroid carcinoma of anaplastic or mixed anaplastic-differentiated histology were treated using an early multimodality approach. Patients were classified using the prognostic index for thyroid carcinoma developed by the EORTC. Therapy consisted of a four-drug chemotherapy combination, radioiodine (131I), and Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Treatment was designed to maximize effects against both anaplastic and differentiated tumor components. There has been prolonged disease-free survival (14+ to 73+ months) in patients with clear cell, small cell, and mixed anaplastic histologies. Currently five patients have been in complete remission for over 4 years. Treatment has been well tolerated. The long-term participation in care by a multispecialty team has produced promising results which we hope can be valuable as a basis for multicenter trials.

  8. Interstitial chemotherapy for malignant glioma: Future prospects in the era of multimodal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The advent of interstitial chemotherapy has significantly increased therapeutic options for patients with malignant glioma. Interstitial chemotherapy can deliver high concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents, directly at the site of the brain tumor while bypassing systemic toxicities. Gliadel, a locally implanted polymer that releases the alkylating agent carmustine, given alone and in combination with various other antitumor and resistance modifying therapies, has significantly increased the median survival for patients with malignant glioma. Convection enhanced delivery, a technique used to directly infuse drugs into brain tissue, has shown promise for the delivery of immunotoxins, monoclonal antibodies, and chemotherapeutic agents. Preclinical studies include delivery of chemotherapeutic and immunomodulating agents by polymer and microchips. Interstitial chemotherapy was shown to maximize local efficacy and is an important strategy for the efficacy of any multimodal approach. PMID:25722936

  9. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Eva-Maria; Wunderlich, Roland; Ebel, Nina; Rubner, Yvonne; Schlücker, Eberhard; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long-lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient's immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects). Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine's immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens (TAs) are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine's efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell-based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected immune

  10. Functional and psychosocial effects of multimodality limb-sparing therapy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.E.; Steinberg, S.M.; Culnane, M.; Lampert, M.H.; Reggia, A.J.; Simpson, C.G.; Hicks, J.E.; White, D.E.; Yang, J.J.; Glatstein, E. )

    1989-09-01

    We have documented functional and psychosocial changes in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas who have undergone multimodality limb-sparing treatments. In 88 patients, parameters related to economic status, sexual activity, pain, limb function, and global quality of life (QOL) were recorded prior to surgery and every 6 months postoperatively. Changes from the preoperative assessment for every parameter were analyzed in each patient. Six months after surgery, there was a decrease in employment status, sexual activity, and in limb function in a significant number of patients. At 12 months, these decreases were still evident. Despite these changes, global QOL measured by a standardized test showed at least some improvement in a significant proportion of patients at 12 months. These findings highlight the difficulty in defining QOL. It could not be ascertained if radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy were causative factors in specific changes because of the small numbers of patients in each subgroup. However, among 60 patients with high-grade sarcomas, significant wound problems developed in 10 of 33 who received postoperative radiation therapy in combination with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy compared with one of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy alone (P = .016). Also, among high-grade sarcoma patients with 12-month follow-up, six of 19 patients who received radiation therapy and chemotherapy developed joint contractures compared with zero of 15 patients who received chemotherapy alone (P less than .04). The combination of postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy appeared to be associated with significantly more tissue-related injury in patients with high-grade sarcomas compared with chemotherapy alone.

  11. Adjunct Antimicrobial Therapy and Periodontal Surgery to Treat Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Irokawa, Daisuke; Makino-Oi, Asako; Fujita, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis treated with periodontal therapy including adjunct antimicrobial therapy and periodontal surgery. The patient was a 22-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession. Baseline examination revealed generalized plaque deposition and gingival inflammation. Thirty-nine percent of the sites had a probing depth (PD) of 4-6 mm and 2% a PD of ≥7 mm; 63% exhibited bleeding on probing (BOP). Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone loss in the molars and horizontal bone loss in other teeth. Microbiological examination of subgingival plaque revealed the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythia. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed as a measure of patient-reported outcome. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized aggressive periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy and adjunct antimicrobial therapy were implemented. After reducing inflammation and subgingival bacteria, open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥4 mm. Reevaluation showed no sites with a PD of ≥5 mm, a minimal level of BOP, and a marked reduction in the level of the targeted periodontal pathogens. The patient's oral health-related quality of life was slightly worsened during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). Implementation of adjunct antimicrobial therapy targeting periodontal pathogens and subsequent periodontal surgery resulted in improvement in periodontal and microbiological parameters. This improvement has been adequately maintained over a 2-year period. However, additional care is necessary to further improve the patient's oral health-related quality of life during SPT. PMID:27320300

  12. Extrapleural pneumonectomy in the multimodality therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Results in 120 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, D J; Garcia, J P; Richards, W G; Harpole, D H; Healy-Baldini, E; DeCamp, M M; Mentzer, S J; Liptay, M J; Strauss, G M; Swanson, S J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine the feasibility and efficacy of trimodality therapy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma and identify prognostic factors. BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a rare, uniformly fatal disease that has increased in incidence in recent decades. Single and bimodality therapies do not improve survival. METHODS: From 1980 to 1995, 120 patients underwent treatment for pathologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA). Initial patient evaluation was performed by a multimodality team. Patients meeting selection criteria and with resectable disease identified by computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging underwent extrapleural pneumonectomy followed by combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy. RESULTS: The cohort included 27 women and 93 men with a mean age of 56 years. Operative mortality rate was 5.0%, with a major morbidity rate of 22%. Overall survival rates were 45% at 2 years and 22% at 5 years. Two and 5-year survival rates were 65% and 27%, respectively, for patients with epithelial cell type, and 20% and 0%, respectively, for patients with sarcomatous or mixed histology tumors. Nodal involvement was a significant negative prognostic factor. Patients who were node negative with epithelial histology had 2- and 5-year survival rates of 74% and 39%, respectively. Involvement of margins at time of resection did not affect survival, except in the case of full-thickness, transdiaphragmatic invasion. Classification on the basis of a revised staging system stratified median survivals, which were 22, 17, and 11 months for stages I, II, and III, respectively (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Extrapleural pneumonectomy with adjuvant therapy is appropriate treatment for selected patients with malignant mesothelioma selected using a revised staging system. PMID:8813257

  13. Radiation therapy for aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumors): Results of a national Patterns of Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Micke, Oliver . E-mail: omicke@benign-news.de; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: After a general Patterns of Care Study (PCS) the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD) initiated a multicenter cohort study to analyze the radiation therapy practice for aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and materials: In 2002 a PCS was conducted in all German radiotherapy (RT) institutions by mailing a standardized structured questionnaire, to assess patients accrual, number, pretreatment, treatment indications, RT, and target volume concepts for irradiation in aggressive fibromatosis. In addition, the treatment outcome of individual patients was evaluated. The PCS was structured and analyzed according to the model for quality assessment by Donabedian in three major components: structure, process, and outcome evaluation. Results: A total of 101 institutions returned the questionnaire: 52.7% reported satisfactory clinical data and experience for inclusion in this analysis. A total accrual rate of 278 patients per year was reported with median number of 2 cases (1-7 cases) per institution. Satisfactory data for a long-term clinical evaluation was reported for 345 patients from 19 different institutions. The applied total doses ranged between 36 and 65 Gy (median, 60 Gy). The local control rate was 81.4% in primary RT for unresectable tumors and 79.6% in postoperative RT. No acute or late radiation toxicities > Grade 2 (RTOG) were observed. No clear dose-response relationship could be established, but there was a tendency toward a lower local control rate in patients with a higher number of operative procedures before RT and patients treated for recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Conclusions: This study comprises the largest database of cases reported for RT in aggressive fibromatosis. Radiotherapy provides a high local control rate in the postoperative setting and in unresectable tumors. This PCS may serve as a starting point for a national or international prospective multicenter study or registry, or both.

  14. Nano-sensitizers for multi-modality optical diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, Malini; Lucky, Sasidharan S.; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Dendukuri, Nagamani

    2011-07-01

    We report novel bioconjugated nanosensitizers as optical and therapeutic probes for the detection, monitoring and treatment of cancer. These nanosensitisers, consisting of hypericin loaded bioconjugated gold nanoparticles, can act as tumor cell specific therapeutic photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy coupled with additional photothermal effects rendered by plasmonic heating effects of gold nanoparticles. In addition to the therapeutic effects, the nanosensitizer can be developed as optical probes for state-of-the-art multi-modality in-vivo optical imaging technology such as in-vivo 3D confocal fluorescence endomicroscopic imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT) with improved optical contrast using nano-gold and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) based imaging and bio-sensing. These techniques can be used in tandem or independently as in-vivo optical biopsy techniques to specifically detect and monitor specific cancer cells in-vivo. Such novel nanosensitizer based optical biopsy imaging technique has the potential to provide an alternative to tissue biopsy and will enable clinicians to make real-time diagnosis, determine surgical margins during operative procedures and perform targeted treatment of cancers.

  15. Addition of Multimodal Therapy to Standard Management of Steady State Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies. PMID:24386573

  16. Addition of multimodal therapy to standard management of steady state sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ezenwosu, Osita; Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies.

  17. Multi-modality imaging of tumor phenotype and response to therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyflot, Matthew J.

    2011-12-01

    Imaging and radiation oncology have historically been closely linked. However, the vast majority of techniques used in the clinic involve anatomical imaging. Biological imaging offers the potential for innovation in the areas of cancer diagnosis and staging, radiotherapy target definition, and treatment response assessment. Some relevant imaging techniques are FDG PET (for imaging cellular metabolism), FLT PET (proliferation), CuATSM PET (hypoxia), and contrast-enhanced CT (vasculature and perfusion). Here, a technique for quantitative spatial correlation of tumor phenotype is presented for FDG PET, FLT PET, and CuATSM PET images. Additionally, multimodality imaging of treatment response with FLT PET, CuATSM, and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is presented, in a trial of patients receiving an antiangiogenic agent (Avastin) combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy. Results are also presented for translational applications in animal models, including quantitative assessment of proliferative response to cetuximab with FLT PET and quantification of vascular volume with a blood-pool contrast agent (Fenestra). These techniques have clear applications to radiobiological research and optimized treatment strategies, and may eventually be used for personalized therapy for patients.

  18. Gadolinia nanofibers as a multimodal bioimaging and potential radiation therapy agent

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, A. M. E-mail: grishin@inmatech.com; Jalalian, A.; Tsindlekht, M. I.

    2015-05-15

    Continuous bead-free C-type cubic gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofibers 20-30 μm long and 40-100 nm in diameter were sintered by sol-gel calcination assisted electrospinning technique. Dipole-dipole interaction of neighboring Gd{sup 3+} ions in nanofibers with large length-to-diameter aspect ratio results in some kind of superparamagnetic behavior: fibers are magnetized twice stronger than Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. Being compared with commercial Gd-DTPA/Magnevist{sup ®}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} diethyleneglycol-coated (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-DEG) fibers show high 1/T{sub 1} and 1/T{sub 2} proton relaxivities. Intense room temperature photoluminescence, high NMR relaxivity and high neutron scattering cross-section of {sup 157}Gd nucleus promise to integrate Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers for multimodal bioimaging and neutron capture therapy.

  19. Temozolomide Therapy for Aggressive Pituitary Tumors: Results in a Small Series of Patients from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Oscar D.; Juárez-Allen, Lea; Christiansen, Silvia B.; Manavela, Marcos; Danilowicz, Karina; Vigovich, Carlos; Gómez, Reynaldo M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated results of temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in six patients, aged 34–78 years, presenting aggressive pituitary tumors. In all the patients tested O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) immunoexpression in surgical specimens was absent. Patients received temozolomide 140–320 mg/day for 5 days monthly for at least 3 months. In two patients minimum time for evaluation could not be reached because of death in a 76-year-old man with a malignant prolactinoma and of severe neutro-thrombopenia in a 47-year-old woman with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. In two patients (a 34-year-old acromegalic woman and a 39-year-old woman with Nelson's syndrome) no response was observed after 4 and 6 months, respectively, and the treatment was stopped. Conversely, two 52- and 42-year-old women with Cushing's disease had long-term total clinical and radiological remissions which persisted after stopping temozolomide. We conclude that TMZ therapy may be of variable efficacy depending on—until now—incompletely understood factors. Cooperative work on a greater number of cases of aggressive pituitary tumors should be crucial to establish the indications, doses, and duration of temozolomide administration. PMID:26106414

  20. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet

    2016-01-01

    Background Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a severe form of periodontal diseases with rapid destruction of the supporting bone around teeth. The efficacy of PDT in suppressing periodontal pathogens may be crucial in adopting new protocols for the treatment of AgP. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the possible role of PDT in the treatment of AgP as an adjunctive therapy or monotherapy. Material and Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed. Additionally, the references from all the selected full-text studies were searched for relevant articles. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases yielded 418 potentially relevant publications. After screening of the titles and full-text examination, five studies were included in the systematic review. Four publications evaluated the effects of PDT adjunctive to SRP in patients with AgP: two of them compared the clinical outcomes of SRP and PDT with a control group that received therapy with SRP and antibiotics (metronidazole and amoxicillin); two publications included SRP and PDT in the test group, and SRP alone in the control group. In one study, PDT was tested as a monotherapy compared with SRP alone. Conclusions Within the limitations of this review, PDT may exhibit a beneficial role in the therapy of aggressive periodontitis after repeated applications. In the future, more methodologically sound, long-term randomized clinical trials are needed to be conducted. Key words:Photodynamic therapy, periodontitis, systematic review. PMID:26595837

  1. Multimodal Therapy including Yttrium-90 Radioembolization as a Bridging Therapy to Liver Transplantation for a Huge and Locally Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rayar, Michel; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Houssel-Debry, Pauline; Camus, Christophe; Sulpice, Laurent; Boudjema, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remains a major challenge. For an unresectable lesion without extrahepatic spread, liver transplantation could be a potential solution but it is still associated with poor oncologic results owing to the absence of effective neoadjuvant treatment. We report the case of a young man with locally advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting with multiple intrahepatic metastases and vascular structure involvement. The lesion was significantly downstaged by a multimodal therapy including intra-arterial Yttrium-90 radioembolization, systemic chemotherapy and external radiotherapy, allowing liver transplantation. Three years after the procedure, oncologic outcome is excellent with no sign of recurrence. Multimodal therapy including Yttrium-90 radioembolization could be relevant as neoadjuvant treatment before liver transplantation for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27689207

  2. Maintenance therapy with interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone in aggressive diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Castañeda, Claudia; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Murillo, Edgar

    2004-04-01

    Maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive malignant lymphoma using biological modifiers remains uncertain. We conducted a controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone as maintenance therapy in patients with aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphomas in complete remission after aggressive chemotherapy. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 169 patients were eligible for this study; the end points were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). With a median follow-up of 49.3 months, no statistical differences were observed and actuarial curves at 5 years showed that EFS was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63-79%) for patients who received maintenance compared to 63% (95% CI, 59-71%) for patients in control group (p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in OS between maintenance arm: 84% (95% CI, 78-89%) and control group 83% (95% CI, 77-88%) in control group (p = 0.2). All patients received the maintenance therapy as planned and in time, thus dose intensity was considered 1.0 in all cases. Acute toxicity was mild, and no delay or suspension of treatment was necessary. Late toxicity was not evident until now. We conclude that use of maintenance therapy combining interferon-alpha 2b, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone is not useful in patients with aggressive lymphoma if they had been treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy. PMID:15186737

  3. Amniotic membrane transplantation ineffective as additional therapy in patients with aggressive Mooren’s ulcer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mooren’s ulcer is a severe ulcerative inflammation of the cornea. The exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore many therapies of Mooren’s ulcer are recommended in literature. To shed more light on the ongoing question of optimal treatment of severe progressive Mooren’s ulcer, we here report on a retrospective case series of patients treated with systemic immunosuppressive therapy and additional amniotic membrane transplantation. Methods Medical records from seven patients (eleven eyes), 4 male and 3 female, with severe progressive Mooren’s ulcer were analysed retrospectively. The mean follow up was 88.4 ± 80.8 months (range 12–232 month). A HLA-typing was performed in all patients. A systemic immunosuppressive therapy was administered in all patients. The amniotic membrane was transplanted after the base of the ulcer was resected. Results Multiple amniotic membrane transplantations were necessary in six patients. The visual outcome of all patients was poor. No patient achieved a visual acuity better than 20/630 Snellen chart. Five patients were positive for HLA-DQ2 and four patients were positive for HLA-DR17(3). Conclusions The aggressive and highly inflammatory form of Mooren’s ulcer is difficult to treat and the progression of the disease is hard to influence positively even under systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, the main intention of therapy is to achieve a stable epithelialized corneal surface without the risk of perforation. Amniotic membrane transplantation is not able to cure severe forms of Mooren’s ulcer. However it supports the immunosuppressive therapy in acute situations as in critical corneal thinning. PMID:24345289

  4. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shalini; Sachdev, Ritesh; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-07-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer's ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  5. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL.

  6. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  7. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Children with ADHD, with and without Aggressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, Maria Jesus

    2000-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy on children with ADHD Explores whether the combination of training in self-control with training in anger management has better outcomes on two subgroups of hyperactive children, aggressive (n=16) and nonaggressive (n=16). Overall improvements were found, however improvements of…

  8. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging and Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reju; Park, In-Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have emerged as an MRI contrast agent for tumor imaging due to their efficacy and safety. Their utility has been proven in clinical applications with a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Extensive research has been performed to study various strategies that could improve SPION by tailoring the surface chemistry and by applying additional therapeutic functionality. Research into the dual-modal contrast uses of SPION has developed because these applications can save time and effort by reducing the number of imaging sessions. In addition to multimodal strategies, efforts have been made to develop multifunctional nanoparticles that carry both diagnostic and therapeutic cargos specifically for cancer. This review provides an overview of recent advances in multimodality imaging agents and focuses on iron oxide based nanoparticles and their theranostic applications for cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the physiochemical properties and compare different synthesis methods of SPION for the development of multimodal contrast agents. PMID:23912234

  9. "Combo" nanomedicine: Co-delivery of multi-modal therapeutics for efficient, targeted, and safe cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jessica A; Shim, Min Suk; Heo, Chan Yeong; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic and versatile nature of diseases such as cancer has been a pivotal challenge for developing efficient and safe therapies. Cancer treatments using a single therapeutic agent often result in limited clinical outcomes due to tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. Combination therapies using multiple therapeutic modalities can synergistically elevate anti-cancer activity while lowering doses of each agent, hence, reducing side effects. Co-administration of multiple therapeutic agents requires a delivery platform that can normalize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agents, prolong circulation, selectively accumulate, specifically bind to the target, and enable controlled release in target site. Nanomaterials, such as polymeric nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles/cages/shells, and carbon nanomaterials, have the desired properties, and they can mediate therapeutic effects different from those generated by small molecule drugs (e.g., gene therapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy). This review aims to provide an overview of developing multi-modal therapies using nanomaterials ("combo" nanomedicine) along with the rationale, up-to-date progress, further considerations, and the crucial roles of interdisciplinary approaches.

  10. Prolactinoma ErbB receptor expression and targeted therapy for aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Odelia; Mamelak, Adam; Bannykh, Serguei; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien; Lim, Stephen; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Ben-Shlomo, Anat

    2014-06-01

    As ErbB signaling is a determinant of prolactin synthesis, role of ErbB receptors was tested for prolactinoma outcomes and therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize ErbB receptor expression in prolactinomas and then perform a pilot study treating resistant prolactinomas with a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Retrospective analysis of prolactinomas and pilot study for dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas in tertiary referral center. We performed immunofluorescent staining of a tissue array of 29 resected prolactinoma tissues for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 correlated with clinical features. Two patients with aggressive resistant prolactinomas enrolled and completed trial. They received lapatinib 1,250 mg daily for 6 months with tumor and hormone assessments. Main outcome measures were positive tumor staining of respective ErbB receptors, therapeutic reduction of prolactin levels and tumor shrinkage. Treated PRL levels and tumor volumes were suppressed in both subjects treated with TKI. EGFR expression was positive in 82 % of adenomas, ErbB2 in 92 %, ErbB3 in 25 %, and ErbB4 in 71 %, with ErbB2 score > EGFR > ErbB4 > ErbB3. Higher ErbB3 expression was associated with optic chiasm compression (p = 0.03), suprasellar extension (p = 0.04), and carotid artery encasement (p = 0.01). Higher DA response rates were observed in tumors with higher ErbB3 expression. Prolactinoma expression of specific ErbB receptors is associated with tumor invasion, symptoms, and response to dopamine agonists. Targeting ErbB receptors may be effective therapy in patients with resistant prolactinomas.

  11. Maintenance Therapy with Interferon Alfa 2b Improves Outcome in Aggressive Malignant Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Díaz-Maqueo, J C; Talavera, A; García, E L; Nambo, M J

    1998-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and toxicity of interferon alfa 2b (IFN) as maintenance therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma on complete response after conventional chemotherapy we start a randomized clinical trial. One hundred and seventy patients were randomized to received either IFN 5.0 MU three time at week by one year or no further treatment, as control group. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years (range 4.3 to 11 years) median freedom from relapse (FFR) has not been reached in patients who received IFN, it is statistically significant to patients in control group with a median FFR of 60 months (p <.001). Actuarial curves show that at 10-years, 58 patients (66%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53% to 79%) remain in first remission, statistical different to control group 33 patients (40%, 95% Cl: 33% to 57%) (p <.001). Event free survival (EFS) shown that a 10-years 63 patients (71%, 95% CI: 59% to 81%) are alive free of disease in the IFN arm compared to only 38 patients (45%, 95% CI: 37% to 57%) in the control group (p <.001). Toxicity was mild, 81 patients received the planned doses of IFN on time and 6 patients had transitory delay secondary to hematological toxicity (grade 1 or 2) and completed the treatment on 13 months. No late side effects has been observed. After a long term follow-up we confirm that IFN used as maintenance therapy improves outcome in patients with aggressive malignant lymphoma who were in complete remission after conventional chemotherapy without excessive toxicity. We feld that IFN will be consider in controlled clinical trials to define the role of this therapeutic option. PMID:27414082

  12. Variability of Target and Normal Structure Delineation Using Multimodality Imaging for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalah, Entesar; Moraru, Ion; Paulson, Eric; Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential of multimodality imaging (dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI], apparent diffusion-coefficient diffusion-weighted imaging [ADC-DWI], fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], and computed tomography) to define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and organs at risk in radiation therapy planning for pancreatic cancer. Delineated volumetric changes of DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET were assessed in comparison with the finding on 3-dimensional/4-dimensional CT with and without intravenous contrast, and with pathology specimens for resectable and borderline resectable cases of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied a total of 19 representative patients, whose DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET data were reviewed. Gross tumor volume and tumor burden/active region inside pancreatic head/neck or body were delineated on MRI (denoted GTV{sub DCE}, and GTV{sub ADC}), a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax on FDG-PET (GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}). Volumes of the pancreas, duodenum, stomach, liver, and kidneys were contoured according to CT (V{sub CT}), T1-weighted MRI (V{sub T1}), and T2-weighted MRI (V{sub T2}) for 7 patients. Results: Significant statistical differences were found between the GTVs from DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, and FDG-PET, with a mean and range of 4.73 (1.00-9.79), 14.52 (3.21-25.49), 22.04 (1.00-45.69), 19.10 (4.84-45.59), and 9.80 (0.32-35.21) cm{sup 3} for GTV{sub DCE}, GTV{sub ADC}, GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}, respectively. The mean difference and range in the measurements of maximum dimension of tumor on DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, SUV2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax compared with pathologic specimens were −0.84 (−2.24 to 0.9), 0.41 (−0.15 to 2.3), 0.58 (−1.41 to 3.69), 0.66 (−0.67 to 1.32), and 0.15 (−1.53 to 2.38) cm, respectively. The T1- and T2-based volumes for pancreas, duodenum, stomach, and liver were generally smaller

  13. A yolk-like multifunctional platform for multimodal imaging and synergistic therapy triggered by a single near-infrared light.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruichan; Yang, Piaoping; He, Fei; Gai, Shili; Li, Chunxia; Dai, Yunlu; Yang, Guixin; Lin, Jun

    2015-02-24

    To integrate photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy for enhanced antitumor efficiency, we developed a mild and rational route to synthesize novel multifunctional GdOF:Ln@SiO2 (Ln = 10%Yb/1%Er/4%Mn) mesoporous capsules using strong up-conversion luminescent (UCL) GdOF:Ln as cores and mesoporous silica layer as shells, followed by modification with varied functional groups onto the framework. It was found that due to the codoped Yb/Er/Mn in GdOF, the markedly enhanced red emission can efficiently transfer energy to the conjugated PDT agent (ZnPc) which produces high singlet oxygen, and the incorporated carbon dots outside the shell can generate obvious thermal effect under 980 nm laser irradiation and also prevent the premature leaking of ZnPc. Simultaneously, the as-produced thermal effect can obviously enhance the doxorubicin (DOX) release, which greatly improves the chemotherapy, resulting in a synergistic therapeutic effect. The system exhibits drastically enhanced therapeutic efficiency against tumor growth, as demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Especially, the doped rare earth ions in the host endow the material with excellent UCL imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) imaging properties, thus realizing the target of multimodal imaging guided multiple therapies.

  14. Multimodal mind/body group therapy for chronic depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Little, Suzanne A S; Kligler, Benjamin; Homel, Peter; Belisle, Shoshana S; Merrell, Woodson

    2009-01-01

    Chronic depression is a highly debilitating psychobiological disorder that affects mind, body, and spirit. The need for effective integrative treatments for depression is fueled by high recurrence and relapse rates, as well as growing consumer demand for natural and holistic approaches that recognize depression is a systemic problem. A 24-week multimodal group treatment program was piloted to assess whether psychoeducation, lifestyle modification, meditation, and mind/body skills training would reduce symptomatology and improve overall balance and well-being in nonmedicated patients with moderate depression. The group treatment was conducted in a healing space associated with an academic integrative medicine center. Fourteen adult patients (mean age = 51.7 years) participated in two treatment groups (seven patients per group). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by changes on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the primary outcome measure, completed at pretreatment (week zero), posttreatment (week 12), and two follow-up points (weeks 16 and 24). Positive affect and overall well-being were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, the Life Orientation Test, the Short Form Health Survey-12, and the Psychological Well-Being Index. Comparisons of pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the BDI-II showed a clinically significant decline in depressed mood and negative affect (P < .001), as well as significant improvement across the positive affect and well-being measures. This outcome, which was statistically sustained for six months, suggests that a multimodal holistic mind/body group approach can benefit a segment of the chronically depressed population.

  15. Evaluation of a prototype 3D ultrasound system for multimodality imaging of cervical nodes for adaptive radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Danielle; Fava, Palma; Cury, Fabio; Vuong, Te; Falco, Tony; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Sonography has good topographic accuracy for superficial lymph node assessment in patients with head and neck cancers. It is therefore an ideal non-invasive tool for precise inter-fraction volumetric analysis of enlarged cervical nodes. In addition, when registered with computed tomography (CT) images, ultrasound information may improve target volume delineation and facilitate image-guided adaptive radiation therapy. A feasibility study was developed to evaluate the use of a prototype ultrasound system capable of three dimensional visualization and multi-modality image fusion for cervical node geometry. A ceiling-mounted optical tracking camera recorded the position and orientation of a transducer in order to synchronize the transducer's position with respect to the room's coordinate system. Tracking systems were installed in both the CT-simulator and radiation therapy treatment rooms. Serial images were collected at the time of treatment planning and at subsequent treatment fractions. Volume reconstruction was performed by generating surfaces around contours. The quality of the spatial reconstruction and semi-automatic segmentation was highly dependent on the system's ability to track the transducer throughout each scan procedure. The ultrasound information provided enhanced soft tissue contrast and facilitated node delineation. Manual segmentation was the preferred method to contour structures due to their sonographic topography.

  16. Sub-100 nm Gold Nanomatryoshkas Improve Photo-thermal Therapy Efficacy in Large and Highly Aggressive Triple Negative Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bishnoi, Sandra; Urban, Alexander; Charron, Heather; Mitchell, Tamika; Shea, Martin; Nanda, Sarmistha; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi; Joshi, Amit

    2014-01-01

    There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or nectrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100 nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising of concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150 nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000 mm3) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5X accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy. PMID:25051221

  17. Polypyrrole-encapsulated iron tungstate nanocomposites: a versatile platform for multimodal tumor imaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyin; Peng, Chen; Jiang, Xiaohong; Peng, Yuxuan; Huang, Xiaojuan; Guan, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaoming; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2016-06-01

    A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in animal experiments. Blood circulation and biodistribution of the nanocomposites were also investigated to understand their in vivo behaviours. Our results verified the platform of FeWO4@PPy nanocomposites as a promising photothermal agent for imaging-guided cancer theranostics.A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in

  18. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study "Extra-Aggression" Score as an Indicator in Cognitive Restructuring Therapy for Male Perpetrators of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the…

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.

  20. Polypyrrole-encapsulated iron tungstate nanocomposites: a versatile platform for multimodal tumor imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiyin; Peng, Chen; Jiang, Xiaohong; Peng, Yuxuan; Huang, Xiaojuan; Guan, Guoqiang; Zhang, Wenlong; Liu, Xiaoming; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2016-07-14

    A versatile nanoplatform of FeWO4@Polypyrrole (PPy) core/shell nanocomposites, which was facilely fabricated by first hydrothermal synthesis of FeWO4 nanoparticles and subsequent surface-coating of polypyrrole shell, was developed as an effective nanotheranostic agent of cancer. The as-prepared nanocomposites demonstrated excellent dispersion in saline, long-term colloidal storage, outstanding photo-stability and high photothermal efficiency in solution. In particular, FeWO4@PPy exhibited efficient performance for hyperthermia-killing of cancer cells under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, accompanied with multimodal contrast capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography and infrared thermal imaging in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the nanocomposites presented impactful tumor growth inhibition and good biocompability in animal experiments. Blood circulation and biodistribution of the nanocomposites were also investigated to understand their in vivo behaviours. Our results verified the platform of FeWO4@PPy nanocomposites as a promising photothermal agent for imaging-guided cancer theranostics. PMID:27303912

  1. Manipulative and Multimodal Therapies in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Great Toe: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Brantingham, James W.; Cassa, Tammy Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this case series is to describe manual manipulative therapy with exercise for 3 patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the great toe. Clinical Features Three patients, a 32-year-old man, a 55-year-old woman, and a 49-year-old woman, had great toe pain of 8, 1, and 2 years, respectively. Each had a palpable exostosis, a benign outgrowth of bone projecting outward from the bone surface, and decreased dorsiflexion with a hard end-feel. Intervention and Outcome Manual manipulative therapy with exercise, the Brantingham protocol, was used with patients receiving 6, 9, and 12 treatments over 6 weeks. Specific outcome measures for hallux rigidus and the foot were chosen to document the effects of this intervention including digital inclinometry, the lower extremity functional scale, the foot functional index, overall therapy effectiveness and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Each patient had an increase in range of motion that surpassed the minimal clinically important change, an increase in the overall therapy effectiveness and a decrease in the foot functional index that surpassed the minimally clinically important difference. Most importantly for the patients, each reported a decrease in both usual and worst pain on the VAS that exceeded the minimally clinically important difference of 20 to 30 mm. Conclusion The 3 patients reported decreased pain measured by the VAS, increased range of motion and minimally clinically important difference in 3 other outcome measures. PMID:26793039

  2. Multimodality treatment of brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma in the era of targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Bassanelli; Antonella, Viterbo; Michela, Roberto; Silvana, Giacinti; Anita, Staddon; Anna Maria, Aschelter; Chiara, D’Antonio; Paolo, Marchetti

    2016-01-01

    In patients with renal cancer, brain metastasis is associated with poor survival and high morbidity. Poor life expectancy is often associated with widespread extracranial metastases. In such patients, a multidisciplinary approach is paramount. Brain metastases-specific therapies may include surgery, radiosurgery, conventional radiation and targeted therapies (TT) or a combination of these treatments. Some factors are important prognostically when choosing the best strategy: performance status, the number, size and location of brain metastases, the extension of systemic metastases and a well-controlled primary tumour. Failure of chemical therapy has always been attributed to an intact blood–brain barrier and acquired drug resistance by renal cancer cells. Recent studies have demonstrated objective responses with TT in a variety of cancer types, including renal cancer. In most cases, these agents have been used in combination and in conjunction with whole-brain radiation therapy and radiosurgery. Local control appears to be better with the combined method if the patient has a good performance status and may improve overall survival. This review summarizes current literature data on multidisciplinary approach in the management of renal brain metastasis with radiation, surgery and TT with an emphasis on potential better outcomes with a combination of current treatment methods. PMID:27800033

  3. Multimodal therapy of GEJ cancer: when is the definitive radiochemotherapy the treatment of choice?

    PubMed

    Stahl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Today, patients with localized gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas (AC) should be considered for combined modality therapy, at least when they have locally advanced (T3-T4 category) or lymph node positive tumors. But what about patients unable or unwilling to undergo surgical resection? Unlike esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we have no randomized data to consider definitive radiochemotherapy without surgery as accepted treatment option in these patients. Retrospective results from an US surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) analysis state that the results of definitive or preoperative radio(chemo)therapy are equal or even improved for adenocarcinoma compared to SCC. Other retrospective data using the method of matched-pair analysis showed that median overall survival appears not different between AC and SCC after definitive radiochemotherapy. Nevertheless, since prospective randomized results are lacking, definitive radiochemotherapy cannot be considered as treatment standard in GEJ cancer, and therefore should be restricted to patients with increased operation risk.

  4. Microenvironment-Driven Bioelimination of Magnetoplasmonic Nanoassemblies and Their Multimodal Imaging-Guided Tumor Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Fu, Shiyan; Chen, Chuanfang; Wang, Xuandong; Fu, Changhui; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Zhirong; Qiu, Jichuan; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-26

    Biocompatibility and bioelimination are basic requirements for systematically administered nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. Gold-based plasmonic nanomaterials have shown potential applications in photothermal cancer therapy. However, their inability to biodegrade has impeded practical biomedical application. In this study, a kind of bioeliminable magnetoplasmonic nanoassembly (MPNA), assembled from an Fe3O4 nanocluster and gold nanoshell, was elaborately designed for computed tomography, photoacoustic tomography, and magnetic resonance trimodal imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy. A single dose of photothermal therapy under near-infrared light induced a complete tumor regression in mice. Importantly, MPNAs could respond to the local microenvironment with acidic pH and enzymes where they accumulated including tumors, liver, spleen, etc., collapse into small molecules and discrete nanoparticles, and finally be cleared from the body. With the bioelimination ability from the body, a high dose of 400 mg kg(-1) MPNAs had good biocompatibility. The MPNAs for cancer theranostics pave a way toward biodegradable bio-nanomaterials for biomedical applications. PMID:27309678

  5. CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Satish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Kaimila, Bongani; Montgomery, Nathan D.; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Moses, Agnes; Nyasosela, Richard; Mzumara, Suzgo; Varela, Carlos; Chikasema, Maria; Makwakwa, Victor; Itimu, Salama; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Dhungel, Bal M.; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Krysiak, Robert; Richards, Kristy L.; Shea, Thomas C.; Liomba, N. George

    2016-01-01

    There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39–56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1–31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61–244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31–57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, p<0.001) were associated with mortality. HIV was not associated with mortality, and findings were similar among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-three deaths were from NHL (12 HIV+, 11 HIV-), and 12 from CHOP (9 HIV+, 3 HIV-). CHOP can be safe, effective, and feasible for aggressive NHL in Malawi with and without HIV. PMID:26934054

  6. CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Satish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Kaimila, Bongani; Montgomery, Nathan D; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Moses, Agnes; Nyasosela, Richard; Mzumara, Suzgo; Varela, Carlos; Chikasema, Maria; Makwakwa, Victor; Itimu, Salama; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Dhungel, Bal M; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Krysiak, Robert; Richards, Kristy L; Shea, Thomas C; Liomba, N George

    2016-01-01

    There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39-56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥ 2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1-31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61-244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31-57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, p<0.001) were associated with mortality. HIV was not associated with mortality, and findings were similar among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-three deaths were from NHL (12 HIV+, 11 HIV-), and 12 from CHOP (9 HIV+, 3 HIV-). CHOP can be safe, effective, and feasible for aggressive NHL in Malawi with and without HIV.

  7. CHOP Chemotherapy for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with and without HIV in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Satish; Fedoriw, Yuri; Kaimila, Bongani; Montgomery, Nathan D; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Moses, Agnes; Nyasosela, Richard; Mzumara, Suzgo; Varela, Carlos; Chikasema, Maria; Makwakwa, Victor; Itimu, Salama; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Dhungel, Bal M; Chimzimu, Fred; Kampani, Coxcilly; Krysiak, Robert; Richards, Kristy L; Shea, Thomas C; Liomba, N George

    2016-01-01

    There are no prospective studies of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with CHOP in sub-Saharan Africa. We enrolled adults with aggressive NHL in Malawi between June 2013 and May 2015. Chemotherapy and supportive care were standardized, and HIV+ patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thirty-seven of 58 patients (64%) were HIV+. Median age was 47 years (IQR 39-56), and 35 (60%) were male. Thirty-five patients (60%) had stage III/IV, 43 (74%) B symptoms, and 28 (48%) performance status ≥ 2. B-cell NHL predominated among HIV+ patients, and all T-cell NHL occurred among HIV- individuals. Thirty-one HIV+ patients (84%) were on ART for a median 9.9 months (IQR 1.1-31.7) before NHL diagnosis, median CD4 was 121 cells/μL (IQR 61-244), and 43% had suppressed HIV RNA. HIV+ patients received a similar number of CHOP cycles compared to HIV- patients, but more frequently developed grade 3/4 neutropenia (84% vs 31%, p = 0.001), resulting in modestly lower cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin doses with longer intervals between cycles. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 45% (95% CI 31-57%). T-cell NHL (HR 3.90, p = 0.017), hemoglobin (HR 0.82 per g/dL, p = 0.017), albumin (HR 0.57 per g/dL, p = 0.019), and IPI (HR 2.02 per unit, p<0.001) were associated with mortality. HIV was not associated with mortality, and findings were similar among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-three deaths were from NHL (12 HIV+, 11 HIV-), and 12 from CHOP (9 HIV+, 3 HIV-). CHOP can be safe, effective, and feasible for aggressive NHL in Malawi with and without HIV. PMID:26934054

  8. Synthesis and Applications of Multimodal Hybrid Albumin Nanoparticles for Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery and Photothermal Therapy Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Donna V.

    Progress has been made in using human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSAPs) as carrier systems for targeted treatment of cancer. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant human blood protein, can form HSAPs via a desolvation and crosslinking method, with the size of the HSAPs having crucial importance for drug loading and in vivo performance. Gold nanoparticles have also gained medicinal attention due to their ability to absorb near-infrared (NIR) light. These relatively non-toxic particles offer combinational therapy via imaging and photothermal therapy (PPTT) capabilities. A desolvation and crosslinking approach was employed to encapsulate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hollow gold nanoshells (AuNSs), and gold nanorods (AuNRs), into efficiently sized HSAPs for future tumor heat ablation via PPTT. The AuNR-HSAPs, AuNP-HSAPs and AuNS-HSAPs had average particle diameters of 222 +/- 5, 195 +/- 9 and 156 +/- 15, respectively. We simultaneously encapsulated AuNRs and the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PAC), forming PAC-AuNR-HSAPs with overall average particle size of 299 +/- 6 nm. Loading of paclitaxel into PAC-AuNR-HSAPs reached 3microg PAC/mg HSA. PAC-AuNR-HSAPs experienced photothermal heating of 46 °C after 15 minutes of NIR laser exposure; the temperature necessary to cause severe cellular hyperthermia. There was a burst release of paclitaxel up to 188 ng caused by the irradiation session, followed by a temporal drug release. AuNR-HSAPs were tested for ablation of renal cell carcinoma using NIR irradiation in vitro. Particles created with the same amount of AuNRs, but varying HSA (1, 5 or 20 mg) showed overall particle size diameters 409 +/- 224, 294 +/- 83 and 167 +/- 4 nm, respectively. Increasing HSAPs causes more toxicity under non-irradiated treatment conditions: AuNR-HSAPs with 20 mg versus 5 mg HSA caused cell viability of 64.5% versus 87%, respectively. All AuNR-HSAPs batches experienced photothermal heating above 42 °C. Coumarin-6, was used to visualize the

  9. Rates and Durability of Response to Salvage Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Ng, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response rate (RR) and time to local recurrence (TTLR) among patients who received salvage radiation therapy for relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and investigate whether RR and TTLR differed according to disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who completed a course of salvage radiation therapy between January 2001 and May 2011 at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Separate analyses were conducted for patients treated with palliative and curative intent. Predictors of RR for each subgroup were assessed using a generalized estimating equation model. For patients treated with curative intent, local control (LC) and progression-free survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method; predictors for TTLR were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Salvage radiation therapy was used to treat 110 patients to 121 sites (76 curative, 45 palliative). Salvage radiation therapy was given as part of consolidation in 18% of patients treated with curative intent. Median dose was 37.8 Gy, with 58% and 36% of curative and palliative patients, respectively, receiving 39.6 Gy or higher. The RR was high (86% curative, 84% palliative). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years among living patients, 5-year LC and progression-free survival for curative patients were 66% and 34%, respectively. Refractory disease (hazard ratio 3.3; P=.024) and lack of response to initial chemotherapy (hazard ratio 4.3; P=.007) but not dose (P=.93) were associated with shorter TTLR. Despite doses of 39.6 Gy or higher, 2-year LC was only 61% for definitive patients with refractory disease or disease that did not respond to initial chemotherapy. Conclusions: Relapsed or refractory aggressive NHL is responsive to salvage radiation therapy, and durable LC can be achieved in some cases. However, refractory disease is associated with a shorter

  10. Response of an aggressive periosteal aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the radius to denosumab therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), once considered a reactive lesion, has been proven to be a neoplasia characterized by rearrangements of the USP6-gene. Aggressive local growth and recurrences are common and therapeutic options may be limited due to the vicinity of crucial structures. We describe a case of a locally aggressive, multinucleated giant cell-containing lesion of the forearm of a 21-year old woman, treated with denosumab for recurrent, surgically uncontrollable disease. Under the influence of this RANKL inhibitor, the tumor showed a marked reduction of the content of the osteoclastic giant cells and an extensive metaplastic osteoid production leading to the bony containment, mostly located intracortically in the proximal radius. The diagnosis of a periosteal ABC was confirmed by FISH demonstrating USP6 gene rearrangement on the initial biopsy. Function conserving surgery could be performed, enabling reconstruction of the affected bone. Inhibition of RANKL with denosumab may offer therapeutic option for patients not only with giant cell tumors but also with ABCs. PMID:24438319

  11. Facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria have the potential for multimodality therapy of solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming Q; Ellem, Kay A O; Dunn, Paul; West, Malcolm J; Bai, Chun Xue; Vogelstein, Bert

    2007-02-01

    Recent understanding of the unique pathology of solid tumours has shed light on the difficult and disappointing nature of their clinical treatment. All solid tumours undergo angiogenesis that results in biological changes and adaptive metabolisms, i.e. formation of defective vessels, appearance of hypoxic areas, and emergence of an heterogeneous tumour cell population. This micro-milieu provides a haven for anaerobic bacteria. The strictly anaerobic clostridia have several advantages over other facultative anaerobes such as salmonella or lactic acid-producing, Gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bifidobacteria. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic clostridia have been demonstrated to specifically colonise and destroy solid tumours. Early trials of non-pathogenic strains in humans had shown plausible safety. Genetic modifications and adaptation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains have further created improved features. However, these manipulations rarely generate strains that resulted in complete tumour control alone. Combined modalities of therapies with chemo and radiation therapies, on the other hand, often perform better, including 'cure' of solid tumours in a high percentage of animals. Considering that clostridia have unlimited capacities for genetic improvement, we predict that designer clostridia forecast a promising future for the development of potent strains for tumour destruction, incorporating mechanisms such as immunotherapy to overcome immune suppression and to elicit strong anti-tumour responses.

  12. Surgery is an essential component of multimodality therapy for patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Correa, Arlene M.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Welsh, James W.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Experience with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CXRT) has raised questions regarding the additional benefit of surgery after locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma patients achieve a clinical response to CXRT. We sought to quantify the value of surgery by comparing the overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of trimodality eligible patients treated with definitive CXRT versus CXRT followed by esophagectomy. Methods We identified 143 clinical stage III esophageal adenocarcinoma patients that were eligible for trimodality therapy. All patients successfully completed neoadjuvant CXRT and were considered appropriate candidates for resection. Patients that were medically inoperable were excluded. Cox regression models were used to identify significant predictors of survival. Results Among the 143 patients eligible for surgery after completing CXRT, 114 underwent resection and 29 did not. Poorly differentiated tumors (HR=2.041, 95% CI 1.235–3.373) and surgical resection (HR=0.504, 95% CI 0.283–0.899) were the only independent predictors of OS. Patients treated with surgery had a 50% and 54% risk reduction in overall and cancer-specific mortality, respectively. Median OS (41.2 months vs. 20.3 months, p=0.012) and DFS (21.5 months vs. 11.4 months, p=0.007) were significantly improved with the addition of surgery compared to definitive CXRT. Conclusions Surgery provides a significant survival benefit to trimodality-eligible esophageal adenocarcinoma patients with locally advanced disease. PMID:23715646

  13. Graphene oxide-BaGdF5 nanocomposites for multi-modal imaging and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wu, Huixia; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yan; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yingjian; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Zhiguo; Yang, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    By using a solvothermal method in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), BaGdF5 nanoparticles are firmly attached on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to form the GO/BaGdF5/PEG nanocomposites. The resulting GO/BaGdF5/PEG shows low cytotoxicity, positive magnetic resonance (MR) contrast effect and better X-ray attenuation property than Iohexol, which enables effective dual-modality MR and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of the tumor model in vivo. The enhanced near-infrared absorbance, good photothermal stability and efficient tumor passive targeting of GO/BaGdF5/PEG result in the highly efficient photothermal ablation of tumor in vivo after intravenous injection of GO/BaGdF5/PEG and the following 808-nm laser irradiation (0.5 W/cm(2)). The histological and biochemical analysis data reveal no perceptible toxicity of GO/BaGdF5/PEG in mice after treatment. These results indicate potential application of GO/BaGdF5/PEG in dual-modality MR/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of cancers.

  14. Plasmon-resonant nanorods as multimodal agents for two-photon luminescent imaging and photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Terry B.; Hansen, Matthew N.; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Haifeng; Zweifel, Daniel A.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Wei, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods have outstanding potential as multifunctional agents for image-guided therapies. Nanorods have large absorption cross sections at near-infrared (NIR) frequencies, and produce two-photon luminescence (TPL) when excited by fs-pulsed laser irradiation. The TPL signals can be detected with single-particle sensitivity, enabling nanorods to be imaged in vivo while passing through blood vessels at subpicomolar concentrations. Furthermore, cells labeled with nanorods become highly susceptible to photothermal damage when irradiated at plasmon resonance, often resulting in a dramatic blebbing of the cell membrane. However, the straightforward application of gold nanorods for cell-specific labeling is obstructed by the presence of CTAB, a cationic surfactant carried over from nanorod synthesis which also promotes their nonspecific uptake into cells. Careful exchange and replacement of CTAB can be achieved by introducing oligoethyleneglycol (OEG) units capable of chemisorption onto nanorod surfaces by in situ dithiocarbamate formation, a novel method of surface functionalization. Nanorods with a dense coating of methyl-terminated OEG chains are shielded from nonspecific cell uptake, whereas nanorods functionalized with folate-terminated OEG chains accumulate on the surface of tumor cells overexpressing their cognate receptor, with subsequent delivery of photoinduced cell damage at low laser fluence.

  15. MRI-visible liposome nanovehicles for potential tumor-targeted delivery of multimodal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Lili; Chen, Shizhen; Li, Haidong; Zhang, Zhiying; Ye, Chaohui; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Real-time diagnosis and monitoring of disease development, and therapeutic responses to treatment, are possible by theranostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we report the synthesis of a multifunctional liposome, which contains Gd-DOTA (an MRI probe), paclitaxel and c(RGDyk) (a targeted peptide). This nanoparticle overcame the insolubility of paclitaxel, reduced the side effects of FDA-approved formulation of PTX-Cre (Taxol®) and improved drug delivery efficiency to the tumor. c(RGDyk) modification greatly enhanced the cytotoxicity of the drug in tumor cells A549. The T1 relaxivity in tumor cells treated with the targeted liposome formulation was increased 16-fold when compared with the non-targeted group. In vivo, the tumors in mice were visualized using T1-weighted imaging after administration of the liposome. Also the tumor growth could be inhibited well after the treatment. Fluorescence images in vitro and ex vivo also showed the targeting effect of this liposome in tumor cells, indicating that this nanovehicle could limit the off-target side effects of anticancer drugs and contrast agents. These findings lay the foundation for further tumor inhibition study and application of this delivery vehicle in cancer therapy settings.

  16. Hybrid graphene/Au activatable theranostic agent for multimodalities imaging guided enhanced photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Guohao; Yang, Kai; Chen, Minglong; Tian, Rui; Ma, Qingjie; Zhu, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) has been increasingly investigated. However, there are still challenges in strategies that can further enhance photoconversion efficiency and improve photothermal tumor ablation effect of current nanomaterials. Herein, we developed a fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging guided PTT agent by seeding Gold (Au) nanoparticles onto graphene oxide (GO). Near infrared dye (Cy5.5) labeled-matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) substrate (CP) was conjugated onto the GO/Au complex (GA) forming tumor targeted theranostic probe (CPGA), whereCy5.5 fluorescent signal is quenched by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) capacity from both GO and Au, yet it can boost strong fluorescence signals after degradation by MMP-14. The photothermal effect of GA hybrid was found significantly elevated compared with Au or GO alone. After intravenous administration of CPGA into SCC7 tumor-bearing mice, high fluorescence and PA signals were observed in the tumor area over time, which peaked at the 6 h time point (tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 3.64 ± 0.51 for optical imaging and 2.5 ± 0.27 for PA imaging). The tumors were then irradiated with a laser, and an excellent tumor inhibition was observedwithoutrecurrence. Our studies further encourage applications of the hybrid nanocomposite for image-guided enhanced PTT in biomedical applications, especially in cancer theranostics. PMID:26691399

  17. A Multimodal System with Synergistic Effects of Magneto-Mechanical, Photothermal, Photodynamic and Chemo Therapies of Cancer in Graphene-Quantum Dot-Coated Hollow Magnetic Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Wo, Fangjie; Xu, Rujiao; Shao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan; Shi, Donglu; Liu, Shupeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a multimodal therapeutic system was shown to be much more lethal in cancer cell killing compared to a single means of nano therapy, be it photothermal or photodynamic. Hollow magnetic nanospheres (HMNSs) were designed and synthesized for the synergistic effects of both magneto-mechanical and photothermal cancer therapy. By these combined stimuli, the cancer cells were structurally and physically destroyed with the morphological characteristics distinctively different from those by other therapeutics. HMNSs were also coated with the silica shells and conjugated with carboxylated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as a core-shell composite: HMNS/SiO2/GQDs. The composite was further loaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and stabilized with liposomes. The multimodal system was able to kill cancer cells with four different therapeutic mechanisms in a synergetic and multilateral fashion, namely, the magnetic field-mediated mechanical stimulation, photothermal damage, photodynamic toxicity, and chemotherapy. The unique nanocomposites with combined mechanical, chemo, and physical effects will provide an alternative strategy for highly improved cancer therapy efficiency.

  18. A Multimodal System with Synergistic Effects of Magneto-Mechanical, Photothermal, Photodynamic and Chemo Therapies of Cancer in Graphene-Quantum Dot-Coated Hollow Magnetic Nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Wo, Fangjie; Xu, Rujiao; Shao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zheyu; Chu, Maoquan; Shi, Donglu; Liu, Shupeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a multimodal therapeutic system was shown to be much more lethal in cancer cell killing compared to a single means of nano therapy, be it photothermal or photodynamic. Hollow magnetic nanospheres (HMNSs) were designed and synthesized for the synergistic effects of both magneto-mechanical and photothermal cancer therapy. By these combined stimuli, the cancer cells were structurally and physically destroyed with the morphological characteristics distinctively different from those by other therapeutics. HMNSs were also coated with the silica shells and conjugated with carboxylated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as a core-shell composite: HMNS/SiO2/GQDs. The composite was further loaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and stabilized with liposomes. The multimodal system was able to kill cancer cells with four different therapeutic mechanisms in a synergetic and multilateral fashion, namely, the magnetic field-mediated mechanical stimulation, photothermal damage, photodynamic toxicity, and chemotherapy. The unique nanocomposites with combined mechanical, chemo, and physical effects will provide an alternative strategy for highly improved cancer therapy efficiency. PMID:26941842

  19. A Case of Long-term Survival of Advanced Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma Treated With a Multimodal Therapy Including a Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Isono, Makoto; Sato, Akinori; Asano, Tomohiko

    2016-07-01

    There is no established treatment for advanced rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with metastases at the time of diagnosis. A 17-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of a right scrotal mass. Computed tomography showed multiple lung metastases with pleural effusion and retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis, and bone scintigraphy revealed multiple bone metastases. Right high orchiectomy was performed and the tumor was diagnosed as paratesticular embryonal RMS. He was treated with a multimodal therapy including 17 cycles of combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dacarbazine (CYVADIC) and achieved a long-term survival of 4 years. PMID:27335778

  20. Role of Maintenance Therapy after High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Aggressive Lymphomas: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Josephine A; Yun, Seongseok; Jonnadula, Jayasree; Saleh, Ahlam; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Abraham, Ivo; Yeager, Andrew M; Persky, Daniel O; McBride, Ali; Haldar, Subrata; Anwer, Faiz

    2016-07-01

    Significant uncertainty exists in regard to the efficacy of maintenance therapy after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) as well as autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for the treatment of patients with aggressive lymphoma. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of post-ASCT maintenance therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. A comprehensive literature search yielded 4476 studies and a total of 42 studies (11 randomized controlled trials [RCT], 9 retrospective comparative studies, and 22 single-arm studies) were included in the systematic review. There was significant heterogeneity in study design, chemotherapeutic regimens, post-ASCT maintenance strategies, patient enrollment criteria, and study endpoints. Our findings suggest that post-ASCT maintenance immune-targeting strategies, including PD-1/PD-L1 blocking antibodies, rituximab, and brentuximab, may improve progression-free survival but not overall survival. Collectively, the results indicate a need for testing new strategies with well-designed and adequately powered RCTs to better address the role of post-ASCT maintenance in relapsed/refractory lymphomas.

  1. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  2. Identification of targeted therapy for an aggressive subgroup of muscle-invasive bladder cancers.

    PubMed

    Lebret, Thierry; Neuzillet, Yann; Houede, Nadine; Rebouissou, Sandra; Bernard-Pierrot, Isabelle; De Reynies, Aurélien; Benhamou, Simone; Allory, Yves; Radvanyi, François

    2015-01-01

    Rebouissou et al. recently provided preclinical evidence that a subset of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer might benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy and reported diagnostic tools for identifying these patients in the clinical setting. This work also identified relevant experimental models that may be useful for future basic and clinical research on this subgroup of tumors. PMID:27308521

  3. Evaluation of Novel Targeted Therapies in Aggressive Biology Sarcoma Patients after progression from US FDA approved Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Hess, Kenneth R.; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; Wagner, Michael J.; Tang, Chad; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Janku, Filip; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Herzog, Cynthia E.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Ravi, Vinod; Benjamin, Robert S.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hong, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Prognosis of patients with advanced sarcoma after progression from FDA approved therapies remains grim. In this study, clinical outcomes of 100 patients with advanced sarcoma who received treatment on novel targeted therapy trials were evaluated. Outcomes of interest included best response, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median patient age was 48 years (range 14–80). Patients had received a median of 2 prior lines of systemic treatment. Phase I treatments were anti-VEGF–based (n = 45), mTOR inhibitor–based (n = 15), and anti-VEGF + mTOR inhibitor–based (n = 17) or involved other targets (n = 23). Best responses included partial response (n = 4) and stable disease (n = 57). Clinical benefit rate was 36% (95% confidence interval 27–46%). Median OS was 9.6 months (95% Confidence Interval 8.1–14.2); median PFS was 3.5 months (95% Confidence Interval 2.4–4.7). RMH prognostic score of 2 or 3 was associated with lower median OS (log-rank p-value < 0.0001) and PFS (log-rank p-value 0.0081). Receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy as part of phase I trial was also associated with shorter median OS (log-rank p-value 0.039). Patients with advanced sarcoma treated on phase I clinical trials had a clinical benefit rate of 36% and RMH score predicted survival. PMID:27748430

  4. A core/shell/satellite anticancer platform for 808 NIR light-driven multimodal imaging and combined chemo-/photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guixin; Lv, Ruichan; He, Fei; Qu, Fengyu; Gai, Shili; Du, Shaokang; Wei, Zibo; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution, a novel multifunctional anti-cancer nanoplatform has been firstly constructed by conjugating a photothermal agent (CuS nanoparticles) and a cancer cell target agent (folic acid, FA) onto the surface of mesoporous silica coated core-shell-shell up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). It was found that the doxorubicin (DOX) loaded system exhibits obvious pH and NIR-responsive release behaviour and the drug can be targetedly delivered to the cancer cells by a receptor mediated endocytosis manner. Furthermore, both photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy can be triggered simultaneously by a single 808 nm near infrared (NIR) light source, thus leading to a synergistic effect. The combined chemo- and NIR photothermal therapy can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared to any single therapy, which has been evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo results. Besides, due to the doped rare earth ions, the platform also exhibits good up-conversion luminescence (UCL), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. Based on the excellent multimodal imaging and anti-tumor properties, the multifunctional nanoplatform should be a promising candidate for imaging-guided anti-cancer therapy.In this contribution, a novel multifunctional anti-cancer nanoplatform has been firstly constructed by conjugating a photothermal agent (CuS nanoparticles) and a cancer cell target agent (folic acid, FA) onto the surface of mesoporous silica coated core-shell-shell up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). It was found that the doxorubicin (DOX) loaded system exhibits obvious pH and NIR-responsive release behaviour and the drug can be targetedly delivered to the cancer cells by a receptor mediated endocytosis manner. Furthermore, both photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy can be triggered simultaneously by a single 808 nm near infrared (NIR) light source, thus leading to a synergistic effect. The combined chemo- and NIR photothermal

  5. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A.; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  6. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dal Pra, Alan; Locke, Jennifer A; Borst, Gerben; Supiot, Stephane; Bristow, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa). The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: (1) androgen signaling pathway; (2) hypoxic tumor cells and regions; (3) DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; and (4) abnormal extra-/intracell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa. PMID:26909338

  7. Time to failure after definitive therapy for prostate cancer: implications for importance of aggressive local treatment

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Al V.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Fiano, Ryan; Wallner, Kent E.; Adamovich, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore patterns of time to failure in men receiving high doses of permanent seed brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation therapy as a function of risk status. Material and methods Two thousand two hundred and thirty four patients were treated with prostate brachytherapy with median follow up of 8.0 years. The population was 35% low risk, 49% intermediate risk, and 16% high risk (NCCN). Median day 0 implant D90 was 119% and V100 was 98%. Treatment failure was defined as PSA > 0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Rates of biochemical failure, distant metastases, and prostate cancer death were determined with non-prostate death as a competing risk. Results For all patients, the 10-year biochemical failure, distant metastases, and cause-specific mortality were 4.4%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The biochemical failure rates were 1.3%, 4.8%, and 10.0% for men with low, intermediate, and high risk disease, respectively. Median time to failure was 2.8 years. In men who died from prostate cancer, the median time from treatment failure to death was 4.2 years. Overall, 83% of biochemical failures and 97% of metastases occurred within the first 4 years after treatment. Conclusions With the dose escalation achieved by high quality brachytherapy dosimetry, even high-risk prostate cancer patients have excellent long term biochemical outcomes. Treatment failures occur early, and one third become metastatic and progress rapidly to prostate cancer death. The low frequency and pattern of failures suggest the presence of micrometastatic disease prior to treatment is rare, even in high risk patients. PMID:24474970

  8. The Effects of Aggression on Symptom Severity and Treatment Response in a Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R.; Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.; Shear, M. Katherine; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that patients with panic disorder exhibit higher levels of aggression than patients with other anxiety disorders. This aggression is associated with more severe symptomatology and interpersonal problems. However, few studies have examined whether higher levels of aggression are associated with a worse treatment response in this population. Methods The present study sought to examine the association of aggression with panic disorder symptom severity in a sample of 379 patients who participated in a trial examining long-term strategies for the treatment of panic disorder. Results We found that aggression was significantly associated with higher baseline levels of panic disorder symptoms, anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. Further, we found that patients higher in aggression did not achieve the same level of improvement in general anxiety symptoms during treatment compared to patients lower in aggression, even when controlling for baseline anxiety symptom severity. Conclusion These results suggest that more research is needed concerning patients with anxiety disorders with higher aggression, as they may be a group in need of additional treatment considerations. PMID:25987198

  9. Multifunctional Fe3O4 @ Au core/shell nanostars: a unique platform for multimode imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong; Wang, Ruizhi; Wang, Shige; Ding, Ling; Li, Jingchao; Luo, Yu; Wang, Xiaolin; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2016-06-01

    We herein report the development of multifunctional folic acid (FA)-targeted Fe3O4 @ Au nanostars (NSs) for targeted multi-mode magnetic resonance (MR)/computed tomography (CT)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. In this present work, citric acid-stabilized Fe3O4/Ag composite nanoparticles prepared by a mild reduction route were utilized as seeds and exposed to the Au growth solution to induce the formation of Fe3O4 @ Au core/shell NSs. Followed by successive decoration of thiolated polyethyleneimine (PEI-SH), FA via a polyethylene glycol spacer, and acetylation of the residual PEI amines, multifunctional Fe3O4 @ Au NSs were formed. The designed multifunctional NSs possess excellent colloidal stability, good cytocompatibility in a given concentration range, and specific recognition to cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors. Due to co-existence of Fe3O4 core and star-shaped Au shell, the NSs can be used for MR and CT imaging of tumors, respectively. Likewise, the near infrared plasmonic absorption feature also enables the NSs to be used for PA imaging and PTT of tumors. Our study clearly demonstrates a unique theranostic nanoplatform that can be used for high performance multi-mode imaging-guided PTT of tumors, which may be extendable for theranostics of different diseases in translational medicine.

  10. Multifunctional Fe3O4 @ Au core/shell nanostars: a unique platform for multimode imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong; Wang, Ruizhi; Wang, Shige; Ding, Ling; Li, Jingchao; Luo, Yu; Wang, Xiaolin; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the development of multifunctional folic acid (FA)-targeted Fe3O4 @ Au nanostars (NSs) for targeted multi-mode magnetic resonance (MR)/computed tomography (CT)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. In this present work, citric acid-stabilized Fe3O4/Ag composite nanoparticles prepared by a mild reduction route were utilized as seeds and exposed to the Au growth solution to induce the formation of Fe3O4 @ Au core/shell NSs. Followed by successive decoration of thiolated polyethyleneimine (PEI-SH), FA via a polyethylene glycol spacer, and acetylation of the residual PEI amines, multifunctional Fe3O4 @ Au NSs were formed. The designed multifunctional NSs possess excellent colloidal stability, good cytocompatibility in a given concentration range, and specific recognition to cancer cells overexpressing FA receptors. Due to co-existence of Fe3O4 core and star-shaped Au shell, the NSs can be used for MR and CT imaging of tumors, respectively. Likewise, the near infrared plasmonic absorption feature also enables the NSs to be used for PA imaging and PTT of tumors. Our study clearly demonstrates a unique theranostic nanoplatform that can be used for high performance multi-mode imaging-guided PTT of tumors, which may be extendable for theranostics of different diseases in translational medicine. PMID:27325015

  11. A core/shell/satellite anticancer platform for 808 NIR light-driven multimodal imaging and combined chemo-/photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guixin; Lv, Ruichan; He, Fei; Qu, Fengyu; Gai, Shili; Du, Shaokang; Wei, Zibo; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-08-28

    In this contribution, a novel multifunctional anti-cancer nanoplatform has been firstly constructed by conjugating a photothermal agent (CuS nanoparticles) and a cancer cell target agent (folic acid, FA) onto the surface of mesoporous silica coated core-shell-shell up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). It was found that the doxorubicin (DOX) loaded system exhibits obvious pH and NIR-responsive release behaviour and the drug can be targetedly delivered to the cancer cells by a receptor mediated endocytosis manner. Furthermore, both photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy can be triggered simultaneously by a single 808 nm near infrared (NIR) light source, thus leading to a synergistic effect. The combined chemo- and NIR photothermal therapy can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared to any single therapy, which has been evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo results. Besides, due to the doped rare earth ions, the platform also exhibits good up-conversion luminescence (UCL), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. Based on the excellent multimodal imaging and anti-tumor properties, the multifunctional nanoplatform should be a promising candidate for imaging-guided anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26220401

  12. The clinical role of multimodality imaging in the detection of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Massollo, Michela; Rollandi, Ludovica; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the recurrence sites in prostate cancer (PCa) patients affected by biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) is still a challenge for clinicians, nuclear medicine physicians, and radiologists. In the era of personalised and precision care, this task requires the integration, amalgamation, and combined analysis of clinical and imaging data from multiple sources. At present, multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) and choline–positron emission tomography (PET) are giving encouraging results; their combination allows the effective detection of local, lymph nodal, and skeletal recurrences at low PSA levels. Future diagnostic perspectives include the clinical implementation of PET/MRI scanners, multimodal fusion imaging platforms for retrospective co-registration of PET and MR images, real-time transrectal ultrasound/mpMRI fusion imaging, and novel organ-specific PET radiotracers. PMID:26435743

  13. Validation and application of a core set of patient-relevant outcome domains to assess the effectiveness of multimodal pain therapy (VAPAIN): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Kopkow, Christian; Deckert, Stefanie; Sabatowski, Rainer; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multimodal pain therapy (MPT) has been established accounting for biopsychosocial consideration in diagnostic and therapy. MPT seems to be effective, but comparability of studies is limited due to diversity of study designs and outcome measurements. The presented study aims to develop a core outcome set consisting of a minimum of outcome measures deemed necessary for medical and therapeutic decision-making, which must be measured in all clinical trials and non-randomised intervention studies. Methods and analysis The study consists of several parts. First, the development and recommendation of preliminary core outcome domains will be based on results of a systematic review and structured online surveys. Participants of the expert panel are representatives of methodological, medical, physiotherapeutic, psychotherapeutic profession and patients suffering from chronic pain (n=25). Subsequently, candidate instruments to measure preliminary core outcome domains will be recommended by these experts. Therefore, systematic reviews on measurement properties of preliminary outcome measures will be conducted and finalised in a consensus meeting. Consented instruments and lacking psychometric properties of relevant instruments will be addressed and validated in the following part, a prospective multicentre study in multimodal pain centres on approximately 300 patients with chronic pain. Based on all previous results, a core outcome set for MPT measured in effectiveness studies and daily recordkeeping will be finalised by consensus. Statistical analyses will be performed according to methodological standards (COSMIN). Ethics and dissemination The methods and procedure of the study are developed in compliance with the ethical principles of the Helsinki Declaration and Good Epidemiologic Practice. Recruitment of study participants will require approval of the study by the responsible ethics committee and signed informed consent from each participant. Pseudonymised

  14. Aggressive Therapy for Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Synchronous Brain-only Oligometastatic Disease is Associated with Long-term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Phillip J.; Mak, Raymond H.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Cryer, Sarah K.; Pinnell, Nancy E.; Christianson, Laura W.; Sher, David J.; Arvold, Nils D.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.; Chen, Aileen B.; Kozono, David E.; Swanson, Scott J.; Jackman, David M.; Alexander, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Optimal therapy for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) presenting with synchronous brain-only oligometastases (SBO) is not well defined. We sought to analyze the effect of differing therapeutic paradigms in this subpopulation. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed NSCLC patients with 1-4 SBO diagnosed between 1/2000 and 1/2011 at our institution. Patients with T0 tumors or documented Karnofsky Performance Status <70 were excluded. Aggressive thoracic therapy (ATT) was defined as resection of the primary disease or chemoradiotherapy whose total radiation dose exceeded 45 Gy. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models were used to analyze factors affecting survival and first recurrence in the brain. Results Sixty-six patients were included. Median follow-up was 31.9 months. Intrathoracic disease extent included 9 stage I, 10 stage II and 47 stage III patients. Thirty-eight patients received ATT, 28 did not. Patients receiving ATT were younger (median age 55 vs. 60.5 years, p=0.027) but were otherwise similar to those who did not. Receipt of ATT was associated with prolonged median overall survival (OS) (26.4 vs. 10.5 months; p<0.001) with actuarial 2-year rates of 54% vs. 26%. ATT remained associated with OS after controlling for age, thoracic stage, performance status and initial brain therapy (HR 0.40, p=0.009). On multivariate analysis, the risk of first failure in the brain was associated with receipt of ATT (HR 3.62, p=0.032) and initial combined modality brain therapy (HR 0.34, p=0.046). Conclusion Aggressive management of thoracic disease in NSCLC patients with SBO is associated with improved survival. Careful management of brain disease remains important, especially for those treated aggressively. PMID:24974152

  15. Iron oxide decorated MoS2 nanosheets with double PEGylation for chelator-free radiolabeling and multimodal imaging guided photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Teng; Shi, Sixiang; Liang, Chao; Shen, Sida; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Song, Xuejiao; Goel, Shreya; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-01-27

    Theranostics for in vivo cancer diagnosis and treatment generally requires well-designed nanoscale platforms with multiple integrated functionalities. In this study, we uncover that functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) could be self-assembled on the surface of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets via sulfur chemistry, forming MoS2-IO nanocomposites, which are then modified with two types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to acquire enhanced stability in physiological environments. Interestingly, (64)Cu, a commonly used positron-emitting radioisotope, could be firmly adsorbed on the surface of MoS2 without the need of chelating molecules, to enable in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. On the other hand, the strong near-infrared (NIR) and superparamagnetism of MoS2-IO-PEG could also be utilized for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, respectively. Under the guidance by such triple-modal imaging, which uncovers efficient tumor retention of MoS2-IO-(d)PEG upon intravenous injection, in vivo photothermal therapy is finally conducted, achieving effective tumor ablation in an animal tumor model. Our study highlights the promise of constructing multifunctional theranostic nanocomposites based on 2D transitional metal dichalcogenides for multimodal imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  16. Iron Oxide Decorated MoS2 Nanosheets with Double PEGylation for Chelator-Free Radiolabeling and Multimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Teng; Shi, Sixiang; Liang, Chao; Shen, Sida; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Song, Xuejiao; Goel, Shreya; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Theranostics for in vivo cancer diagnosis and treatment generally requires well-designed nanoscale platforms with multiple integrated functionalities. In this study, we uncover that functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) could be self-assembled on the surface of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets via sulfur chemistry, forming MoS2-IO nanocomposites, which are then modified with two types of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to acquire enhanced stability in physiological environments. Interestingly, 64Cu, a commonly used positron-emitting radioisotope, could be firmly adsorbed on the surface of MoS2 without the need of chelating molecules, to enable in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. On the other hand, the strong near-infrared (NIR) and superparamagnetism of MoS2-IO-PEG could also be utilized for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, respectively. Under the guidance by such triple-modal imaging, which uncovers efficient tumor retention of MoS2-IO-(d)PEG upon intravenous injection, in vivo photothermal therapy is finally conducted, achieving effective tumor ablation in an animal tumor model. Our study highlights the promise of constructing multifunctional theranostic nanocomposites based on 2D transitional metal dichalcogenides for multimodal imaging-guided cancer therapy. PMID:25562533

  17. Enhanced up/down-conversion luminescence and heat: Simultaneously achieving in one single core-shell structure for multimodal imaging guided therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Feng, Lili; Yang, Piaoping; Liu, Bin; Gai, Shili; Yang, Guixin; Dai, Yunlu; Lin, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Upon near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation, the Nd(3+) doping derived down-conversion luminescence (DCL) in NIR region and thermal effect are extremely fascinating in bio-imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) fields. However, the concentration quenching induced opposite changing trend of the two properties makes it difficult to get desired DCL and thermal effect together in one single particle. In this study, we firstly designed a unique NaGdF4:0.3%Nd@NaGdF4@NaGdF4:10%Yb/1%Er@NaGdF4:10%Yb @NaNdF4:10%Yb multiple core-shell structure. Here the inert two layers (NaGdF4 and NaGdF4:10%Yb) can substantially eliminate the quenching effects, thus achieving markedly enhanced NIR-to-NIR DCL, NIR-to-Vis up-conversion luminescence (UCL), and thermal effect under a single 808 nm light excitation simultaneously. The UCL excites the attached photosensitive drug (Au25 nanoclusters) to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) for photodynamic therapy (PDT), while DCL with strong NIR emission serves as probe for sensitive deep-tissue imaging. The in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrate the excellent cancer inhibition efficacy of this platform due to a synergistic effect arising from the combined PTT and PDT. Furthermore, multimodal imaging including fluorescence imaging (FI), photothermal imaging (PTI), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been obtained, which is used to monitor the drug delivery process, internal structure of tumor and photo-therapeutic process, thus achieving the target of imaging-guided cancer therapy. PMID:27512942

  18. Long-term survival of a patient with small cell carcinoma of the stomach with metachronous lung metastases treated by multimodal therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    A 69-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type 2 gastric cancer was found on the anterior wall of the lower body of the stomach.The patient underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a small cell carcinoma of the stomach. Recurrence occurred in the lung after surgery. The patient underwent several chemoradiation therapy regimens, including cisplatin + irinotecan + radiation, S-1 + paclitaxel, amrubicin, carboplatin + etoposide, nogitecan, and docetaxel for lung metastases and radiation for brain and bone metastases for 43 months. He finally died of brain metastases 74 months after surgery (47 months after recognition of the lung metastases). Long continuous multimodal treatment including surgery, regimens for small cell lung cancer, S-1, taxanes, and radiation was thought to prolong the survival of this man with small cell carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:26943449

  19. Multimodality Neuromonitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The monitoring of systemic and central nervous system physiology is central to the management of patients with neurologic disease in the perioperative and critical care settings. There exists a range of invasive and noninvasive and global and regional monitors of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, metabolism, and electrophysiology that can be used to guide treatment decisions after acute brain injury. With mounting evidence that a single neuromonitor cannot comprehensively detect all instances of cerebral compromise, multimodal neuromonitoring allows an individualized approach to patient management based on monitored physiologic variables rather than a generic one-size-fits-all approach targeting predetermined and often empirical thresholds. PMID:27521195

  20. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  1. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn(2+), which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide (131)I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-(131)I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with (131)I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  2. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn2+, which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide 131I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-131I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with 131I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities. PMID:27570554

  3. Polydopamine Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Versatile Platform with Radionuclide Labeling for Multimodal Tumor Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, He; Chao, Yu; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Wu, Jizhi; Sheng, Mao; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique properties have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics. Herein, SWNTs are coated with a shell of polydopamine (PDA), which is further modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The PDA shell in the obtained SWNT@PDA-PEG could chelate Mn(2+), which together with metallic nanoparticulate impurities anchored on SWNTs offer enhanced both T1 and T2 contrasts under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Meanwhile, also utilizing the PDA shell, radionuclide (131)I could be easily labeled onto SWNT@PDA-PEG, enabling nuclear imaging and radioisotope cancer therapy. As revealed by MR & gamma imaging, efficient tumor accumulation of SWNT@PDA-(131)I-PEG is observed after systemic administration into mice. By further utilizing the strong near-infarared (NIR) absorbance of SWNTs, NIR-triggered photothermal therapy in combination with (131)I-based radioisotope therapy is realized in our animal experiments, in which a remarkable synergistic antitumor therapeutic effect is observed compared to monotherapies. Our work not only presents a new type of theranostic nanoplatform based on SWNTs, but also suggests the promise of PDA coating as a general approach to modify nano-agents and endow them with highly integrated functionalities.

  4. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  5. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Delphine L.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The continued progression of chronic lung disease despite current treatment options has led to the increasing evaluation of molecular imaging tools for diagnosis, treatment planning, drug discovery, and therapy monitoring. Concurrently the development of multimodality PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and MRI/PET scanners has opened up the potential for more sophisticated imaging biomarker probes. Here we review the potential uses of multimodality imaging tools, the established uses of molecular imaging in non-oncologic lung pathophysiology and drug discovery, and some of the technical challenges in multimodality molecular imaging of the lung. PMID:21105145

  6. Photosensitizer cross-linked nano-micelle platform for multimodal imaging guided synergistic photothermal/photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Yang, Guangbao; Zhang, Lifen; Liu, Zhuang; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2016-08-18

    The multifunctional nano-micelle platform holds great promise to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this work, an amphiphilic poly[(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-co-(3-aminopropyl methacrylate)]-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (P(PEGMA-co-APMA)-b-PMMA) block copolymer was synthesized by successive RAFT polymerizations and subsequent chemical modification. Then the multifunctional micelles with high solubility in physiological environments were developed by a self-assembly and crosslinking processes. The photosensitizer segment, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP), serves as a tetra-functional cross-linker, photodynamic agent, fluorescence indicator, as well as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent after labelling with manganese ions (Mn(2+)), while IR825 simultaneously locating in the interior of the fabricated micelles contributed to the photoacoustic (PA) imaging ability and the photothermal effect. The prepared nanoparticles show great stability in a physiological environment with uniform morphology and diameters of around 80 nm as disclosed by stability investigation, TEM and DLS analysis. IR825@P(PEGMA-co-APMA)-b-PMMA@TCPP/Mn nanoparticles displayed high in vivo tumor uptake with a long blood circulation half-life (∼3.64 h) by the EPR effect after intravenous (i.v.) injection, as revealed by fluorescence, MR and PA imaging models. In vivo anti-tumor effects were achieved via a combined photothermal and photodynamic therapy without noticeable dark toxicity, and this strategy was able to induce a remarkably improved synergistic therapeutic effect to both superficial and deep regions of tumors under mild conditions compared with either single photothermal or photodynamic mechanisms. PMID:27503666

  7. Statistical Modeling of the Eye for Multimodal Treatment Planning for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Intraocular Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rueegsegger, Michael B.; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Pica, Alessia; Amstutz, Christoph A.; Rudolph, Tobias; Aebersold, Daniel; Kowal, Jens H.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Results: Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95% {+-} 2% for the sclera and cornea and 91% {+-} 2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3 {+-} 0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14 {+-} 2 s on a standard personal computer. Conclusions: Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes.

  8. Multifunctional gold coated thermo-sensitive liposomes for multimodal imaging and photo-thermal therapy of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengan, Aravind Kumar; Jagtap, Madhura; de, Abhijit; Banerjee, Rinti; Srivastava, Rohit

    2013-12-01

    Plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have been extensively researched for their applications in imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, their ability to degrade after performing the required function is essential for their application in healthcare. When combined with biodegradable liposomes, they appear to have better degradation capabilities. They degrade into smaller particles of around 5 nm that are eligible candidates for renal clearance. Distearoyl phosphatidyl choline : cholesterol (DSPC : CHOL, 8 : 2 wt%) liposomes have been synthesized and coated with gold by in situ reduction of chloro-auric acid. These particles of size 150-200 nm are analyzed for their stability, degradation capacity, model drug-release profile, biocompatibility and photothermal effects on cancer cells. It is observed that when these particles are subjected to low power continuous wave near infra-red (NIR) laser for more than 10 min, they degrade into small gold nanoparticles of size 5 nm. Also, the gold coated liposomes appear to have excellent biocompatibility and high efficiency to kill cancer cells through photothermal transduction. These novel materials are also useful in imaging using specific NIR dyes, thus exhibiting multifunctional properties for theranostics of cancer.Plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have been extensively researched for their applications in imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, their ability to degrade after performing the required function is essential for their application in healthcare. When combined with biodegradable liposomes, they appear to have better degradation capabilities. They degrade into smaller particles of around 5 nm that are eligible candidates for renal clearance. Distearoyl phosphatidyl choline : cholesterol (DSPC : CHOL, 8 : 2 wt%) liposomes have been synthesized and coated with gold by in situ reduction of chloro-auric acid. These

  9. Treatment of dysphasia with rTMS and language therapy after childhood stroke: Multimodal imaging of plastic change.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Helen L; Jadavji, Zeanna; Mineyko, Aleksandra; Damji, Omar; Hodge, Jacquie; Saunders, Jenny; Hererro, Mia; Nowak, Michele; Patzelt, Rebecca; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; MacMaster, Frank P; Kirton, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Expressive dysphasia accompanies left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG/Broca) injury. Recovery may relate to interhemispheric balance with homologous, contralesional IFG but is unexplored in children. We evaluated effects of inhibitory rTMS to contralesional IFG combined with intensive speech therapy (SLT). A 15year-old, right-handed male incurred a left middle cerebral artery stroke. After 30months, severe non-fluent dysphasia impacted quality of life. Language networks, neuronal metabolism and white matter pathways were explored using MRI. Language function was measured longitudinally. An intensive SLT program was combined with contralesional inhibitory rTMS of right pars triangularis. Procedures were well tolerated. Language function improved persisting to four months. Post-treatment fMRI demonstrated increased left perilesional IFG activations and connectivity at rest. Bilateral changes in inositol and glutamate metabolism were observed. Contralesional, inhibitory rTMS appears safe in childhood stroke-induced dysphasia. We observed clinically significant improvements after SLT coupled with rTMS. Advanced neuroimaging can evaluate intervention-induced plasticity. PMID:27262774

  10. Radiation therapy in the multimodal management of Ewing's sarcoma of bone: report of the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.A.; Tefft, M.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.; Vietti, T.J.; Kissane, J.; Pritchard, D.J.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the role of radiation therapy (RT) in local tumor control and the decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis in 251 patients entered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study. All were followed for more that 1 year, and their RT records were reviewed. Doses to the primary tumor in the range of 4,500--6,500 rad were administered over approximately 5 to 6 weeks in combination with 4 drugs, i.e., vincristine (VCR), dactinomycin (DAC), cyclophosphamide (CY), and adriamycin, or only the first 3. One group of patients received the 3 drugs and bilateral pulmonary irradiation (approximately 1,500 rad in 2 wk). Preliminary analysis showed a local primary tumor control of approximately 90%. Patients with lesions in the pelvis and humerus had local failure rates of 13% (7 of 54) and 21.4% (6 of 28), respectively. The treatment groups differed significantly in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Patients treated with the 4 drugs (regimen 1) had a 14% incidence, whereas 42% of those treated with only 3 drugs (regimen 2) developed pulmonary metastases. Of all patients treated with 3 drugs and pulmonary irradiation (regimen 3), 18% showed lung metastases. The study indicated that intensive chemotherapy and RT significantly improved the local control and survival of patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma. However, the high incidence of metastasis indicated the need for more effective systemic chemotherapy for further improvement of treatment results. More studies are needed so we can define the volume to be treated and the optimal dose of irradiation to determine a therapeutic strategy that will yield optimal survival and tumor control with the fewest sequelae.

  11. Using economic analysis to evaluate the potential of multimodality therapy for elderly patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowska, Monika K. . E-mail: monika.krzyzanowska@uhn.on.ca; Earle, Craig C.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Weeks, Jane C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Development of new and expensive drugs with activity against pancreatic cancer has made economic considerations more relevant to treatment decision-making for advanced disease. Economic modeling can be used to explore the potential of such novel therapies and to inform clinical trial design. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of radiation plus fluorouracil (RT-FU) relative to no treatment in elderly patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and to determine the economic potential of radiation plus gemcitabine (RT-GEM), a novel regimen for this disease. We used the SEER-Medicare database to estimate effectiveness and costs supplemented by data from the literature where necessary. Results: Relative to no treatment, RT-FU was associated with a cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $68,724/QALY in the base case analysis. Compared with RT-FU, the ICER for RT-GEM was below $100,000/QALY when the risk of dying with the new regimen was <85% than with the standard regimen. However, >1,000 subjects would be necessary to demonstrate this level of efficacy in a randomized trial. The ICER of RT-GEM was most sensitive to utility values, and, at lower efficacy levels, to costs of gemcitabine and treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions: In elderly patients with LAPC, RT-FU is a cost-effective alternative to no treatment. The novel regimen of RT-GEM is likely to be cost-effective at any clinically meaningful benefit, but quality-of-life issues, drug acquisition, and toxicity-related costs may be relevant, especially at lower efficacy levels.

  12. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  13. Suicide plus immune gene therapy prevents post-surgical local relapse and increases overall survival in an aggressive mouse melanoma setting.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Marcela S; Combe, Kristell; Duchene, Adriana G; Wei, Ming X; Glikin, Gerardo C; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E

    2014-09-01

    In an aggressive B16-F10 murine melanoma model, we evaluated the effectiveness and antitumor mechanisms triggered by a surgery adjuvant treatment that combined a local suicide gene therapy (SG) with a subcutaneous genetic vaccine (Vx) composed of B16-F10 cell extracts and lipoplexes carrying the genes of human interleukin-2 and murine granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Pre-surgical SG treatment, neither alone nor combined with Vx was able to slow down the fast evolution of this tumor. After surgery, both SG and SG + Vx treatments, significantly prevented (in 50% of mice) or delayed (in the remaining 50%) post-surgical recurrence, as well as significantly prolonged recurrence-free (SG and SG + Vx) and overall median survival (SG + Vx). The treatment induced the generation of a pseudocapsule wrapping and separating the tumor from surrounding host tissue. Both, SG and the subcutaneous Vx, induced this envelope that was absent in the control group. On the other hand, PET scan imaging of the SG + Vx group suggested the development of an effective systemic immunostimulation that enhanced (18)FDG accrual in the thymus, spleen and vertebral column. When combined with surgery, direct intralesional injection of suicide gene plus distal subcutaneous genetic vaccine displayed efficacy and systemic antitumor immune response without host toxicity. This suggests the potential value of the assayed approach for clinical purposes.

  14. High serum-free light chain levels and their rapid reduction in response to therapy define an aggressive multiple myeloma subtype with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    van Rhee, Frits; Bolejack, Vanessa; Hollmig, Klaus; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Anaissie, Elias; Epstein, Joshua; Shaughnessy, John D; Zangari, Maurizio; Tricot, Guido; Mohiuddin, Abid; Alsayed, Yazan; Woods, Gail; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2007-08-01

    Serum-free light chain (SFLC) levels are useful for diagnosing nonsecretory myeloma and monitoring response in light-chain-only disease, especially in the presence of renal failure. As part of a tandem autotransplantation trial for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, SFLC levels were measured at baseline, within 7 days of starting the first cycle, and before both the second induction cycle and the first transplantation. SFLC baseline levels higher than 75 mg/dL (top tertile) identified 33% of 301 patients with higher near-complete response rate (n-CR) to induction therapy (37% vs 20%, P = .002) yet inferior 24-month overall survival (OS: 76% vs 91%, P < .001) and event-free survival (EFS: 73% vs 90%, P < .001), retaining independent prognostic significance for both EFS (HR = 2.40, P = .008) and OS (HR = 2.43, P = .016). Baseline SFLC higher than 75 mg/dL was associated with light-chain-only secretion (P < .001), creatinine level 176.8 microM (2 mg/dL) or higher (P < .001), beta-2-microglobulin 297.5 nM/L (3.5 mg/L) or higher (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase 190 U/L or higher (P < .001), and bone marrow plasmacytosis higher than 30% (P = .003). Additional independent adverse implications were conferred by top-tertile SFLC reductions before cycle 2 (OS: HR = 2.97, P = .003; EFS: HR = 2.56, P = .003) and before transplantation (OS: HR = 3.31, P = .001; EFS: HR = 2.65, P = .003). Unlike baseline and follow-up analyses of serum and urine M-proteins, high SFLC levels at baseline-reflecting more aggressive disease-and steeper reductions after therapy identified patients with inferior survival.

  15. The Intersection of Multimodality and Critical Perspective: Multimodality as Subversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of multimodality to critical media literacy. It is based on the understanding that communication is intrinsically multimodal and multimodal communication is inherently social and ideological. By analysing two English-language learners' multimodal ensembles, the study reports on how multimodality contributes to a…

  16. Patterns and Predictors of Early Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy and Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Men With pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} Prostate Cancer: Implications for Multimodal Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Briganti, Alberto; Joniau, Steven; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Sun, Maxine; Tombal, Bertrand; Haustermans, Karin; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Montorsi, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hein; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of early biochemical recurrence (eBCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) in order to identify which individuals might benefit from additional treatments. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 390 patients with pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} prostate cancer (PCa) receiving RP and aRT at 6 European centers between 1993 and 2006. Patients who were free from BCR at <2 years' follow-up were excluded. This resulted in 374 assessable patients. Early BCR was defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test values >0.2 ng/mL within 2 or 3 years after aRT. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses predicting overall and eBCR after aRT were fitted. Covariates consisted of preoperative PSA results, surgical margins, pathological stage, Gleason score, and aRT dose. Results: Overall, 5- and 8-year BCR-free survival rates were 77.1% and 70.8%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 86 months after aRT, 33 (8.8%) and 55 (14.6%) men experienced BCR within 2 or 3 years after aRT, respectively. In multivariable analyses, Gleason scores of 8 to 10 represented the only independent predictor of eBCR after aRT (all, P≤.01). The risk of BCR was significantly higher in patients with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 disease than in those with Gleason 2 to 6 within 24 months after treatment, after adjusting for all covariates (all, P≤.04). However, given a 24-month BCR free period, the risk of subsequent BCR for men with poorly differentiated disease was equal to that of men with less aggressive disease (all, P≥.3). Conclusions: High Gleason score represents the only predictor of eBCR after RP and aRT in patients affected by pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} PCa. Given the association between early PSA recurrence, clinical progression, and mortality, these patients might be considered candidates for adjuvant medical therapy and/or prophylactic whole-pelvis radiation therapy in addition to a

  17. Results of multimodal treatment for desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the abdomen and pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Yong-Hua; Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive malignancy that occurs in a young population with a male predominance. We studied the clinical and pathological characteristics of DSRCT and investigated the effects of multimodal therapy including aggressive surgical resection, induction chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed our experience with 11 histologically proven cases of DSRCT between March 2004 and October 2014. The clinical information, histological, immunohistochemistry and survival data of the patients were collected. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 31.4 years (range, 14-64 years) and nine (82%) of the patients were males. The most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain (72.7%). Surgical resection was attempted in five patients and included macroscopic total resection in two patients and debulking in three patients. Six patients underwent biopsy only. Eleven patients received multiagent chemotherapy. Five patients (45.5%) received radiotherapy. The median survival of patients who underwent surgical resection was 34.5 months, whereas the patients who underwent biopsy alone was 24.5 months (P<0.05). The median survival was 40.8 months in radiotherapy group, and 19.2 months in non-radiotherapy group (P<0.05). The 3-year progression-free survival rate was 27.2%. The median survival was 29 months, and the median time to local failure was 8.8 months. Cox regression analysis showed surgery and radiotherapy were highly significant in prolonging patients survival. Conclusion: Multimodal therapy consists of combination of surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy results in improved survival in patients with DSRCT. For unresectable DSRCT, we recommend radiotherapy combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:26309640

  18. Adlerian Therapy with Aggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizer, Betty

    Alfred Adler devised a theory that was holistic, social, teleological, and phenomenological. Adler believed that the basis of problems with children originated in the child's inability to cooperate with society, feelings of inferiority, and a lack of a goal in life. Adler felt the child's life should be examined through the child's eyes.…

  19. Multimodal Learning Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal learning clubs link principles of motivation and engagement with 21st century technological tools and texts to support content area learning. The author describes how a sixth grade health teacher and his class incorporated multimodal learning clubs into a unit of study on human body systems. The students worked collaboratively online…

  20. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  1. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Pishas, Kathleen I; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal. PMID:27635231

  2. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pishas, Kathleen I.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal. PMID:27635231

  3. Recent advances in targeted therapy for Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Pishas, Kathleen I.; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, poorly differentiated neoplasm of solid bone that disproportionally afflicts the young. Despite intensive multi-modal therapy and valiant efforts, 70% of patients with relapsed and metastatic Ewing sarcoma will succumb to their disease. The persistent failure to improve overall survival for this subset of patients highlights the urgent need for rapid translation of novel therapeutic strategies. As Ewing sarcoma is associated with a paucity of mutations in readily targetable signal transduction pathways, targeting the key genetic aberration and master regulator of Ewing sarcoma, the EWS/ETS fusion, remains an important goal.

  4. Multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Fu, Ganglan; Jiang, Huiqi; Zeng, Kuan; Hua, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare and highly malignant condition. Besides performing complete surgical excision, it remains controversial as to whether survival can be improved with additional treatment. We herein describe a 30-year-old man with a right atrial angiosarcoma. He underwent two operations for the resection of the primary lesion, and the patient's metastatic lesions involved an intestinal segment. With chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy, he survived for 33 months. The literature describing adjuvant therapy for cardiac angiosarcoma, which is mostly case reports, is also reviewed. In conclusion, the limited evidence suggests that multimodality treatment for cardiac angiosarcoma is a beacon of hope to improve the survival of such patients.

  5. Multimode Directional Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multimode directional coupler is provided. In some embodiments, the multimode directional coupler is configured to receive a primary signal and a secondary signal at a first port of a primary waveguide. The primary signal is configured to propagate through the primary waveguide and be outputted at a second port of the primary waveguide. The multimode directional coupler also includes a secondary waveguide configured to couple the secondary signal from the primary waveguide with no coupling of the primary signal into the secondary waveguide. The secondary signal is configured to propagate through the secondary waveguide and be outputted from a port of the secondary waveguide.

  6. GNR@mSiO2-TDM1 conjugates as multimodal platform for breast cancer therapy as well as enhanced photoacoustic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Yao, Qian; Wang, Xiuhong

    2016-02-01

    The development of combination of two or more therapies to fight against cancer together has been important research in oncology. Here we rationally designed a novel nanodrug which can incorporate active targeting, antibody therapy, drug therapy and photothermal therapy within one single platform to fight against Her2-positive breast cancer. To this end, a layer of mesoporous SiO2 was encapsulated onto the gold nanorods followed by covalent association of breast cancer drug TDM1 to the silica shell. TDM1 is an antibody drug conjugate consisting of engineered antibody trastuzumab and anti-miotic agent emtansine. Drug therapy followed by photothermal therapy using NIR laser (793nm) specifically ablated Her2-positive breast cancer cells with enhanced efficiency. In addition, the engineered nanodrug has amplified photoacoustic performance allowing sensitive detection of Her2-positive cancer cells.

  7. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran; Goetz, Matthew; Jakub, James; Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica; Stauder, Michael; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  8. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  9. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging for assessing evolution of ischemic penumbra: a key translational medicine strategy to manage the risk of developing novel therapies for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Juan C; Zaleska, Margaret M; Wang, Xinkang; Wood, Andrew; Hurko, Orest; Pangalos, Menelas N; Feuerstein, Giora Z

    2009-01-01

    The implicit aim of neuroprotection is to rescue neurons within distressed but still viable tissue, thereby promoting functional recovery upon neuronal salvage. The clinical failure of this approach suggests that previous efforts to develop stroke therapies lacked means to predict success or futility in pre-clinical and early clinical studies. A key translational medicine strategy that can improve predictability relies on imaging methodologies to map the spatiotemporal evolution of the ischemic penumbra. This could serve as a biomarker indicative of neuroprotective potential and could increase likelihood of success in clinical studies by allowing selection of patients who are most likely to respond to therapy. PMID:18766199

  10. Multimodal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence.

  11. MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Antisocial aggression is a widespread and expensive social problem. Although aggressive behaviors and temperament are highly heritable, clinical and trait associations for the most promising candidate gene for aggression, MAOA, have been largely inconsistent. We suggest that limitations inherent to that approach might be overcome by using multimodal neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of genetic risk. Herein, we detail functional, structural and connectivity findings implicating the low-expressing allele of the MAOA u-VNTR (MAOA-L) in adversely prejudicing information processing within a corticolimbic circuit composed of amygdala, rostral cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. We propose that the MAOA-L, by causing an ontogenic excess of 5-hydroxytryptamine, labilizes critical neural circuitry for social evaluation and emotion regulation (the 'socioaffective scaffold'), thereby amplifying the effects of adverse early-life experience and creating deleterious sociocognitive biases. Our construct provides a neurobiologically consistent model for gene-environment interactions in impulsive aggression.

  12. NaYF4:Yb/Er@PPy core-shell nanoplates: an imaging-guided multimodal platform for photothermal therapy of cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Li, Bo; Peng, Chen; Song, Guosheng; Peng, Yuxuan; Xiao, Zhiyin; Liu, Xijian; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Li; Hu, Junqing

    2015-12-01

    Imaging guided photothermal agents have attracted great attention for accurate diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Herein, multifunctional NaYF4:Yb/Er@polypyrrole (PPy) core-shell nanoplates are developed by combining a thermal decomposition reaction and a chemical oxidative polymerization reaction. Within such a composite nanomaterial, the core of the NaYF4:Yb/Er nanoplate can serve as an efficient nanoprobe for upconversion luminescence (UCL)/X-ray computed tomography (CT) dual-modal imaging, the shell of the PPy shows strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and makes it effective in photothermal ablation of cancer cells and infrared thermal imaging in vivo. Thus, this platform can be simultaneously used for cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy, and compensates for the deficiencies of individual imaging modalities and satisfies the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. The results further provide some insight into the exploration of multifunctional nanocomposites in the photothermal theragnosis therapy of cancers.Imaging guided photothermal agents have attracted great attention for accurate diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Herein, multifunctional NaYF4:Yb/Er@polypyrrole (PPy) core-shell nanoplates are developed by combining a thermal decomposition reaction and a chemical oxidative polymerization reaction. Within such a composite nanomaterial, the core of the NaYF4:Yb/Er nanoplate can serve as an efficient nanoprobe for upconversion luminescence (UCL)/X-ray computed tomography (CT) dual-modal imaging, the shell of the PPy shows strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and makes it effective in photothermal ablation of cancer cells and infrared thermal imaging in vivo. Thus, this platform can be simultaneously used for cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy, and compensates for the deficiencies of individual imaging modalities and satisfies the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for

  13. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  14. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  15. Multimodal Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliviero; Zancanaro, Massimo; Strapparava, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of information exploration and software design in computer-based educational systems focuses on the integration of hypermedia and natural language dialog. AlFRESCO is described, an interactive natural language-centered multimodal system that was developed for users interested in frescoes and paintings. (LRW)

  16. Multimode optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  17. Breast Cancer Patients With 10 or More Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes Treated by Multimodality Therapy: Influence of Clinical Presentation on Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Geara, Fady B. . E-mail: fg00@aub.edu.lb; Nasr, Elie; Tucker, Susan L.; Charafeddine, Maya; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Eid, Toufic; Abbas, Jaber; Salem, Ziad; Shamseddine, Ali; Issa, Philip; El Saghir, Nagi

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze tumor control and survival for breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes without systemic disease, treated by adjuvant radiation alone or combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 consecutive patients with these characteristics who received locoregional radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. The majority of patients had clinical Stage II or IIIA-B disease (43% and 48%, respectively). The median number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 15 (range, 10-78). Adjuvant therapy consisted of RT alone, with or without chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and/or ovarian castration. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 20% and 7%, respectively. Median DFS was higher for patients with Stage I-II compared with those with Stage IIIABC (28 vs. 19 months; p = 0.006). Median DFS for patients aged {<=}35 years was lower than that of older patients (12 vs. 24 months; p < 0.0001). Patients treated with a combination therapy had a higher 5-year DFS rate compared with those treated by RT alone (26% vs. 11%; p 0.03). In multivariate analysis, clinical stage (III vs. I, II; relative risk = 1.8, p = 0.002) and age ({<=}35 vs. others; relative risk = 2.6, p <0.001) were found to be independent variables for DFS. Conclusion: This retrospective data analysis identified young age and advanced clinical stage as pertinent and independent clinical prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with advanced axillary disease (10 or more involved nodes). These factors can be used for further prognostic classification.

  18. Manual ventilation therapy and aggressive potassium supplementation in the management of respiratory failure secondary to severe hypokalaemia in a cat with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Daste, Thomas; Dossin, Olivier; Reynolds, Brice S; Aumann, Marcel

    2014-04-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was referred for progressive muscle weakness and dyspnoea. The cat had a 2-month history of severe weight loss, small intestinal diarrhoea, polyphagia and polyuria/polydipsia. Biochemical analysis and venous blood gas evaluation revealed severe hypokalaemia [1.7 mmol/l; reference interval (RI): 3.5-5.1 mmol/l] and hypoventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide = 68 mmHg; RI: 34-38 mmHg). Aggressive potassium supplementation was initiated. The cat was manually ventilated until serum potassium increased to 3 mmol/l. A diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) was made based on clinical signs and serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (0.1 μg/l; RI: 12-82 μg/l). Medical management of the EPI resulted in clinical recovery.

  19. Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) and adjuvant fractionated radiotherapeutic multimodal therapy for intracranial malignant glioma in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Garcia, P A; Pancotto, T; Rossmeisl, J H; Henao-Guerrero, N; Gustafson, N R; Daniel, G B; Robertson, J L; Ellis, T L; Davalos, R V

    2011-02-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) has shown promise as an ablative therapy for a variety of soft-tissue neoplasms. Here we describe the therapeutic planning aspects and first clinical application of N-TIRE for the treatment of an inoperable, spontaneous malignant intracranial glioma in a canine patient. The N-TIRE ablation was performed safely, effectively reduced the tumor volume and associated intracranial hypertension, and provided sufficient improvement in neurological function of the patient to safely undergo adjunctive fractionated radiotherapy (RT) according to current standards of care. Complete remission was achieved based on serial magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the brain, although progressive radiation encephalopathy resulted in the death of the dog 149 days after N-TIRE therapy. The length of survival of this patient was comparable to dogs with intracranial tumors treated via standard excisional surgery and adjunctive fractionated external beam RT. Our results illustrate the potential benefits of N-TIRE for in vivo ablation of undesirable brain tissue, especially when traditional methods of cytoreductive surgery are not possible or ideal, and highlight the potential radiosensitizing effects of N-TIRE on the brain. PMID:21214290

  20. Non-Thermal Irreversible Electroporation (N-TIRE) and Adjuvant Fractionated Radiotherapeutic Multimodal Therapy for Intracranial Malignant Glioma in a Canine Patient

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, P. A.; Pancotto, T.; Rossmeisl, J. H.; Henao-Guerrero, N.; Gustafson, N. R.; Daniel, G. B.; Robertson, J. L.; Ellis, T. L.; Davalos, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) has shown promise as an ablative therapy for a variety of soft-tissue neoplasms. Here we describe the therapeutic planning aspects and first clinical application of N-TIRE for the treatment of an inoperable, spontaneous malignant intracranial glioma in a canine patient. The N-TIRE ablation was performed safely, effectively reduced the tumor volume and associated intracranial hypertension, and provided sufficient improvement in neurological function of the patient to safely undergo adjunctive fractionated radiotherapy (RT) according to current standards of care. Complete remission was achieved based on serial magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the brain, although progressive radiation encephalopathy resulted in the death of the dog 149 days after N-TIRE therapy. The length of survival of this patient was comparable to dogs with intracranial tumors treated via standard excisional surgery and adjunctive fractionated external beam RT. Our results illustrate the potential benefits of N-TIRE for in vivo ablation of undesirable brain tissue, especially when traditional methods of cytoreductive surgery are not possible or ideal, and highlight the potential radiosensitizing effects of N-TIRE on the brain. PMID:21214290

  1. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  2. Designing Theranostic Agents Based on Pluronic Stabilized Gold Nanoaggregates Loaded with Methylene Blue for Multimodal Cell Imaging and Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Timea; Potara, Monica; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Licarete, Emilia; Banciu, Manuela; Astilean, Simion

    2015-08-01

    At present, multifunctional noble metal-based nanocomposites are extensively investigated for their potential in performing cellular imaging, diagnostics, and therapy by integration of unique plasmonic properties with the spectroscopic expression and therapeutic activity of appropriate drug. In this work, we report the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3-D) close-packed nanoassemblies of gold nanoparticles by controlling the aggregation of individual nanoparticles in solution and subsequent stabilization of formed aggregates by Pluronic block copolymer (F127) coating. Besides conferring high stability, Pluronic mediates the loading of Methylene Blue (MB) molecules which exhibit interesting spectroscopic and photochemical properties to be employed as both optical label and photosensitizing drug. Indeed, here we demonstrate the pertinence of the fabricated nanoassemblies to provide optical imaging of murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26) via both Raman and fluorescence signals collected from MB molecules, specifically by using scanning confocal surface-enhanced resonant raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) techniques. The specific configuration of as fabricated nanoassemblies allows a small population of MB molecules to be located in very small areas between the aggregated nanoparticles ("hot spots") to provide SERRS signal while the other population remains captured in Pluronic coating and preserves both its fluorescence signal and singlet-oxygen generation capability. Remarkably, we demonstrate an enhanced photodynamic therapeutic activity of MB-loaded gold nanoaggregates against murine colon carcinoma cells (C-26), as compared to the free photosensitizer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on plasmonic nanoplatforms conveying photosensitizing drug into cells to operate as optical label via both SER(R)S and FLIM and to perform enhanced photodynamic therapy.

  3. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  4. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  5. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747

  6. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  7. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  8. Multi-modal CT in Stroke Imaging: New Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Ledezma, Carlos J.; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    A multimodal CT protocol provides a comprehensive non-invasive survey of acute stroke patients with accurate demonstration of the site of arterial occlusion and its hemodynamic tissue status. It combines widespread availability with the ability to provide functional characterization of cerebral ischemia, and could potentially allow more accurate selection of candidates for acute stroke reperfusion therapy. PMID:19195537

  9. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  10. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  11. MiRNA-21 silencing mediated by tumor-targeted nanoparticles combined with sunitinib: A new multimodal gene therapy approach for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro M; Cardoso, Ana L; Custódia, Carlos; Cunha, Pedro; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2015-06-10

    Malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), are among the most lethal human cancers, due to their tremendous invasive capacity and limited therapeutic options. Despite remarkable advances in cancer theranostics, which resulted in significant improvement of clinical outcomes, GBM relapse is very frequent and patient survival remains under one year. The elucidation of the role of abnormally-expressed miRNAs in different steps of GBM pathogenesis and in tumor resistance to therapy paved the way for the development of new miRNA-based therapeutic approaches targeting this disease, aiming at increasing specific tumor cell killing and, ultimately, cancer eradication. Here, we demonstrate that intravenously-administered chlorotoxin (CTX)-coupled (targeted) stable nucleic acid lipid particle (SNALP)-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides accumulate preferentially within brain tumors and promote efficient miR-21 silencing, which results in increased mRNA and protein levels of its target RhoB, while showing no signs of systemic immunogenicity. Decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor size, as well as enhanced apoptosis activation and, to a lesser extent, improvement of animal survival, were also observed in GBM-bearing mice upon systemic delivery of targeted nanoparticle-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides and exposure to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Overall, our results provide evidence that CTX-coupled SNALPs are a reliable and efficient system for systemic delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, although further studies are still necessary to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit in a clinical context, our findings suggest that miRNA modulation by the targeted nanoparticles combined with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy may hold promise as an attractive approach towards GBM treatment.

  12. MiRNA-21 silencing mediated by tumor-targeted nanoparticles combined with sunitinib: A new multimodal gene therapy approach for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro M; Cardoso, Ana L; Custódia, Carlos; Cunha, Pedro; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2015-06-10

    Malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), are among the most lethal human cancers, due to their tremendous invasive capacity and limited therapeutic options. Despite remarkable advances in cancer theranostics, which resulted in significant improvement of clinical outcomes, GBM relapse is very frequent and patient survival remains under one year. The elucidation of the role of abnormally-expressed miRNAs in different steps of GBM pathogenesis and in tumor resistance to therapy paved the way for the development of new miRNA-based therapeutic approaches targeting this disease, aiming at increasing specific tumor cell killing and, ultimately, cancer eradication. Here, we demonstrate that intravenously-administered chlorotoxin (CTX)-coupled (targeted) stable nucleic acid lipid particle (SNALP)-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides accumulate preferentially within brain tumors and promote efficient miR-21 silencing, which results in increased mRNA and protein levels of its target RhoB, while showing no signs of systemic immunogenicity. Decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor size, as well as enhanced apoptosis activation and, to a lesser extent, improvement of animal survival, were also observed in GBM-bearing mice upon systemic delivery of targeted nanoparticle-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides and exposure to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Overall, our results provide evidence that CTX-coupled SNALPs are a reliable and efficient system for systemic delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, although further studies are still necessary to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit in a clinical context, our findings suggest that miRNA modulation by the targeted nanoparticles combined with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy may hold promise as an attractive approach towards GBM treatment. PMID:25861727

  13. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  14. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  15. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  16. Salmonella-Based Therapy Targeting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Coupled with Enzymatic Depletion of Tumor Hyaluronan Induces Complete Regression of Aggressive Pancreatic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Edwin R; Chen, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Lampa, Melanie G; Kaltcheva, Teodora I; Thompson, Curtis B; Ludwig, Thomas; Chung, Vincent; Diamond, Don J

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial-based therapies are emerging as effective cancer treatments and hold promise for refractory neoplasms, such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has not shown significant improvement in therapy for more than 25 years. Using a novel combination of shIDO-ST, a Salmonella-based therapy targeting the immunosuppressive molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with an enzyme, PEGPH20, which depletes extracellular matrix hyaluronan, we observed extended survival with frequent total regression of autochthonous and orthotopic PDAC tumors. This observation was associated with migration and accumulation of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from spleens into tumors, which was not seen using a scrambled control (shScr-ST). Purified splenic PMNs from PEGPH20/shIDO-ST-treated mice exhibited significant IDO knockdown and were able to kill tumor targets ex vivo through mechanisms involving FasL and serine proteases. In addition, CD8(+) T cells were observed to contribute to late control of pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that entry of shIDO-ST and PMNs into otherwise impermeable desmoplastic tumors is facilitated by PEGPH20-mediated HA removal, further highlighting an important component of effective treatment for PDAC.

  17. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999–2012)*

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, A.; Skorupski, K.; Frazier, S.; Vanhaezebrouck, I.; Rebhun, R. B.; Reilly, C. M.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188–2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149–2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188–2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300–2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months. PMID:23721492

  18. Salmonella-Based Therapy Targeting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Coupled with Enzymatic Depletion of Tumor Hyaluronan Induces Complete Regression of Aggressive Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Edwin R.; Chen, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Lampa, Melanie G.; Kaltcheva, Teodora I.; Thompson, Curtis B.; Ludwig, Thomas; Chung, Vincent; Diamond, Don J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial-based therapies are emerging as effective cancer treatments and hold promise for refractory neoplasms such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has not shown significant improvement in therapy for over twenty-five years. Using a novel combination of shIDO-ST, a Salmonella-based therapy targeting the immunosuppressive molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with an enzyme, PEGPH20, which depletes extracellular matrix hyaluronan, we observed extended survival with frequent total regression of autochthonous and orthotopic PDAC tumors. This was associated with migration and accumulation of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from spleens into tumors, which was not observed using a scrambled control (shScr-ST). Purified splenic PMNs from PEGPH20/shIDO-ST-treated mice exhibited significant IDO knockdown and were able to kill tumor targets ex-vivo through mechanisms involving FasL and serine proteases. In addition, CD8+ T cells were observed to contribute to late control of pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that entry of shIDO-ST and PMNs into otherwise impermeable desmoplastic tumors is facilitated by PEGPH20-mediated HA removal, further highlighting an important component of effective treatment for PDAC. PMID:26134178

  19. Salmonella-Based Therapy Targeting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Coupled with Enzymatic Depletion of Tumor Hyaluronan Induces Complete Regression of Aggressive Pancreatic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Edwin R; Chen, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Lampa, Melanie G; Kaltcheva, Teodora I; Thompson, Curtis B; Ludwig, Thomas; Chung, Vincent; Diamond, Don J

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial-based therapies are emerging as effective cancer treatments and hold promise for refractory neoplasms, such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has not shown significant improvement in therapy for more than 25 years. Using a novel combination of shIDO-ST, a Salmonella-based therapy targeting the immunosuppressive molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with an enzyme, PEGPH20, which depletes extracellular matrix hyaluronan, we observed extended survival with frequent total regression of autochthonous and orthotopic PDAC tumors. This observation was associated with migration and accumulation of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from spleens into tumors, which was not seen using a scrambled control (shScr-ST). Purified splenic PMNs from PEGPH20/shIDO-ST-treated mice exhibited significant IDO knockdown and were able to kill tumor targets ex vivo through mechanisms involving FasL and serine proteases. In addition, CD8(+) T cells were observed to contribute to late control of pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that entry of shIDO-ST and PMNs into otherwise impermeable desmoplastic tumors is facilitated by PEGPH20-mediated HA removal, further highlighting an important component of effective treatment for PDAC. PMID:26134178

  20. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality.

  1. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. PMID:26491835

  2. Preoperative therapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Goel, Aakanksha; Gaur, Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is an aggressive malignancy associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Presence of two distinct histopathological types distinguishes it from other gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment in locally advanced esophageal cancer (T2 or greater or node positive); however, a high rate of disease recurrence (systemic and loco-regional) and poor survival justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. Various combinations of multimodality treatment (preoperative/perioperative, or postoperative; radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy) are being explored to lower disease recurrence and improve survival. Preoperative therapy followed by surgery is presently considered the standard of care in resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer as postoperative treatment may not be feasible for all the patients due to the morbidity of esophagectomy and prolonged recovery time limiting the tolerance of patient. There are wide variations in the preoperative therapy practiced across the centres depending upon the institutional practices, availability of facilities and personal experiences. There is paucity of literature to standardize the preoperative therapy. Broadly, chemoradiotherapy is the preferred neo-adjuvant modality in western countries whereas chemotherapy alone is considered optimal in the far East. The present review highlights the significant studies to assist in opting for the best evidence based preoperative therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy) for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

  3. External beam re-irradiation, combination chemoradiotherapy, and particle therapy for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Taunk, Neil K.; Moraes, Fabio Y.; Escorcia, Freddy E.; Mendez, Lucas Castro; Beal, Kathryn; Marta, Gustavo N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Glioblastoma is a common aggressive primary malignant brain tumor, and is nearly universal in progression and mortality after initial treatment. Re-irradiation presents a promising treatment option for progressive disease, both palliating symptoms and potentially extending survival. Highly conformal radiation techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated radiosurgery are effective short courses of treatment that allow delivery of high doses of therapeutic radiation with steep dose gradients to protect normal tissue. Patients with higher performance status, younger age, and longer interval between primary treatment and progression represent the best candidates for re-irradiation. Multiple studies are also underway involving combinations of radiation and systemic therapy to bend the survival curve and improve the therapeutic index. In the multimodal treatment of recurrent high-grade glioma, the use of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy should be highly individualized. Here we comprehensively review radiation therapy and techniques, along with discussion of combination treatment and novel strategies. PMID:26781426

  4. [Treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Moreno Nogueira, J A; Ruiz Borrego, M; Pérez Valderrama, B; Valero Azbiru, M

    2009-02-01

    Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) in localized stages I and II, without bulky areas and a fair International Prognostic Factor (IPI) (30% of all cases) have high possibilities of cure (80%) when treated with combined chemotherapy, CHOP or CHOP-like (3-4 courses) followed by locoregional radiation therapy. Localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with signs of poor prognosis or advanced stages (III and IV) must be treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy. As second line in responding patients (DHAP, ESHAP, MINE, VIM, DICE, etc., and rituximab) high doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic growth factor support should be considered, although not in refractory patients.

  5. Evaluation of Two Treatments for Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Regina Navonne

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that preschoolers identified for aggressive behavior would benefit from family, group, or individual therapy. However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding treatments for aggressive behavior based on the subtype of aggression. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if 2…

  6. Aggressive therapy of congestive heart failure and associated chronic renal failure with medications and correction of anemia stops or slows the progression of both diseases.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, D S; Wexler, D; Blum, M; Sheps, D; Schwartz, D; Yachnin, T; Baruch, R; Tchebiner, J; Zubkov, A; Shaked, M; Steinbruch, S; Keren, G; Iaina, A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasing rapidly in the community. We and others have shown that the prevalence and severity of both anemia and chronic renal failure (CRF) increase steadily with increasing severity of CHF. We have also shown that CHF patients may be resistant to standard drug therapy for CHF as long as the associated anemia is not corrected, and that correction of the anemia with subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron sucrose (Venofer: Vifor International, St. Gallen, Switzerland) may improve both the CHF and CRF and markedly reduce hospitalizations without causing side effects. We report here our experience with correcting anemia in this manner in 126 cases of anemic-resistant CHF patients. As in our previous studies, correction of the anemia improved both CHF and CRF, and reduced hospitalizations. Our studies suggest that correction of even mild anemia in CHF may be an important addition to the treatment of patients with the combination of CHF and CRF.

  7. Fatal persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and vascular graft infections complicated with the formation of multiple abscesses despite aggressive medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Mikio; Maeda, Hideaki; Shiono, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old man underwent ascending aorta replacement for an acute type A aortic dissection. After the operations, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified in sputum and blood cultures. Although anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drugs were administered, most of the intermittent blood cultures remained positive. The focus of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was not evident in the early stages, and no specific symptoms such as abscess or endocarditis were observed. However, abscesses in the brain, mediastinum and spleen were found 3 years after the operation. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin gradually increased from 1 to 4 µg/mL during the course of treatment. This case provides evidence for a potential role of combination therapy. PMID:27489691

  8. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  9. A multimodal behavioral approach to performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A; Abramovitz, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) stresses a trimodal assessment framework (affect, behavior, and cognition [ABC]), whereas the multimodal approach assesses seven discrete but interactive components--behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs/biological factors (BASIC I.D.). Only complex or recalcitrant cases call for the entire seven-pronged range of multimodal interventions. Various case illustrations are offered as examples of how a clinician might proceed when confronted with problems that fall under the general heading of performance anxiety. The main example is of a violinist in a symphony orchestra whose career was in serious jeopardy because of his extreme fear of performing in public. He responded very well to a focused but elaborate desensitization procedure. The hierarchy that was eventually constructed contained many dimensions and subhierarchies featuring interlocking elements that evoked his anxiety. In addition to imaginal systematic desensitization, sessions were devoted to his actual performance in the clinical setting. As a homework assignment, he found it helpful to listen to a long-playing record of an actual rehearsal and to play along with the world-renowned orchestra and conductor. The subsequent disclosure by the client of an important sexual problem was dealt with concomitantly by using a fairly conventional counseling procedure. Therapy required 20 sessions over a 3-month period. PMID:15241811

  10. Holy Basil leaf extract decreases tumorigenicity and metastasis of aggressive human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: potential role in therapy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Torres, María P; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Souchek, Joshua J; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Macha, Muzafar; Ganti, Apar K; Hauke, Ralph J; Batra, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    There is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies against lethal pancreatic cancer (PC). Ocimum sanctum ("Holy Basil") has been used for thousands of years in traditional Indian medicine, but its anti-tumorigenic effect remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that extracts of O. sanctum leaves inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and induce apoptosis of PC cells in vitro. The expression of genes that promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of PC cells including activated ERK-1/2, FAK, and p65 (subunit of NF-κB), was downregulated in PC cells after O. sanctum treatment. Intraperitoneal injections of the aqueous extract significantly inhibited the growth of orthotopically transplanted PC cells in vivo (p<0.05). Genes that inhibit metastasis (E-cadherin) and induce apoptosis (BAD) were significantly upregulated in tumors isolated from mice treated with O. sanctum extracts, while genes that promote survival (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and chemo/radiation resistance (AURKA, Chk1 and Survivin) were downregulated. Overall, our study suggests that leaves of O. sanctum could be a potential source of novel anticancer compounds in the future. PMID:23523869

  11. Multimode Acoustic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    1985-01-01

    There is a need for high temperature containerless processing facilities that can efficiently position and manipulate molten samples in the reduced gravity environment of space. The goal of the research is to develop sophisticated high temperature manipulation capabilities such as selection of arbitrary axes rotation and rapid sample cooling. This program will investigate new classes of acoustic levitation in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical geometries. The program tasks include calculating theoretical expressions of the acoustic forces in these geometries for the excitation of up to three acoustic modes (multimodes). These calculations are used to: (1) determine those acoustic modes that produce stable levitation, (2) isolate the levitation and rotation capabilities to produce more than one axis of rotation, and (3) develop methods to translate samples down long tube cylindrical chambers. Experimental levitators will then be constructed to verify the stable levitation and rotation predictions of the models.

  12. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  13. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount.

  14. Aggressive surgery for management of recurrent intraabdominal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roseman, J M; Minton, J P

    1983-06-01

    With the evolution of effective multimodality control of various tumors, the role of surgery for recurrent malignancies is emerging as significant factor in not only maintaining that control, but in permitting the possibility of late cure of certain, even advanced intraabdominal malignancies. Several patients with Stage IV colon or ovarian carcinoma were evaluated and found to benefit from such an aggressive surgical approach with the result of long term control as well as apparent clinical cure in the several instances. These possibilities are becoming increasingly significant as progress is made in the various treatment modalities for neoplastic diseases.

  15. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  16. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting.

  17. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  18. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  19. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  20. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  1. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  2. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  3. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  4. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris

    PubMed Central

    Déaux, Éloïse C.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs’ aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs’ bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as ‘equivalent’ or ‘enhancing’ as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal’s function. PMID:26571266

  5. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function. PMID:26571266

  6. [Multimodal iatrogenic apathy].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Souza, R D; Figueiredo, W M

    1996-06-01

    The present paper reports on five patients who developed apathy as a peculiar side effect of antidepressants. Their behavioral and psychopathological changes were primarily due to the near-absence of emotional experience, a key characteristic that distinguishes apathy from avolition and abulia. The emergence of apathy in the course of an antidepressant treatment should raise the suspicion of an adverse effect of the drug and lead to its prompt withdrawal. A sample of the relevant clinical evidence favoring the distinction of apathy confined to a single sensory domain ("unimodal apathy") from apathy confined to more than one sensory realm ("multimodal apathy") is reviewed. From a pathophysiological standpoint, it would appear that neural nets centered in the amygdala-temporo polar cortex are critical for the integration of sensory perceptions and mental imagery with appropriate emotional tone and quality as well as with their accompanying somatic markers, as they receive afferents from the major projection systems of the prosencephalon and lie in nodes strategic to modify the ongoing activity of multiple parallel brain systems. The fact that one common symptom can be produced by such a heterogeneous family of substances points to a shared neurochemical mechanism of action. At present, discrete cerebral serotoninergic circuits would appear to be suitable candidates for such a role. Cases as these may be critical for the understanding of the cerebral organization of emotions in man, lending support to the notion that distinct neurochemical systems mediate discrete psychopathological symptoms.

  7. Multimodal Communication in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    TAGLIALATELA, JARED P.; RUSSELL, JAMIE L.; POPE, SARAH M.; MORTON, TAMARA; BOGART, STEPHANIE; REAMER, LISA A.; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of human language is multimodality. In other words, humans use multiple signaling channels concurrently when communicating with one another. For example, people frequently produce manual gestures while speaking, and the words a person perceives are impacted by visual information. For this study, we hypothesized that similar to the way that humans regularly couple their spoken utterances with gestures and facial expressions, chimpanzees regularly produce vocalizations in conjunction with other communicative signals. To test this hypothesis, data were collected from 101 captive chimpanzees living in mixed-sex social groupings of seven to twelve individuals. A total of 2,869 vocal events were collected. The data indicate that approximately 50% of the vocal events were produced in conjunction with another communicative modality. In addition, approximately 68% were directed to a specific individual, and these directed vocalizations were more likely to include a signal from another communicative modality than were vocalizations that were not directed to a specific individual. These results suggest that, like humans, chimpanzees often pair their vocalizations with signals from other communicative modalities. In addition, chimpanzees appear to use their communicative signals strategically to meet specific socio-communicative ends, providing support for the growing literature that indicates that at least some chimpanzee vocal signaling is intentional. PMID:26212686

  8. Multimode Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 104 is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 107 whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  9. Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2014-11-12

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  10. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  11. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  12. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  13. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  14. Proton Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Review of the Clinical Experience to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Frank, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Proton beam radiation has been used for cancer treatment since the 1950s, but recent increasing interest in this form of therapy and the construction of hospital-based and clinic-based facilities for its delivery have greatly increased both the number of patients and the variety of tumors being treated with proton therapy. The mass of proton particles and their unique physical properties (ie, the Bragg peak) allow proton therapy to spare normal tissues distal to the tumor target from incidental irradiation. Initial observations show that proton therapy is particularly useful for treating tumors in challenging locations close to nontarget critical structures. Specifically, improvements in local control outcomes for patients with chordoma, chonodrosarcoma, and tumors in the sinonasal regions have been reported in series using proton. Improved local control and survival outcomes for patients with cancer of the head and neck region have also been seen with the advent of improvements in better imaging and multimodality therapy comprising surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. However, aggressive local therapy in the proximity of critical normal structures to tumors in the head and neck region may produce debilitating early and late toxic effects. Great interest has been expressed in evaluating whether proton therapy can improve outcomes, especially early and late toxicity, when used in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. This review summarizes the progress made to date in addressing this question.

  15. Outcome of urinary bladder cancer after combined therapies

    PubMed Central

    Anghel, RM; Gales, LN; Trifanescu, OG

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth in women, being an important public health issue. Objective: to assess the outcome of patients with urinary bladder cancer treated in an oncologic center. Methods: Medical files of 155 patients (132M/ 23F) with urinary bladder cancer treated between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range: 19-85 years). Disease free survival (DFS) for patients with complete tumor resection receiving adjuvant treatment and progression free survival (PFS) for patients with post-operative residual disease was estimated. Results: Stage disease’s distribution was: 50 patients (32.2%) stage II, 47 (30.3%) stage III, 58 (37.4%) stage IV. Radical cystectomy was performed in 56 patients (36.1%), while 99 patients (63.9%) underwent repeated transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumor (TURBT). The postoperative treatment included multimodal therapy in 47 patients (30.3%) (chemotherapy and external beam radiation), external beam radiation alone in 57 patients (36.8%) and chemotherapy alone (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin-MVAC or gemcitabine + platinum) in 51 patients (32.9%). After a median follow-up of 31 months (range: 3-79 months), 51 patients (32.9%) presented local recurrence, 32 patients (21%) distant recurrence (metastases), 10 patients (6.4%) both local and distant recurrence, and 62 patients (40%) were free of disease. The median duration until progression was of 27 months. Discussion: Despite combined therapy approaches, urinary bladder carcinoma remains an aggressive disease, with high relapse rate. Earlier diagnosis and an aggressive radical surgery with the intention to cure (cystectomy), and adjuvant multimodal treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) are needed for survival improvement. PMID:27453746

  16. Novel targeted therapies in chordoma: an update

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Salvatore; Yip, Stephen; Al Zhrani, Gmaan A; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Al Turki, Abdulrahman; Kong, Esther; Rostomily, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are rare, locally aggressive skull base neoplasms known for local recurrence and not-infrequent treatment failure. Current evidence supports the role of maximal safe surgical resection. In addition to open skull-base approaches, the endoscopic endonasal approach to clival chordomas has been reported with favorable albeit early results. Adjuvant radiation is prescribed following complete resection, alternatively for gross residual disease or at the time of recurrence. The modalities of adjuvant radiation therapy reported vary widely and include proton-beam, carbon-ion, fractionated photon radiotherapy, and photon and gamma-knife radiosurgery. As of now, no direct comparison is available, and high-level evidence demonstrating superiority of one modality over another is lacking. While systemic therapies have yet to form part of any first-line therapy for chordomas, a number of targeted agents have been evaluated to date that inhibit specific molecules and their respective pathways known to be implicated in chordomas. These include EGFR (erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib), PDGFR (imatinib), mTOR (rapamycin), and VEGF (bevacizumab). This article provides an update of the current multimodality treatment of cranial base chordomas, with an emphasis on how current understanding of molecular pathogenesis provides a framework for the development of novel targeted approaches. PMID:26097380

  17. A new concept for noninvasive tinnitus treatment utilizing multimodal pathways.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Cory D; Smith, Benjamin T; Markovitz, Craig D; Lim, Hubert H

    2013-01-01

    Current noninvasive treatments for tinnitus have shown mixed results. There have been encouraging developments in using invasive brain or vagal nerve stimulation to modulate neural populations driving the tinnitus percept. However, these invasive treatments can only be used in a small patient population with severe conditions. In this preliminary study, we present a new treatment option we call Multimodal Synchronization Therapy (MST), which attempts to achieve synchronized and localized brain activation without invasive neural stimulation. MST combines multiple sensory, motor, limbic, and cognitive inputs to elicit activation of multimodal neurons to potentially modulate specific neurons driving the tinnitus percept. We present preliminary data in a guinea pig model showing activation of somatosensory and auditory pathways to alter neural activity within the inferior colliculus, a multimodal integration region that has shown pathological changes in animals and patients with tinnitus. Electrical stimulation of different body locations induced excitatory responses in the inferior colliculus, eliciting responses in up to 41% of all recording sites for a given somatic site. Paired somatic and acoustic stimulation resulted in enhanced or suppressed acoustic-driven neural activity in the inferior colliculus that varied depending on stimulation and recording location. Similar modulation effects were observed in the auditory cortex, which may relate to changes in auditory perception. Further studies need to incorporate multiple multimodal pathways and must also confirm that MST can suppress the abnormal neural patterns that directly drive the tinnitus percept. PMID:24110389

  18. A simultaneous multimodal imaging system for tissue functional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous and quantitative assessment of skin functional characteristics in different modalities will facilitate diagnosis and therapy in many clinical applications such as wound healing. However, many existing clinical practices and multimodal imaging systems are subjective, qualitative, sequential for multimodal data collection, and need co-registration between different modalities. To overcome these limitations, we developed a multimodal imaging system for quantitative, non-invasive, and simultaneous imaging of cutaneous tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion parameters. The imaging system integrated multispectral and laser speckle imaging technologies into one experimental setup. A Labview interface was developed for equipment control, synchronization, and image acquisition. Advanced algorithms based on a wide gap second derivative reflectometry and laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) were developed for accurate reconstruction of tissue oxygenation and blood perfusion respectively. Quantitative calibration experiments and a new style of skinsimulating phantom were designed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the imaging system. The experimental results were compared with a Moor tissue oxygenation and perfusion monitor. For In vivo testing, a post-occlusion reactive hyperemia (PORH) procedure in human subject and an ongoing wound healing monitoring experiment using dorsal skinfold chamber models were conducted to validate the usability of our system for dynamic detection of oxygenation and perfusion parameters. In this study, we have not only setup an advanced multimodal imaging system for cutaneous tissue oxygenation and perfusion parameters but also elucidated its potential for wound healing assessment in clinical practice.

  19. Multimodality Imaging of Myocardial Injury and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christopher M.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sosnovik, David E.; French, Brent A.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in cardiovascular molecular imaging have come at a rapid pace over the last several years. Multiple approaches have been taken to better understand the structural, molecular, and cellular events that underlie the progression from myocardial injury to myocardial infarction (MI) and, ultimately, to congestive heart failure. Multimodality molecular imaging including SPECT, PET, cardiac MRI, and optical approaches is offering new insights into the pathophysiology of MI and left ventricular remodeling in small-animal models. Targets that are being probed include, among others, angiotensin receptors, matrix metalloproteinases, integrins, apoptosis, macrophages, and sympathetic innervation. It is only a matter of time before these advances are applied in the clinical setting to improve post-MI prognostication and identify appropriate therapies in patients to prevent the onset of congestive heart failure. PMID:20395347

  20. Managing hyperemesis gravidarum: a multimodal challenge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting. When prolonged or severe, this is known as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), which can, in individual cases, be life threatening. In this article the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies will be presented based on a selective literature review. Treatment strategies range from outpatient dietary advice and antiemetic drugs to hospitalization and intravenous (IV) fluid replacement in persistent or severe cases. Alternative methods, such as acupuncture, are not yet evidence based but sometimes have a therapeutic effect. In most cases, the condition is self limiting and subsides by around 20 weeks gestation. More severe forms require medical intervention once other organic causes of nausea and vomiting have been excluded. In addition, a psychosomatic approach is often helpful. In view of its potential complexity, general practitioners and obstetricians should be well informed about HG and therapy should be multimodal. PMID:20633258

  1. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  2. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  3. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  4. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  5. Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Nelson, Mark Evan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports research that attempts to characterize what is powerful about digital multimodal texts. Building from recent theoretical work on understanding the workings and implications of multimodal communication, the authors call for a continuing empirical investigation into the roles that digital multimodal texts play in real-world…

  6. Multimodal Hip Hop Productions as Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, K. C. Nat

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on ethnographic data from a year-long multimodal media production (MMP) course and the experience of an African American female adolescent who used the production of multimodal Hip Hop texts to express her creativity and growing socially conscious view of the world. The study demonstrates how students made meaning multimodally and…

  7. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  8. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  9. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  10. Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

  11. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    PubMed

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  12. Multimodal imaging of ischemic wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Liu, Peng; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2012-12-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, no method is available for noninvasive, simultaneous, and quantitative imaging of these tissue parameters. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities into a single setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Advanced algorithms were developed for accurate reconstruction of wound oxygenation and appropriate co-registration between different imaging modalities. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated by an ongoing clinical trials approved by OSU IRB. In the clinical trial, a wound of 3mm in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was serially monitored by the multimodal imaging setup. Our experiments demonstrated the clinical usability of multimodal wound imaging.

  13. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  14. Multimodality as a Sociolinguistic Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collister, Lauren Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the use of multimodal communication in a community of expert "World of Warcraft"® players and its impact on politeness, identity, and relationships. Players in the community regularly communicated using three linguistic modes quasi-simultaneously: text chat, voice chat, and face-to-face interaction. Using the…

  15. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  16. [MULTIMODAL APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT PLEURAL LESIONS].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, E V; Mamontov, O Yu; Senchik, K Yu; Barchuk, A S; Gelfond, M L

    2015-01-01

    The study includes data on 54 patients with pleural malignant lesions (39 with metastatic pleural malignant tumors and 15 with pleural malignant mesothelioma) received treatment using a multimodal approach: maximum cytoreduction, intraoperative photodynamic therapy and hyperthermic chemoperfusion of pleural cavity. A control group of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma consisted of 21 patients who had undergone only conservative treatment. It was found out that the use two-thoracotomy surgical approach had advantages over standard thoracotomy across IV intercostal space. The use of multimodal treatment was accompanied by relatively low (1.85%) postoperative mortality on the background of a relatively high number (79.6%) of postoperative complications, easily cured in the early postoperative period. The use of multimodal therapy in treatment for metastatic pleural malignant lesions was accompanied by a median of disease-free survival of 11 months and a median of overall survival of 23 months. The proposed multimodal treatment compared with conservative methods of therapy improved disease-free (12 months vs. 7.5 months) and overall (18.8 months vs. 10.2 months) survival. Thus the use of a multimodal approach in treatment for pleural malignant lesions is relatively safe but requires further study. PMID:26242152

  17. Effectiveness of ECT combined with risperidone against aggression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S; Ashby, C R; Mills, M J

    2001-03-01

    Aggressive behavior in schizophrenic patients can often be problematic not only for the patients themselves, but for their families and others. This study examined the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in combination with risperidone in an open trial in 10 male schizophrenic patients with significant aggressive behaviors. Patients were given bilateral ECT five times a week in combination with risperidone. The mean total number of times of ECT was 6.6 (range 5-9). The aggressive behavior in five of the six patients, who showed positive symptoms, was rapidly ameliorated within 12 days. The ECT/risperidone regimen also eliminated aggressive behavior in four patients showing no positive symptoms within 10 days. These treatment effects lasted for at least 6 months in 9 (of the 10) patients. The results suggest that ECT, combined with risperidone, produce a rapid and effective elimination of aggressive behaviors in schizophrenic patients. In addition, there was a resolution of aggression in four patients with no positive symptoms. This suggests that aggression in some schizophrenic patients develops as a primary symptom of schizophrenia and is not related to other positive symptoms of the disease or the patient's personality traits. PMID:11281510

  18. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  19. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  20. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  1. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  2. Nanoengineered multimodal contrast agent for medical image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Gregory J.; Zheng, Jinzi; Brock, Kristy; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A.

    2005-04-01

    Multimodality imaging has gained momentum in radiation therapy planning and image-guided treatment delivery. Specifically, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are two complementary imaging modalities often utilized in radiation therapy for visualization of anatomical structures for tumour delineation and accurate registration of image data sets for volumetric dose calculation. The development of a multimodal contrast agent for CT and MR with prolonged in vivo residence time would provide long-lasting spatial and temporal correspondence of the anatomical features of interest, and therefore facilitate multimodal image registration, treatment planning and delivery. The multimodal contrast agent investigated consists of nano-sized stealth liposomes encapsulating conventional iodine and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The average loading achieved was 33.5 +/- 7.1 mg/mL of iodine for iohexol and 9.8 +/- 2.0 mg/mL of gadolinium for gadoteridol. The average liposome diameter was 46.2 +/- 13.5 nm. The system was found to be stable in physiological buffer over a 15-day period, releasing 11.9 +/- 1.1% and 11.2 +/- 0.9% of the total amounts of iohexol and gadoteridol loaded, respectively. 200 minutes following in vivo administration, the contrast agent maintained a relative contrast enhancement of 81.4 +/- 13.05 differential Hounsfield units (ΔHU) in CT (40% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) and 731.9 +/- 144.2 differential signal intensity (ΔSI) in MR (46% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) in the blood (aorta), a relative contrast enhancement of 38.0 +/- 5.1 ΔHU (42% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) and 178.6 +/- 41.4 ΔSI (62% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes post-injection) in the liver (parenchyma), a relative contrast enhancement of 9.1 +/- 1.7 ΔHU (94% decrease from the peak signal value achieved 3 minutes

  3. Experimental verification of MMI by singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimode-singlemode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Saikat; Ghosh, Amarnath; Roy, Bapita; Chakraborty, Rajib

    2015-06-01

    Multimode Interference (MMI) based on self imaging phenomenon is investigated using matrix approach. Experimentally MMI is verified using singlemode-multimode-singlemode and multimodesinglemode structures of optical fiber. The results obtained are also verified by BPM technique.

  4. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase regulates ghrelin to control aggression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Parks, Robin J; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2015-02-17

    Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ∼ 100-fold above normal. Tests with human BChE showed ready ghrelin hydrolysis at physiologic concentrations, and multiple low-mass molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ghrelin's first five residues fit sterically and electrostatically into BChE's active site. Consistent with in vitro results, male BALB/c mice with high plasma BChE after gene transfer exhibited sharply reduced plasma ghrelin. Unexpectedly, such animals fought less, both spontaneously and in a resident/intruder provocation model. One mutant BChE was found to be deficient in ghrelin hydrolysis. BALB/c mice transduced with this variant retained normal plasma ghrelin levels and did not differ from untreated controls in the aggression model. In contrast, C57BL/6 mice with BChE gene deletion exhibited increased ghrelin and fought more readily than wild-type animals. Collectively, these findings indicate that BChE-catalyzed ghrelin hydrolysis influences mouse aggression and social stress, with potential implications for humans.

  5. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  6. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle–based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:21303611

  7. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  8. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  9. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, L.

    1992-08-14

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states in investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  10. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that any multimode positive definite quadratic Hamiltonian can be transformed into a Hamiltonian of uncoupled harmonic oscillators. Based on this theorem, the multimode thermal squeezed coherent states are constructed in terms of density operators. Decoherence of multimode thermal squeezed coherent states is investigated via the characteristic function and it is shown that the decohered (reduced) states are still thermal squeezed coherent states in general.

  11. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  12. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  13. Radioactive Nanomaterials for Multimodality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A.; Yang, Dongzhi; Wu, Hongwei; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear imaging techniques, including primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), can provide quantitative information for a biological event in vivo with ultra-high sensitivity, however, the comparatively low spatial resolution is their major limitation in clinical application. By convergence of nuclear imaging with other imaging modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging, the hybrid imaging platforms can overcome the limitations from each individual imaging technique. Possessing versatile chemical linking ability and good cargo-loading capacity, radioactive nanomaterials can serve as ideal imaging contrast agents. In this review, we provide a brief overview about current state-of-the-art applications of radioactive nanomaterials in the circumstances of multimodality imaging. We present strategies for incorporation of radioisotope(s) into nanomaterials along with applications of radioactive nanomaterials in multimodal imaging. Advantages and limitations of radioactive nanomaterials for multimodal imaging applications are discussed. Finally, a future perspective of possible radioactive nanomaterial utilization is presented for improving diagnosis and patient management in a variety of diseases. PMID:27227167

  14. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  15. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  16. Gallium and Functionalized-Porphyrins Combine to Form Potential Lysosome-Specific Multimodal Bioprobes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Harriss, Bethany I; Chan, Chi-Fai; Jiang, Lijun; Tsoi, Tik-Hung; Long, Nicholas J; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2016-07-18

    A water-soluble bimetallic normal ("cold") and radiochemical ("hot") gallium-porphyrin-ruthenium-bipyridine complex (GaporRu-1) has been synthesized by microwave methodology in short reaction times with good (>85%) yields. (68)GaporRu-1 is demonstrated to be a potential multimodal and functional bioprobe for positron emission tomography (PET), lysosome specific optical imaging, and photodynamic therapy. PMID:27355871

  17. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  18. Role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    This article critically reviews the evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis and discusses the study approaches commonly used to identify genetic risk factors of this disease. Available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations in multiple genes, combined with environmental effects. Syndromic periodontal diseases include certain monogenic disorders that express phenotypes showing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the genetic triggering factors of most of these syndromes have been identified. Other periodontal disease phenotypes seem to occur through different genetic predisposition patterns. Case-control and genome-wide studies have been used to investigate the association with gene polymorphisms. Association studies and the familial aggregation of aggressive periodontitis suggest a significant genetic component in the increased predisposition to this disease. There is evidence to support the contribution of a few major genes or of multiple small-effects genes. In addition, there is evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Early studies suggested an X-linked mode of transmission of aggressive periodontitis, and subsequent studies support an autosomal mode. Genetic studies have the potential to improve the screening programs of subjects at risk for developing aggressive periodontitis and may enhance treatment outcome through gene therapy.

  19. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  20. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Testing the developmental distinctiveness of male proactive and reactive aggression with a nested longitudinal experimental intervention.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Vitaro, Frank; Lacourse, Eric; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Carbonneau, Rene; Tremblay, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An experimental preventive intervention nested into a longitudinal study was used to test the developmental distinctiveness of proactive and reactive aggression. The randomized multimodal preventive intervention targeted a subsample of boys rated disruptive by their teachers. These boys were initially part of a sample of 895 boys, followed from kindergarten to 17 years of age. Semiparametric analyses of developmental trajectories for self-reported proactive and reactive aggression (between 13 and 17 years of age) indicated three trajectories for each type of aggression that varied in size and shape (Low, Moderate, and High Peaking). Intent-to-treat comparisons between the boys in the prevention group and the control group confirmed that the preventive intervention between 7 and 9 years of age, which included parenting skills and social skills training, could impact the development of reactive more than proactive aggression. The intervention effect identified in reactive aggression was related to a reduction in self-reported coercive parenting. The importance of these results for the distinction between subtypes of aggressive behaviors and the value of longitudinal-experimental studies from early childhood onward is discussed. PMID:20052694

  2. Multi-modality nanoparticles having optically responsive shape

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fanqing; Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2015-05-19

    In certain embodiments novel nanoparticles (nanowontons) are provided that are suitable for multimodal imaging and/or therapy. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles include a first biocompatible (e.g., gold) layer, an inner core layer (e.g., a non-biocompatible material), and a biocompatible (e.g., gold) layer. The first gold layer includes a concave surface that forms a first outer surface of the layered nanoparticle. The second gold layer includes a convex surface that forms a second outer surface of the layered nanoparticle. The first and second gold layers encapsulate the inner core material layer. Methods of fabricating such nanoparticles are also provided.

  3. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  4. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  5. Combining Dopaminergic Facilitation with Robot-Assisted Upper Limb Therapy in Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duc A.; Pajaro-Blazquez, Marta; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Gallegos, Jaime G.; Pons, Jose; Fregni, Felipe; Bonato, Paolo; Zafonte, Ross

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite aggressive conventional therapy, lasting hemiplegia persists in a large percentage of stroke survivors. The aim of this article is to critically review the rationale behind targeting multiple sites along the motor learning network by combining robotic therapy with pharmacotherapy and virtual reality–based reward learning to alleviate upper extremity impairment in stroke survivors. Methods for personalizing pharmacologic facilitation to each individual’s unique biology are also reviewed. At the molecular level, treatment with levodopa was shown to induce long-term potentiation-like and practice-dependent plasticity. Clinically, trials combining conventional therapy with levodopa in stroke survivors yielded statistically significant but clinically unconvincing outcomes because of limited personalization, standardization, and reproducibility. Robotic therapy can induce neuroplasticity by delivering intensive, reproducible, and functionally meaningful interventions that are objective enough for the rigors of research. Robotic therapy also provides an apt platform for virtual reality, which boosts learning by engaging reward circuits. The future of stroke rehabilitation should target distinct molecular, synaptic, and cortical sites through personalized multimodal treatments to maximize motor recovery. PMID:26829074

  6. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  7. Multimodal Narrative Inquiry: Six Teacher Candidates Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawski, Cynthia M.; Rottmann, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present findings of a study on the implementation of a multimodal teacher narrative inquiry component, theoretically grounded by Rosenblatt's theory of transaction analysis, methodologically supported by action research and practically enacted by narrative inquiry and multimodal learning. In particular, the component offered…

  8. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration.

  9. Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

  10. Evaluating Multimodal Literacies in Student Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, Barbara; Murrell, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    This research presents ways in which high school students used the multimodal and interactive affordances of blogs to create, organize, communicate and participate on an educational blog. Their actions demonstrated how plural modes of literacy are infiltrating digital environments and reshaping literacy and learning. Multimodal blogging practices…

  11. Literacy, Media and Multimodality: A Critical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazalgette, Cary; Buckingham, David

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, literacy educators have increasingly recognised the importance of addressing a broader range of texts in the classroom. This article raises some critical concerns about a particular approach to this issue that has been widely promoted in recent years-- the concept of "multimodality". Multimodality theory offers a broadly…

  12. Multimodal Literacies in the Secondary English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William C.; Denton, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight into the issue of multimodal literacy instruction, the authors explore presentation techniques and instructional activities employed in their secondary language arts classes. They collaborate on assignments that focus students on "anchored media instruction" and engage them in producing multimodal, technology-infused projects,…

  13. Multimodality, Literacy and Texts: Developing a Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article argues for the development of a framework through which to describe children's multimodal texts. Such a shared discourse should be capable of including different modes and media and the ways in which children integrate and combine them for their own meaning-making purposes. It should also acknowledge that multimodal texts are not…

  14. Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…

  15. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  17. Massage Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  18. Therapy of Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  19. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    patient who underwent en bloc resection who continued to have back pain. CONCLUSIONS Gross-total resection or subtotal resection in combination with vertebroplasty or adjuvant radiation therapy to treat residual tumor seems sufficient in the treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. En bloc resection appears to provide a similar oncological benefit, but it carries higher morbidity to the patient. PMID:27476849

  20. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    patient who underwent en bloc resection who continued to have back pain. CONCLUSIONS Gross-total resection or subtotal resection in combination with vertebroplasty or adjuvant radiation therapy to treat residual tumor seems sufficient in the treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. En bloc resection appears to provide a similar oncological benefit, but it carries higher morbidity to the patient.

  1. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  2. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  3. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  4. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  6. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  7. The CBM signalosome: Potential therapeutic target for aggressive lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenghua; David, Liron; Qiao, Qi; Damko, Ermelinda; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The CBM signalosome plays a pivotal role in mediating antigen-receptor induced NF-κB signaling to regulate lymphocyte functions. The CBM complex forms filamentous structure and recruits downstream signaling components to activate NF-κB. MALT1, the protease component in the CBM complex, cleaves key proteins in the feedback loop of the NF-κB signaling pathway and enhances NF-κB activation. The aberrant activity of the CBM complex has been linked to aggressive lymphoma. Recent years have witnessed dramatic progresses in understanding the assembly mechanism of the CBM complex, and advances in the development of targeted therapy for aggressive lymphoma. Here, we will highlight these progresses and give an outlook on the potential translation of this knowledge from bench to bedside for aggressive lymphoma patients. PMID:24411492

  8. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  9. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  10. Improved survival with neoadjuvant therapy and resection for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J R; Hoff, S J; Johnson, D H; Murray, M J; Butler, D R; Elkins, C C; Sharp, K W; Merrill, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the impact of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy (neoadjuvant therapy) followed by resection in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Long-term survival in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus has been poor. An increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus has been reported recently. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated at this institution from January 1951 through February 1993 were studied. Since 1989, 24 patients were entered prospectively into a multimodality treatment protocol consisting of preoperative cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin with or without etoposide, and concomitant mediastinal radiation (30 Gy). Patients were re-evaluated and offered resection. RESULTS: There were no deaths related to neoadjuvant therapy and toxicity was minimal. Before multimodality therapy was used, the operative mortality rate was 19% (3 of 16 patients). With multimodality therapy, there have been no operative deaths (0 of 23 patients). The median survival time in patients treated before multimodality therapy was 8 months and has yet to be reached for those treated with the neoadjuvant regimen (> 26 months, p < 0.0001). The actuarial survival rate at 24 months was 15% before multimodality therapy and 76% with multimodality therapy. No difference in survival was noted in neoadjuvant protocols with or without etoposide (p = 0.827). CONCLUSIONS: Multimodality therapy with preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by resection appears to offer a survival advantage to patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:8215648

  11. [Time-dependent confounding in the estimation of treatment effects in randomised trials with multimodal therapies--an illustration of the problem of time-dependent confounding by causal graphs].

    PubMed

    Zietemann, V D; Schuster, T; Duell, T H G

    2015-01-01

    Biased effect estimates induced by unconsidered confounding variables are a known problem in observational studies. Selection bias, resulting from non-random sampling of study participants, is widely recognised as a problem in case-control and cross-sectional studies. In contrast, possible bias in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is mostly ignored. This paper illustrates, by applying directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), possible bias in the effect estimates of first-line therapy, caused by subsequent changes in therapy (time-dependent confounding). Possible selection bias, induced by not only random loss to follow-up, will be explained as well using DAGs. Underlying assumptions of standard methods usually used to analyse RCTs (like intention-to-treat, per-protocol) are shown and it is explained why effect estimates may be biased in RCTs, if only these conventional methods are used. Adequate statistical methods (causal inference models as marginal structural models and structural nested models) exist. Higher documentary efforts, however, are necessary, because any changes in medication, loss to follow-up as well as reasons for such changes need to be documented in detail as required by these advanced statistical methods. Nevertheless, causal inference models should become standard along side the currently applied standard methods, especially in studies with high non-compliance due to changes in therapy and substantial loss to follow-up. Possible bias cannot be excluded if similar results are obtained from both methods. However, study results should be interpreted with caution if they differ between both approaches.

  12. Effectiveness of multimodality treatment for autoimmune limbic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Konikkara, John; Modur, Pradeep N; Agostini, Mark; Gupta, Puneet; Shu, Francy; Vernino, Steven

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the outcome of multimodality treatment in autoimmune limbic epilepsy in 3 consecutive patients (2 male and 1 female; age 33-55 years) presenting with a combination of focal non-convulsive status epilepticus, memory impairment, and psychosis. MRI showed right or bitemporal T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity. Video-EEG showed seizures of right temporo-occipital or bitemporal independent onset. Extensive workup failed to reveal infectious aetiology or an underlying tumour. However, the autoantibody panel was positive for one or more of these antibodies: anti-VGKC, anti-GABAB, anti-VGCC (P/Q, N types), and anti-GAD65. All patients received: (1) conventional antiepileptic drugs including levetiracetam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and valproate; (2) immunomodulatory therapy including methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulin; and (3) rituximab. After a 4-6-week in-hospital course, the seizures resolved in all patients but 2 had persistent memory impairment. None had treatment-related complications. At the time of last follow-up, 2-3 months later, 2 patients remained seizure-free while 2 had residual memory impairment. Our findings suggest that multimodality treatment with a combination of conventional AEDs, immunomodulatory therapy, and rituximab is effective and safe in autoimmune limbic epilepsy. PMID:25465439

  13. Multimodal Imaging for Improved Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tempany, Clare; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Kapur, Tina; Bueno, Raphael; Golby, Alexandra; Agar, Nathalie; Jolesz, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews methods for image-guided diagnosis and therapy that increase precision in detection, characterization, and localization of many forms of cancer to achieve optimal target definition and complete resection or ablation. We present a new model of translational clinical image guided therapy research and describe the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite. AMIGO was conceived and designed to allow for the full integration of imaging in cancer diagnosis and treatment. We draw examples from over 500 cases performed on brain, neck, spine, thorax (breast, lung), and pelvis (prostate and gynecologic areas) and describe how they address some of the many challenges of treating brain, prostate and lung tumors. PMID:25204551

  14. Multimodal imaging for improved diagnosis and treatment of cancers.

    PubMed

    Tempany, Clare M C; Jayender, Jagadeesan; Kapur, Tina; Bueno, Raphael; Golby, Alexandra; Agar, Nathalie; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2015-03-15

    The authors review methods for image-guided diagnosis and therapy that increase precision in the detection, characterization, and localization of many forms of cancer to achieve optimal target definition and complete resection or ablation. A new model of translational, clinical, image-guided therapy research is presented, and the Advanced Multimodality Image-Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite is described. AMIGO was conceived and designed to allow for the full integration of imaging in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Examples are drawn from over 500 procedures performed on brain, neck, spine, thorax (breast, lung), and pelvis (prostate and gynecologic) areas and are used to describe how they address some of the many challenges of treating brain, prostate, and lung tumors. Cancer 2015;121:817-827. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25204551

  15. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  16. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  17. Measuring Bragg gratings in multimode optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Markus J; Müller, Mathias S

    2015-03-23

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in multimode optical fibers provide a means for cost-effictive devices resulting in simplified and robust optic sensor systems. Parasitic mode effects in optical components of the entire measurement system strongly influence the measured multi-resonance reflection spectrum. Using a mode transfer matrix formalism we can describe these complex mode coupling effects in multimode optical systems in more detail. We demonstrate the accordance of the theory by two experiments. With this formalism it is possible to understand and optimize mode effects in multimode fiber optic systems. PMID:25837146

  18. MultiModality Surgical and Hyperbaric Management of Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Freiberger, John J.; Yoo, David S.; Lisle Dear, Guy de; McGraw, Thomas A.; Blakey, George H.; Padilla Burgos, Rebecca; Kraft, Kevin; Nelson, John W.; Moon, Richard E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate long-term outcomes in 65 consecutive patients meeting a uniform definition of mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) treated with multimodality therapy including hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment, post-treatment and long-term follow-up of mandibular lesions with exposed bone were ranked by a systematic review of medical records and patient telephone calls. The ranking system was based on lesion diameter and number plus disease progression. Changes from pretreatment to post-treatment and follow-up were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Improved wound survival, measured by time to relapse, defined as any less favorable rank after HBO treatment, was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: In all, 57 cases (88%) resolved or improved by lesion grade or progression and evolution criteria after HBO (p < 0.001). Four patients healed before surgery after HBO alone. Of 57 patients who experienced improvement, 41 had failed previous nonmultimodality therapy for 3 months and 26 for 6 months or more. A total of 43 patients were eligible for time-to-relapse survival analysis. Healing or improvement lasted a mean duration of 86.1 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 64.0-108.2) in nonsmokers (n = 20) vs. 15.8 months (95% CI, 8.4-23.2) in smokers (n = 14) versus 24.2 months (95% CI, 15.2-33.2) in patients with recurrent cancer (n = 9) (p = 0.002 by the log-rank method). Conclusions: Multimodality therapy using HBO is effective for ORN when less intensive therapies have failed. Although the healing rate in similarly affected patients not treated with HBO is unknown, the improvements seen with peri-operative HBO were durable provided that the patients remained cancer free and abstained from smoking.

  19. A Plasmonic Gold Nanostar Theranostic Probe for In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ashton, Jeffrey R; Moding, Everett J; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Register, Janna K; Fales, Andrew M; Choi, Jaeyeon; Whitley, Melodi J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yi; Ma, Yan; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R; Kirsch, David G; Badea, Cristian T; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention in recent years, because it offers great promise to provide personalized diagnostics and therapy with improved treatment efficacy and specificity. In this study, we developed a gold nanostar (GNS) probe for multi-modality theranostics including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, x-ray computed tomography (CT), two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, and photothermal therapy (PTT). We performed radiolabeling, as well as CT and optical imaging, to investigate the GNS probe's biodistribution and intratumoral uptake at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. We also characterized the performance of the GNS nanoprobe for in vitro photothermal heating and in vivo photothermal ablation of primary sarcomas in mice. The results showed that 30-nm GNS have higher tumor uptake, as well as deeper penetration into tumor interstitial space compared to 60-nm GNS. In addition, we found that a higher injection dose of GNS can increase the percentage of tumor uptake. We also demonstrated the GNS probe's superior photothermal conversion efficiency with a highly concentrated heating effect due to a tip-enhanced plasmonic effect. In vivo photothermal therapy with a near-infrared (NIR) laser under the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) led to ablation of aggressive tumors containing GNS, but had no effect in the absence of GNS. This multifunctional GNS probe has the potential to be used for in vivo biosensing, preoperative CT imaging, intraoperative detection with optical methods (SERS and TPL), as well as image-guided photothermal therapy.

  20. A Plasmonic Gold Nanostar Theranostic Probe for In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Ashton, Jeffrey R.; Moding, Everett J.; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Register, Janna K.; Fales, Andrew M.; Choi, Jaeyeon; Whitley, Melodi J.; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yi; Ma, Yan; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Kirsch, David G.; Badea, Cristian T.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention in recent years, because it offers great promise to provide personalized diagnostics and therapy with improved treatment efficacy and specificity. In this study, we developed a gold nanostar (GNS) probe for multi-modality theranostics including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, x-ray computed tomography (CT), two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, and photothermal therapy (PTT). We performed radiolabeling, as well as CT and optical imaging, to investigate the GNS probe's biodistribution and intratumoral uptake at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. We also characterized the performance of the GNS nanoprobe for in vitro photothermal heating and in vivo photothermal ablation of primary sarcomas in mice. The results showed that 30-nm GNS have higher tumor uptake, as well as deeper penetration into tumor interstitial space compared to 60-nm GNS. In addition, we found that a higher injection dose of GNS can increase the percentage of tumor uptake. We also demonstrated the GNS probe's superior photothermal conversion efficiency with a highly concentrated heating effect due to a tip-enhanced plasmonic effect. In vivo photothermal therapy with a near-infrared (NIR) laser under the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) led to ablation of aggressive tumors containing GNS, but had no effect in the absence of GNS. This multifunctional GNS probe has the potential to be used for in vivo biosensing, preoperative CT imaging, intraoperative detection with optical methods (SERS and TPL), as well as image-guided photothermal therapy. PMID:26155311

  1. A Plasmonic Gold Nanostar Theranostic Probe for In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ashton, Jeffrey R; Moding, Everett J; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Register, Janna K; Fales, Andrew M; Choi, Jaeyeon; Whitley, Melodi J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yi; Ma, Yan; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R; Kirsch, David G; Badea, Cristian T; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention in recent years, because it offers great promise to provide personalized diagnostics and therapy with improved treatment efficacy and specificity. In this study, we developed a gold nanostar (GNS) probe for multi-modality theranostics including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, x-ray computed tomography (CT), two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, and photothermal therapy (PTT). We performed radiolabeling, as well as CT and optical imaging, to investigate the GNS probe's biodistribution and intratumoral uptake at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. We also characterized the performance of the GNS nanoprobe for in vitro photothermal heating and in vivo photothermal ablation of primary sarcomas in mice. The results showed that 30-nm GNS have higher tumor uptake, as well as deeper penetration into tumor interstitial space compared to 60-nm GNS. In addition, we found that a higher injection dose of GNS can increase the percentage of tumor uptake. We also demonstrated the GNS probe's superior photothermal conversion efficiency with a highly concentrated heating effect due to a tip-enhanced plasmonic effect. In vivo photothermal therapy with a near-infrared (NIR) laser under the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) led to ablation of aggressive tumors containing GNS, but had no effect in the absence of GNS. This multifunctional GNS probe has the potential to be used for in vivo biosensing, preoperative CT imaging, intraoperative detection with optical methods (SERS and TPL), as well as image-guided photothermal therapy. PMID:26155311

  2. Multimodal unattended ground sensor (MMUGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Lei; Houser, Jeff; Damarla, T. Raju

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has developed a real-time multi-modal sensor for the purpose of personnel detection in urban terrain. Possible system usage includes force protection and sniper early warning. The sensor system includes a network of MMUGS sensors, a third-party gateway and user interface device. A MMUGS sensor consists of the following functions: sensing, processing, and communication. Each sensor is composed of multiple sensing modalities-acoustic, passive-infrared, and seismic. A MMUGS sensor is designed to be low cost and power efficient. This paper will first present an overview of the sensor architecture and then provide detailed descriptions of sub components. The paper will conclude with a detailed analysis of system performance. This paper is intended to provide details of the design, integration, and implementation of a MMUGS unit, and demonstrate the overall sensor system performance. This paper does not discuss the network aspect of the system and its affect on performance.

  3. Brain Multimodality Monitoring: Updated Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roh, David

    2016-01-01

    The challenges posed by acute brain injury (ABI) involve the management of the initial insult in addition to downstream inflammation, edema, and ischemia that can result in secondary brain injury (SBI). SBI is often subclinical, but can be detected through physiologic changes. These changes serve as a surrogate for tissue injury/cell death and are captured by parameters measured by various monitors that measure intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2), cerebral metabolism, and electrocortical activity. In the ideal setting, multimodality monitoring (MMM) integrates these neurological monitoring parameters with traditional hemodynamic monitoring and the physical exam, presenting the information needed to clinicians who can intervene before irreversible damage occurs. There are now consensus guidelines on the utilization of MMM, and there continue to be new advances and questions regarding its use. In this review, we examine these recommendations, recent evidence for MMM, and future directions for MMM. PMID:27095434

  4. Multimode waveguide based directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Rifat, Ahmmed A.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Qattan, Bader; Essa, Khamis; Butt, Haider

    2016-07-01

    The Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) based platform overcomes limitations of the previous copper and fiber based technologies. Due to its high index difference, SOI waveguide (WG) and directional couplers (DC) are widely used for high speed optical networks and hybrid Electro-Optical inter-connections; TE00-TE01, TE00-TE00 and TM00-TM00 SOI direction couplers are designed with symmetrical and asymmetrical configurations to couple with TE00, TE01 and TM00 in a multi-mode semi-triangular ring-resonator configuration which will be applicable for multi-analyte sensing. Couplers are designed with effective index method and their structural parameters are optimized with consideration to coupler length, wavelength and polarization dependence. Lastly, performance of the couplers are analyzed in terms of cross-talk, mode overlap factor, coupling length and coupling efficiency.

  5. Aggressive Cunninghamella pneumonia in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Alpin D; Wahid, Fazal N; Rao, Bhaskar N; Sandoval, John A

    2014-10-01

    Children with hematologic malignancies may be challenged with life-threatening, invasive fungal infections by organisms that would otherwise have a low potential for virulence in healthy hosts. Presented is a case of a 15-year-old adolescent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving steroids and chemotherapy. He developed cough associated with left chest pain with suspicion for fungal pneumonia. He began systemic antifungal therapy, underwent computed tomography of the chest demonstrating a large cavitary lesion (reversed halo sign) in the left lung. Over a 48-hour period the patient clinically deteriorated with worsening pneumonia and required left thoracotomy with nonanatomic pulmonary resection. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of Cunninghamella pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, and the multidisciplinary approach required to have the greatest possible outcome. PMID:25089609

  6. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  7. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information. PMID:24820052

  8. Histology image search using multimodal fusion.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information.

  9. Multi-mode horn antenna simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.; Wolf, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation patterns were computed for a circular multimode horn antenna using waveguide electric field radiation expressions. The circular multimode horn was considered as a possible reflector feed antenna for the Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR). This horn antenna uses a summation of the TE sub 11 deg and TM sub 11 deg modes to generate far field primary radiation patterns with equal E and H plane beamwidths and low sidelobes. A computer program for the radiation field expressions using the summation of waveguide radiation modes is described. The sensitivity of the multimode horn antenna radiation patterns to phase variations between the two modes is given. Sample radiation pattern calculations for a reflector feed horn for LAMMR are shown. The multimode horn antenna provides a low noise feed suitable for radiometric applications.

  10. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system.

    PubMed

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X

    2010-05-24

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  11. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  12. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  13. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck.

  14. Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha R; Mehta, Charmi S; Shukla, Dipali J; Patel, Kalapi B; Patel, Manish V; Gupta, Shiv Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired't' test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study.

  15. Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha R; Mehta, Charmi S; Shukla, Dipali J; Patel, Kalapi B; Patel, Manish V; Gupta, Shiv Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired't' test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study. PMID:24049405

  16. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  17. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  18. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  19. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  20. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  1. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  2. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  3. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  4. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  5. Multimodality imaging of hypoxia in preclinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Ralph P.; Zhao, Dawen; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Cui, Weina; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Gulaka, Praveen K.; Hao, Guiyang; Thorpe, Philip; Hahn, Eric W.; Peschke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has long been recognized to influence solid tumor response to therapy. Increasingly, hypoxia has also been implicated in tumor aggressiveness, including growth, development and metastatic potential. Thus, there is a fundamental, as well as a clinical interest, in assessing in situ tumor hypoxia. This review will examine diverse approaches focusing on the pre-clinical setting, particularly, in rodents. The strategies are inevitably a compromise in terms of sensitivity, precision, temporal and spatial resolution, as well as cost, feasibility, ease and robustness of implementation. We will review capabilities of multiple modalities and examine what makes them particularly suitable for investigating specific aspects of tumor pathophysiology. Current approaches range from nuclear imaging to magnetic resonance and optical, with varying degrees of invasiveness and ability to examine spatial heterogeneity, as well as dynamic response to interventions. Ideally, measurements would be non-invasive, exploiting endogenous reporters to reveal quantitatively local oxygen tension dynamics. A primary focus of this review is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques, such as 19F MRI oximetry, which reveals not only hypoxia in vivo, but more significantly, spatial distribution of pO2 quantitatively, with a precision relevant to radiobiology. It should be noted that pre-clinical methods may have very different criteria for acceptance, as compared with potential investigations for prognostic radiology or predictive biomarkers suitable for use in patients. PMID:20639813

  6. The multimodal treatment of acromegaly: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Etual; Ramirez, Claudia; Mercado, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic systemic disorder caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Active acromegaly results in a poor quality of life due to symptoms such as headache, fatigue, arthralgia, depression, sexual dysfunction and hyperhidrosis; an increased prevalence of co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension as well as cancer risk and a reduced life expectancy. Appropriate, modern, multimodal treatment of acromegaly has led to a significant improvement in quality of life, an adequate control of co-morbidities and a drastic reduction in the mortality rates that used to prevail in the past. This multimodal strategy includes an adequate selection of patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment (which has to be performed by a skilled pituitary neurosurgeon), the use of pharmacological interventions such as somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists, which target the pituitary adenoma; and pegvisomant, a GH mutant acting as a competitive antagonist of the GH receptor. Radiation therapy is an important tool, particularly in parts of the World where resources are limited. The ultimate outcome of the individual patient depends on the judicious use of all these treatment options, which are critically analyzed in this mini-review.

  7. [Non-drug therapies for CRPS].

    PubMed

    Krämer, H H; Tanislav, C; Birklein, F

    2012-06-01

    State of the art CRPS therapy comprises medication, interventional therapies and non-pharmaceutical treatments like physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy, PT with cognitive behavioural elements (mirror therapy, 'motor imagery', and 'graded exposure'), psychotherapeutic methods, local therapies and neurostimulation. These treatments are mostly as successful as medical or interventional treatment. These effects have been demonstrated in small but randomised controlled studies. Adjuvant therapies were shown to reduce pain and the severity of dysfunction in CRPS. Therefore, these non-drug therapies should be an essential part of any multimodal CRPS treatment. PMID:22833067

  8. Neural Correlates of Aggression in Medication-Naive Children with ADHD: Multivariate Analysis of Morphometry and Tractography.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Siciliano, Francesco; Biezonski, Dominik; Greenhill, Laurence; Pliszka, Steven R; Blader, Joseph C; Roy, Amy Krain; Leibenluft, Ellen; Posner, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is widely observed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been frequently linked to frustration or the unsatisfied anticipation of reward. Although animal studies and human functional neuroimaging implicate altered reward processing in aggressive behaviors, no previous studies have documented the relationship between fronto-accumbal circuitry-a critical cortical pathway to subcortical limbic regions-and aggression in medication-naive children with ADHD. To address this, we collected behavioral measures and parental reports of aggression and impulsivity, as well as structural and diffusion MRI, from 30 children with ADHD and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age, 10±2.1 SD). Using grey matter morphometry and probabilistic tractography combined with multivariate statistical modeling (partial least squares regression and support vector regression), we identified anomalies within the fronto-accumbal circuit in childhood ADHD, which were associated with increased aggression. More specifically, children with ADHD showed reduced right accumbal volumes and frontal-accumbal white matter connectivity compared with HC. The magnitude of the accumbal volume reductions within the ADHD group was significantly correlated with increased aggression, an effect mediated by the relationship between the accumbal volume and impulsivity. Furthermore, aggression, but not impulsivity, was significantly explained by multivariate measures of fronto-accumbal white matter connectivity and cortical thickness within the orbitofrontal cortex. Our multi-modal imaging, combined with multivariate statistical modeling, indicates that the fronto-accumbal circuit is an important substrate of aggression in children with ADHD. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at probing the fronto-accumbal circuit may be beneficial for the treatment of aggressive behaviors in childhood ADHD.

  9. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest.

    PubMed

    Steele, Vaughn R; Claus, Eric D; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  10. Multimodality Instrument for Tissue Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip is discussed. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network, program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration.

  11. Multimodality Imaging of RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapas R.; Krasteva, Lazura K.; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and their potential to knock down virtually any gene of interest has ushered in a new era of RNA interference (RNAi). Clinical use of RNAi faces severe limitations due to inefficiency delivery of siRNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Many molecular imaging techniques have been adopted in RNAi-related research for evaluation of siRNA/shRNA delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and the therapeutic effect. In this review article, we summarize the current status of in vivo imaging of RNAi. The molecular imaging techniques that have been employed include bioluminescence/fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and various combinations of these techniques. Further development of non-invasive imaging strategies for RNAi, not only focusing on the delivery of siRNA/shRNA but also the therapeutic efficacy, is critical for future clinical translation. Rigorous validation will be needed to confirm that biodistribution of the carrier is correlated with that of siRNA/shRNA, since imaging only detects the label (e.g. radioisotopes) but not the gene or carrier themselves. It is also essential to develop multimodality imaging approaches for realizing the full potential of therapeutic RNAi, as no single imaging modality may be sufficient to simultaneously monitor both the gene delivery and silencing effect of RNAi. PMID:23745567

  12. Multimodal imaging measures predict rearrest

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vaughn R.; Claus, Eric D.; Aharoni, Eyal; Vincent, Gina M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM) neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%). Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest. PMID:26283947

  13. Multimodality Management of Trigeminal Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, Ajay; Barnett, Samuel; Anand, Vijay; Agazzi, Siviero

    2016-08-01

    Patients presenting with trigeminal schwannomas require multimodality management by a skull base surgical team that can offer expertise in both transcranial and transnasal approaches as well as radiosurgical and microsurgical strategies. Improvement in neurologic symptoms, preservation of cranial nerve function, and control of mass effect are the primary goals of management for trigeminal schwannomas. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice but may not be possible in all cases. Radiosurgery is an option as primary management for small- to moderate-sized tumors and can be used for postoperative residuals or recurrences. Planned surgical resection followed by SRS for residual tumor is an effective option for larger trigeminal schwannomas. The endoscopic resection is an excellent approach for patients with an extradural tumor or tumors isolated to the Meckel cave. A detailed analysis of a tumor and its surroundings based on high-quality imaging can help better estimate the expected outcome from each treatment. An expert skull base team should be able to provide precise counseling for each patient's situation for selecting the best option. PMID:27441164

  14. Colorectal hepatic metastasis: Evolving therapies

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Makarawo, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    The approach for colorectal hepatic metastasis has advanced tremendously over the past decade. Multidrug chemotherapy regimens have been successfully introduced with improved outcomes. Concurrently, adjunct multimodal therapies have improved survival rates, and increased the number of patients eligible for curative liver resection. Herein, we described major advancements of surgical and oncologic management of such lesions, thereby discussing modern chemotherapeutic regimens, adjunct therapies and surgical aspects of liver resection. PMID:25067997

  15. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  16. Aggression induced by intermittent positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Looney, T A; Cohen, P S

    1982-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian species engage in aggressive behavior toward animate and inanimate targets when exposed to intermittent access to a positive reinforcer. This behavior, called extinction- or schedule-induced aggression, typically includes a biting or striking topography that inflicts damage on a target. This paper critically reviews research and theoretical issues concerning such aggression and suggests directions for future investigation.

  17. Whole Abdominopelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor After Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Subbiah, Vivek; Bilton, Stephen D.; Chang, Eric L.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary F.; Sulman, Eric P.; Woo, Shiao Y.; Anderson, Peter; Green, Holly L.; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSCRT) is an uncommon pediatric tumor with a poor prognosis. Aggressive multimodality therapy is the current treatment approach; however. treatment toxicity is of concern. We report our results with whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WAP-IMRT) as a component of multimodality therapy for DSCRT at a single institution. Materials/Methods: Medical records of all patients with DSCRT who received WAP-IMRT as part of definitive treatment at MD Anderson (2006-2010) were identified and reviewed. Results: Eight patients with DSRCT received WAP-IMRT with a median follow-up of 15.2 months. All patients received multiple courses of chemotherapy followed by surgical debulking of intra-abdominal disease; seven also had intraoperative hyperthermic cisplatin. WAP-IMRT was delivered to a total dose of 30 Gy postoperatively; four patients received a simultaneous boost (6-10 Gy) to sites of gross residual disease. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy during WAP-IMRT. No Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 4 nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea occurred during RT. Red-cell transfusions were given to two patients to maintain hemoglobin levels >10 g/dL. Grade 4 cytopenia requiring growth factor support occurred in only one patient; no other significant cytopenias were noted. WAP-IMRT resulted in 25% lower radiation doses to the lumbosacral vertebral bodies and pelvic bones than conventional RT plans. The median time to local or distant failure after WAP-IMRT was 8.73 months in seven patients. One patient who had completed RT 20 months before the last follow-up remains alive without evidence of disease. Five patients (63%) experienced treatment failure in the abdomen. Distant failure occurred in three patients (37.5%). Conclusions: WAP-IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy was well tolerated after aggressive surgery for DSCRT. Enhanced bone sparing with IMRT probably accounts for the low hematologic

  18. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  19. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  20. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  1. Surgical management of Gorham-Stout disease of the pelvis refractory to medical and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Karim, S Mohammed; Colman, Matthew C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Nielsen, G Petur; Schwab, Joseph H; Hornicek, Francis J

    2015-11-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare condition characterized by spontaneous idiopathic bone resorption that can affect any part of the skeleton. Treatment is aimed at halting osteolysis and alleviating complications associated with bone loss. Often this can be achieved via observation and supportive management, medical treatment, and/or radiation therapy. We report a case of GSD of the pelvis that was refractory to medical and radiation therapy and was managed successfully with surgery. A 30-year-old man presented to our clinic 3 years after being diagnosed at an outside institution with GSD of the pelvis that was managed with medical treatments and radiation therapy. Despite aggressive, multimodality treatment, he was unable to ambulate without crutches and was in significant pain. The patient opted for intralesional surgery and spinopelvic fusion. Sixteen months after surgery, the patient had only mild pain and was able to ambulate with a cane. Very few cases have been reported of GSD involving the pelvis that necessitated surgical management. Significant functional impairment can occur as a result of pelvic osteolysis, and traditional management strategies focused on halting resorption may not be adequate. Surgical stabilization of the affected areas is an important treatment strategy for patients who have exhausted other options.

  2. Single LP(0,n) mode excitation in multimode fibers.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nitin; Rustagi, Kailash C; John, Joseph

    2014-07-14

    We analyze the transmission of a Single mode - Multimode -Multimode (SMm) fiber structure with the aim of exciting a single radial mode in the second multimode fiber. We show that by appropriate choice of the length of the central multimode fiber one can obtain > 90% of the total core power in a chosen mode. We also discuss methods of removing undesirable cladding and radiation modes and estimate tolerances for practical applications.

  3. Molecular Profiling of Aggressive Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maura; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Gazzola, Anna; Sapienza, Maria Rosaria; Pileri, Stefano A.; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, several studies of molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas were performed. In particular, it was shown that DLBCL can be distinguished in two different entities according to GEP. Specifically, ABC and GCB subtypes were characterized by having different pathogenetic and clinical features. In addition, it was demonstrated that DLBCLs are distinct from BL. Indeed, the latter is a unique molecular entity. However, relevant pathological differences emerged among the clinical subtypes. More recently, microRNA profiling provided further information concerning BL-DLBCL distinction as well as for their subclassification. In this paper, the authors based on their own experience and the most updated literature review, the main concept on molecular profiling of aggressive lymphomas. PMID:22190944

  4. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  5. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    PubMed

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  6. Immune therapies for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C

    2009-05-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in four types of immune therapy-cytokine, vaccine, antibody and cellular therapy-to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies.

  7. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  8. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p < 0.05). Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p < 0.001). Adiponectin levels showed no statistical differences regarding the presence and aggressiveness of the tumor (p = 0.131). Finally, consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  9. Neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of "top-down" control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of "top-down" control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance "top-down" control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic.

  10. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  11. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  12. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  13. Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Clive G; Gauthier, Serge; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Brodaty, Henry; Grossberg, George T; Robert, Philippe; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2009-05-01

    Agitation and aggression are frequently occurring and distressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These symptoms are disturbing for individuals with Alzheimer disease, commonly confer risk to the patient and others, and present a major management challenge for clinicians. The most widely prescribed pharmacological treatments for these symptoms-atypical antipsychotics-have a modest but significant beneficial effect in the short-term treatment (over 6-12 weeks) of aggression but limited benefits in longer term therapy. Benefits are less well established for other symptoms of agitation. In addition, concerns are growing over the potential for serious adverse outcomes with these treatments, including stroke and death. A detailed consideration of other pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to agitation and aggression in patients with Alzheimer disease is, therefore, imperative. This article reviews the increasing evidence in support of psychological interventions or alternative therapies (such as aromatherapy) as a first-line management strategy for agitation, as well as the potential pharmacological alternatives to atypical antipsychotics-preliminary evidence for memantine, carbamazepine, and citalopram is encouraging.

  14. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  15. "Filming in Progress": New Spaces for Multimodal Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Global trends call for new research to investigate multimodal designing mediated by new technologies and the implications for classroom spaces. This article addresses the relationship between new technologies, students' multimodal designing, and the social production of classroom spaces. Multimodal semiotics and sociological principles are applied…

  16. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  17. Multimode theory of single-photon subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenko, V.; Jacquard, C.; Thiel, V.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a general theory to describe the manipulation of a multimode quantum state of light via the subtraction of a single photon. The theory is applicable for various types of subtraction schemes independent of the physical nature of the light modes, their number or the embedded quantum states. We show that different subtraction schemes can be described in a unified approach through the characterization of their intrinsic subtraction modes. The conditional state of the multimode quantum light after the photon subtraction is defined by the number of subtraction modes and their matching with the light modes. We propose the manipulation of light states by controlling the subtraction modes. Performing a photon subtraction on a multimode quantum resource is promising for the implementation of a number of quantum information protocols in all-optical, multiplexed and scalable way.

  18. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  19. High Resolution Multimode Fiber Image Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    The research emphasis is on developing a cost-effective method of recovering image information from small, closely confined spaces using multimode fibers. The state-of-the-art good quality-viewing fiber, which can currently be used for performing this function, is a 0.5 mm diameter bundle containing 6000 pixels at a cost of $10,000 per fiber bundle. However, these fiber bundles are very fragile and can easily break during surgical use, thereby making instrument reliability and replacement cost,a major impediment to their routine use in many applications. The advantage of working with a single multimode fiber is that it is significantly less expensive and mechanically more robust. In addition, careful choice of numerical aperture allows a higher image resolution (roughly 750,000 pixels) with a 0.5 mm diameter multimode fiber.

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  1. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  2. Rituximab Maintenance Therapy After Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Patients With Relapsed CD20+ Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Final Analysis of the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gisselbrecht, Christian; Schmitz, Norbert; Mounier, Nicolas; Singh Gill, Devinder; Linch, David C.; Trneny, Marek; Bosly, Andre; Milpied, Noel J.; Radford, John; Ketterer, Nicolas; Shpilberg, Ofer; Dührsen, Ulrich; Hagberg, Hans; Ma, David D.; Viardot, Andreas; Lowenthal, Ray; Brière, Josette; Salles, Gilles; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Glass, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). The impact of maintenance rituximab after ASCT is not known. Patients and Methods In total, 477 patients with CD20+ DLBCL who were in their first relapse or refractory to initial therapy were randomly assigned to one of two salvage regimens. After three cycles of salvage chemotherapy, the responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT. Then, 242 patients were randomly assigned to either rituximab every 2 months for 1 year or observation. Results After ASCT, 122 patients received rituximab, and 120 patients were observed only. The median follow-up time was 44 months. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rates after ASCT were 52% and 53% for the rituximab and observation groups, respectively (P = .7). Treatment with rituximab was associated with a 15% attributable risk of serious adverse events after day 100, with more deaths (six deaths v three deaths in the observation arm). Several factors affected EFS after ASCT (P < .05), including relapsed disease within 12 months (EFS: 46% v 56% for relapsed disease after 12 months), secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (saaIPI) more than 1 (EFS: 37% v 61% for saaIPI < 1), and prior treatment with rituximab (EFS: 47% v 59% for no prior rituximab). A significant difference in EFS between women (63%) and men (46%) was also observed in the rituximab group. In the Cox model for maintenance, the saaIPI was a significant prognostic factor (P < .001), as was male sex (P = .01). Conclusion In relapsed DLBCL, we observed no difference between the control group and the rituximab maintenance group and do not recommend rituximab after ASCT. PMID:23091101

  3. "Primary" aggressive chondroblastoma of the humerus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Harish, K; Janaki, MG; Alva, N Kishore

    2004-01-01

    Background Chondroblastomas are rare epiphyseal bone tumors. Very few cases with extra-cortical aggressive soft tissue invasion or metastasis are reported. Case presentation We report a 28 year-old adult male who presented with a large swelling over the left shoulder region. Pre-operative imaging revealed a large tumor arising from upper end of humerus with extensive soft tissue involvement necessitating a fore-quarter amputation. Patient received adjuvant radiation. Conclusions This patient is one of the largest chondroblastomas to be reported. Although chondroblastomas are typically benign, rarely they can be locally aggressive or metastatic. Early diagnosis and institution of proper primary therapy would prevent mutilating surgeries and recurrences. PMID:15113430

  4. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J

    1995-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 2, participants reported their mood before and after the showing of a violet or nonviolent videotape. High trait aggressive individuals felt more angry after viewing the violent videotape than did low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 3, participants first viewed either a violent or a nonviolent videotape and then competed with an "opponent" on a reaction time task in which the loser received a blast of unpleasant noise. Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low trait aggressive individuals.

  5. Connecting multimodality in human communication

    PubMed Central

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    DCM analysis instead showed a pronounced top-down control. Remarkably, all connections from the dmPFC to the three other regions were modulated by the experimental conditions. This observation is in line with the presumed role of the dmPFC in the allocation of attention. In contrary, all incoming connections to the AG were modulated, indicating its key role in integrating multimodal information and supporting comprehension. Notably, the input from the FFG to the AG was enhanced when facial expressions conveyed emotional information. These findings serve as preliminary results in understanding network dynamics in human emotional communication and empathy. PMID:24265613

  6. Aspects of multimode quantum optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, HyoJun

    This dissertation aims to investigate systems in which several optical and mechanical degrees of freedom are coupled through optomechanical interactions. Multimode optomechanics creates the prospect of integrated functional devices and it allows us to explore new types of optomechanical interactions which account for collective dynamics and optically mediated mechanical interactions. Owing to the development of fabrication techniques for micro- and nano-sized mechanical elements, macroscopic mechanical oscillators can be cooled to the deep quantum regime via optomechanical interaction. Based on the possibility to control the motion of mechanical oscillators at the quantum level, we design several schemes involving mechanical systems of macroscopic length and mass scales and we explore the nonlinear dynamics of mechanical oscillators. The first scheme includes a quantum cantilever coupled to a classical tuning fork via magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and also coupled to a single optical field mode via optomechanical interaction. We investigate the generation of nonclassical squeezed states in the quantum cantilever and their detection by transferring them to the optical field. The second scheme involves a quantum membrane coupled to two optical modes via optomechanical interaction. We explore dynamic stabilization of an unstable position of a quantum mechanical oscillator via modulation of the optical fields. We then develop a general formalism to fully describe cavity mediated mechanical interactions. We explore a rather general configuration in which multiple mechanical oscillators interact with a single cavity field mode. We specifically consider the situation in which the cavity dissipation is the dominant source of damping so that the cavity field follows the dynamics of the mechanical modes. In particular, we study two limiting regimes with specific applications: the weak-coupling regime and single-photon strong-coupling regime. In the weak-coupling regime

  7. Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy for the Management of Aggressive Fibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, Falk; Timke, Carmen; Oertel, Susanne; Hensley, Frank W.; Bischof, Marc; Muenter, Marc W.; Weitz, Juergen; Buchler, Markus W.; Lehner, Burkhard; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and Materials: Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients. Conclusion: Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.

  8. Multimode interferometer for guided matter waves.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erika; Calarco, Tommaso; Folman, Ron; Andersson, Mauritz; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2002-03-11

    Atoms can be trapped and guided with electromagnetic fields, using nanofabricated structures. We describe the fundamental features of an interferometer for guided matter waves, built of two combined Y-shaped beam splitters. We find that such a device is expected to exhibit high contrast fringes even in a multimode regime, analogous to a white light interferometer.

  9. The Arts, New Literacies, and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Harste, Jerome C.

    2007-01-01

    The arts, multimodality, and new literacies studies, each with its own distinct principles, together can redefine literacy and what constitutes being literate. To recognize the roles that each of these fields plays in literacy necessitates a cultural shift in reading, interpreting, creating, and responding to a range of multimedia messages. The…

  10. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  11. Multimodal Student Interaction Online: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Therese Ornberg

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the influence of tool and task design on student interaction in language learning at a distance. Interaction in a multimodal desktop video conferencing environment, FlashMeeting, is analyzed from an ecological perspective with two main foci: participation rates and conversational feedback strategies. The quantitative…

  12. A Multimodal Perspective on Textuality and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Textuality is often thought of in linguistic terms; for instance, the talk and writing that circulate in the classroom. In this paper I take a multimodal perspective on textuality and context. I draw on illustrative examples from school Science and English to examine how image, colour, gesture, gaze, posture and movement--as well as writing and…

  13. Researching Multimodal Texts: Applying a Dynamic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Susan; Lowrie, Tom

    The arrival of the digital age requires new approaches to understand the literacies used in making meanings from multimodal communications, and a rethinking of the ways in which research into these areas can be used to support learners in the 21st century. This presentation examines the range of literacies children have developed and used to make…

  14. Effects of Webcams on Multimodal Interactive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codreanu, Tatiana; Celik, Christelle Combe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the multimodal pedagogical communication of two groups of online teachers; trainee tutors (second year students of the Master of Arts in Teaching French as a Foreign Language at the University Lumiere-Lyon 2) and experienced teachers based in different locations (France, Spain and Finland). They all taught French as a Foreign…

  15. Love that Book: Multimodal Response to Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Composing with different modes--image, sound, video and the written word--to respond to and analyze literary and informational text helps students develop as readers and digital communicators. This article showcases five multimodal strategies for engaging children in rich literature-based learning using digital tools and Internet resources.

  16. Multimodality, Translingualism, and Rhetorical Genre Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article situates one possible future for rhetorical genre studies (RGS) in the translingual, multimodal composing practices of linguistically diverse composition students. Using focus group data collected with L1 (English as a first language) and L2 (English as a second language) students at two large public state universities, the researcher…

  17. Automatic Rejection Of Multimode Laser Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic modulation detected, enabling rejection of multimode signals. Monitoring circuit senses multiple longitudinal mode oscillation of transversely excited, atmospheric-pressure (TEA) CO2 laser. Facility developed for inclusion into coherent detection laser radar (LIDAR) system. However, circuit described of use in any experiment where desireable to record data only when laser operates in single longitudinal mode.

  18. Reconceptualising Poetry as a Multimodal Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Denise; D'abdon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article theorises the role of poetry in English classrooms from a multimodal perspective. It discusses the gap between the practices of poetry inside and outside South African schools, particularly where English is taught as an additional language (EAL). The former is shown to be monomodal and prescriptive, while the latter is…

  19. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  20. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS. PMID:27244406

  1. Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Douglas J., Ed.; Griffith, Bryant, Ed.; Bérci, Margaret E., Ed.; Ortlieb, Evan, Ed.; Sullivan, Pamela, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    While incorporating digital technologies into the classroom has offered new ways of teaching and learning into educational processes, it is essential to take a look at how the digital shift impacts teachers, school administration, and curriculum development. "Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development" presents…

  2. Imagining the Possibilities in Multimodal Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the "old page", or written hardcopy texts, to the "new" (Kress, 2003), or electronic page, means that today's learners have experience with reading a variety of texts. Image, music, and electronic inscription (font, style, flash, and so on) are features of multimodal texts that many learners prefer to read and create. With the screen…

  3. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  4. How Collaborative Is Structural Family Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…

  5. Multimodal Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Holistic Approach to Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Edward J.; Castaldo, Christine

    1985-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa has received considerable attention lately because of its increased incidence, potential danger, and resistance to treatment. A review of the literature on anorexia nervosa suggests that, although it is characterized by complex interrelated psychological and physiological processes, it is often conceptualized and treated in…

  6. Multimodality therapy of favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Corder, M.P.; Leimert, J.T.; Tewfik, H.H.; Lovett, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-seven previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of total body irradiation followed by cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisone (CVP). The dose of total body irradiation was planned to be 150 rad followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 59%; the complete plus partial response rate, 93%. The 50% disease-free survival was 8 months. The actuarial projected 5 year survival was 60% and the disease-free survival at 5 years was 27%. The program was well tolerated by the majority of patients. It is possible for some patients with favorable non-Hodgkin's lymphomas to achieve prolonged periods of disesase-free survival when treated with combinations of irradiation plus chemotherapy.

  7. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  8. Studying aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies).

    PubMed

    Mundiyanapurath, Sibu; Certel, Sarah; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    Aggression is an innate behavior that evolved in the framework of defending or obtaining resources. This complex social behavior is influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In many organisms, aggression is critical to survival but controlling and suppressing aggression in distinct contexts also has become increasingly important. In recent years, invertebrates have become increasingly useful as model systems for investigating the genetic and systems biological basis of complex social behavior. This is in part due to the diverse repertoire of behaviors exhibited by these organisms. In the accompanying video, we outline a method for analyzing aggression in Drosophila whose design encompasses important eco-ethological constraints. Details include steps for: making a fighting chamber; isolating and painting flies; adding flies to the fight chamber; and video taping fights. This approach is currently being used to identify candidate genes important in aggression and in elaborating the neuronal circuitry that underlies the output of aggression and other social behaviors.

  9. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness.

  10. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  11. [Multimodality MRI and PET for restaging prostate cancer after biochemical failure of the treatment].

    PubMed

    Cochet, A; Kanoun, S; Humbert, O; Walker, P-M; Cormier, L; Créhange, G; Brunotte, F

    2014-10-01

    Major improvements in the field of radiotherapy planning such as stereotactic radiation therapy, have recently been performed, aiming to the development of personalized therapeutic strategies in patients with biochemical failure of prostate cancer. However, this needs an early and accurate location of sites of recurrence. Development of multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) permits to consider this objective. Thus, it is worthwhile to apprehend the respective performance of these imaging techniques in order to rationalize their use. We propose a review of the recent literature organized by technique and by location, regarding the performance of multimodality MRI and PET for restaging of patients with biochemical failure of prostate cancer initially treated with curative intent.

  12. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach reduces mortality in rhinocerebral mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Palejwala, Sheri K.; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Lemole, G. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs in immunocompromised hosts with uncontrolled diabetes, solid organ transplants, and hematologic malignancies. Primary disease is in the paranasal sinuses but often progresses intracranially, via direct extension or angioinvasion. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is rapidly fatal with a mortality rate of 85%, even when maximally treated with surgical debridement, antifungal therapy, and correction of underlying processes. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis from 2011 to 2014. These patients were analyzed for symptoms, surgical and medical management, and outcome. We found four patients who were diagnosed with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. All patients underwent rapid aggressive surgical debridement and were started on antifungal therapy on the day of diagnosis. Overall, we observed a mortality rate of 50%. Results: An early aggressive multidisciplinary approach with surgical debridement, antifungal therapy, and correction of underlying disease have been shown to improve survivability in rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach to rhinocerebral mucormycosis with otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology, infectious disease and medical intensivists can help reduce mortality in an otherwise largely fatal disease. Even despite these measures, outcomes remain poor, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained in at-risk populations, in order to rapidly execute a multifaceted approach. PMID:27280057

  13. Novel Therapeutics for Aggressive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Daruka; Fisher, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    Application of advances in genomic and proteomic technologies has provided molecular insights into distinct types of aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). This has led to the validation of novel biomarkers of classification, risk-stratification, and druggable targets. The promise of novel treatments from genomic research has been slow to materialize because of the lack of a therapeutic signature for the distinct NHL subtypes. Patients with lymphoma with aggressive disease urgently require the development of novel therapies on the basis of investigation of dysregulated intracellular oncogenic processes that arise during lymphomagenesis. Although monoclonal antibodies have made significant contributions to the armamentarium of B-cell NHL therapy (eg, anti-CD20), parallel development of small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) to intracellular targets has lagged behind. Despite these deficiencies, several promising anti-NHL therapies are in development that target immune kinases of the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin complex, proteasome, DNA/histone epigenetic complex, antiapoptosis, neoangiogenesis, and immune modulation. This review focuses on novel SMI therapeutic strategies that target overlapping core oncogenic pathways in the context of the 10 hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, we have developed the concept of a therapeutic signature using the 10 hallmarks of cancer, which may be incorporated into novel phase I/II drug development programs. PMID:21483007

  14. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  15. [Aggressive clients in Dutch veterinary practice].

    PubMed

    Barbonis, T S A E; Endenburg, N

    2007-05-15

    Aggressive clients seem to be becoming more common. This article describes a study in which questionnaires on client behaviour were sent to veterinary assistants and veterinarians in randomly selected practices in the Netherlands. Results showed that 26.4% of the veterinarians and 29.3% of the assistants had experienced aggressive clients in the last year. Age, experience, and sex of the veterinarian or assistant did not influence the frequency with which aggressive clients were encountered. The same was true for the type of veterinary practice (companion animals, farm animals, horses, etc). The risk of encountering aggressive clients was higher among practices in large towns and in practices with a small turnover Of the veterinarians who had encountered aggressive clients at least once in their career, 31% has taken some kind of action after the aggressive encounter Nearly a quarter (24.9%) of veterinary practices have adopted a Risk Inventarization and Evaluation (RI&E) approach to preventing client aggression and 26.6% of practices have adopted another approach. While veterinarians tend not to consider aggression a big problem, they are often open to the suggestion that more attention should be paid to aggression in veterinary practice. PMID:17578228

  16. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  17. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  18. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  19. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  20. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  1. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  2. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  3. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  4. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

  5. [Insular carcinoma of the thyroid. An uncommon but aggressive neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gómez, José Manuel; Folqué-Gómez, Emilio; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Moldes-Rodríguez, Milagros; Martínez-Martínez, Patricia; González-Aragoneses, Federico; Orusco-Palomino, Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    Insular carcinoma of the thyroid is an infrequent entity, named in 1984 by Carcangiu when he described its characteristic histology. Clinically and morphologically it is considered to be in an intermediate position between well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid (papillary or follicular) and undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. However, most authors believe it to be an independent entity. The prognosis of this tumor is worse than that of classic carcinoma of the thyroid, and most authors advise aggressive therapy, which in some cases can achieved prolonged survival. We describe 2 patients who experienced recurrence after treatment for the primary tumor. The recurrences were treated but the clinical courses differed.

  6. Nuclear Morphometry Identifies a Distinct Aggressive Cellular Phenotype in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Evan S.; Bartels, Peter H.; Prasad, Anil R.; Yozwiak, Michael L.; Bartels, Hubert G.; Einspahr, Janine G.; Alberts, David S.; Krouse, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    By identifying aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in patients who are at high risk for recurrences or second primaries after resection, intensive surveillance and therapy may decrease morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of nuclear morphometry (karyometry) in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We retrospectively analyzed cSCC lesions from 40 male patients. 22 patients had evidence of aggressive cSCC (local/regional recurrence or a second primary cSCC), and 18 patients were identified with similar ages and sites of disease as control patients with nonaggressive cSCC (no evidence of recurrence, metastasis, or second primary). We performed karyometric analysis to identify nuclear features that discriminate between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC nuclei. We used statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.0001) to compose a quantitative aggressive classification score (proportion of aggressive nuclei from 0% to 100%). For comparisons, we used Fisher’s exact test or Student t test. The mean age was 79 ± 7 years for aggressive cSCC and 80 ± 9 years for nonaggressive cSCC (P = 0.66). We analyzed a mean of 96 nuclei in each group. The mean classification score for aggressive cSCC was significantly higher (69% ± 6%) than for nonaggressive cSCC (28% ± 5%, P = 0.00002). Overall, the classification score accurately categorized 80% of our patients (P = 0.0004). In most patients, karyometry differentiated between aggressive and nonaggressive cSCC. We found that classification scores, which provide information on individual lesions, could be used for risk stratification. PMID:21636541

  7. Threatened Retaliation as an Inhibitor of Human Aggression: Mediating Effects of the Instrumental Value of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    Whereas threatened punishment proves effective under conditions where the instrumental value of aggressive behavior is quite low, the following techniques of control may work better in situations where the value of aggression is relatively high: (1) the use of restrained, non-aggressive models; (2) empathic arousal among aggressors; or (3)…

  8. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  9. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  10. Daily associations among anger experience and intimate partner aggression within aggressive and nonaggressive community couples.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Anger is an empirically established precipitant to aggressive responding toward intimate partners. The current investigation examined the effects of anger, as experienced by both partners, as well as gender and previous aggression, on in vivo intimate-partner aggression (IPA) using a prospective daily diary methodology. Participants (N = 118 couples) individually provided 56 consecutive, daily reports of affective experience and partner aggression. Multilevel models were estimated using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) framework to analyze the daily associations between anger and partner-aggression perpetration among participating men and women, as moderated by aggression history. Results revealed that both actor and partner anger were generally associated with subsequently reported daily conflict. Further, increases in daily partner anger were associated with corresponding increases in partner aggression among both women who reported high levels of anger and men, regardless of their own anger experience. Increases in actor anger were associated with increases in daily partner aggression only among previously aggressive women. Previously aggressive men and women consistently reported greater perpetration than their nonaggressive counterparts on days of high levels of actors' anger experiences. Results emphasize the importance of both actor and partner factors in partner aggression and suggest that female anger may be a stronger predictor of both female-to-male and male-to-female partner aggression than male anger, when measured at the daily level.

  11. Physiological Arousal, Exposure to a Relatively Lengthy Aggressive Film, and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    1982-01-01

    Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)

  12. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  13. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  14. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  15. Neurotransmitters regulating feline aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, A; Schubert, K

    1995-01-01

    The experiments described in this review reveal that the expression and modulation of aggressive responses in the cat are organized by two distinct sets of pathways. One set of pathways is associated with the elicitation of a specific form of attack behavior. It includes the medial hypothalamus and its projections to the PAG for the expression of defensive rage behavior and the lateral hypothalamus and its descending projections for the expression of predatory attack behavior. The primary focus of the present review is upon the analysis of defensive rage behavior. It was demonstrated that the pathway from the medial hypothalamus to the PAG, which appears to be essential for elicitation of defensive rage, is powerfully excitatory and utilizes excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The other pathways examined in this review arise from different nuclei of the amygdala and are modulatory in nature. Here, two facilitatory systems have been identified. The first involves a projection system from the basal complex of amygdala that projects directly to the PAG. Its excitatory effects are manifest through excitatory amino acids that act upon NMDA receptors within the PAG. The second facilitatory pathway arises from the medial nucleus of the amygdala. However, its projection system is directed to the medial hypothalamus rather than the PAG. Its neurotransmitter appears to be substance P that acts upon NK1 receptors within the medial hypothalamus (see Figure 10). It has yet to be determined whether substance P acts upon any of the other neurokinin receptor subtypes. It should also be pointed out that the substance P pathway from the medial amygdala to the medial hypothalamus functions to suppress predatory attack behavior elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. In this network, it is likely that the modulatory effects of the medial amygdala require the presence of a second, inhibitory pathway from the medial hypothalamus that innervates the

  16. Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy: A Rare Condition, a Common Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, J; Sarmento-Gonçalves, I; Ramada, D; Amaro, T; Tiago-Silva, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. Although benign in the majority of the cases, these neoplasms usually present a locally infiltrative nature and high rates of recurrence. Due to its rarity, misdiagnosis is a common problem. Case Presentation. We present one case of aggressive angiomyxoma in a 25-year-old pregnant woman. The patient presented with a large vaginal mass that was interpreted as a vaginal cyst. We performed surgical resection of the neoplasm and the correct diagnosis was only achieved after histological examination. With this case, we highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients with genital and perineal masses of unknown origin and the impact of a correct preoperative diagnosis in patient's management and follow-up. Conclusion. Although aggressive angiomyxoma is rare, it should be considered in differential diagnosis of pelviperineal masses in young women. Its positivity to estrogen and progesterone receptors can justify enlargement and recurrence during pregnancy, although few cases are reported. Early recognition demands high index of suspicion for both gynaecologists and pathologists. Wide surgical excision with tumor free margins is the basis of curative treatment. Adjuvant therapy may be necessary for residual or recurrent tumors. Long-term follow-up is recommended. PMID:27274877

  17. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative. PMID:26345359

  18. The History of Multimodal Treatment of Wilms' Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K; Bonasso, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    Multimodal therapy-surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy-the foundation of modern cancer treatment, has led to dramatic improvements in survival. How the three disciplines coalesced to conquer Wilms' tumor is a compelling story that includes two of history's greatest discoveries, X-rays and antibiotics. By the mid-20th century both fields had matured to where dedicated clinicians and creative scientists could apply them to Wilms' tumor and achieve successive improvements in survival. William Ladd was able to achieve a zero operative mortality by 1940, but was left with a 32 per cent survival with surgery alone. Robert Gross and Edwin Neuhauser combined surgery and radiotherapy and achieve 47 per cent survival rate in 1950. Sidney Farber and his colleagues added an antibiotic, dactinomycin, to the treatment regimen and reached 80 per cent survival rate in 1966. The National Wilms' Tumor Study, organized in 1968, was a multidisciplinary effort of surgeons, radiotherapists, and pediatric oncologists across the country. By the 1990s, the National Wilms' Tumor Study achieved survival rates above 95 per cent while minimizing long-term effects through shortening courses of chemotherapy and radiation. The story of Wilms' tumor serves as a paragon for all types of cancer, in both children and adults. PMID:27305878

  19. A Positive Approach to the Treatment of Aggressive Brain Injured Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, William H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A broad spectrum behavior therapy approach was used to treat physical aggression in 5 brain-injured males (ages 18-28). The approach employed high density reinforcement, reinforcer sampling, environmental control, selection of appropriate responses, inconvenience review, self-control training, and self-monitoring. All five subjects showed…

  20. Radiation therapy options for management of the brain tumor patient.

    PubMed

    Lamb, S A

    1995-03-01

    Radiation therapy rarely cures malignant brain tumors; however, it is the best treatment available at present. Refinement of radiation delivery systems must continue in order to minimize normal tissue injury and to maximize the quality of life. Multimodal therapy designed to attack cancer at its genetic makeup holds great promise. Radiation therapy will always remain one of the forms of therapy used to treat malignant brain tumors.

  1. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  2. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  3. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  4. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  5. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  6. Moral Judgments of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    1989-01-01

    Reports on a study of moral judgments in aggressive and nonaggressive children. Assessed moral judgment by presenting the children with stories of moral conflict in everyday life using peer rating. Results showed significant differences according to gender and no constant level of moral reasoning was measured in either aggressive or nonaggressive…

  7. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively. PMID:24211562

  8. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  9. Sibling Aggression: Sex Differences and Parents' Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine families were observed extensively at home when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years of age and again 2 years later. The Social Relations Model is used to investigate children's sex differences in aggression and parents' prohibiting aggression during sibling conflict. In the first observation period, boys engaged in more severe and mild…

  10. Involvement in Internet Aggression during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…

  11. Aggressive and foraging behavioral interactions among ruffe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Kostich, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    The ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, is a nonindigenous percid in the Great Lakes. Ruffe are aggressive benthivores and forage over soft substrates. Laboratory studies in pools (100 cm in diameter, 15 cm water depth) were conducted to determine whether fish density (low = 2, medium = 4, high = 6 ruffe per pool) changed foraging and aggressive behaviors with a limited food supply of chironomid larvae. All fish densities demonstrated a hierarchy based on aggressive interactions, but ruffe were most aggressive at low and high fish densities. Time spent in foraging was lowest at the low fish density. The best forager at the low fish density was the most aggressive individual, but the second most aggressive fish at the medium and high fish density was the best forager and also the one chased most frequently. A medium fish density offered the best energetic benefits to ruffe by providing the lowest ratio of time spent in aggression to that spent foraging. Based on our results, ruffe should grow best at an intermediate density. With high ruffe densities, we would also expect disparity in size as the more aggressive fish are able to garner a disproportionate amount of the resources. Alternatively, as the Great Lakes are a fairly open system, ruffe could migrate out of one area to colonize another as populations exceed optimal densities.

  12. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  13. Human Aggression: Current Theories and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geen, Russell G.

    The literature on human aggression is large and diverse. Some of it is theory-driven, but much of it dwells on solving social problems rather than on building general models and research paradigms. This paper examines some of the research programs and theoretical emphases in aggression research and presents theory convergences to see how these…

  14. Game location and aggression in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.

  15. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  16. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  17. Forgivingness, anger, and hostility in aggressive driving.

    PubMed

    Kovácsová, Natália; Rošková, Eva; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between trait forgivingness, general anger, hostility, driving anger, and self-reported aggressive driving committed by the driver him/herself ("self" scale) and perceiving him/herself as an object of other drivers' aggressive acts ("other" scale). The Slovak version of questionnaires was administrated to a sample of 612 Slovak and Czech drivers. First, the factor structure of the Driver Anger Indicators Scale (DAIS) was investigated. Factor analyses of the self and other parts of the DAIS resulted in two factors, which were named as aggressive warnings and hostile aggression and revenge. Next, the results showed that from all dependent variables (scales of the DAIS), self-reported aggressive warnings (self) on the road were predicted best by chosen person-related factors. The path model for aggressive warnings (self) suggested that trait forgivingness and general anger were fully mediated by driving anger whereas hostility proved to be a unique predictor of aggressive behavior in traffic. Driving anger was found to be the best predictor of perceptions that other drivers behave aggressively.

  18. Problems in Aggression: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Wilma J.

    This paper reviews three studies which illustrate the use of two different techniques of behavior modification to control aggression in preschool children in classroom situations. The first technique demonstrated the use of "time-out" as a mild punishment procedure. The teacher changed events following aggression by briefly removing the child from…

  19. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  20. Comparing Paper and Tangible, Multimodal Tools

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.; Wesson, R M.; Horman, Sheilah

    2002-01-01

    Officers in command posts maintain situational awareness using paper maps, Post-it notes, and hand-written annotations. They do so because paper is robust to failure, it is portable and malleable, it offers ultra-high resolution and supports face-to-face collaboration. We report herein on an evaluation comparing maps and Post-its with a tangible multimodal system called Rasa that augments the paper tools with sensors, enabling it to recognize the multimodal language (both written and spoken) that naturally occurs there. In this study, we found that not only do users prefer Rasa to paper alone, they find it as easy or easier to use than paper tools. Moreover, Rasa introduces no discernible overhead in its operation other than error repair, yet grants the benefits inherent in digital systems. Finally, subjects confirmed that by combining physical and computational tools, Rasa is resistant to computational failure.

  1. Towards multimodal nonlinear optical tomography - experimental methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, N.; Medyukhina, A.; Latka, I.; Kemper, S.; Böhm, M.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2011-08-01

    All-optical microspectroscopic and tomographic tools reveal great potential for clinical dermatologic diagnostics, i.e., investigation of human skin and skin diseases. While optical-coherence tomography has been complemented by two-photon fluorescence tomography and second-harmonic generation tomography, a joint study of various nonlinear optical microspectroscopies, i.e., application of the recently developed multimodal imaging approach, to sizable human-tissue samples has not been evaluated up to now. Here, we present such multimodal approach combining different nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms for imaging, namely two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) into a joint microscopic experiment. We show the potential of imaging large skin areas and discuss the information obtained in a case study comparing normal skin and keloid tissue.

  2. Multimode fibres for micro-endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtaev, Sergey; Leite, Ivo T.; Čižmár, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    There has been a tremendous effort in modern microscopy towards miniaturisation and fibre-based technology, driven by the need to access hostile or difficult environments in situ and in vivo. Most of these rely on reducing the size of endoscopes based on fibre-optic bundles, and systems incorporating microfabricated lenses. Recently, the use of standard multimode optical fibres for lensless microscopy has become possible mainly due to advances in holographic beam shaping. This article reviews the methods and techniques behind this progress paving theway towards minimally invasive in vivo imaging as well as other applications of multimode waveguides including on-chip integration of optical micro-manipulation and numerous other biophotonics techniques.

  3. Multimodality imaging in nanomedicine and nanotheranostics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Zhang, Xue-Ning; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tumors needs much detailed information. However, available single imaging modality cannot provide complete or comprehensive data. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine, and multimodality imaging based on nanoparticles has been receiving extensive attention. This new hybrid imaging technology could provide complementary information from different imaging modalities using only a single injection of contrast agent. In this review, we introduce recent developments in multifunctional nanoparticles and their biomedical applications to multimodal imaging and theragnosis as nanomedicine. Most of the reviewed studies are based on the intrinsic properties of nanoparticles and their application in clinical imaging technology. The imaging techniques include positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and ultrasound imaging. PMID:27807501

  4. Rumination and multi-modal emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Aldao, Amelia; Fischer, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Rumination, a cognitive process that involves passively and repetitively focusing on negative feelings and their consequences, has been linked to negative emotional outcomes. Previous research suggests that rumination may lead to deleterious outcomes through prolonging emotional reactivity; however, evidence supporting the link between rumination and reactivity has been mixed. In the present study, we examined the relationship between state and trait rumination and multi-modal emotional reactivity (i.e., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, subjective experience). Fifty undergraduates participated in a social evaluative laboratory stressor. They also reported on their general tendency to ruminate and their use of rumination in response to this particular laboratory stressor. State, but not trait, rumination was associated with increases in cortisol and negative affect. Findings underscore the importance of multi-modal assessment of emotional reactivity and suggest important implications for rumination following a stressor.

  5. Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Farahi, Salma; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Confocal laser-scanning microscopy is a well-known optical imaging method where a pinhole is used in the illumination and detection pathways of a normal microscope, in order to selectively excite and detect a particular focal volume. The advantage of this method is a significant increase in contrast, due to the rejection of background contributions to the signal. Here, we propose to apply this method in the context of multimode fiber endoscopy. Due to modal scrambling, it is not possible to use a physical pinhole to filter light signals that have travel through multimode fibers. Instead, we use a transmission matrix approach to characterize the propagation of light through the fiber, and we apply the filtering operation in the digital domain.

  6. Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loterie, Damien; Farahi, Salma; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Acquiring high-contrast optical images deep inside biological tissues is still a challenging problem. Confocal microscopy is an important tool for biomedical imaging since it improves image quality by rejecting background signals. However, it suffers from low sensitivity in deep tissues due to light scattering. Recently, multimode fibers have provided a new paradigm for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging by controlling light propagation through them. Here we introduce a combined imaging technique where confocal images are acquired through a multimode fiber. We achieve this by digitally engineering the excitation wavefront and then applying a virtual digital pinhole on the collected signal. In this way, we are able to acquire images through the fiber with significantly increased contrast. With a fiber of numerical aperture 0.22, we achieve a lateral resolution of 1.5um, and an axial resolution of 12.7um. The point-scanning rate is currently limited by our spatial light modulator (20Hz).

  7. [Aggressive and prosocial behavior in childhood psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Vida, Péter; Halász, József; Gádoros, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive/attacking and helpful/emphatic/prosocial behaviors are extremely important in human relationships. Both high levels of aggression and deficits of prosociality play important role in the development and conservation of mental disorders. We review the measurement options and clinical importance of aggressive and prosocial behavior. The typical developmental pathways and the genetic and environmental background of these behaviors are presented. The clinical tools used in the measurement of aggression and prosociality are summarized in the present paper, with specific attention on questionnaires applied in Hungarian practice. The connections between diagnostic categories (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit and hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders) and the two behaviors are evaluated. In the end, we present those additional research projects that explore the cognitive-emotional background of aggressive or prosocial behavior with clinical relevance either in the diagnosis or in the treatment of child psychiatric diseases. PMID:24142292

  8. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory.

  9. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  10. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject’s upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject’s lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging. PMID:25604545

  11. Multimode Strong Coupling in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Neereja; Liu, Yanbing; Sadri, Darius; Szocs, Laszlo; Underwood, Devin; Malekakhlagh, Moein; Tureci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew

    We present experimental and theoretical studies in the multimode strong coupling (MMSC) regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In MMSC, a single atom is simultaneously coupled to a large, but discrete, number of cavity harmonics, with atom-mode coupling strengths comparable to the free spectral range (FSR). This regime is readily accessible in circuit QED, by strongly coupling a transmon qubit to a low fundamental frequency microwave cavity. We present some key results from our original experiment (PRX 5, 021035, 2015), in which a transmon qubit, resonant with the 75th harmonic of a 90 MHz cavity, reached qubit-mode coupling strengths exceeding 30MHz. When this system is coherently driven, we observed complex multimode fluorescence, with the notable formation of ultra-narrow linewidths. To better understand these unique features of multimode resonance fluorescence we developed a quantum formalism, which attributes the spectral linewidth narrowing to the correlated spontaneous emission of doubly dressed states. Finally we will share preliminary experimental results from our continuing study of MMSC, this time from a system where qubit-mode coupling strengths approach and even exceed the FSR.

  12. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system.

  13. Multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, Gali; Razansky, Daniel; Shoham, Shy

    2013-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful imaging modality that enables structural and functional imaging with cellular and sub-cellular resolution, deep within biological tissues. Yet, its main contrast mechanism relies on extrinsically administered fluorescent indicators. Here we developed a system for simultaneous multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton fluorescence 3D imaging, which attains both absorption and fluorescence-based contrast by integrating an ultrasonic transducer into a two-photon laser scanning microscope. The system is readily shown to enable acquisition of multimodal microscopic images of fluorescently labeled targets and cell cultures as well as intrinsic absorption-based images of pigmented biological tissue. During initial experiments, it was further observed that that detected optoacoustically-induced response contains low frequency signal variations, presumably due to cavitation-mediated signal generation by the high repetition rate (80MHz) near IR femtosecond laser. The multimodal system may provide complementary structural and functional information to the fluorescently labeled tissue, by superimposing optoacoustic images of intrinsic tissue chromophores, such as melanin deposits, pigmentation, and hemoglobin or other extrinsic particle or dye-based markers highly absorptive in the NIR spectrum.

  14. Waveform command shaping control of multimode systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhazza, Khaled A.; Masoud, Ziyad N.

    2016-02-01

    A method for eliminating residual vibrations in multimode systems is presented using a command shaping technique. The proposed command shaping technique captures two main advantages. Namely, the independence of the time length of the shaped command from the resonant frequencies of the system, and the ability to generate the command profile without a full system model. Experiments on systems with partial models represented by their resonant frequencies show that shaped command profiles generated using actual measured resonant frequencies of a system outperform those based on mathematical models. This feature of the proposed command shaping technique makes it very attractive for complicated multimode systems where mathematical models are difficult to build. Profiles of the proposed shaped command are simple and do not require intensive calculations. Performance of the proposed shaped command is validated using numerical simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations prove that the shaped commands are capable of completely eliminating residual vibrations of multimode systems. Experiments show that residual vibration elimination depends on the level of accuracy of the measured resonant frequencies of the system.

  15. Multimode-Optical-Fiber Imaging Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Currently, endoscopic surgery uses single-mode fiber-bundles to obtain in vivo image information inside the orifices of the body. This limits their use to the larger natural orifices and to surgical procedures where there is plenty of room for manipulation. The knee joint, for example, can be easily viewed with a fiber optic viewer, but joints in the finger cannot. However, there are a host of smaller orifices where fiber endoscopy would play an important role if a cost effective fiber probe were developed with small enough dimensions (less than or equal to 250 microns). Examples of beneficiaries of micro-endoscopes are the treatment of the Eustatian tube of the middle ear, the breast ducts, tear ducts, coronary arteries, fallopian tubes, as well as the treatment of salivary duct parotid disease, and the neuro endoscopy of the ventricles and spinal canal. This work describes an approach for recovering images from tightly confined spaces using multimode. The concept draws upon earlier works that concentrated on image recovery after two-way transmission through a multimode fiber as well as work that demonstrated the recovery of images after one-way transmission through a multimode fiber. Both relied on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, which was predistorted with the characteristics of the fiber. The approach described here also relies on generating a phase conjugated wavefront, but utilizes two fibers to capture the image at some intermediate point (accessible by the fibers, but which is otherwise visually inaccessible).

  16. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  17. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed. PMID:24014542

  18. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  19. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. PMID:26892149

  20. Mothers' multimodal information processing is modulated by multimodal interactions with their infants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukari; Fukushima, Hirokata; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Social learning in infancy is known to be facilitated by multimodal (e.g., visual, tactile, and verbal) cues provided by caregivers. In parallel with infants' development, recent research has revealed that maternal neural activity is altered through interaction with infants, for instance, to be sensitive to infant-directed speech (IDS). The present study investigated the effect of mother- infant multimodal interaction on maternal neural activity. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers were compared to non-mothers during perception of tactile-related words primed by tactile cues. Only mothers showed ERP modulation when tactile cues were incongruent with the subsequent words, and only when the words were delivered with IDS prosody. Furthermore, the frequency of mothers' use of those words was correlated with the magnitude of ERP differentiation between congruent and incongruent stimuli presentations. These results suggest that mother-infant daily interactions enhance multimodal integration of the maternal brain in parenting contexts. PMID:25322936

  1. A low bending loss multimode fiber transmission system.

    PubMed

    Donlagic, Denis

    2009-11-23

    This paper presents a high bend tolerant multimode optical fiber transmission system that is compatible with standard 50 microm graded index multimode fiber, in terms of achievable bandwidth and interconnectivity losses. When the 10 loops of the proposed bend resistive multimode fiber were wrapped around a cylinder of 1.5 mm radius, bend losses below -0.2 dB were achieved in case of experimentally produced fiber. Furthermore, when the section of the proposed bend resistive fiber was inserted between two sections of a standard 50 microm graded index multimode fiber, the total experimental measured loss proved to be below -0.15 dB. PMID:19997454

  2. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  3. Stability of preclinical models of aggressive renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Varna, Mariana; Bousquet, Guilhem; Ferreira, Irmine; Goulard, Marie; El-Bouchtaoui, Morad; Artus, Pierre Mongiat; Verine, Jérome; de Kerviler, Eric; Hernandez, Lucie; Leboeuf, Christophe; Escudier, Bernard; Legrès, Luc; Setterblad, Niclas; Soliman, Hany; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Janin, Anne; Bertheau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Renal-cell carcinomas (RCC) are often resistant to conventional cytotoxic agents. Xenograft models are used for in vivo preclinical studies and drug development. The validity of these studies is highly dependent on the phenotypic and genotypic stability of the models. Here we assessed the stability of six aggressive human RCC xenografted in nude/NMRI mice. We compared the initial samples (P0), first (P1) and fifth (P5) passages for the following criteria: histopathology, immunohistochemistry for CK7, CD10, vimentin and p53, DNA allelic profiles using 10 microsatellites and CGH-array. Next we evaluated the response to sunitinib in primary RCC and corresponding xenografted RCC. We observed a good overall stability between primary RCC and corresponding xenografted RCC at P1 and P5 regarding histopathology and immunohistochemistry except for cytokeratin 7 (one case) and p53 (one case) expression. Out of 44 groups with fully available microsatellite data (at P0, P1 and P5), 66% (29 groups) showed no difference from P0 to P5 while 34% (15 groups) showed new or lost alleles. Using CGH-array, overall genomic alterations at P5 were not different from those of initial RCC. The xenografted RCC had identical response to sunitinib therapy compared to the initial human RCC from which they derive. These xenograft models of aggressive human RCC are clinically relevant, showing a good histological and molecular stability and are suitable for studies of basic biology and response to therapy. PMID:25031714

  4. A multi-modal treatment approach for the shoulder: A 4 patient case series

    PubMed Central

    Pribicevic, Mario; Pollard, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper describes the clinical management of four cases of shoulder impingement syndrome using a conservative multimodal treatment approach. Clinical Features Four patients presented to a chiropractic clinic with chronic shoulder pain, tenderness in the shoulder region and a limited range of motion with pain and catching. After physical and orthopaedic examination a clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome was reached. The four patients were admitted to a multi-modal treatment protocol including soft tissue therapy (ischaemic pressure and cross-friction massage), 7 minutes of phonophoresis (driving of medication into tissue with ultrasound) with 1% cortisone cream, diversified spinal and peripheral joint manipulation and rotator cuff and shoulder girdle muscle exercises. The outcome measures for the study were subjective/objective visual analogue pain scales (VAS), range of motion (goniometer) and return to normal daily, work and sporting activities. All four subjects at the end of the treatment protocol were symptom free with all outcome measures being normal. At 1 month follow up all patients continued to be symptom free with full range of motion and complete return to normal daily activities. Conclusion This case series demonstrates the potential benefit of a multimodal chiropractic protocol in resolving symptoms associated with a suspected clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome. PMID:16168053

  5. EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Senneville, B. Denis; Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Moonen, C.

    2016-10-01

    Image registration is part of a large variety of medical applications including diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and/or treatment effectiveness and, more recently, therapy guidance. Such applications usually involve several imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging, either separately or combined. In the current work, we propose a non-rigid multi-modal registration method (namely EVolution: an edge-based variational method for non-rigid multi-modal image registration) that aims at maximizing edge alignment between the images being registered. The proposed algorithm requires only contrasts between physiological tissues, preferably present in both image modalities, and assumes deformable/elastic tissues. Given both is shown to be well suitable for non-rigid co-registration across different image types/contrasts (T1/T2) as well as different modalities (CT/MRI). This is achieved using a variational scheme that provides a fast algorithm with a low number of control parameters. Results obtained on an annotated CT data set were comparable to the ones provided by state-of-the-art multi-modal image registration algorithms, for all tested experimental conditions (image pre-filtering, image intensity variation, noise perturbation). Moreover, we demonstrate that, compared to existing approaches, our method possesses increased robustness to transient structures (i.e. that are only present in some of the images).

  6. [Therapy-resistant aggressive cystic lesion of the mandible].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C M; Bergstrand, S; Lund, J-A; Viset, T

    2011-10-01

    Several extensive surgical interventions of a cystic lesion in the left mandible were followed by recurrences. The lesion extended from the primary mandibular region into the area of pterygopalatine fossa finally infiltrating the orbital region and the skull base. Histological results could never demonstrate a malignancy with certainty. Due to the patient's poor general condition, the refusal for further surgical inventions and due to the malignoma-like growth pattern radiation treatment was performed. However, this had no effect on tumor progression. PMID:21845481

  7. T2 Gallbladder Cancer-Aggressive Therapy Is Warranted.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Mohd Raashid; Osman, Houssam; Cheek, Susannah; Hunter, Shenee; Jeyarajah, Dhiresh Rohan

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of gall bladder cancer (GBC) has traditionally been viewed with pessimism and lymph node positivity has been associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of radical cholecystectomy in T2 tumors. All patients who underwent surgery for GBC between September 2005 and June 2014 were identified retrospectively. Data collected included clinical presentation, operative findings, and histopathological data. Twenty-five patients had incidental GBC diagnosis after cholecystectomy. Ten patients were T2 on initial cholecystectomy pathology and all underwent radical resection. Two patients were N1 on initial cholecystectomy pathology. Four were upstaged to N1 and two patients were upstaged to T3 after further surgery. Overall, 60 per cent patients with T2 disease had node positivity and 60 per cent were upstaged by further surgery. Eleven patients were diagnosed on imaging. Four of these patients were unresectable and six were either stage T3 or higher or node positive. Sixty per cent of T2 GBC was node positive and 60 per cent were upstaged with radical cholecystectomy. This finding supports the call for radical resection in patients with incidental diagnosis of T2 tumor on cholecystectomy. This study also emphasizes the role of radical surgery in accurate T staging. PMID:27305883

  8. Safety training: the elimination of avoidance-motivated aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tortora, D F

    1983-06-01

    This study sought to identify the behavioral characteristics and appropriate treatment of a form of instrumental aggression in companion dogs, herein recognized as avoidance-motivated aggression. In Experiment 1, retrospective data on 92 cases of dangerously aggressive dogs demonstrated the avoidance nature of the aggressive response and its intractability to established counterconditioning treatments. In Experiment 2, safety training, a modified avoidance-learning procedure, resulted in complete and permanent elimination of aggression in all of the 36 dogs tested. In addition, it produced extremely extinction-resistant prosocial avoidance responses, significant increases in the dogs' emotional stability, an avoidance-learning and safety acquisition response set, and improvements in measures of the dog's "carriage." Experiment 3 showed how effective safety training is when compared with other behavior modification techniques that, in theory, should have an impact on avoidance-motivated aggression. Experiment 4 demonstrated the critical importance of using the conditioned safety cue as a positive reinforcement. The relationship of avoidance-motivated aggression to other forms of aggression is discussed. The success of safety training compared with the failure of electrical aversion therapy is analyzed. The theoretical concepts of behavioral balance and an avoidance-learning set are presented. Suggestions to improve the effectiveness of counterconditioning for human avoidance-motivated pathologies are offered. All in all, the data seem to suggest that safety training may create in dogs a sense of control over environmental stressors. By teaching the dogs a behaviorally balanced battery of prosocial "coping" responses, they may be developing the canine counterpart of "self-efficacy" or "courage." It is suggested that this cognitive modification may provide the antithesis of "learned helplessness" and may be of prime importance to the success and stability of the

  9. Assessment of aggression in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Barbara E; Holoyda, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    The threat of violence is a major concern for all individuals working or receiving treatment in an inpatient psychiatric setting. One major focus in forensic psychology and psychiatry over the past several decades has been the development of risk assessments to aid in the identification of those individuals most at risk of exhibiting violent behavior. So-called second- and third-generation risk assessments were developed to improve the accuracy of decision making. While these instruments were developed for use in the community, many have proven to be effective in identifying patients more likely to exhibit institutional aggression. Because the purpose of risk assessment is the reduction of violence, dynamic factors were included in third-generation risk instruments to provide opportunities for intervention and methods for measuring change. Research with these instruments indicates that both static factors (second-generation) and dynamic factors (third-generation) are important in identifying those patients most likely to engage in institutional aggression, especially when the aggression is categorized by type (impulsive/reactive, organized/predatory/instrumental, psychotic). Recent research has indicated that developing a typology of aggressive incidents may provide insight both into precipitants to assaults as well as appropriate interventions to reduce such aggression. The extant literature suggests that both static and dynamic risk factors are important, but may be differentially related to the type of aggression exhibited and the characteristics of the individuals exhibiting the aggression. PMID:25296966

  10. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  11. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  12. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  13. Aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Yves; Beaulieu, Lucie; Paradis, Michel; Labonté, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies of aggressive behaviors in a nonforensic mental health setting have focused primarily on the inpatient ward and, on event prediction, using behavior-based clinical rating scales. Few studies have specifically targeted aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service or determined whether assessing the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients might prove useful for their more rapid identification. Methods: We used a prospectively acquired database of over 20,900 visits to four services in the province of Quebec, Canada, over a two-year period from September 2002 onwards. A maximum of 72 variables could be acquired per visit. Visits with aggression (any verbally or physically intimidating behavior), both present and past, were tagged. Binary logistic regressions and cross-tabulations were used to determine whether the profile of a variable differed in visits with aggression from those without aggression. Results: About 7% of visits were marked by current aggression (verbal 49%, physical 12%, verbal and physical 39%). Including visits with a “past only” history of aggression increased this number to 20%. Variables associated with aggression were gender (male), marital status (single/separated), education (high school or less), employment (none), judicial history (any type), substance abuse (prior or active), medication compliance (poor), type of arrival to psychiatric emergency services (involuntary, police, judiciary, landlord), reason for referral (behavioral dyscontrol), diagnosis (less frequent in anxiety disorders), and outcome (more frequently placed under observation or admitted). Conclusion: Our results suggest that many state-independent variables are associated with aggressive behaviors in the psychiatric emergency service. Although their sum may not add up to a specific patient profile, they can nevertheless be useful in service planning, being easily integrated alongside state-dependent rating scales in a

  14. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  15. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  16. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  17. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression.

  18. Escalation of aggression: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J H; Davis, R W; Herman, D

    1975-01-01

    A finding commonly obtained in research using the Buss "aggression machine" is a main effect for trail blocks, indicating an escalation in shock intensity over trails. Theoretical explanations for this effect were tested in a modified verbal operant-conditioning situation. In Experiment 1, subjects could administer any of 10 levels of positive reinforcement to a "learner" for correct verbal responses or any of 10 levels of negative reinforcement to a learner for incorrect responses. Half of the subjects were required to begin with weak, half with strong, reinforcements. Results indicated that, regardless of condition, subjects gave more intense reinforcements as the learning trails progressed. Those who administered negative reinforcements devalued the learner relative to those who administered positive reinforcements. In Experiment 2, a role-playing procedure was used in which subjects administered either positive or negative reinforcements to a learner whose performance either did or did not improve over trials. Again, in all experimental groups, subjects administered increasingly intense reinforcements over trials. The results are interpreted as supporting a disinhibition theory of anti- and prosocial behavior.

  19. The Role of Multimodal Invasive Monitoring in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, Christos; Robertson, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews the role of modalities that directly monitor brain parenchyma in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The physiology monitored involves compartmental and perfusion pressures, tissue oxygenation and metabolism, quantitative blood flow, pressure autoregulation, and electrophysiology. There are several proposed roles for this multimodality monitoring, such as to track, prevent, and treat the cascade of secondary brain injury; monitor the neurologically injured patient; integrate various data into a composite, patient-specific, and dynamic picture; apply protocolized, pathophysiology-driven intensive care; use as a prognostic marker; and understand pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in secondary brain injury to develop preventive and abortive therapies, and to inform future clinical trials. PMID:27637400

  20. [Aggressive behavior: theoretical and biological aspects].

    PubMed

    Giotakos, O

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility to aggression may manifest differently depending on the psychological context in which it occurs. In the context of psychopathy, characterized by a lack of empathy, this may manifest in aggression with criminal acts, which is characteristic of antisocial personality disorder. When the susceptibility is associated with psychotic impairment, aggression may be manifested in highly deviant behavior, like murder or serial killing. While the great majority of persons with schizophrenia do not commit violent acts, clinicians suggest that some schizophrenics may pose a risk in the community, particularly those patients with co-occurring substance abuse diagnoses, those who are noncompliant with prescribed psychiatric treatment, and those with a history of frequent relapses resulting in hospitalization or arrest. Episodic violence and aggression often accompany dementia. When coupled with emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression often occurs in an interpersonal context, as in borderline personality disorder. However, the most common comorbidity is the substance abuse disorder, which contributes to both the cognitive distortions and disinhibition associated with the substance use. According to the biological data, aggression seems to emerge when the drive of limbic-mediated affective prefrontal response to provocative producing stimuli is insufficiently constrained by inhibition. Thus, excessive reactivity in the amygdale, coupled with inadequate prefrontal regulation, increase the possibility of aggressive behavior. The PET/SPECT studies focusing on schizophrenia have shown reduced activity in fronto-temoral circuitry. The fMRI studies concord with the hypothesis that among violent persons with schizophrenia, those with sociopathetic features and/or substance abuse constitute a highly different subgroup, in which cognitive, neurological and behavioral patterns are more closely associated with the personality traits than schizophrenia. It is known

  1. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  2. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.

  3. Beyond endoscopic assessment in inflammatory bowel disease: real-time histology of disease activity by non-linear multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831

  4. Trajectories of change in physical aggression and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2007-06-01

    Physical aggression and marital satisfaction were assessed in 172 newlywed couples annually over the first 4 years of marriage to examine (a) stability of aggression over time and (b) the degree to which fluctuations in aggression precede versus follow fluctuations in marital satisfaction. The stability of aggression varied as a function of initial levels of severity; spouses who were most aggressive early in marriage had greater fluctuations in aggression. Rates of change in aggression predicted changes in satisfaction more than dissatisfaction predicted aggression. Husbands' physical aggression predicted marital discord, whereas wives' aggression predicted marital dissolution. By indicating that aggression (a) is a precursor to adverse marital outcomes and (b) varies across spouses in initial levels and in patterns of temporal change, the present findings highlight the need to understand the contextual factors that govern within-person and within-couple fluctuations in intimate violence.

  5. Role of antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis: A review of clinical trials in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Annapurna; Baiju, C. S.; Ahuja, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is well-recognized fact that periodontal diseases are caused by multifactorial etiologies, in which microorganisms play an important role. An essential component of therapy is to eliminate or manage these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means by scaling and root planning which is ineffective in some of the aggressive periodontal diseases. These aggressive diseases involve particular groups of microorganisms which are not eliminated by mechanical means; and they require anti-infective therapy, which includes local and systemic antimicrobials. This approach of therapy is of interest to periodontist due to the aforementioned shortcomings of conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A manual and electronic search was made for human studies up to March 2011 that presented clinical and microbiological data for the efficacy of a systemic antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis along with scaling and root planning. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, quality assessment, and determination of outcome measures, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Results: Only three randomized controlled human trials qualified, and they concluded that both scaling and root planing (SRP) mono-therapy and SRP with antibiotics proves beneficial in improving clinical and microbiological parameters in aggressive periodontitis. Better results were seen in SRP with antibiotic groups as compared with SRP alone. Conclusion: Because of the insufficient quantity and heterogenecity of studies, no adequate evidence could be gathered to use the beneficial effects of these antibiotics along with SRP in aggressive periodontitis compared with SRP alone. PMID:23162322

  6. The aggression paradox: understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences.

    PubMed

    Joireman, Jeff; Anderson, Jonathan; Strathman, Alan

    2003-06-01

    Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C.A. Anderson & B.J. Bushman. 2002), positing that hostile cognition and negative affect mediate the relationships between the aforementioned individual differences and aggression. Sensation seeking also predicted a desire to engage in physical and verbal aggression. The final study demonstrated that relative to those scoring low, individuals scoring high on the consideration of future consequences are only less aggressive when aggression is likely to carry future costs. PMID:12793590

  7. Indigenous Ways with Literacies: Transgenerational, Multimodal, Placed, and Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.; Davis-Warra, John; Sewell, Marlene; Anderson, Mikayla

    2016-01-01

    This research describes some of the salient features of Indigenous ways of working with multimodal literacies in digital contexts of use that emerged within an Indigenous school community with the oversight of Aboriginal Elders. This is significant because the use of multimodal literacy practices among a growing number of Indigenous school…

  8. Multimodal Teaching and Learning: Creating Spaces for Content Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her multimodal teaching practices in her "Adolescent Literacy Methods" course at a graduate university in the United States. By doing so, she highlights content teacher's understanding and use of various multimodal texts to effectively teach adolescents inside the classroom. In lieu of this, she raises…

  9. Multimodal Pedagogies in Diverse Classrooms: Representation, Rights and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal Pedagogies in Diverse Classrooms examines how the classroom can become a democratic space founded on the integration of different histories, modes of representation, feelings, languages and discourses, and is essential reading for anyone interested in the connection between multimodality, pedagogy, democracy and social justice in…

  10. Instantiation of Multimodal Semiotic Systems in Science Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2013-01-01

    Science classroom discourse is inherently multimodal in that scientific meanings are made through an integration of multiple semiotic systems (e.g., language, diagrams, equations). Although some studies have described this multimodal nature, few have examined and explained the relationship between the integration of multiple semiotic systems and…

  11. Multimode waveguide components for millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhooshan, S.; Mittra, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an investigation of multimode, planar dielectric waveguides for integrated circuit application at millimeter wavelengths. Two multimode devices have been fabricated and tested using the inverted strip guide (ISG), and a comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is given.

  12. Teaching Visual Texts with the Multimodal Analysis Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim Fei, Victor; O'Halloran, Kay L.; Tan, Sabine; E., Marissa K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study introduces the systemic approach and the explicit teaching of a meta-language to provide conceptual tools for students for the analysis and interpretation of multimodal texts. Equipping students with a set of specialised vocabulary with conventionalised meanings associated with specific choices in multimodal texts empowers…

  13. Fracturing Writing Spaces: Multimodal Storytelling Ignites Process Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenters, Kimberly; Winters, Kari-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the affordances of literature-based, arts-infused and digital media processes for students, as multimodal practices take centre stage in an English Language Arts unit on fractured fairy tales. The study takes up the challenge of addressing multimodal literacy instruction and research in ways that utilize a range of…

  14. Reading across Multiple Multimodal Sources in Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderino, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous studies of multiple text reading in history, this study aimed to contribute to that body of work by focusing on non-traditional multimodal sources. In an age of rapidly increasing access to and use of multimodal sources and a demand for reading and comprehending increasingly complex and specialized texts, it appeared there was…

  15. Critical Visual Literacy: Multimodal Communication across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Barb Blakely; Ellertson, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    "Critical Visual Literacy: Multimodal Communication Across the Curriculum" makes the case for expanding the pedagogical space and communication possibilities in undergraduate communication-intensive and linked (learning community) courses by allowing students to create multimodal texts that deal with civic and cultural and/or discipline…

  16. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  17. Level up with Multimodal Composition in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Students find multimodal composing highly engaging. Even with students' investment in designing multimodal texts, the teaching process is complex. The purpose for writing, audience, and genre must be considered in relation to the modes, digital authoring and presentation tools, and technology devices that are available to the composer. This…

  18. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  19. Expanding Perspectives for Comprehending Visual Images in Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The texts that adolescents encounter today are often multimodal, meaning they incorporate a variety of modes, including visual images, hypertext, and graphic design elements along with written text. Expanding the perspectives readers use to make sense of the multimodal texts is an important aspect of comprehension instruction. Moving beyond the…

  20. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…