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Sample records for aggressive periodontitis agp

  1. Molecular Differences between Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Kebschull, M.; Guarnieri, P.; Demmer, R.T.; Boulesteix, A.L.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    The 2 major forms of periodontitis, chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP), do not display sufficiently distinct histopathological characteristics or microbiological/immunological features. We used molecular profiling to explore biological differences between CP and AgP and subsequently carried out supervised classification using machine-learning algorithms including an internal validation. We used whole-genome gene expression profiles from 310 ‘healthy’ or ‘diseased’ gingival tissue biopsies from 120 systemically healthy non-smokers, 65 with CP and 55 with AgP, each contributing with ≥ 2 ‘diseased’ gingival papillae (n = 241; with bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≥ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm), and, when available, a ‘healthy’ papilla (n = 69; no bleeding-on-probing, probing depth ≤ 4 mm, and clinical attachment loss ≤ 4 mm). Our analyses revealed limited differences between the gingival tissue transcriptional profiles of AgP and CP, with genes related to immune responses, apoptosis, and signal transduction overexpressed in AgP, and genes related to epithelial integrity and metabolism overexpressed in CP. Different classifying algorithms discriminated CP from AgP with an area under the curve ranging from 0.63 to 0.99. The small differences in gene expression and the highly variable classifier performance suggest limited dissimilarities between established AgP and CP lesions. Future analyses may facilitate the development of a novel, ‘intrinsic’ classification of periodontitis based on molecular profiling. PMID:24122488

  2. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  3. Maintenance periodontal therapy after systemic antibiotic and regenerative therapy of generalized aggressive periodontitis. A case report with 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Sergio Júnior; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Villalpando, Karina Teixeira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Pimentel, Suzana Peres

    2015-05-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction. This case report presents the 10-year results in a subject with generalized AgP treated by a regenerative periodontal therapeutic approach and the adjunctive use of antibiotics, following a systematic maintenance periodontal therapy. The use of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and adjunctive antibiotic therapy to treat AgP yielded improvements in clinical parameters and radiographic bony fill. This combined therapeutic approach following a systematic supportive periodontal therapy supports the long-term maintenance of teeth with previous advanced periodontal defects, demonstrating successful stability after 10-years follow-up. Clinical Relevance: The combined treatment protocol using EMD plus adjunctive antibiotic therapy, associated with a systematic supportive periodontal therapy, benefits the long-term maintenance of teeth with previous advanced periodontal defects in subjects presenting AgP, supporting this approach as an alternative in the treatment of AgP. PMID:26062264

  4. Subgingival microbial profiles of Sudanese patients with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Elabdeen, H. R. Z.; Mustafa, M.; Hasturk, H.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Ali, R. W.; Paster, B. J.; Dyke, T. Van; Bolstad, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is prevalent and shows a rapid course in African individuals. Although a strong focus has been placed on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, new methods support the existence of a complex subgingival microflora in AgP. The purpose of the present study was to map the subgingival microbiota as well as explore the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the JP2 clone in a group of Sudanese individuals with AgP, using different analytical methods. Material and Methods A study population consisting of 19 patients with AgP was recruited from patients seeking treatment at University of Science and Technology (UST) in Khartoum. Fifteen healthy subjects were included as controls. Plaque samples were analyzed for 272 taxa using human oral microbe identification microarrays and for 26 periodontal taxa using DNA-DNA hybridization checkerboard. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the JP2 clone in plaque. Saliva from patients with AgP was analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results Eubacterium yurii was detected more frequently in patients with AgP than in controls, and E. nodatum was found in patients with AgP only. A. actinomycetemcomitans was found in plaque samples of two (12%) patients by human oral microbe identification microarrays and in five (29%) patients with AgP by conventional PCR, as well as in six (32%) of the AgP saliva samples by qPCR. The JP2 clone was identified in only one patient. Conclusion The classical periodontal pathogens were not present in high amounts in AgP in the population studied here. Species of Eubacterium, which are not typically associated with AgP, were often detected in individuals with disease. Using laboratory methods with different sensitivities and detection levels allowed identification of variances in microbial communities. The findings reported in this

  5. Interleukin polymorphisms in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Maney, Pooja; Owens, Jessica Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP), occurs in a younger age group (≤35 years) and is associated with the rapid destruction of periodontal attachment and supporting bone. Genetic polymorphisms are allelic variants that occur in at least 1% of the population that could potentially alter the function of the proteins that they encode. Interleukins are a group of cytokines that have complex immunological functions including proliferation, migration, growth and differentiation of cells and play a key role in the immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aim of this review was to summarize the findings of studies that reported associations or potential associations of polymorphisms in the interleukin family of cytokines, specifically with AgP. PMID:26015661

  6. IL-1 gene cluster is not linked to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Borzani, I; Guarnelli, M E; Mamolini, E; Annunziata, M; Guida, L; Trombelli, L

    2010-05-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene family has been associated with susceptibility to periodontal diseases, including aggressive periodontitis (AgP); however, the results are still conflicting. The present study investigated the association between IL-1 genes and AgP using 70 markers spanning the 1.1-Mb region, where the IL-1 gene family maps, and exploring both the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the haplotype structure in a case-control study including 95 patients and 121 control individuals. No association between AgP and IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes was found in either single-point or haplotype analyses. Also, the LD map of the region 2q13-14 under the Malécot model for multiple markers showed no causal association between AgP and polymorphisms within the region (p = 0.207). In conclusion, our findings failed to support the existence of a causative variant for generalized AgP within the 2q13-14 region in an Italian Caucasian population. PMID:20335539

  7. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p < 0.001). The mean GCF level of periostin was lowest in the AgP group as compared to the other groups and was lower in the CP group as compared to the NP group (p < 0.001). Increased levels of periostin were observed in the saliva of patients with AgP as compared to the CP and NP groups (p < 0.05). There was a negative relationship between GCF periostin levels and clinical parameters (p < 0.01), whereas a positive correlation was observed between salivary periostin levels and full-mouth GI and CAL scores (p < 0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating periostin levels in GCF and saliva in aggressive periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease. PMID:26931107

  8. Gene--gene interaction among cytokine polymorphisms influence susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Mamolini, E; Carrieri, A; Guarnelli, M E; Annunziata, M; Guida, L; Romano, F; Aimetti, M; Trombelli, L

    2011-09-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a multifactorial disease. The distinctive aspect of periodontitis is that this disease must deal with a large number of genes interacting with one another and forming complex networks. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that gene-gene interaction may have a crucial role. Therefore, we carried out a pilot case-control study to identify the association of candidate epistatic interactions between genetic risk factors and susceptibility to AgP, by using both conventional parametric analyses and a higher order interactions model, based on the nonparametric Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction algorithm. We analyzed 122 AgP patients and 246 appropriate periodontally healthy individuals, and genotyped 28 polymorphisms, located within 14 candidate genes, chosen among the principal genetic variants pointed out from literature and having a role in inflammation and immunity. Our analyses provided significant evidence for gene--gene interactions in the development of AgP, in particular, present results: (a) indicate a possible role of two new polymorphisms, within SEPS1 and TNFRSF1B genes, in determining host individual susceptibility to AgP; (b) confirm the potential association between of IL-6 and Fc γ- receptor polymorphisms and the disease; (c) exclude an essential contribution of IL-1 cluster gene polymorphisms to AgP in our Caucasian-Italian population. PMID:21593780

  9. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Doufexi, Aikaterini-Ellisavet

    2016-01-01

    Background Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a severe form of periodontal diseases with rapid destruction of the supporting bone around teeth. The efficacy of PDT in suppressing periodontal pathogens may be crucial in adopting new protocols for the treatment of AgP. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the possible role of PDT in the treatment of AgP as an adjunctive therapy or monotherapy. Material and Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed. Additionally, the references from all the selected full-text studies were searched for relevant articles. Two reviewers screened independently titles and abstracts or full text copies. Quality assessment of all the included studies was held. Results Initial screening of electronic databases yielded 418 potentially relevant publications. After screening of the titles and full-text examination, five studies were included in the systematic review. Four publications evaluated the effects of PDT adjunctive to SRP in patients with AgP: two of them compared the clinical outcomes of SRP and PDT with a control group that received therapy with SRP and antibiotics (metronidazole and amoxicillin); two publications included SRP and PDT in the test group, and SRP alone in the control group. In one study, PDT was tested as a monotherapy compared with SRP alone. Conclusions Within the limitations of this review, PDT may exhibit a beneficial role in the therapy of aggressive periodontitis after repeated applications. In the future, more methodologically sound, long-term randomized clinical trials are needed to be conducted. Key words:Photodynamic therapy, periodontitis, systematic review. PMID:26595837

  10. Outcomes of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in severe generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aggressive periodontitis, especially in its severe form, was traditionally considered to have an unfavourable prognosis. It required a complex treatment and its stabilization was often achieved by surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in severe generalized forms of aggressive periodontitis. Methods Patients with advanced generalized aggressive periodontitis were included in the study. Probing depth (PD) of pockets ≥7 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL) of sites with attachment loss ≥5 mm were measured at baseline before nonsurgical periodontal treatment, at re-evaluation, and after treatment. The following other parameters were recorded: resolution of inflammation and bone fill. We compared the baseline values with re-evaluation and posttreatment values using the Friedman test. The Wilcoxon test with the Bonferroni correction was used for both re-evaluation and posttreatment values. Results Seven patients with 266 periodontal sites were examined. A significant difference was found between values, reported as medians with interquartile ranges, for PD at baseline (7.94 [7.33-8.19] mm) and both re-evaluation (4.33 [3.63-5.08] mm) and posttreatment (3.54 [3.33-4.11] mm) values (P=0.002). A significant difference was also found between values for CAL at baseline (9.02 [7.5-9.2] mm) and both re-evaluation (6.55 [6.30-6.87] mm) and posttreatment (6.45 [5.70-6.61] mm) (P=0.002). Inflammation was resolved and angular bone defects were repaired in all cases. Conclusions These therapeutic results suggest that this form of periodontitis could have positive outcomes after nonsurgical periodontal treatment. The reparative potential of tissue affected by severe aggressive periodontitis should encourage clinicians to save apparently hopeless teeth in cases of this form of periodontitis. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177522

  11. Increased systemic elastase and C-reactive protein in aggressive periodontitis (CLOI-D-00160R2).

    PubMed

    Wohlfeil, Martin; Scharf, Susanne; Siegelin, Yasemin; Schacher, Beate; Oremek, Gerhard M; Sauer-Eppel, Hildegund; Schubert, Ralf; Eickholz, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The inflammatory mediators, serum elastase and C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare systemic inflammatory mediators in periodontally healthy controls (C), patients with untreated aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis. C [periodontal pocket probing depth (PPD)  <3.6 or <5 mm without bleeding (BOP), BOP < 10%], ChP (PDD ≥ 3.6 mm and probing attachment loss ≥5 mm at >30% of sites; age >35 years), and AgP (clinically healthy; PDD ≥ 3.6 mm at >30% of sites, bone loss ≥50% at ≥2 teeth; age ≤35 years) were examined clinically, and the body mass index was assessed. Blood was sampled for assessment of serum levels of elastase, CRP, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), interleukin (IL) 6, 8, and leukocyte counts. Thirty C, 31 ChP, and 29 AgP were analyzed. Elastase, CRP, LBP, and IL-6 levels were elevated in AgP compared to C (p < 0.013), whereas leukocyte counts and IL-8 were similar. Multiple regression analysis identified AgP (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001) to explain 47% of the variation of elastase. AgP (p = 0.003), African origin (p = 0.006), female sex (p = 0.002), and BMI (p < 0.001) explained 39% of the variation of CRP. Serum elastase and CRP are significantly elevated in AgP compared to C. AgP patients exhibit a stronger systemic inflammatory burden than C patients. PMID:22009184

  12. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  13. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care. PMID:25810600

  14. A Putative Association of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in GPR126 with Aggressive Periodontitis in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yoshihiro; Imai, Atsuko; Kawai, Shinji; Michikami, Ikumi; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease causing loss of tooth-supporting periodontal tissue. Disease susceptibility to the rapidly progressive form of periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis (AgP), appears to be influenced by genetic risk factors. To identify these in a Japanese population, we performed whole exome sequencing of 41 unrelated generalized or localized AgP patients. We found that AgP is putatively associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs536714306 in the G-protein coupled receptor 126 gene, GPR126 [c.3086 G>A (p.Arg1029Gln)]. Since GPR126 activates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, we performed cAMP ELISA analysis of cAMP concentrations, and found that rs536714306 impaired the signal transactivation of GPR126. Moreover, transfection of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells with wild-type or mutant GPR126 containing rs536714306 showed that wild-type GPR126 significantly increased the mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and Runx2 genes, while mutant GPR126 had no effect on the expression of these calcification-related genes. The increase in expression of these genes was through the GPR126-induced increase of bone morphogenic protein-2, inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) 2, and ID4 expression. These data indicate that GPR126 might be important in maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal ligament tissues through regulating the cytodifferentiation of HPDL cells. The GPR126 SNP rs536714306 negatively influences this homeostasis, leading to the development of AgP, suggesting that it is a candidate genetic risk factor for AgP in the Japanese population. PMID:27509131

  15. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dong; Liu, Yun-Yu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhi-Bin; Meng, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases. Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health. The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation. Methods: Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006, and 44 healthy controls (staff and student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited. Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables. Results: Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7 ± 4.4 ng/ml vs. 7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml, P < 0.01). After controlling for age, gender, and body mass index, positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP), and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05). Log-transformed IL-1β and IL-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients. PMID:25673458

  16. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  17. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. PMID:27418983

  18. Comparison of salivary levels of mucin and amylase and their relation with clinical parameters obtained from patients with aggressive and chronic periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    ACQUIER, Andrea Beatriz; PITA, Alejandra Karina De Couto; BUSCH, Lucila; SÁNCHEZ, Gabriel Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Salivary mucin and amylase levels are increased in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). Due to the fact that aggressive periodontitis (AgP) not only differs from chronic periodontitis in terms of its clinical manifestation, the aim of this study was to compare salivary mucin and amylase levels and their relation to the clinical parameters of patients with aggressive periodontitis with that of patients with chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods Eighty subjects were divided into two groups: 20 patients with AgP and their 20 matched controls and 20 patients with CP and their 20 matched controls, based on clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Whole unstimulated saliva was obtained and mucin, amylase and protein were determined by colorimetric methods. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between salivary mucin, amylase and protein levels and the clinical parameters. Results Salivary mucin, amylase and protein levels were increased in patients with AgP and CP but there were no differences between them or between control groups. Pearson’s correlation analysis, determined in the entire subjects studied, showed a positive and significant correlation of mucin, amylase and proteins with CAL and PPD and a negative correlation with the flow rate. When Pearson’s correlation analysis was carried out in each group separately, Fisher’s z transformation showed no significant difference between both groups. Conclusion Comparison of the salivary levels of mucin, amylase and protein and their relationship with clinical parameters of AgP patients with that of CP patients revealed no differences between both groups. PMID:26221923

  19. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. Results: When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P < 0.001) with the highest mean Ca level in Group IV and Group V, which include smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with higher mean salivary Ca in non-smokers having chronic periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. PMID:26942120

  20. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Emmanuel; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia; Gurgel, Bruno César; Sarmento, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjuvant to scaling and root planning (SRP) yields better results than SRP alone or associated with systemic antibiotics in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (AgP). A meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statements and Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. The search for relevant studies (earliest record to January 2015) was carried out in seven databases, followed by a manual search. Methodological quality assessment of the studies selected was based on an analysis of the risk of bias. At each time point of follow-up, the existence of significant differences (p < 0.05) in clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD) reduction (primary outcomes) between groups was assessed with RevMan software 5.0. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Higgin test (I (2)). Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) satisfied the eligibility criteria of this review. Only one study was found to have a low risk of bias. There were no significant differences in PD reduction (mean difference 0.33, 95 % confidence interval -0.32 to 0.98, p = 0.32) and CAL gain (mean difference 0.20, 95 % confidence interval -0.41 to 0.81, p = 0.53) between the test and control interventions. At present, therefore, when compared to SRP alone or associated with systemic antibiotics, the evidence suggests that the association of aPDT + SRP is of no additional benefit in the nonsurgical treatment of AgP. PMID:26563956

  1. An unusual presentation of generalized aggressive periodontitis with multiple impacted supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Arif; Meethil, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly but affects only a small percentage of population. Most of the cases are familial. The presence of supernumerary teeth is also rather rare and often familial. Therefore, a concomitant presentation of aggressive periodontitis and supernumerary teeth in an individual has generated a great interest among clinicians. Here, we report a rare nonsyndromic case of generalized aggressive periodontitis with multiple impacted supernumerary teeth. PMID:22904664

  2. Interaction of IL1B and IL1RN polymorphisms, smoking habit, gender, and ethnicity with aggressive and chronic periodontitis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Magali Silveira Monteiro; Pacheco, Renata Botelho Antunes; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães; Macedo, Jacyara Maria Brito

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, associations between IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms and the disease remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the importance of IL1B-511C>T (rs16944), IL1B +3954C>T (rs1143634), and IL1RN intron 2 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) (rs2234663) polymorphisms, individually or in combination, as the risk factors of periodontitis in a Southeastern Brazilian population with a high degree of miscegenation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 145 individuals, with aggressive (aggressive periodontitis [AgP], n = 43) and chronic (chronic periodontitis [CP], n = 52) periodontitis, and controls (n = 50) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (IL1RN intron 2 VNTR) or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (IL1B-511 C>T and IL1B + 3954C>T) techniques. Statistical Analysis: The independent t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used. The SNPStats program was used for haplotype estimation and multiplicative interaction analyses. Results: The IL1B +3954T allele represented risk for CP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.84), particularly in smokers (OR = 4.43) and females (OR = 6.00). The minor alleles IL1RN*2 and *3 increased the risk of AgP (OR = 2.18), especially the IL1RN*2*2 genotype among  white Brazilians (OR = 7.80). Individuals with the combinations of the IL1B + 3954T and IL1RN*2 or *3-containing genotypes were at increased risk of developing CP (OR = 4.50). Considering the three polymorphisms (rs16944, rs1143634, and rs2234663), the haplotypes TC2 and CT1 represented risk for AgP (OR = 3.41) and CP (OR = 6.39), respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the IL1B +3954C>T and IL1RN intron 2 VNTR polymorphisms are potential candidates for genetic biomarkers of periodontitis, particularly in specific groups of individuals.

  3. Differential expression of salivary glycoproteins in aggressive and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Daniela de Morais; ZENÓBIO, Elton Gonçalves; VAN DYKE, Thomas; SILVA, Karine Simões; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira; SOARES, Rodrigo Villamarim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of secretion and the expression of mucin glycoprotein-2 (MG2) and lactoferrin in individuals with or without periodontitis. Material and Methods Five individuals with aggressive periodontitis (APG), 5 with generalized chronic periodontitis (CPG) and 5 without periodontitis (CG) were enrolled after informed consent. Non-stimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual saliva was collected and samples analyzed by Western blot probed with specific antibodies. Results Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates did not differ among groups. Western blot analysis revealed that stimulation led to: an increase in MG2 expression in all groups, and to lactoferrin expression in APG and CPG. In non-stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of both glycoproteins. In stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of MG2, whereas APG the highest of lactoferrin. Conclusions The pattern of secretion of MG2 and lactoferrin in health and disease is complex. Although the present study analyzed samples from a limited number of participants, the reduced expression of MG2 and lactoferrin in APG and CPG under non-stimulated condition, the predominant circumstance of salivary secretion during the day, suggests that these salivary constituents may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22666834

  4. Implants and all-ceramic restorations in a patient treated for aggressive periodontitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin-Sun; Yeo, In-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2010-01-01

    A 23-year-old female with aggressive periodontitis was treated using dental implants and LAVA system. The severely compromised teeth were extracted irrespective of initial conservative periodontal treatment. An implant-supported overdenture with 4 implants was fabricated for the maxilla and all-ceramic restorations for the mandible. Esthetic and functional goals were achieved with team approach involving periodontists and prosthodontists. This case report describes a treatment procedure for a generalized aggressive periodontitis patient with severe bone resorption. PMID:21165277

  5. Persistence of Extracrevicular Bacterial Reservoirs After Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason D.; Chen, Ruoqiong; Lenton, Patricia A.; Zhang, Guizhen; Hinrichs, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that periodontal pathogens associated with aggressive periodontitis persist in extracrevicular locations following scaling and root planing, systemic antibiotics, and anti-microbial rinses. Methods Eighteen aggressive periodontitis patients received a clinical exam during which samples of subgingival plaque and buccal epithelial cells were obtained. Treatment consisted of full-mouth root planing, systemic antibiotics, and chlorhexidine rinses. Clinical measurements were repeated along with sampling at 3 and 6 months. Quantitative PCR determined the number of plaque Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphymonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal microscopy determined the extent of intracellular invasion in epithelial cells. Results Clinical measurements significantly improved following treatment. All bacterial species except P. gingivalis were significantly reduced in plaque from baseline to 3 months. However, all species showed a trend to repopulate between 3 and 6 months. This increase was statistically significant for log T. denticola counts. All species were detected intracellularly. The percentage of cells infected intracellularly was not affected by therapy. Conclusions The 6-month increasing trend in levels of plaque bacteria suggests that subgingival re-colonization was occurring. Since the presence of these species within epithelial cells was not altered after treatment, it is plausible that re-colonization may occur from the oral mucosa. Interestingly, systemic antibiotics and topical chlorhexidine did not reduce the percentage of invaded epithelial cells. These data support the hypothesis that extracrevicular reservoirs of bacteria exist, which might contribute to recurrent or refractory disease in some patients. PMID:19053921

  6. Is there a common pathogenesis in aggressive periodontitis & ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 patient?

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Neeraj; Agarwal, Kavita; Varshney, Atul; Agrawal, Navneet; Dubey, Ashutosh

    2016-05-01

    HLA-B27 is having strong association to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other inflammatory diseases collectively known as seronegative spondyloarthropathy. In literature, although the evidence for association between AS and periodontitis as well as AS and HLA-B27 are there but the association of aggressive periodontitis in HLA-B27 positive patient with AS are not there. We hypothesize that there may be a common pathogenesis in aggressive periodontitis and ankylosing spondylitis in HLA-B27 patient. A 27-years-old female presented with the features of generalized aggressive periodontitis and difficulty in walking. On complete medical examination, ankylosing spondylitis was diagnosed with further positive HLA-B27 phenotype and negative rheumatic factor. This report may open up a new link to explore in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis. PMID:27063088

  7. Estimation of salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeja S.; Thomas, Hima; Jayakumar, N. D.; Sankari, M.; Lakshmanan, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by persistent inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important pro-inflammatory mediator that produced causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the salivary TNF-α in chronic and aggressive periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the levels with clinical parameter such as gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 75 subjects age ranging from 25 to 55 years attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital. The study groups included Groups 1, 2, and 3 with participants with healthy periodontium (n = 25), generalized chronic periodontitis (n = 25) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (n = 25), respectively. Salivary samples from the participants were used to assess the TNF-α levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: GI and PI were found to be significantly higher in chronic and aggressive periodontitis compared to the controls. The mean TNF-α value in chronic periodontitis patients (12.92 ± 17.21 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in control subjects (2.15 ± 3.60 pg/ml). Whereas, in aggressive periodontitis patients the mean TNF-α (7.23 ± 7.67) were not significantly different from chronic periodontitis or healthy subjects. Among periodontitis participants, aggressive periodontitis subjects exhibited a significant positive correlation between the salivary TNF-α and PPD. Conclusion: Salivary TNF-α levels are significantly higher in chronic periodontitis than in healthy subjects, but there was no significant correlation with the clinical parameters. PMID:26604566

  8. Inflammatory Response Influences Treatment of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Allin, N; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Velsko, I; Vovk, A; Hovemcamp, N; Harrison, P; Huang, H; Aukhil, I; Wallet, S M; Shaddox, L M

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported a systemic hyperinflammatory response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). Additionally, different levels of this response were observed within the LAP group. It is unknown whether this hyperinflammatory response influences the clinical response to periodontal treatment in these children. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of LPS responsiveness present prior to treatment on the clinical response to treatment within the LAP cohort. Prior to treatment, peripheral blood was collected from 60 African American participants aged 5 to 21 y, free of systemic diseases, and diagnosed with LAP. Blood was stimulated with ultrapure LPS from Escherichia coli, and Luminex assays were performed to quantify 14 cytokine/chemokine levels. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to find patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression among participants and subdivide them into clusters. Three distinct clusters emerged among LAP participants: a high responder group (high level of response for INFg, IL6, and IL12p40), a mixed responder group (low for some and high for other cytokines/chemokines), and a low responder group (low overall cytokine/chemokine response). Periodontal clinical parameters were compared among these groups prior to and 3, 6, and 12 mo following treatment with mechanical debridement and systemic antibiotics. High responders presented the lowest reductions in clinical parameters after treatment, whereas the low responders presented the highest reductions. In our LAP participants, distinct patterns of LPS response were significantly predictive of changes in clinical parameters after treatment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms predicting the heterogeneity of LAP activity, severity, and response to treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01330719). PMID:26917438

  9. Full mouth fixed implant rehabilitation in a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Shin, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a destructive periodontal disease that can develop in young age. Only a few cases of full mouth rehabilitation, using dental implants, have been reported in a patient with aggressive periodontitis. CASE DESCRIPTION This clinical report describes the treatment procedures and results of full mouth rehabilitation in a patient with aggressive periodontitis. After all teeth were extracted, 6 implants were placed in the maxilla and mandible, respectively. Fixed detachable implant prostheses were made. The patient was satisfied with the final results. She was followed for 10 months postloading. CLINICAL IMPLICATION For a long-term success, continuous maintenance care is critical, as the contributing factors of the disease (such as immune factors or periodontal pathogens) may not be controlled adequately. PMID:21264195

  10. Levels of Selenomonas species in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Lucas F. H.; Fermiano, Daiane; Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene C.; Teles, Flavia R. P.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.; Faveri, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the levels of Selenomonas sputigena and uncultivated/unrecognized Selenomonas species in subgingival biofilms from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) and periodontaly healthy (PH) subjects. Material and Methods GAgP (n=15) and PH (n=15) subjects were recruited and their clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected (9 samples/subject) and analyzed for the levels of 10 bacterial taxa, including cultivated and uncultivated/unrecognized microorganisms using the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique (ROQT). Differences in the levels of the test taxa between groups were sought using the Mann-Whitney test. Results GAgP subjects showed significantly higher mean counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas sputigena and Selenomonas oral clone CS002 (Human Oral Microbial Database (HOMD) Oral Taxon 131), while Actinomyces gerencseriae and Streptococcus sanguinis were found in higher mean counts in PH subjects (p<0.01). Selenomonas EW084 (HOMD OT 146) was only detected in the GAgP group. In the GAgP group, levels of P. gingivalis and S. sputigena were higher in sites with probing depth (PD) ≥5mm than in shallow sites (PD ≤3mm) (p<0.01). Furthermore, sites with PD≤3mm in GAgP subjects harbored higher levels of these two species than sites in PH subjects. There were positive correlations between PD and levels of P. gingivalis (r=0.77; p<0.01), S. sputigena (r=0.60; p<0.01) and Selenomonas sp. EW076 (OT 139) (r=042, p<0.05). Conclusion S. sputigena, Selenomonas sp. oral CS002 (OT 131) and Selenomonas sp. oral clone EW084 (OT 146) may be associated with the pathogenesis of GAgP, and their role in the onset and progression of this infection should be further investigated. PMID:22612405

  11. Clinical Case Report on Treatment of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Ho, Ya-Ping; Ho, Kun-Yen; Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease associated with considerably more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. This study presents the 5-year follow-up of a patient with GAgP. A 29-year-old man reported experiencing increasing gingival recession. He was treated using cause-related therapy, provisional splints, and flap surgery combined with allograft grafting and was followed up for 5 years. This case study shows that elimination of infectious microorganisms and meticulous long-term maintenance provide an effective treatment modality for aggressive periodontitis cases. This treatment modality can restore the masticatory function and provide the GAgP patient with improved quality of life. PMID:25909527

  12. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases.

    PubMed

    Piergallini, G; Malerba, A; Mazzucchelli, L; Strohmenger, L

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn't suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease. PMID:25573711

  13. Implant Rehabilitation in Advanced Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasaeipour, Sasan; Siadat, Hakimeh; Rasouli, Amiralireza; Sajedinejadd, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have provided exceptional rehabilitative options for edentulous and partially edentulous patients. However, as more implants come into play, the more the clinicians come across problems where specific considerations must be taken into account to meet expectations. The Toronto Bridge is a treatment modality proposed for restoring several teeth lost in patients with increased crown height (interarch) space. Herein, we applied the Toronto Bridge to rehabilitate a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis; this article suggests that an implant-supported Toronto Bridge can be a reliable and acceptable treatment modality for patients suffering from tooth loss and vertical bone loss as the result of generalized aggressive periodontal disease. PMID:27123022

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-α G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and aggressive periodontitis susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yong-Ji; Wu, Lan; Cui, Li-Jun; Hu, Ding-Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) were inconsistent, hence we performed this meta-analysis to clarify the association between them using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v2.2 software. 16 case-control studies were searched from the PubMed, Embase and CNKI databases up to February 2, 2015. The meta-analysis showed a significantly increased risk in A vs. G (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.04–1.44), AA vs. GG (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.11–3.87), and AA vs. AG+GG genetic models (OR = 2.09, 95%CI = 1.13–3.86); however, the non-significantly increased risk was shown in AG vs. GG (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85–1.32) and AA+AG vs. GG genetic models (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85–1.31). Cumulative analysis showed that the association changed from non-significant to significant with new studies accumulated and the CIs became more and more narrow, sensitivity analysis indicated results were statistically robust. Stratified analyses of confirmed of HWE, Asians, Caucasians, and population-based controls obtained results similar to that of overall analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias. In summary, current evidence demonstrates that TNF-a G-308A polymorphism might be associated with AgP susceptibility, especially in Asians and Caucasians. PMID:26750615

  15. Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roshna, T.; Nandakumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review. PMID:22291715

  16. Detection and comparison of Selenomonas sputigena in subgingival biofilms in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Disha; Prakash, Shobha; Bhat, Kishore Gajanan; Singh, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the advent of DNA-based culture-independent techniques, a constantly growing number of Selenomonas phylotypes have been detected in patients with destructive periodontal diseases. However, the prevalence levels that have been determined in different studies vary considerably. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect and compare the presence of Selenomonas sputigena in the subgingival plaque samples from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), chronic generalized periodontitis, and periodontally healthy patients using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were categorized as periodontally healthy individuals (Group I, n = 30), chronic generalized periodontitis (Group II, n = 30), and GAP (Group III, n = 30). The clinical parameters were recorded and subgingival plaque samples were collected. These were then subjected to conventional PCR analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Mann–Whitney U-test for pairwise comparison. Results: On comparison between three groups, all the clinical parameters were found to be statistically highly significant. Comparing Groups I-II and I-III, the difference in detection was found to be statistically highly significant whereas in Groups II-III, it was statistically nonsignificant. On comparison of S. sputigena detected and undetected patients to clinical parameters in various study groups, the difference was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion: S. sputigena was found to be significantly associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Although the difference in its detection frequency in both groups was statistically nonsignificant when compared clinically, S. sputigena was more closely associated with the GAP. PMID:27563202

  17. Are herpes virus associated to aggressive periodontitis? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Maria de Sousa; Teixeira, Ana Luísa; Kustner, Eduardo Chimenos; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal Disease includes a wide variety of infectious entities with various clinical manifestations in the oral cavity and responses to treatment. The determinants of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease include the type of infectious agent, the host immune response and environmental factors. Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is defined as a type of inflammation with specific clinical and laboratory features, which distinguish it from other types of periodontitis, with high incidence rates in a sub-group of individuals. Bacteria have been frequently mentioned as the agent inciting gingival inflammation and tissue destruction that underlies the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, recent studies, with some controversial results, have suggested that the herpes family of viruses, including CMV and EBV-1 as well as papillomaviruses, HIV, Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, Torquetenovirus and hepatitis B and C occur with high frequency in active periodontal lesions. There is a lack of information about this disease and the role of herpesviruses in its pathophysiology. This review provides a critical analysis of the scientific evidence linking bacteria and viruses with AP and their potential impact on clinical characteristics, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26980964

  18. Are herpes virus associated to aggressive periodontitis? A review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Maria de Sousa; Teixeira, Ana Luísa; Kustner, Eduardo Chimenos; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal Disease includes a wide variety of infectious entities with various clinical manifestations in the oral cavity and responses to treatment. The determinants of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease include the type of infectious agent, the host immune response and environmental factors. Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is defined as a type of inflammation with specific clinical and laboratory features, which distinguish it from other types of periodontitis, with high incidence rates in a sub-group of individuals. Bacteria have been frequently mentioned as the agent inciting gingival inflammation and tissue destruction that underlies the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, recent studies, with some controversial results, have suggested that the herpes family of viruses, including CMV and EBV-1 as well as papillomaviruses, HIV, Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, Torquetenovirus and hepatitis B and C occur with high frequency in active periodontal lesions. There is a lack of information about this disease and the role of herpesviruses in its pathophysiology. This review provides a critical analysis of the scientific evidence linking bacteria and viruses with AP and their potential impact on clinical characteristics, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26980964

  19. [Complete dental care of patients suffering from localized aggressive periodontitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2015-12-01

    A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected. PMID:26863818

  20. [Markers of periodontal diseases and sensitivity to taromentine in patients with aggressive periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Iverieli, M V; Abashidze, N O; Gogishvili, Kh B

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the research was to study sensitivity of specific microorganisms from the periodontal pockets of patients with rapidly progressive periodontal disease to Taromentine. 95 patients aged 21 to 35 years (50 women (52,6+/-33,62) and 45 men (47,36+/-3,62)) with rapidly progressive form of periodontal desease were observed. Porphiromonas gingivalis was identifide in 83 out of 95 patients (87,36+/-2,06). Prevotella intermedia - in 31 patients (32,6+/-2,750); Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans - in 23 patients (24,2+/-2,050); Bacteroides forsythus - in 19 patients (20,0+/-2,360); Treponema denticola - in 16 patients (16,84+/-2,190); Candida - in 11 patients (11,57+/-1,80). The sensitivity of all cultures to Taromentine was investigated: 134 (77,9+/-1,89) out of 183 identified markers demonstrated sensitivity to Taromentine. Demostrated sensitivity to Taromentine: 64 (37,2+/-1,06) out of 83 identified cultures of Porphiromonas gingivalis, 24 (13,95+/-1,85) out of 31 identified cultures of Prevotela intermedia, 18 (10,47+/-1,05) out of 23 identified cultures of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, 15 (8,7+/-1,86) out of 19 identified cultures of Bacteroides forsythus, and 13 (7,84+/-1,09) out of 16 identified cultures of Treponema denticola. Totally 38 (22,1+/-1,59) out of 172 identified periodontal markers demonstrated resistence to Taromentine. The results of analysis showed that Taromentine could be recommended in complex treatment of periodontal diseases. PMID:19430039

  1. Nonsyndromic localized aggressive periodontitis of primary dentition: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Muppa, Radhika; Nallanchakrava, Srinivas; Chinta, Mahesh; Manthena, Ravi Teja

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva and tissues of the periodontium. It is characterized by pocket formation and destruction of supporting alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases of aggressive nature are not very common in children. They are usually associated with systemic conditions. The present case report is of a 5-year-old male child who reported with rapid attachment loss and bony defects of the gingiva and supporting structures. His family and medical history gave no contribution for the diagnosis. Blood investigations did not reveal any abnormality. The microbial examination of culture revealed the presence of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The treatment objective in the present case was to prevent the further progress of the condition, restore esthetic and function in the child which would psychologically benefit the child. PMID:27307682

  2. Nonsyndromic localized aggressive periodontitis of primary dentition: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Nallanchakrava, Srinivas; Chinta, Mahesh; Manthena, Ravi Teja

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the gingiva and tissues of the periodontium. It is characterized by pocket formation and destruction of supporting alveolar bone. Periodontal diseases of aggressive nature are not very common in children. They are usually associated with systemic conditions. The present case report is of a 5-year-old male child who reported with rapid attachment loss and bony defects of the gingiva and supporting structures. His family and medical history gave no contribution for the diagnosis. Blood investigations did not reveal any abnormality. The microbial examination of culture revealed the presence of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The treatment objective in the present case was to prevent the further progress of the condition, restore esthetic and function in the child which would psychologically benefit the child. PMID:27307682

  3. Effect of Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Serum C-reactive Protein Levels Using ELISA in Both Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bharat; Patil, Neha; Yadav, Manoj; Tripathi, Shashank; Sinha, Saurabh; Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontitis can be defined as a local inflammatory process which mediates destruction of periodontal tissues & is triggered by bacterial insult. In periodontal infections, the levels of C reactive proteins are elevated as compared to the levels in a periodontally healthy individual. The study was done to determine the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive, chronic and periodontally healthy subjects and to evaluate the effect of surgical periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein levels. Materials and Methods Serum samples were collected from 150 participants (50 healthy control patients (non-periodontitis), 50 patients with chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Serum C- reactive protein levels were assessed by means of immunoturbidimetric assay at baseline for subjects in all the 3 groups and 3 months after completion of surgical therapy. Results The mean baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in the Groups I, II and III were 1.65±0.57 mg/L, 3.03±2.14 mg/L and 3.09±2.27 mg/L respectively. After treatment, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Groups II and III reduced from 3.03±1.67 mg/L to 1.46±1.67 mg/L and from 3.09±1.21 to 1.43±1.21 mg/L respectively. Similar results were found for probing depth and all indexes in Group II and III after treatment. Also, the mean attachment loss in Groups II and III reduced, so the results were highly significant. Conclusion Successful periodontal treatment results in significant decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:26557605

  4. Association between Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD Val-9Ala) genotypes with the risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis disease.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Moradi, M-T; Yari, K; Mousavi, S A R; Kahrizi, D

    2015-01-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a subtype of periodontal diseases that characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal supporting tissues. The MnSOD Val-9Ala mutation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD Val-9Ala) and its correlation with periodontal diseases has been studied in different populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphism with periodontitis disease in sample of GAP patients in Iran for the first time. Following a GAP examination, 50 GAP patients and 100 healthy individuals were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and the MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphismwas detected using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of Ala/Ala, Ala/Val and Val/Val genotypes in healthy individuals were 25, 66 and 9%, respectively. In periodontitis patients, frequencies were as Ala/Ala (12%), Ala/Val (50%) and Val/Val (38%) genotypes. There was a significant positive association between distribution of MnSOD Val-9Ala genotypes and the risk of periodontitis disease (p<0.05). Our results indicated that MnSOD Val-9Ala gene polymorphism has a positive association with the risk of periodontitis disease. PMID:26718428

  5. Comparison of various risk indicators among patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis in davangere population

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Nadkarni, Rahul Dilip; Guddada, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare various risk indicators of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) among patients of Davangere population. Materials and Methods: Totally, 89 CP and 90 AP patients were selected from outpatient Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. Various clinical parameters proven to be risk indicators were determined for each patient such as age, gender, occupation, oral hygiene habits, personal habits, income, level of education, place of residence, frequency of dental visits, various oral hygiene indices, gingival status, wasting diseases, malocclusion, laboratory investigations, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that AP is manifested early in life in susceptible individuals. Proven risk indicators for AP and CP in the present study population included young age, place of residence, income and education levels, frequency of dental visits. Patients with AP had better oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index results than patients with CP. Paan chewing and smoking could be considered as risk factors, both in CP and AP cases. The similar association of plaque scores but higher bleeding tendency in AP patients supported the fact of higher susceptibility of AP patients to periodontal breakdown. Malocclusion being present in the majority of cases could also be put forth as a risk factor for AP and CP. Conclusion: This study identifies the different risk indicators for CP and AP and demonstrates the need for constructing nationwide oral health promotion programs to improve the level of oral health awareness and standards in Indian population. PMID:26392693

  6. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Virulence of its leukotoxin and association with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Carola Höglund; Kelk, Peyman; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infection-induced inflammatory disease that causes loss of the tooth supporting tissues. Much focus has been put on comparison of the microbial biofilm in the healthy periodontium with the diseased one. The information arising from such studies is limited due to difficulties to compare the microbial composition in these two completely different ecological niches. A few longitudinal studies have contributed with information that makes it possible to predict which individuals who might have an increased risk of developing aggressive forms of periodontitis, and the predictors are either microbial or/and host-derived factors. The most conspicuous condition that is associated with disease risk is the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at the individual level. This Gram-negative bacterium has a great genetic variation with a number of virulence factors. In this review we focus in particular on the leukotoxin that, based on resent knowledge, might be one of the most important virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:25494963

  7. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of case-control data: an application to generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Trombelli, L; Mamolini, E; Collins, A

    2005-02-01

    Several studies have shown a role for the involvement of interleukin (IL)-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in the risk of periodontal diseases. In the present study, we tested polymorphisms, derived from genes of the IL-1 cluster, for association with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) through both allelic association and by constructing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of the 2q13-14 disease candidate region. The IL-1RN (VNTR) genotype distribution observed was significantly different in GAP and control subjects (P=0.019). We also observed some evidence for an association between GAP and the IL-1B(+3953) polymorphism (P=0.039). The pattern of association in the region, represented as an LD map, identifies a recombination hot area between the IL-1B(+3953) and IL-1B(-511) polymorphisms. Multilocus modelling of association with disease gives a location for the peak association at the IL-1B(+3953) marker, although support for the peak is not significant. Haplotype analysis identifies a IL-1B(+3953)-IL-1B(-511) haplotype as having the lowest P-value in the region. Recognition of the presence of a recombination hot area between the IL-1B(+3953) and IL-1B(-511) polymorphisms will have an important bearing on future efforts to develop higher resolution SNP analysis in this region for both this and other diseases for which this cluster is implicated. PMID:15602586

  8. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall out. Periodontitis is the primary cause of tooth loss in adults. This disorder is uncommon in ... damage of the tissues and bone surrounding the tooth. Because plaque contains bacteria, infection is likely, and ...

  9. Aggressive periodontal destruction and herpes zoster in a suspected AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Hernandez, G

    1991-11-01

    An unusual case of spontaneous and rapidly destructive lesions involving the periodontal structures is described in a 54 year old, bi-sexual patients suspected of having AIDS. Concomitant with the periodontal breakdown, the patient developed a severe case of Herpes Zoster involving the area of the face innervated by the 5th cranial nerve. The dermal lesions involved the face, nose, eyes and scalp. Similar lesions were noted on the gingival and palatal mucosa on the same side of the jaw as the skin lesions. The differences between this type of periodontal destruction and more conventional forms of periodontitis are discussed. PMID:1811045

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of TNFA and IL-1A and generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Teodora Virginia; Sava, Anca; Gentimir, Carmen; Goriuc, Ancuţa; Boişteanu, Otilia; Chelaru, Liliana; Iancu, Roxana Irina; Avram, Cătălina Anda; Acatrinei, Dragoş Daniel; Bogza, Elena Geanina; Răducanu, Oana Cristina; Cioloca, Daniel Petru; Vasincu, Decebal; Costuleanu, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Virulent bacteria could cause gingival fibroblasts apoptosis through lipopolysaccharide release during generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) development and evolution. We showed that treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL) for 30 days induced the decrease in the number of cultured rat gingival fibroblasts as compared to control group, which received no treatment. GAgP is considered to have also a genetic etiology, so the aim of our study was to evaluate if some polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) and interleukin 1A (IL-1A) genes are associated with GAgP in a sample of Romanian population. We selected a group of 32 subjects (22 cases and 10 controls) for studying the TNFA (-857) polymorphism and 97 subjects (66 cases and 31 controls) for IL-1A (-889) polymorphism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction for all subjects. The genotype and allelic distribution tended to be equally between the cases and the controls group. Similar results were obtained for the dominant and recessive model. The difference between the two groups did not reach statistic significance for neither of the two studied polymorphisms [p=0.76 for TNFA (-857) and p=0.84 for IL-1A (-889)]. The data suggest that TNFA (-857) C/T and IL-1A (-889) C/T polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to GAgP in this Romanian population, potentially because of the small sample size. This is the first such study for Romanian northeastern population. PMID:26193214

  11. The highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: evolutionary aspects, epidemiology and etiological role in aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Haubek, Dorte

    2010-09-01

    For many years, attention has been given to the oral bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, as a species possibly implicated in the etiology of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents. One of the major virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans is the leukotoxin which is able to kill important cells of the immune system. As demonstrated in population genetic analyses, the population structure of A. actinomycetemcomitans is mainly clonal with evolutionary lineages corresponding to the serotypes. A particular highly leukotoxic clone (JP2) of serotype b has been discovered. The JP2 clone, with an estimated origin some 2400 years ago, is found to be highly conserved, based on analyses of a collection of JP2 clone strains collected through more than 20 years from individuals of diverse origin and living geographically widespread. Despite demonstration of minor evolutionary changes within the genome of JP2 clone strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, the JP2 clone strains constitute a unique clonal type, the characteristics of which include a 530 basepair deletion in the leukotoxin operon implicated in the enhanced leukotoxic activity of the clone. Mapping of the geographic occurrence of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has revealed that its colonization is largely restricted to individuals of African descent. Characteristic mutations, which allow JP2 clone isolates from the Mediterranean region to be distinguished from isolates from West Africa, including the Cape Verde islands, suggest that the JP2 clone initially emerged as a distinct genotype in the Mediterranean region of Africa and subsequently spread to West Africa, from where it might have been transferred to the American continent during the transatlantic slave trade. The finding of a sustained selective colonization of individuals of African descent, despite geographical separation from the African continent for centuries, suggests that the JP2 clone might have a distinct host tropism

  12. Treatment of intrabony defects with anorganic bone matrix/p-15 or guided tissue regeneration in patients with aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Adriana C; Nóbrega, Priscila Brasil da; Oliveira, Fabíola S; Novaes, Arthur B; Taba, Mário; Palioto, Daniela B; Grisi, Márcio F M; Souza, Sergio L S

    2013-01-01

    Intrabony periodontal defects present a particular treatment problem, especially in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP). Regenerative procedures have been indicated for this clinical situation. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes of intrabony periodontal defects with either anorganic bone matrix/cell binding peptide (ABM/P-15) or guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in patients with G-AgP. Fifteen patients, with two intrabony defects ≥3 mm deep, were selected. Patients were randomly allocated to be treated with ABM/P-15 or GTR. At baseline and at 3 and 6 months after surgery, clinical and radiographic parameters and IL-1β and IL-6 gingival fluid concentrations were recorded. There was a significant probing pocket depth reduction (p<0.001) for both groups (2.27 ± 0.96 mm for ABM/P-15 group and 2.57 ± 1.06 mm for GTR group). Clinical attachment level gain (1.87 ± 0.94 mm for ABM/P-15 group and 2.09 ± 0.88 mm for GTR group) was also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters between the groups. The radiographic bone fill was more expressive in ABM/P-15 group (2.49 mm) than in GTR group (0.73 mm). In subtraction radiographs, the areas representing gain in density were 93.16% of the baseline defect for ABM/P-15 group versus 62.03% in GRT group. There were no statistically significant differences in inter-group and intra-group comparisons with regards to IL-1β and IL-6 quantification. Treatment of intrabony periodontal defects in patients with G-AgP with ABM/P-15 and GTR improved significantly the clinical outcomes. The use of ABM/P-15 promoted a better radiographic bone fill. PMID:23969907

  13. Gingival Inflammation and Aggressive Periodontitis in a Child with a Specific Antibody Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liyange, Singithi; Edgar, David; Shields, Michael D; Linden, Gerard J

    2016-03-01

    Exuberant gingival inflammation accompanied by periodontitis is a rare finding in a very young child and may indicate a defect in the host response. Affected children should be referred to appropriate specialists to establish a definitive diagnosis. A 5-year-old girl presented with persistent gingival inflammation and periodontal destruction. Immunological investigations identified specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency which, when treated, resulted in a significant improvement in the gingival condition. This case illustrates the need for integrated management by a wide range of dental and medical specialists. Antibody deficiency is rare but, if not identified and treated effectively, can be associated with chronic ill health and decreased life expectancy. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article describes a rare case of gingival inflammation accompanied by periodontitis in a very young child secondary to an underlying host antibody deficiency and details the investigation, management and clinical outcomes. PMID:27188128

  14. Comparative biology of chronic and aggressive periodontitis vs. peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Lang, Niklaus P

    2010-06-01

    This review was undertaken to address the similarities and dissimilarities between the two disease entities of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. The overall analysis of the literature on the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis and peri-implantitis provided an impression that these two diseases have more similarities than differences. First, the initiation of the two diseases is dependent on the presence of a biofilm containing pathogens. While the microbiota associated with periodontitis is rich in gram-negative bacteria, a similar composition has been identified in peri-implant diseases. However, increasing evidence suggests that S. aureus may be an important pathogen in the initiation of some cases of peri-implantitis. Further research into the role of this gram-positive facultative coccus, and other putative pathogens, in the development of peri-implantitis is indicated. While the initial host response to the bacterial challenge in peri-implant mucositis appears to be identical to that encountered in gingivitis, persistent biofilm accumulation may elicit a more pronounced inflammatory response in peri-implant mucosal tissues than in the dentogingival unit. This may be a result of structural differences (such as vascularity and fibroblast-to-collagen ratios). When periodontitis and peri-implantitis were produced experimentally by applying plaque-retaining ligatures, the progression of mucositis to peri-implantitis followed a very similar sequence of events as the development of gingivitis to periodontitis. However, some of the peri-implantitis lesions appeared to have periods of rapid progression, in which the infective lesion reached the alveolar bone marrow. It is therefore reasonable to assume that peri-implantitis in humans may also display periods of accelerated destruction that are more pronounced than that observed in cases of chronic periodontitis. From a clinical point of view the identified and confirmed risk factors for periodontitis may be

  15. Temperature Effects on Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1

    PubMed Central

    Njimona, Ibrahim; Lamparter, Tilman

    2011-01-01

    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors with a conserved N-terminal chromophore-binding domain. Most phytochromes bear a light-regulated C-terminal His kinase or His kinase-like region. We investigated the effects of light and temperature on the His kinase activity of the phytochrome Agp1 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As in earlier studies, the phosphorylation activity of the holoprotein after far-red irradiation (where the red-light absorbing Pr form dominates) was stronger than that of the holoprotein after red irradiation (where the far red-absorbing Pfr form dominates). Phosphorylation activities of the apoprotein, far red-irradiated holoprotein, and red-irradiated holoprotein decreased when the temperature increased from 25°C to 35°C; at 40°C, almost no kinase activity was detected. The activity of a holoprotein sample incubated at 40°C was nearly completely restored when the temperature returned to 25°C. UV/visible spectroscopy indicated that the protein was not denatured up to 45°C. At 50°C, however, Pfr denatured faster than the dark-adapted sample containing the Pr form of Agp1. The Pr visible spectrum was unaffected by temperatures of 20–45°C, whereas irradiated samples exhibited a clear temperature effect in the 30–40°C range in which prolonged irradiation resulted in the photoconversion of Pfr into a new spectral species termed Prx. Pfr to Prx photoconversion was dependent on the His-kinase module of Agp1; normal photoconversion occurred at 40°C in the mutant Agp1-M15, which lacks the C-terminal His-kinase module, and in a domain-swap mutant in which the His-kinase module of Agp1 is replaced by the His-kinase/response regulator module of the other A. tumefaciens phytochrome, Agp2. The temperature-dependent kinase activity and spectral properties in the physiological temperature range suggest that Agp1 serves as an integrated light and temperature sensor in A. tumefaciens. PMID:22043299

  16. Analysis of IL-1A(-889) and TNFA(-308) gene polymorphism in Brazilian patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Maria de Freitas, Nívea; Imbronito, Ana Vitória; Neves, Adriana Costa; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Pustiglioni, Francisco Emilio; Lotufo, Roberto Fraga Moreira

    2007-09-01

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) comprises a group of periodontal diseases characterized by the rapid destruction of periodontal tissues which affect young individuals who generally present no systemic disorders. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) genes have been associated with an increased severity of chronic periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IL-1A (-889) and TNFA (-308) gene polymorphisms and GAP. One hundred nonsmoking subjects were selected, including 30 with GAP and 70 without periodontal disease. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. For IL-1 (-889), the frequency of genotype 1/1 was 54.3% in the control group and 56.7% in the study group. The frequency of genotype 1/2 was 37.1% in the control group and 40% in the study group. Genotype 2/2 was detected at a frequency of 8.6% and 3.3% in the control and study groups, respectively. For TNFA, genotype 1/1 was present in 68.6% of control subjects and in 80.0% of patients with GAP, while the frequency of genotype 1/2 was 27.1% in the control group and 20% in the study group. Genotype 2/2 was present in 4.3% of control subjects and was not detected in the study group. The frequencies of allele 1 and allele 2 of the IL-1A (-889) gene were 72.9% and 27.1%, respectively, in the control group and 76.7% and 23.3% in the GAP group. For the TNFA (-308) gene, the frequency of allele 1 was 82.15% in the control group and 90% in the study group, whereas the frequency of allele 2 was 17.85% in the control group and 10% in the study group. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in allele distribution for either gene between the two groups. No association was observed between GAP and IL-1A (-889) and TNFA (-308) gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients. PMID:17823082

  17. Long-term evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility and microbial profile of subgingival biofilms in individuals with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Talita Gomes Baêta; Heller, Débora; do Souto, Renata Martins; Silva-Senem, Mayra Xavier e; Varela, Victor Macedo; Torres, Maria Cynesia Barros; Feres-Filho, Eduardo Jorge; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of subgingival biofilms in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) patients treated using mechanical/antimicrobial therapies, including chlorhexidine (CHX), amoxicillin (AMX) and metronidazole (MET). GAP patients allocated to the placebo (C, n = 15) or test group (T, n = 16) received full-mouth disinfection with CHX, scaling and root planning, and systemic AMX (500 mg)/MET (250 mg) or placebos. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-therapy from 3–4 periodontal pockets, and the samples were pooled and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMX, MET and CHX were assessed using the microdilution method. Bacterial species present in the cultivated biofilm were identified by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. At baseline, no differences in the MICs between groups were observed for the 3 antimicrobials. In the T group, significant increases in the MICs of CHX (p < 0.05) and AMX (p < 0.01) were detected during the first 3 months; however, the MIC of MET decreased at 12 months (p < 0.05). For several species, the MICs significantly changed over time in both groups, i.e., Streptococci MICs tended to increase, while for several periodontal pathogens, the MICs diminished. A transitory increase in the MIC of the subgingival biofilm to AMX and CHX was observed in GAP patients treated using enhanced mechanical therapy with topical CHX and systemic AMX/MET. Both protocols presented limited effects on the cultivable subgingival microbiota. PMID:26273264

  18. Long-term evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility and microbial profile of subgingival biofilms in individuals with aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Talita Gomes Baêta; Heller, Débora; do Souto, Renata Martins; Silva-Senem, Mayra Xavier E; Varela, Victor Macedo; Torres, Maria Cynesia Barros; Feres-Filho, Eduardo Jorge; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of subgingival biofilms in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) patients treated using mechanical/antimicrobial therapies, including chlorhexidine (CHX), amoxicillin (AMX) and metronidazole (MET). GAP patients allocated to the placebo (C, n = 15) or test group (T, n = 16) received full-mouth disinfection with CHX, scaling and root planning, and systemic AMX (500 mg)/MET (250 mg) or placebos. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-therapy from 3-4 periodontal pockets, and the samples were pooled and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMX, MET and CHX were assessed using the microdilution method. Bacterial species present in the cultivated biofilm were identified by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. At baseline, no differences in the MICs between groups were observed for the 3 antimicrobials. In the T group, significant increases in the MICs of CHX (p < 0.05) and AMX (p < 0.01) were detected during the first 3 months; however, the MIC of MET decreased at 12 months (p < 0.05). For several species, the MICs significantly changed over time in both groups, i.e., Streptococci MICs tended to increase, while for several periodontal pathogens, the MICs diminished. A transitory increase in the MIC of the subgingival biofilm to AMX and CHX was observed in GAP patients treated using enhanced mechanical therapy with topical CHX and systemic AMX/MET. Both protocols presented limited effects on the cultivable subgingival microbiota. PMID:26273264

  19. Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy and Lasers as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis – A Clinical and Microbiologic Short Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Indranil; Rajan, Padma; Pai, Jagdish; Malagi, Sachin; Bharmappa, Radhika; Kamath, Vinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aggressive periodontitis comprises a group of rare, severe, rapidly progressive form of periodontitis. Conventional treatment includes mechanical debridement augmented with adjunctive antimicrobial therapy. Development of antibiotic resistance has led to use of lasers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel non-invasive therapeutic approach with increased site and pathogen specificity. This study compares PDT and Lasers as an adjunct to conventional Scaling in the treatment of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods Fifteen untreated aggressive periodo-ntitis patients were randomly assigned in a split mouth design for one of the following treatment modalities: 1) SRP alone; (2) SRP + Diode Laser irradiation with 810 nm at 1W, continuous mode for 30 sec per tooth; (3) SRP + PDT on “0” day; (4) SRP + PDT on “0”, 7th and 21st day. The clinical parameters included PI, BOP, PPD, CAL recorded at the baseline & 3rd month. The site with greatest probing pocket depth (PPD) was selected from each quadrant for bacterial sampling and cultured for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis & Prevotella intermedia. Results Statistically significant reduction in clinical & microbial parameters was seen. Sites 4 showed a greater reduction compared to other groups. Conclusion Photodynamic therapy is a valuable treatment modality adjunctive to conventional scaling and root planing. PMID:27042576

  20. Clinical Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Systemic Moxifloxacin in the Therapy of Patients With Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Multilevel Analysis From a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Carlos M.; Guzmán, Isabel C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that clinical results of mechanical periodontal treatment could differ between subjects and among different sites of the tooth in the patient. The objective of this multilevel analysis is to investigate clinical factors at subject and sites of the tooth that influence variations in clinical attachment (CAL) increase and probing depth (PD) diminution of adjunctive moxifloxacin (MOX) at six months post-treatment in generalized aggressive periodontitis. Methods: This clinical trial included 40 patients randomly distributed to two therapy protocols: scaling and root planing alone or combined with MOX. Multilevel linear models for continuous variables were formulated to evaluate the clinical impact of the hierarchical configuration of periodontal data. Results: Six months following therapy, the divergences between both protocols were statistically significant in PD diminution and CAL increase, favouring the MOX therapy (p<0.001). Besides, the multilevel analysis revealed that adjunctive MOX at the subject level, non-molar and the interaction non-molar x MOX at the tooth level, interproximal sites and the interaction interproximal sites x MOX at the site level, were statistically significant factors in determining CAL increase and PD diminution. Conclusions: The main cause of variability in CAL gain and PD reduction following adjunctive MOX was attributable to the tooth level. Adjunctive MOX and their interactions with non-molar and interproximal sites showed higher clinical benefits at the tooth and site levels which could be essential for PD reduction and CAL gain in generalized aggressive periodontitis subjects. PMID:26493435

  1. Metrology for AGP - Astrometric Gravitation Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; et al.

    2015-08-01

    The Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) is a concept of space mission aimed at tests of Fundamental Physics in the Solar system, using Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphy techniques to implement differential astrometry among superposed stellar fields. The main goal is verification of the General Relativity (GR) and competing gravitation theories in the weak field of the Solar System by high precision measurement of the light deflection in the vicinity of the Sun at < 10-7 and of the main and minor planet dynamics at the microarcsec/year level. The AGP payload concept is based on a single main telescope (1.15 m diameter) implementing a multi-aperture Fizeau interferometer, for simultaneous observation of four regions close to the Solar limb and in opposition; coronagraphic techniques are applied on the elementary sub-apertures. The star displacement due to light deflection is derived by differential astrometry on images taken in different deflection conditions (e.g. ON and OFF). The instrument design is focused on systematic error control through multiple field simultaneous observation and calibration. The metrology system requirements related to the science goals are discussed, and the technical aspects of possible implementations are investigated. The potential benefit of auto-collimation and cophasing techniques derives from monitoring comparably large sections of the optical system common to the stellar beams. The performance at microarcsec level is verified by simulation.

  2. Full mouth rehabilitation with zygomatic implants in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis: 2 year follow-up of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Gunaseelan; Natarajarathinam, Gowri; Kumar, Saravana; Parthasarathy, Harinath

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of severely atrophied maxillae is often a challenge and patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) make it even more complicated. This clinical report describes rehabilitation of GAP patients with zygomatic implants and followed-up for 2 years. Two patients of age 33 and 44 reported to a private dental practice and were diagnosed with GAP. Various treatment options were considered after which it was decided to do a full mouth implant supported fixed rehabilitation, with a combination of conventional and zygomatic implants. Two zygomatic and four conventional implants were placed and immediately loaded with a provisional prosthesis. After 6 months, definitive prosthesis was delivered. Implants and prostheses were followed-up for 2 years. No implant failures occurred, but a few biological complications were observed. The most common clinical observation in these patients during recall visits was peri-implant soft-tissue inflammation, which is a biological complication. This was with no trouble, controlled by using proper oral hygiene aids and maintenance. Within the limitations of this study, we can state that it can definitely be considered as a viable treatment option treating patients with GAP. However, studies with more follow-up time and controlled clinical trials should be performed in order to document the longevity of this treatment modality. PMID:24744558

  3. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Hartenbach, Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende; Martins do Souto, Renata; Maciel da Silva-Boghossian, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The ecological diversity of the periodontal microenvironment may provide suitable conditions for the colonization of species not usually considered members of the oral microbiota. In this investigation, we aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic species of medical relevance in the microbiota of individuals with distinct periodontal clinical status. Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (H, n = 81), gingivitis (G, n = 55), generalized aggressive (AgP, n = 36) or chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 98), and analyzed for 39 microbial taxa using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Microbial differences among groups, as well as associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were sought by non-parametric and univariate correlation tests. Neisseria spp., Peptostreptococus anaerobius, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eubacterium saphenum, Clostridium difficile and Olsenella uli were detected in high mean prevalence and counts in the subgingival microbiota of the study population. Species that were more related to periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction at the patient and site levels included enterobacteria, C. albicans, Neisseria spp., P. aeruginosa, O. uli, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens and Filifactor alocis (p < 0.05). In contrast, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were associated with periodontal health (p < 0.05). Pathogenic species of medical importance may be detected in high prevalence and levels in the periodontal microbiota. Regardless of their role in periodontal health or disease, the periodontal biofilm may be a source for dissemination and development of systemic infections by these pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26416306

  4. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  5. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  6. Impact of metronidazole and amoxicillin combination on matrix metalloproteinases-1 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases balance in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Cifcibasi, Emine; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Badur, Selim; Issever, Halim; Cintan, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a complex periodontal disease affecting the entire dentition with a rapid destruction of the periodontium and resulting in loss of teeth. We hypothesized that better clinical healing of adjunctive use of amoxicillin plus metronidazole combination may be related to the effect of this combination therapy to restore imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) which is associated with connective tissue and alveolar bone destruction in patients with GAgP. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects diagnosed with GAgP were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned to test or control groups. MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio was compared between groups receiving scaling and root planning (SRP) alone (control) or in combination with amoxicillin plus metronidazole (test). Clinical periodontal variables were measured. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for MMP-1 and TIMP-1. Measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at 3 and 6 months after therapy. Results: Total MMP-1 levels were significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05) at 3 and 6 months. MMP-1 concentration levels showed a similar pattern to MMP-1 total levels decreasing significantly at 3 months (P < 0.05). TIMP-1 concentration levels increased in the test group throughout the study period, while the difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). TIMP-1/MMP-1 balance was restored in test group at 6 months significantly better than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metronidazole and amoxicillin combination as an adjunct to SRP results in better clinical healing through restoring TIMP-1/MMP-1 balance. PMID:25713485

  7. AtAGP18 is localized at the plasma membrane and functions in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhu; Yang, Jie; Showalter, Allan M

    2011-04-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a family of highly glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). AtAGP17, 18 and 19 comprise the lysine-rich classical AGP subfamily in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of GFP-AtAGP17/18/19 fusion proteins in Arabidopsis revealed localization of the fusion proteins on the plant cell surface of different organs. Subcellular localization of the fusion proteins at the plasma membrane was further determined by plasmolysis of leaf trichome cells. To elucidate AtAGP17/18/19 function(s), these AGPs were expressed without the green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag under the control of 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. In contrast to AtAGP17/AtAGP19 overexpressors which showed phenotypes identical to wild-type plants, AtAGP18 overexpressors displayed several phenotypes distinct from wild-type plants. Specifically, these overexpressors had smaller rosettes and shorter stems and roots, produced more branches and had less viable seeds. Moreover, these AtAGP18 overexpressors exhibited similar phenotypes to tomato LeAGP-1 overexpressors, suggesting these two AGP genes may have similar function(s) in Arabidopsis and tomato. PMID:21165646

  8. Discovery of Inhibitors for the Ether Lipid-Generating Enzyme AGPS as Anti-Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Valentina; Benjamin, Daniel I; Valente, Sergio; Nenci, Simone; Mai, Antonello; Aliverti, Alessandro; Nomura, Daniel K; Mattevi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated ether lipid metabolism is an important hallmark of cancer cells. Previous studies have reported that lowering ether lipid levels by genetic ablation of the ether lipid-generating enzyme alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) lowers key structural and oncogenic ether lipid levels and alters fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and eicosanoid metabolism to impair cancer pathogenicity, indicating that AGPS may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, we have performed a small-molecule screen to identify candidate AGPS inhibitors. We have identified several lead AGPS inhibitors and have structurally characterized their interactions with the enzyme and show that these inhibitors bind to distinct portions of the active site. We further show that the lead AGPS inhibitor 1a selectively lowers ether lipid levels in several types of human cancer cells and impairs their cellular survival and migration. We provide here the first report of in situ-effective pharmacological tools for inhibiting AGPS, which may provide chemical scaffolds for future AGPS inhibitor development for cancer therapy. PMID:26322624

  9. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of nonsurgical periodontal therapy is to control microbial periodontal infection by removing bacterial biofilm, calculus, and toxins from periodontally involved root surfaces. A review of the scientific literature indicates that mechanical nonsurgical periodontal treatment predictably reduces the levels of inflammation and probing pocket depths, increases the clinical attachment level and results in an apical shift of the gingival margin. Another parameter to be considered, in spite of the lack of scientific evidence, is the reduction in the degree of tooth mobility, as clinically experienced. It is important to point out that nonsurgical periodontal treatment presents limitations such as the long-term maintainability of deep periodontal pockets, the risk of disease recurrence, and the skill of the operator. A high number of posttreatment residual pockets exhibiting bleeding on probing and > 5 mm deep are related to lower clinical stability. The successful treatment of plaque-induced periodontitis will restore periodontal health, but with reduced periodontium. In such cases, anatomical damage from previous periodontal disease will persist and inverse architecture of soft tissue may impair home plaque removal. The clinician can select one of the following therapeutic options according to the individual patient's needs: - Quadrant/sextant wise instrumentation (conventional staged debridement, CSD). - Instrumentation of all pockets within a 24-hour period with (full mouth disinfection [FMD]) or without (full mouth scaling and root planing [FMSRP]) local antiseptics. Both procedures can be associated with systemic antimicrobials. -CSD or FMD in combination with laser or photodynamic therapy. Patients with aggressive periodontitis constitute a challenge to the clinician. To date there are no established protocols for controlling the disease. However, data from the literature on the application of the FMD protocol combined with amoxicillin

  10. Immunolocalization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in reproductive structures of an early-divergent angiosperm, Trithuria (Hydatellaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Mário; Pereira, Ana Marta; Rudall, Paula J.; Coimbra, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Trithuria is the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, a family of the early-divergent angiosperm lineage Nymphaeales (water-lilies). In this study different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes in T. submersa were evaluated in order to understand the diversity of these proteins and their functions in flowering plants. Methods Immunolabelling of different AGPs and pectin epitopes in reproductive structures of T. submersa at the stage of early seed development was achieved by immunofluorescence of specific antibodies. Key Results AGPs in Trithuria pistil tissues could be important as structural proteins and also as possible signalling molecules. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the anthers and in the intine wall, the latter associated with pollen tube emergence. Conclusions AGPs could play a significant role in Trithuria reproduction, due to their specific presence in the pollen tube pathway. The results agree with labellings obtained for Arabidopsis and confirms the importance of AGPs in angiosperm reproductive structures as essential structural components and probably important signalling molecules. PMID:23186834

  11. CsAGP1, a Gibberellin-Responsive Gene from Cucumber Hypocotyls, Encodes a Classical Arabinogalactan Protein and Is Involved in Stem Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Me Hea; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Chono, Makiko; Knox, J. Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence differential display was used to isolate the gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene, CsAGP1, from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls. A sequence analysis of CsAGP1 indicated that the gene putatively encodes a “classical” arabinogalactan protein (AGP) in cucumber. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CsAGP1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced a Y(βGlc)3-reactive proteoglycan in addition to AGPs present in wild-type tobacco plants. Immuno-dot blotting of the product, using anti-AGP antibodies, showed that the CsAGP1 protein had the AGP epitopes common to AGP families. The transcription level of CsAGP1 in cucumber hypocotyls increased in response not only to GA but also to indole-3-acetic acid. Although CsAGP1 is expressed in most vegetative tissues of cucumber, including the shoot apices and roots, the GA treatment resulted in an increase in the mRNA level of CsAGP1 only in the upper part of the hypocotyls. Y(βGlc)3, which selectively binds AGPs, inhibited the hormone-promoted elongation of cucumber seedling hypocotyls. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing CsAGP1 showed a taller stature and earlier flowering than the wild-type plants. These observations suggest that CsAGP1 is involved in stem elongation. PMID:12644694

  12. The ins and outs of periodontal antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Slots, Jørgen

    2002-04-01

    A multifaceted antimicrobial approach is necessary for the successful management of destructive periodontal disease. Effective antimicrobial periodontal therapy aims to overwhelm periodontal pathogens with aggressive initial therapy and prevent previously suppressed pathogens from rising up anew through daily oral hygiene measures and frequent professional cleaning. Current antimicrobial periodontal therapy employs mechanical debridement performed with and without surgery, antibiotics, and antiseptics. Subgingival irrigation with povidone-iodine at the dentist's office and subgingival irrigation with dilute sodium hypochlorite for home-care constitute effective, safe, and affordable periodontal antimicrobial therapy. This article describes theoretical and practical guidelines for implementing rational and cost-effective antimicrobial principles in the management of periodontal disease. PMID:12005374

  13. Changes in photosynthesis and pigmentation in an agp deletion mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingyu; Wu, Guifang; Zhao, Nanming

    2003-03-01

    The agp gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is involved in cyanobacterial glycogen synthesis. By in vitro DNA recombination technology, agp deletion mutant (agp-) of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed. This mutation led to a complete absence of glycogen biosynthesis. As compared with WT (wild type), a 60% decrease in ratio of the c-phycocyanine/chlorophyll a and no significant change in the carotenoid/chlorophyll a were observed in agp- cells. The agp- mutant had 38% less photosynthetic capacity when grown in light over 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Under lower light intensity, the final biomass of the mutant strain was only 1.1 times of that of the WT strain under mixotrophic condition after 6 d culture. Under higher light intensity, however, the final biomass of the WT strain under mixotrophic conditions was 3 times that of the mutant strain after 6 d culture and 1.5 times under photoautotrophic conditions. The results indicate that there is a minimum requirement for glycogen synthesis for normal growth and development in cyanobacteria. PMID:12882559

  14. The Classical Arabinogalactan Protein AGP18 Mediates Megaspore Selection in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  15. The classical arabinogalactan protein AGP18 mediates megaspore selection in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  16. Identification of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a potential marker of impaired growth in the newborn piglet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between the circulating levels of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (HP) and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and growth potential in neonatal pigs. In runts, the circulating level of AGP, but not HP in serum of newborn piglets was higher...

  17. Iatrogenic Damage to the Periodontium Caused by Periodontal Treatment Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Latheef, P; Sirajuddin, Syed; Gundapaneni, Veenadharini; MN, Kumuda; Apine, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the periodontium i.e. the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis manifests as progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can cause loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is initiated by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, besides an over -aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. The primary goal of periodontal therapy is to preserve the natural dentition by accomplishing and preserving a healthy functional periodontium. Many treatment modalities have been introduced to improve the therapeutic result of periodontal treatment which may also damage the periodontiumiatrogenically. PMID:26312087

  18. Periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Tan, A E S

    2009-09-01

    The main goal of periodontal therapy is to establish an oral environment compatible with periodontal health by the physical disruption of the plaque biofilm and adjunctive chemical means if required. Implicit in this objective is the ongoing requirement of detection and interception of new and recurrent disease, which continues at selected intervals for the life of the dentition after the initial ("active") phase of periodontal treatment. This concept of ongoing periodontal maintenance therapy has been embraced as the mandatory requirement for favourable periodontal outcomes based on institutional clinical trials and in practice-based studies in various parts of the world. This review examines the ramifications of periodontal maintenance therapy based upon a multi-level assessment of logistic issues and risk factors at three levels: (1) The patient level - treatment time; patient attendance compliance; and homecare measures, antiseptics/antibiotics and smoking. (2) The level of the individual tooth - tooth loss; and evaluation of success versus survival. (3) The level of each tooth surface ("site") - probing depth, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing; and changes in clinical attachment levels. In spite of the diversity of studies conducted, there is agreement on the efficacy of periodontal maintenance therapy when compared with studies on untreated populations and in treated cases that were not maintained. PMID:19737263

  19. Predicting periodontitis progression?

    PubMed

    Ferraiolo, Debra M

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and LILACS were searched using no language restrictions and included information up to July 2014. Bibliographic references of included articles and related review articles were hand searched. On-line hand searching of recent issues of key periodontal journals was performed (Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Periodontal Research, Journal of Periodontology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry).Study selectionProspective and retrospective cohort studies were used for answering the question of prediction since there were no randomised controlled trials on this topic. Risk of bias was assessed using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for non-randomised studies. Cross-sectional studies were included in the summary of currently reported risk assessment tools but not for risk of progression of disease, due to the inability to properly assess bias in these types of studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned by two reviewers independently.Full reports were obtained for those articles meeting inclusion criteria or those with insufficient information in the title to make a decision. Any published risk assessment tool was considered. The tool was defined to include any composite measure of patient-level risk directed towards determining the probability for further disease progression in adults with periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined to include both chronic and aggressive forms in the adult population. Outcomes included changes in attachment levels and/or deepening of periodontal pockets in millimeters in study populations undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was performed independently and in collaboration by two reviewers; completed evidence tables were reviewed by three reviewers. Studies were each given a descriptive summary to assess the quantity of data as well as further assessment of study variations

  20. Automated system for periodontal disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Salvador E.; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of periodontal disease is one of the most important data for the clinicians in order to achieve correct planning and treatment. Clinical measure of the periodontal sulcus depth is the most important datum to know the exact state of periodontal disease. These measures must be done periodically study bone resorption evolution around teeth. Time factor of resorption indicates aggressiveness of periodontitis. Manual probes are commonly used with direct reading. Mechanical probes give automatic signal but this method uses complicated and heavy probes that are only limited for University researchers. Probe position must be the same to have right diagnosis. Digital image analysis of periodontal probing provides practical, accurate and easy tool. Gum and plaque index could also be digitally measured with this method.

  1. Scope of photodynamic therapy in periodontics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Sinha, Jolly; Verma, Neelu; Nayan, Kamal; Saimbi, C S; Tripathi, Amitandra K

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer) activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis. PMID:26481895

  2. Role of the NK Cell-Activating Receptor CRACC in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Benjamin; Kebschull, Moritz; Nowak, Michael; Demmer, Ryan T.; Haupt, Manuela; Körner, Christian; Perner, Sven; Jepsen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, biofilm-mediated chronic inflammatory disease that results in the loss of the tooth-supporting tissues. It features two major clinical entities: chronic periodontitis, which is more common, and aggressive periodontitis, which usually has an early onset and a rapid progression. Natural killer (NK) cells are a distinct subgroup of lymphocytes that play a major role in the ability of the innate immune system to steer immune responses. NK cells are abundant in periodontitis lesions, and NK cell activation has been causally linked to periodontal tissue destruction. However, the exact mechanisms of their activation and their role in the pathophysiology of periodontitis are elusive. Here, we show that the predominant NK cell-activating molecule in periodontitis is CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cells (CRACC). We show that CRACC induction was significantly more pronounced in aggressive than chronic periodontitis and correlated positively with periodontal disease severity, subgingival levels of specific periodontal pathogens, and NK cell activation in vivo. We delineate how Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen that is causally associated with aggressive periodontitis, indirectly induces CRACC on NK cells via activation of dendritic cells and subsequent interleukin 12 (IL-12) signaling. In contrast, we demonstrate that fimbriae from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a principal pathogen in chronic periodontitis, actively attenuate CRACC induction on NK cells. Our data suggest an involvement of CRACC-mediated NK cell activation in periodontal tissue destruction and point to a plausible distinction in the pathobiology of aggressive and chronic periodontitis that may help explain the accelerated tissue destruction in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:23250953

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Oral Treponemes in Patients with Periodontitis and in Periodontitis-Resistant Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moter, Annette; Riep, Birgit; Haban, Vesna; Heuner, Klaus; Siebert, Gerda; Berning, Moritz; Wyss, Chris; Ehmke, Benjamin; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Göbel, Ulf B.

    2006-01-01

    The etiologic role of oral treponemes in human periodontitis is still under debate. Although seen by dark-field microscopy in large numbers, their possible role is still unclear since they comprise some 60 different phylotypes, most of which are still uncultured. To determine their status as mere commensals or opportunistic pathogens, molecular epidemiological studies are required that include both cultured and as-yet-uncultured organisms. Here we present such data, comparing treponemal populations from chronic periodontitis (CP) or generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) patients. As a periodontitis-resistant (PR) control group, we included elderly volunteers with more than 20 natural teeth and no history of periodontal treatment and no or minimal clinical signs of periodontitis. Almost every treponemal phylotype was present in all three groups. For most treponemes, the proportion of subjects positive for a certain species or phylotype was higher in both periodontitis groups than in the PR group. This difference was pronounced for treponemes of the phylogenetic groups II and IV and for Treponema socranskii and Treponema lecithinolyticum. Between the periodontitis groups the only significant differences were seen for T. socranskii and T. lecithinolyticum, which were found more often in periodontal pockets of GAP patients than of CP patients. In contrast, no difference was found for Treponema denticola. Our findings, however, strengthen the hypothesis of treponemes being opportunistic pathogens. It appears that T. socranskii, T. lecithinolyticum and group II and IV treponemes may represent good indicators for periodontitis and suggest the value of the respective probes for microbiological diagnosis in periodontitis subjects. PMID:16954230

  4. [Development and use of periodontal dressing of collagen and Lactobacillus casei 37 cell suspension in combined treatment of periodontal disease of inflammatory origin (a microbiological study)].

    PubMed

    Volozhin, A I; Il'in, V K; Maksimovskiĭ, Iu M; Sidorenko, A B; Istranov, L P; Tsarev, V N; Istranova, E V; Aboiants, R K

    2004-01-01

    Periodontal dressing consisting of collagen and Lactobacillus casei 37 cell suspension (cell concentration 108 cells/ml) was created and used in combined treatment of patients with chronic generalized parodontitis. Efficacy of the developed isolation was explained by a considerable decrease of the number and frequency of isolation of aggressive microbial representatives (pigment synthesizing Bacteroids, Actinomyces and Str. intermedius) in periodontal pockets and also Fungus (Candida albicans). This periodontal dressing provided remission up to 10-12 months. PMID:15602477

  5. 16S rRNA based microarray analysis of ten periodontal bacteria in patients with different forms of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2015-10-01

    DNA microarray analysis is a computer based technology, that a reverse capture, which targets 10 periodontal bacteria (ParoCheck) is available for rapid semi-quantitative determination. The aim of this three-year retrospective study was to display the microarray analysis results for the subgingival biofilm samples taken from patient cases diagnosed with different forms of periodontitis. A total of 84 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP,n:29), generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP, n:25), peri-implantitis (PI,n:14), localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP,n:8) and refractory chronic periodontitis (RP,n:8) were consecutively selected from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory. The subgingival biofilm samples were analyzed by the microarray-based identification of 10 selected species. All the tested species were detected in the samples. The red complex bacteria were the most prevalent with very high levels in all groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in all samples at high levels. The green and blue complex bacteria were less prevalent compared with red and orange complex, except Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitas was detected in all LAP group. Positive correlations were found within all the red complex bacteria and between red and orange complex bacteria especially in GCP and GAP groups. Parocheck enables to monitoring of periodontal pathogens in all forms of periodontal disease and can be alternative to other guiding and reliable microbiologic tests. PMID:25638399

  6. Gingival Tissue Transcriptomes Identify Distinct Periodontitis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Grün, B.; Guarnieri, P.; Pavlidis, P.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The currently recognized principal forms of periodontitis—chronic and aggressive—lack an unequivocal, pathobiology-based foundation. We explored whether gingival tissue transcriptomes can serve as the basis for an alternative classification of periodontitis. We used cross-sectional whole-genome gene expression data from 241 gingival tissue biopsies obtained from sites with periodontal pathology in 120 systemically healthy nonsmokers with periodontitis, with available data on clinical periodontal status, subgingival microbial profiles, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal microbiota. Adjusted model-based clustering of transcriptomic data using finite mixtures generated two distinct clusters of patients that did not align with the current classification of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Differential expression profiles primarily related to cell proliferation in cluster 1 and to lymphocyte activation and unfolded protein responses in cluster 2. Patients in the two clusters did not differ with respect to age but presented with distinct phenotypes (statistically significantly different whole-mouth clinical measures of extent/severity, subgingival microbial burden by several species, and selected serum antibody responses). Patients in cluster 2 showed more extensive/severe disease and were more often male. The findings suggest that distinct gene expression signatures in pathologic gingival tissues translate into phenotypic differences and can provide a basis for a novel classification. PMID:24646639

  7. Repair potential in localized juvenile periodontitis. A case in point.

    PubMed

    Mattout, P; Moskow, B S; Fourel, J

    1990-10-01

    An aggressive form of localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) in a 12-year old West African female is reported. The case was treated with scaling, root planing, debridement, and tetracycline therapy, which resulted in complete resolution of the disease, including elimination of periodontal inflammation, regeneration of lost periodontal structures, and spontaneous repositioning of teeth that had pathologically migrated. A hopelessly involved mandibular right first molar was successfully replaced by an incompletely developed maxillary third molar tooth bud whose roots and pulp structure continued to develop after autotransplantation. It is suggested, that LJP can be successfully treated without periodontal surgery and that the potential for repair in LJP cases is apparently greater than what one can anticipate in adult forms of periodontitis. PMID:2231233

  8. Periodontal manifestations of hyperoxaluria and oxalosis.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S

    1989-05-01

    Dental and periodontal findings associated with primary hyperoxaluria in a 29-year old male patient are described. This is a rare, inherited, metabolic disease which results in excessive calcium oxalate synthesis. The predominant and early manifestation of hyperoxaluria is nephrocalcinosis which results in chronic renal failure. Widespread extrarenal deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, however, is a consistent finding. Extensive infiltration of crystals was noted in the pulps of the teeth, in the marrow spaces of the alveolar bone, in the gingival corium, and in the periodontal ligament. Crystalline calcium oxalate deposits in the periodontal ligament provoked a granulomatous foreign-body reaction. This resulted in aggressive external root resorption leading to pulp exposure and tooth mobility. PMID:2738833

  9. A sepal-expressed ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (NtAGP) is required for petal expansion growth in 'Xanthi' tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Man Sup; Min, Sung Ran; Lee, Si-Myung; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Liu, Jang Ryol; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Bae, Jung Myung

    2007-09-01

    In this study, a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi') ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA (NtAGP) was isolated from a flower bud cDNA library and the role of NtAGP in the growth of the floral organ was characterized. The expression of NtAGP was high in the sepal, moderate in the carpel and stamen, and low in the petal tissues. NtAGP-antisense plants produced flowers with abnormal petal limbs due to the early termination of the expansion growth of the petal limbs between the corolla lobes. Microscopic observation of the limb region revealed that cell expansion was limited in NtAGP-antisense plants but that cell numbers remained unchanged. mRNA levels of NtAGP, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity, and starch content in the sepal tissues of NtAGP-antisense plants were reduced, resulting in significantly lower levels of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in the petal limbs. The feeding of these sugars to flower buds of the NtAGP-antisense plants restored the expansion growth in the limb area between the corolla lobes. Expansion growth of the petal limb between the corolla lobes was severely arrested in 'Xanthi' flowers from which sepals were removed, indicating that sepal carbohydrates are essential for petal limb expansion growth. These results demonstrate that NtAGP plays a crucial role in the morphogenesis of petal limbs in 'Xanthi' through the synthesis of starch, which is the main carbohydrate source for expansion growth of petal limbs, in sepal tissues. PMID:17660352

  10. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (p<0.01). Numbers of B-cells, naïve and transitional B-cells, memory B-cells, and switched memory B-cells were within the reference range for all groups, but patients with chronic periodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (p<0.001) but did not show an association to any of the systemic immunological findings. Porphyromonas gingivalis, which was only found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and

  11. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ...

  12. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  13. Role of multidisciplinary approach in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with initial periodontal manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Cisternino, Angelo; Asa’ad, Farah; Fusco, Nicola; Ferrero, Stefano; Rasperini, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasia of unknown etiology occurring in both children and adults. This condition is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells that may virtually affect all sites in the human body. Oral manifestations of LCH could be the first clinical sign of disease and its periodontal localization could be easily mistaken for other more common entities, such as chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. Case presentation: A 32-years old female visited a private dental practice with a chief complaint of sensitivity in the mandibular left first molar. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed deep periodontal pocket, recession, furcation involvement, mobility, severe alveolar bone destruction and a diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis was rendered. Multiple tooth extractions were carried out due to progressive periodontal destruction with impaired healing and development of ulcerative lesions. Multidisciplinary investigation demonstrated that the periodontal involvement was a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. A biopsy of a bone lesion was therefore performed, revealing the presence of multifocal single system LCH. Conclusion: The identification of periodontal LCH is not trivial given that it may clinically resemble other periodontal disease entities. The dentist can be the first health care personnel to unravel the presence of an underlying systemic LCH. PMID:26722570

  14. Identification of biomarkers for periodontal disease using the immunoproteomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Mohammad, Sani; Alias, Muhamad Shaifunizam; Mu, Alan Kang-Wai; Vaithilingam, Rathna Devi; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar; Safii, Syarida H.; Abdul Rahman, Zainal Ariff; Chen, Yu Nieng

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases associated with the host’s immune response against periodontopathogenic infection. Failure to accurately diagnose the stage of periodontitis has limited the ability to predict disease status. Therefore, we aimed to look for reliable diagnostic markers for detection or differentiation of early stage periodontitis using the immunoprotemic approach. Method In the present study, patient serum samples from four distinct stages of periodontitis (i.e., mild chronic, moderate chronic, severe chronic, and aggressive) and healthy controls were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by silver staining. Notably, we consistently identified 14 protein clusters in the sera of patients and normal controls. Results Overall, we found that protein levels were comparable between patients and controls, with the exception of the clusters corresponding to A1AT, HP, IGKC and KNG1 (p < 0.05). In addition, the immunogenicity of these proteins was analysed via immunoblotting, which revealed differential profiles for periodontal disease and controls. For this reason, IgM obtained from severe chronic periodontitis (CP) sera could be employed as a suitable autoantibody for the detection of periodontitis. Discussion Taken together, the present study suggests that differentially expressed host immune response proteins could be used as potential biomarkers for screening periodontitis. Future studies exploring the diagnostic potential of such factors are warranted.

  15. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. PMID:25494597

  16. Alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS) alters lipid signaling pathways and supports chemotherapy resistance of glioma and hepatic carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Liu, Xing-Jun; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Ming; Lv, Li-Xia; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy continues to be a mainstay of cancer treatment, although drug resistance is a major obstacle. Lipid metabolism plays a critical role in cancer pathology, with elevated ether lipid levels. Recently, alkylglyceronephosphate synthase (AGPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in ether lipid synthesis, was shown to be up-regulated in multiple types of cancer cells and primary tumors. Here, we demonstrated that silencing of AGPS in chemotherapy resistance glioma U87MG/DDP and hepatic carcinoma HepG2/ADM cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation, increased drug sensitivity, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis through reducing the intracellular concentration of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), lysophosphatidic acid-ether (LPAe) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), resulting in reduction of LPA receptor and EP receptors mediated PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and the expression of several multi-drug resistance genes, like MDR1, MRP1 and ABCG2. β-catenin, caspase-3/8, Bcl-2 and survivin were also found to be involved. In summary, our studies indicate that AGPS plays a role in cancer chemotherapy resistance by mediating signaling lipid metabolism in cancer cells. PMID:24815474

  17. The biliverdin chromophore binds covalently to a conserved cysteine residue in the N-terminus of Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1.

    PubMed

    Lamparter, Tilman; Carrascal, Montserrat; Michael, Norbert; Martinez, Enriqueta; Rottwinkel, Gregor; Abian, Joaquin

    2004-03-30

    Phytochromes are widely distributed biliprotein photoreceptors. Typically, the chromophore becomes covalently linked to the protein during an autocatalytic lyase reaction. Plant and cyanobacterial phytochromes incorporate bilins with a ring A ethylidene side chain, whereas other bacterial phytochromes utilize biliverdin as chromophore, which has a vinyl ring A side chain. For Agrobacterium phytochrome Agp1, site-directed mutagenesis provided evidence that biliverdin is bound to cysteine 20. This cysteine is highly conserved within bacterial homologues, but its role as attachment site has as yet not been proven. We therefore performed mass spectrometry studies on proteolytic holopeptide fragments. For that purpose, an Agp1 expression vector was re-engineered to produce a protein with an N-terminal affinity tag. Following proteolysis, the chromophore co-purified with a ca. 5 kDa fragment during affinity chromatography, showing that the attachment site is located close to the N-terminus. Mass spectrometry analyses performed with the purified chromopeptide confirmed the role of the cysteine 20 as biliverdin attachment site. We also analyzed the role of the highly conserved histidine 250 by site-directed mutagenesis. The homologous amino acid plays an important but yet undefined role in plant phytochromes and has been proposed as chromophore attachment site of Deinococcus phytochrome. We found that in Agp1, this amino acid is dispensable for covalent attachment, but required for tight chromophore-protein interaction. PMID:15035636

  18. Diabetes and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Kalyani; Jain, Ashish; Sharma, RaviKant; Prashar, Savita; Jain, Rajni

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the “certain” articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1) Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2) Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3) What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4) What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene. PMID:21731243

  19. Microflora and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Scapoli, Luca; Girardi, Ambra; Palmieri, Annalisa; Testori, Tiziano; Zuffetti, Francesco; Monguzzi, Riccardo; Lauritano, Dorina; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a disease that affects and destroys the tissues that support teeth. Tissue damage results from a prolonged inflammatory response to an ecological shift in the composition of subgingival biofilms. Three bacterial species that constitute the red complex group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, are considered the main pathogens involved in periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction bases assay was designed to detect and quantify red complex species, then used to investigate 307 periodontal pocket samples from 127 periodontitis patients and 180 controls. Results: Significant higher prevalence of red complex species and increased amount of P. gingivalis and T. denticola were detected in periodontal pocket of periodontitis patients. Conclusions: Results demonstrated that the test is a valuable tool to improve diagnosis of periodontal disease. PMID:23814584

  20. Are Putative Periodontal Pathogens Reliable Diagnostic Markers?▿

    PubMed Central

    Riep, Birgit; Edesi-Neuß, Lilian; Claessen, Friderike; Skarabis, Horst; Ehmke, Benjamin; Flemmig, Thomas F.; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre; Göbel, Ulf B.; Moter, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. A number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease and are used as diagnostic markers. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of oral bacterial species in the subgingival biofilm of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) (n = 44) and chronic periodontitis (CP) (n = 46) patients with that of a periodontitis-resistant control group (PR) (n = 21). The control group consisted of subjects at least 65 years of age with only minimal or no periodontitis and no history of periodontal treatment. A total of 555 samples from 111 subjects were included in this study. The samples were analyzed by PCR of 16S rRNA gene fragments and subsequent dot blot hybridization using oligonucleotide probes specific for Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, a Treponema denticola-like phylogroup (Treponema phylogroup II), Treponema lecithinolyticum, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium spp., and Fusobacterium nucleatum, as well as Capnocytophaga ochracea. Our data confirm a high prevalence of the putative periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythia in the periodontitis groups. However, these species were also frequently detected in the PR group. For most of the species tested, the prevalence was more associated with increased probing depth than with the subject group. T. lecithinolyticum was the only periodontopathogenic species showing significant differences both between GAP and CP patients and between GAP patients and PR subjects. C. ochracea was associated with the PR subjects, regardless of the probing depth. These results indicate that T. lecithinolyticum may be a diagnostic marker for GAP and C. ochracea for periodontal health. They also suggest that current presumptions of the association of specific bacteria with periodontal health and disease require further

  1. Quercetin inhibits inflammatory bone resorption in a mouse periodontitis model.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo H; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Macedo, Cristina G; Freitas, Fabiana F; Stipp, Rafael N; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-12-27

    Periodontitis is a disease that leads to bone destruction and represents the main cause of tooth loss in adults. The development of aggressive periodontitis has been associated with increased inflammatory response that is induced by the presence of a subgingival biofilm containing Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The flavonoid quercetin (1) is widespread in vegetables and fruits and exhibits many biological properties for possible medical and clinical applications such as its anti-inflamatory and antioxidant effects. Thus, in the present study, the properties of 1 have been evaluated in bone loss and inflammation using a mouse periodontitis model induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Subcutaneous treatment with 1 reduced A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced bone loss and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17, RANKL, and ICAM-1 production in the gingival tissue without affecting bacterial counts. These results demonstrated that quercetin exhibits protective effects in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontitis in mice by modulating cytokine and ICAM-1 production. PMID:24246038

  2. Antimicrobials in periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, M G; Slots, J

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical and chemical antimicrobial intervention is the mainstay of preventive periodontal therapy. Successful periodontal maintenance care depends upon the ability of oral health care professionals to combat periodontal infections, and patient compliance with prescribed follow-up care. Since tooth brushing, flossing, and oral rinsing do not reach pathogens present in furcations and at the depths of deep periodontal pockets, adequate oral hygiene should include subgingival treatment with home irrigators or other appropriate self-care remedies in patients with these conditions. Povidone-iodine for professional use and diluted bleach for self-care are inexpensive and valuable antimicrobial agents in periodontal maintenance. The present article outlines the prudent use of antimicrobial therapy in periodontal maintenance. PMID:11603305

  3. Ozone therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-01-01

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics. PMID:22574088

  4. Smoking and Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Borojevic, Tea

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth (periodontium). The periodontium consists of four tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments. Tobbaco use is one of the modifiable risk factors and has enormous influance on the development, progres and tretmen results of periodontal disease. The relationship between smoking and periodontal health was investigated as early as the miiddle of last century. Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. Additionally, smoking can lower the chances for successful tretment. Tretmans in patients with periodontal disease must be focused on understanding the relationship between genetic and environmental factors. Only with individual approach we can identify our pacients risks and achieve better results. PMID:23678331

  5. Smoking and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Borojevic, Tea

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth (periodontium). The periodontium consists of four tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments. Tobbaco use is one of the modifiable risk factors and has enormous influance on the development, progres and tretmen results of periodontal disease. The relationship between smoking and periodontal health was investigated as early as the miiddle of last century. Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. Additionally, smoking can lower the chances for successful tretment. Tretmans in patients with periodontal disease must be focused on understanding the relationship between genetic and environmental factors. Only with individual approach we can identify our pacients risks and achieve better results. PMID:23678331

  6. Periodontal disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Criado-Cámara, Elena; Bascones-Ilundáin, Jaime; Bascones-Ilundáin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is considered to be a genetically and environmentally based chronic metabolic and vascular syndrome caused by a partial or total insulin deficiency with alteration in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins culminating with different manifestations in different organisms. In humans hyperglycemia is the main consequence of defects in the secretion and/or action of insulin, and its deregulation can produce secondary lesions in various organs, especially kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels and immune systems. Periodontal disease is an entity of localized infection that involves tooth-supporting tissues. The first clinical manifestation of periodontal disease is the appearance of periodontal pockets, which offer a favorable niche for bacterial colonization. The etiology of periodontal disease is multifactorial, being caused by interactions between multiple micro-organisms (necessary but not sufficient primary etiologic factors), a host with some degree of susceptibility and environmental factors. According to current scientific evidence, there is a symbiotic relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, such that diabetes is associated with an increased incidence and progression of periodontitis, and periodontal infection is associated with poor glycaemic control in diabetes due to poor immune systems. Hence, for a good periodontal control it is necessary to treat both periodontal disease and glycaemic control. PMID:23393673

  7. Defining periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised. I'm not sick but I'm not well, and it's a sin to live so well. Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger PMID:26390888

  8. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    PubMed

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer. PMID:25900048

  9. An Ultrasonographic Periodontal Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, affects millions of people. The current method of detecting periodontal pocket depth is painful, invasive, and inaccurate. As an alternative to manual probing, an ultrasonographic periodontal probe is being developed to use ultrasound echo waveforms to measure periodontal pocket depth, which is the main measure of periodontal disease. Wavelet transforms and pattern classification techniques are implemented in artificial intelligence routines that can automatically detect pocket depth. The main pattern classification technique used here, called a binary classification algorithm, compares test objects with only two possible pocket depth measurements at a time and relies on dimensionality reduction for the final determination. This method correctly identifies up to 90% of the ultrasonographic probe measurements within the manual probe's tolerance.

  10. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Grover, Vishakha; Kaushal, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients’ oral and general health. PMID:20922084

  11. dbAARD & AGP: A computational pipeline for the prediction of genes associated with age related disorders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Isha; Gahlot, Lokesh Kumar; Khurana, Pooja; Hasija, Yasha

    2016-04-01

    The atrocious behavioral and physiological shift with aging accelerate occurrence of deleterious disorders. Contemporary research is focused at uncovering the role of genetic associations in age-related disorders (ARDs). While the completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap project has generated huge amount of data on genetic variations; Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations, essentially SNPs associated with several disorders including ARDs. However, a repository that houses all such ARD associations is lacking. The present work is aimed at filling this void. A database, dbAARD (database of Aging and Age Related Disorders) has been developed which hosts information on more than 3000 genetic variations significantly (p-value <0.05) associated with 51 ARDs. Furthermore, a machine learning based gene prediction tool AGP (Age Related Disorders Gene Prediction) has been constructed by employing rotation forest algorithm, to prioritize genes associated with ARDs. The tool achieved an overall accuracy in terms of precision 75%, recall 76%, F-measure 76% and AUC 0.85. Both the web resources have been made available online at http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/dbAARD/ and http://genomeinformatics.dce.edu/AGP/ respectively for easy retrieval and usage by the scientific community. We believe that this work may facilitate the analysis of plethora of variants associated with ARDs and provide cues for deciphering the biology of aging. PMID:26836976

  12. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates.

    PubMed

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  13. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components.

  14. Facile fabrication of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables based on the mixed mode of soft/hard templates

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mimi; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Ping; Mao, Chun; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be facilely synthesized by using soft/hard templates method. In order to effectively introduce Ag sources into porous polystyrene (PS) nanotubes which were trapped in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) hard template, Pluronic F127 (F127) was used as guiding agent, soft template and reductant. Meanwhile, ethylene glycol solution was also used as solvent and co-reducing agent to assist in the formation of silver nanowires. The influences of concentration of F127 and reducing reaction time on the formation of Ag/PS coaxial nanocables were discussed. Results indicated that the high-quality Ag/PS coaxial nanocables can be obtained by the mixed mode of soft/hard templates under optimized conditions. This strategy is expected to be extended to design more metal/polymer coaxial nanocables for the benefit of creation of complex and functional nanoarchitectures and components. PMID:27477888

  15. Role of bacteria in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-associated periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I (LAD-I)-associated periodontitis is an aggressive form of inflammatory bone loss that has been historically attributed to lack of neutrophil surveillance of the periodontal infection. However, this form of periodontitis has proven unresponsive to antibiotics and/or mechanical removal of the tooth-associated biofilm. Recent studies in LAD-I patients and relevant animal models have shown that the fundamental cause of LAD-I periodontitis involves dysregulation of a granulopoietic cytokine cascade. This cascade includes interleukin IL-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 that drive inflammatory bone loss in LAD-I patients and animal models and, moreover, foster a nutritionally favorable environment for bacterial growth and development of a compositionally unique microbiome. Although the lack of neutrophil surveillance in the periodontal pockets might be expected to lead to uncontrolled bacterial invasion of the underlying connective tissue, microbiological analyses of gingival biopsies from LAD-I patients did not reveal tissue-invasive infection. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide was shown to translocate into the lesions of LAD-I periodontitis. It is concluded that the bacteria serve as initial triggers for local immunopathology through translocation of bacterial products into the underlying tissues where they unleash the dysregulated IL-23-IL-17 axis. Subsequently, the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory response sustains and shapes a unique local microbiome which, in turn, can further exacerbate inflammation and bone loss in the susceptible host. PMID:26375893

  16. Detection of periodontal markers in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Asa; Carlén, Anette; Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to compare the detection frequency of periodontopathogens by using the Pado Test 4.5 and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique in chronic periodontitis patients.Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis were tested cross-sectionally with DNA/RNA oligogenomic probe method (IAI Pado Test 4.5) and DNA/DNA whole genomic probe (checkerboard) method. Samples were taken by two paper points at the deepest site in each of the four quadrants and pooled into one sample for each of the two methods. The samples were sent to the two laboratories (IAI, Zuchwil, Switzerland, and Oral Microbiology Laboratory, University of Gothenburg, Sweden) and were analyzed in a routine setting for the presence and amount of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola.While Pado Test 4.5 detected the four periodontal pathogens in 11 (36.7%) of the patients, the checkerboard method showed presence in all patients (100%) using the lower score (Score 1 corresponding to 10(4) bacterial cells) and 16 (53.3%) using a higher treshold (score 3 corresponding to between >10(5) and 10(6) cells).The results of the present study showed low agreement for a positive microbiological outcome using the two diagnostic methods. It was also concluded that microbiological analysis in practice should include a larger number of bacterial species to better serve as markers for a diseased associated flora in chronic periodontitis cases. PMID:21769304

  17. Periodontal probing: a review.

    PubMed

    Al Shayeb, Kwthar Nassar A; Turner, Wendy; Gillam, David G

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal probes are the main instruments that are used to assess the status of the periodontium, either for screening purposes or to evaluate periodontal changes throughout the treatment process. With increased knowledge and understanding of periodontal disease, the probes have evolved from a unidimensional manual shape into a more sophisticated computerised instrument. This is due to the need to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of readings and to improve efficiency (time, effort, money). Each probe has characteristic features that makes it unique and, in some cases, specific and limited to use. The aim of this paper is to present a brief introduction to periodontal disease and the methodology of measuring it, followed by probing limitations. The paper will also discuss the methodology of reducing probing error, examiner calibration and probing reproducibility. PMID:25198634

  18. Microbial dysbiosis in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Sameera G.; Raveendran, Ranjith

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a biofilm-associated inflammatory disease of the periodontium. This disease appears to have multiple etiologies with microbial factor contributing to initiation of the disease and immunological factor of the host propagating the disease. This review is on the concept of “microbial dysbiosis” and molecular nature of periodontitis, and the scope of traditional and emerging technologies for treating this disease. PMID:24174742

  19. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shue, Li; Yufeng, Zhang; Mony, Ullas

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various methods of regenerative periodontal therapy, including the use of barrier membranes, bone replacement grafts, growth factors and the combination of these procedures have been investigated. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering has considerably improved the available treatment options above. They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), calcium sulfate and bioactive glass. The bioactive glass bonds to the bone with the formation of a layer of carbonated hydroxyapatite in situ. The natural polymers include modified polysaccharides (eg, chitosan,) and polypeptides (collagen and gelatin). Synthetic polymers [eg, poly(glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)] provide a platform for exhibiting the biomechanical properties of scaffolds in tissue engineering. The materials usually work as osteogenic, osteoconductive and osteoinductive scaffolds. Polymers are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). They are shown to exclude epithelial downgrowth and allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. An attempt to overcome the problems related to a collapse of the barrier membrane in GTR or epithelial downgrowth is the use of a combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials. This article reviews various biomaterials including scaffolds and membranes used for periodontal treatment and their impacts on the experimental or clinical management of periodontal defect. PMID:23507891

  20. Unusual periodontal findings in an AIDS patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hernández Vallejo, G; García, M D; López, A; Mendieta, C; Moskow, B S

    1989-12-01

    This report deals with a case of AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma in which some of the earliest findings were dental and periodontal in nature. The patient presented initially with painless and extremely loose teeth accompanied by progressive paresthesia of the lower jaw. Unique radiographic findings included extensive periodontal ligament space widening and bulbous, granuloma-like lesions about the apices of the teeth. These findings were associated with progressive tumor infiltration of the mandible and do not appear to be related to other reports of aggressive periodontitis associated with impaired immunologic functions in AIDS patients. PMID:2614637

  1. Periodontal and peri-implant diseases: identical or fraternal infections?

    PubMed

    Robitaille, N; Reed, D N; Walters, J D; Kumar, P S

    2016-08-01

    Peri-implant diseases (peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis) are bacterially driven infections. Peri-implantitis leads to aggressive bone resorption and eventual loss of the implant. Traditionally, peri-implantitis was regarded as microbially similar to periodontitis, and translocation of periodontal pathogens into the peri-implant crevice was considered as a critical factor in disease causation. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that the peri-implant and periodontal ecosystems differ in many important ways. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence supporting microbial congruence and discordance in these two communities. Current evidence suggests that osseointegrated implants truly create unique microenvironments that force microbial adaptation and selection. Further studies that revisit the "microbial reservoir" hypothesis and identify species that play an etiologic role in peri-implant disease and examine their transmission from teeth are needed. PMID:26255984

  2. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. PMID:26602450

  3. Comparative evaluation of salivary soluble CD44 levels in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumeet; Narayanswamy, Savitha; Ramesh, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inflammation, immunoactivation, and malignant diseases are associated with increased plasma levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44). Serum sCD44 has been recognized as a diagnostic marker in smoking-induced diseases. Aim: (1) To assess the levels of salivary sCD44 in periodontal health and disease. (2) To compare the levels of salivary sCD44 in smokers and nonsmokers. (3) To assess if salivary sCD44 levels could be used as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis. Setting and Design: A total of 60 patients were divided into three groups viz. Group A - healthy, Group B - aggressive periodontitis and Group C - chronic periodontitis (Subdivided into C1 - chronic periodontitis smokers and C2 - chronic periodontitis nonsmokers). Materials and Methods: The plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing depth and clinical attachment level; along with the radiographs were recorded. The saliva sample collected at baseline was stored at −80°C. The sCD44 levels were analyzed using ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test and Mann–Whitney's test was used to compare readings between all the groups and Pearson correlation was calculated for CD44 and all the clinical parameters in each group. Results: Highest mean sCD44 was recorded in Group C2 followed by Group C1. The GI was positively correlated with CD44 levels in chronic periodontitis group. Contrary to previous reports nonsmokers subjects had higher CD44 levels as compared to smoker. Conclusion: Soluble CD44 levels were positively correlated with periodontal disease. Thus, salivary sCD44 could be considered as a one of the biomarker for periodontitis that is, aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:25624630

  4. The Immediate Aesthetic and Functional Restoration of Maxillary Incisors Compromised by Periodontitis Using Short Implants with Single Crown Restorations: A Minimally Invasive Approach and Five-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Mauro; Lombardo, Giorgio; Pighi, Jacopo; Corrocher, Giovanni; Mascellaro, Anna; Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The functional and aesthetic restoration of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis presents numerous challenges for the clinician. Horizontal bone loss and soft tissue destruction resulting from periodontitis can impede implant placement and the regeneration of an aesthetically pleasing gingival smile line, often requiring bone augmentation and mucogingival surgery, respectively. Conservative approaches to the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (i.e., treatments that use minimally invasive tools and techniques) have been purported to yield positive outcomes. Here, we report on the treatment and five-year follow-up of patient suffering from aggressive periodontitis using a minimally invasive surgical technique and implant system. By using the methods described herein, we were able to achieve the immediate aesthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary incisors in a case that would otherwise require bone augmentation and extensive mucogingival surgery. This technique represents a conservative and efficacious alternative to the aesthetic and functional replacement of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:26649207

  5. Probiotics and periodontal health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G

    2011-11-14

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  6. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  7. Probiotics and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases. The etiology is clearly bacterial and a number of putative bacterial pathogens have been associated with the disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the identification of health-associated and potentially beneficial bacterial species that may reside in the gingival sulcus. Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by using natural beneficial bacteria, commonly found in healthy mouths, to provide a natural defense against those bacteria which are thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. This article endeavors to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics. PMID:22514571

  8. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  9. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  10. Characterization of TRIF selectivity in the AGP class of lipid A mimetics: role of secondary lipid chains.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Juhienah K; Bowen, William S; Bazin, Hélène G; Ryter, Kendal T; Livesay, Mark T; Ward, Jon R; Evans, Jay T; Johnson, David A

    2015-02-01

    TLR4 agonists that favor TRIF-dependent signaling and the induction of type 1 interferons may have potential as vaccine adjuvants with reduced toxicity. CRX-547 (4), a member of the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphate (AGP) class of lipid A mimetics possessing three (R)-3-decanoyloxytetradecanoyl groups and d-relative configuration in the aglycon, selectively reduces MyD88-dependent signaling resulting in TRIF-selective signaling, whereas the corresponding secondary ether lipid 6a containing (R)-3-decyloxytetradecanoyl groups does not. In order to determine which secondary acyl groups are important for the reduction in MyD88-dependent signaling activity of 4, the six possible ester/ether hybrid derivatives of 4 and 6a were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to induce NF-κB in a HEK293 cell reporter assay. An (R)-3-decanoyloxytetradecanoyl group on the 3-position of the d-glucosamine unit was found to be indispensable for maintaining low NF-κB activity irrespective of the substitutions (decyl or decanoyl) on the other two secondary positions. These results suggest that the carbonyl group of the 3-secondary lipid chain may impede homodimerization and/or conformational changes in the TLR4-MD2 complex necessary for MyD88 binding and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. PMID:25553892

  11. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  12. Smoking and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F; Chestnutt, I G

    2000-01-01

    Numerous investigations of the relationship between smoking and periodontal disease have been performed over the last 15 years, and there now exists a substantial body of literature upon which this current review is based. From both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, there appears to be strong epidemiological evidence that smoking confers a considerably increased risk of periodontal disease. This evidence is further supported by the data emanating from patients who stop smoking. These patients have levels of risk similar to those of non-smokers. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of this review is to consider the evidence for the association between smoking and periodontal diseases and to highlight the biological mechanisms whereby smoking may affect the periodontium. PMID:11021635

  13. Prescribing for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Blair, Fiona M; Chapple, Iain L C

    2014-11-01

    With concerns about the ever-increasing development of antimicrobial resistance, it is imperative that antimicrobials are prescribed responsibly and used appropriately. This article provides an overview and simple guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing in the management of periodontal diseases. PMID:25668374

  14. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  15. Concept analysis: aggression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  16. Periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell-transferred amnion.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kengo; Komaki, Motohiro; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuichi; Taki, Atsuko; Honda, Izumi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takeda, Masaki; Akazawa, Keiko; Oda, Shigeru; Izumi, Yuichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-02-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by the destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Regeneration of periodontal tissues using ex vivo expanded cells has been introduced and studied, although appropriate methodology has not yet been established. We developed a novel cell transplant method for periodontal regeneration using periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC)-transferred amniotic membrane (PDLSC-amnion). The aim of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of PDLSC-amnion in a rat periodontal defect model. Cultured PDLSCs were transferred onto amniotic membranes using a glass substrate treated with polyethylene glycol and photolithography. The properties of PDLSCs were investigated by flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation. PDLSC-amnion was transplanted into surgically created periodontal defects in rat maxillary molars. Periodontal regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics such as cell surface marker expression (CD90, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and STRO-1) and trilineage differentiation ability (i.e., into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes). PDLSC-amnion exhibited a single layer of PDLSCs on the amniotic membrane and stability of the sheet even with movement and deformation caused by surgical instruments. We observed that the PDLSC-amnion enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration as determined by micro-CT and histology by 4 weeks after transplantation. These data suggest that PDLSC-amnion has therapeutic potential as a novel cell-based regenerative periodontal therapy. PMID:24032400

  17. Using Big Data to Evaluate the Association between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.; Comer, Angela C.; DiRenzo, Dana D.; Yesha, Yelena; Rishe, Naphtali D.

    2015-01-01

    An association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is believed to exist. Most investigations into a possible relationship have been case-control studies with relatively low sample sizes. The advent of very large clinical repositories has created new opportunities for data-driven research. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure the association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis in a population of 25 million patients. We demonstrated that subjects with periodontal disease were roughly 1.4 times more likely to have rheumatoid arthritis. These results compare favorably with those of previous studies on smaller cohorts. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms behind this association and to determine if aggressive treatment of periodontal disease can alter the course of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26958193

  18. Functional differences of Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbriae in determining periodontal disease pathogenesis: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is implicated in chronic and aggressive periodontitis. This bacterium has numerous virulence factors and one is the Fimbriae, which is quite important for bacterial colonization. Fimbriae are appendices that anchor to the bacterial wall and are comprised of the protein FimBriline encoded by the FimA gene. Thus far, six genotypes have been identified, FimA I to V and Ib. Genotypes II and IV are associated with periodontal disease, while genotype I is related to gingival health. Genotype identification of P. gingivalis FimA in periodontitis would be important to confirm the pathogenic genotypes and to establish risk at population level. This review is about the P. gingivalis FimA genotype prevalence worldwide. A systematic search using Pubmed, Hinary, and Science Direct within the following descriptors: Porphyromonas gingivalis, bacterial adhesion, periodontitis, Fimbriae, FimA, genotipification was performed to April 2011. PMID:24892323

  19. Comparative bacteriology of juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Palcanis, K G; Ranney, R R

    1985-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of the floras associated with juvenile periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and moderate periodontitis indicated that differences in the bacterial compositions of affected sites in these populations were not statistically significant. The subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was statistically significantly different from the adjacent supragingival flora and from the subgingival floras of people with healthy gingiva and of children with developing (experimental) gingivitis. However, the subgingival flora of affected juvenile periodontitis sites was not significantly different from the flora of sites with gingival index scores of 1 or 2 in adults with developing (experimental) gingivitis. Of 357 bacterial taxa among over 18,000 isolates, 54 non-treponemal species, 2 treponemal species, and mycoplasma were most associated with diseased periodontal sulci. These species comprised an increasing proportion of the flora during developing gingivitis and constituted over half of the cultivable flora of diseased sites. PMID:3988344

  20. Constitutive Tor2 Activity Promotes Retention of the Amino Acid Transporter Agp3 at Trans-Golgi/Endosomes in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingbin; Ma, Yan; Zhou, Xin; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid transporters are located at specific subcellular compartments, and their localizations are regulated by the extracellular availability of amino acids. In yeast, target of rapamycin (TOR) activation induces the internalization of amino acid transporters located at the plasma membrane. However, whether and how TOR signaling regulates other amino acid transporters located at intracellular compartments remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in the fission yeast, the TOR inhibitor Torin–1 induces the transfer of several yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fused intracellular amino acid transporters, including Agp3, Isp5, Aat1, and Put4, from trans-Golgi/endosomes into the vacuoles. By contrast, the localizations of YFP-fused Can1, Fnx1, and Fnx2 transporter proteins were unaffected upon Torin–1 treatment. There are two TOR isoforms in fission yeast, Tor1 and Tor2. Whereas tor1 deletion did not affect the Torin-1-induced transfer of Agp3-YFP, Tor2 inhibition using a temperature-sensitive mutant induced the transfer of Agp3-YFP to the vacuolar lumen, similar to the effects of Torin–1 treatment. Tor2 inhibition also induced the transfer of the YFP-fused Isp5, Aat1, and Put4 transporter proteins to the vacuoles, although only partial transfer of the latter two transporters was observed. Under nitrogen depletion accompanied by reduced Tor2 activity, Agp3-YFP was transferred from the trans-Golgi/endosomes to the plasma membrane and then to the vacuoles, where it was degraded by the vacuolar proteases Isp6 and Psp3. Mutants with constitutively active Tor2 showed delayed transfer of Agp3-YFP to the plasma membrane upon nitrogen depletion. Cells lacking Tsc2, a negative regulator of Tor2, also showed a delay in this process in a Tor2-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that constitutive Tor2 activity is critical for the retention of amino acid transporters at trans-Golgi/endosomes. Moreover, nitrogen depletion suppresses Tor2 activity

  1. Long-term efficacy of microbiology-driven periodontal laser-assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Martelli, F S; Fanti, E; Rosati, C; Martelli, M; Bacci, G; Martelli, M L; Medico, E

    2016-03-01

    Periodontitis represents a highly prevalent health problem, causing severe functional impairment, reduced quality of life and increased risk of systemic disorders, including respiratory, cardiovascular and osteoarticular diseases, diabetes and fertility problems. It is a typical example of a multifactorial disease, where a polymicrobial infection inducing chronic inflammation of periodontal tissues is favoured by environmental factors, life style and genetic background. Since periodontal pathogens can colonise poorly vascularised niches, antiseptics and antibiotics are typically associated with local treatments to manage the defects, with unstable outcomes especially in early-onset cases. Here, the results of a retrospective study are reported, evaluating the efficacy of a protocol (Periodontal Biological Laser-Assisted Therapy, Perioblast™) by which microbial profiling of periodontal pockets is used to determine the extent and duration of local neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation plus conventional treatment. The protocol was applied multicentrically on 2683 patients, and found to produce a significant and enduring improvement of all clinical and bacteriological parameters, even in aggressive cases. Microbiome sequencing of selected pockets revealed major population shifts after treatment, as well as strains potentially associated with periodontitis in the absence of known pathogens. This study, conducted for the first time on such a large series, clearly demonstrates long-term efficacy of microbiology-driven non-invasive treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:26740323

  2. The Influence of Tobacco Smoking on the Onset of Periodontitis in Young Persons

    PubMed Central

    Mullally, Brian H

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for the development of severe destructive periodontal disease in young adults. A high prevalence of cigarette smoking has been identified among young individuals with aggressive periodontitis and tobacco usage increases the risk of periodontal destruction most significantly in young populations. The effect appears to be dose related and is independent of levels of plaque accumulation. Young smokers have more alveolar bone loss and attachment loss than non smoking equivalents. Prolonged and heavy smoking can reduce gingival bleeding and therefore mask the clinical marker of bleeding on probing often used by dentists to monitor periodontal health. This has implications for potential misdiagnosis and failure to detect periodontitis at an early stage. Nicotine metabolites concentrate in the periodontal tissues and can have local effects as well as the potential to affect the systemic host response. Dentists are well placed to assess the smoking status of their young patients and have a role to play in the delivery of smoking cessation advice especially as it pertains to periodontal health. In this way the dental profession can also make a significant contribution to the general health and well being of our youth and future generations.

  3. The Influence of Tobacco Smoking on the Onset of Periodontitis in Young Persons

    PubMed Central

    Mullally, Brian H

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for the development of severe destructive periodontal disease in young adults. A high prevalence of cigarette smoking has been identified among young individuals with aggressive periodontitis and tobacco usage increases the risk of periodontal destruction most significantly in young populations. The effect appears to be dose related and is independent of levels of plaque accumulation. Young smokers have more alveolar bone loss and attachment loss than non smoking equivalents. Prolonged and heavy smoking can reduce gingival bleeding and therefore mask the clinical marker of bleeding on probing often used by dentists to monitor periodontal health. This has implications for potential misdiagnosis and failure to detect periodontitis at an early stage. Nicotine metabolites concentrate in the periodontal tissues and can have local effects as well as the potential to affect the systemic host response. Dentists are well placed to assess the smoking status of their young patients and have a role to play in the delivery of smoking cessation advice especially as it pertains to periodontal health. In this way the dental profession can also make a significant contribution to the general health and well being of our youth and future generations. PMID:19570272

  4. Microbiological basis for periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-12-01

    The search for the etiologic agents of periodontal diseases started in the Golden Era of medical bacteriology, when the etiologic agents of many bacterial infections were isolated and characterized. After the initial enthusiasm in establishing the infectious nature and the true agents of periodontal diseases, this concept was virtually ignored for the next four decades. Until the early 1970s treatment regimens based on the non-specific plaque hypothesis were directed towards a non-specific reduction in plaque amount. Later, the specific plaque hypothesis established the role of some microorganisms such as A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythensis, T. denticola, P. intermedia and F. nucleatum in different forms of periodontal diseases. It was recently suggested that these suspected periodontal pathogens seem to not act alone and interactions between species, especially the balance between pathogenic and beneficial species affect both progression of disease and response of tissues to periodontal therapy. Nowadays it is well established that one of the goals of therapy is to control such periodontal pathogens. Among the most commonly used therapies to treat periodontal infections are scaling and root planing (SRP), supragingival plaque control and periodontal surgeries. Many studies confirmed the reduction of "red complex" species by SRP, and apically repositioned flap can lead to an additional beneficial effect in the subgingival microbiota by decreasing levels of "red" and "orange complexes" species. Furthermore, the level of plaque control maintained by the patients has been considered a crucial step in preventing recurrence of destructive periodontitis. PMID:20976394

  5. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  6. Lasers in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Naveen, Devisree; Thangavelu, Arthiie

    2012-01-01

    Laser is one of the most captivating technologies in dental practice since Theodore Maiman in 1960 invented the ruby laser. Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three and a half decades of the 20th century. Introduced as an alternative to mechanical cutting device, laser has now become an instrument of choice in many dental applications. Evidence suggests its use in initial periodontal therapy, surgery, and more recently, its utility in salvaging implant opens up a wide range of applications. More research with better designs are a necessity before lasers can become a part of dental armamentarium. This paper gives an insight to laser in periodontics. PMID:23066266

  7. Indirect porcelain veneers in periodontally compromised teeth. The hybrid technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Baeza, David; Saavedra, Carlos; Garcia-Adámez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The loss of periodontal structure causes an esthetic problem for many patients, especially when the esthetic zone is compromised. Among the various types of solutions is the use of composite resins. While this procedure is not aggressive towards tooth structure, it does require the clinician to have a precise technique, and demands strict longterm maintenance. 1 Another way of treating the compromised teeth is with porcelain veneers. This procedure is especially difficult, however, if carried out on periodontal teeth, as it requires preparation along the roots. 2 The intention of the hybrid technique described in this article is to combine both of these procedures in order to obtain a less aggressive treatment with precise management of the soft tissue and an adequate esthetic outcome. The hybrid technique consists of enlarging the root portion of the teeth with composite resin to obtain a less aggressive tooth preparation, and thereafter placing porcelain veneers. PMID:26171444

  8. Mechanisms Involved in the Association between Periodontitis and Complications in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Marcela Yang Hui; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2015-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and some of the problems with pregnancy such as premature delivery, low weight at birth, and preeclampsia (PE) has been suggested. Nevertheless, epidemiological data have shown contradictory data, mainly due to differences in clinical parameters of periodontitis assessment. Furthermore, differences in microbial composition and immune response between aggressive and chronic periodontitis are not addressed by these epidemiological studies. We aimed to review the current data on the association between some of these problems with pregnancy and periodontitis, and the mechanisms underlying this association. Shifts in the microbial composition of the subgingival biofilm may occur during pregnancy, leading to a potentially more hazardous microbial community. Pregnancy is characterized by physiological immune tolerance. However, the infection leads to a shift in maternal immune response to a pathogenic pro-inflammatory response, with production of inflammatory cytokines and toxic products. In women with periodontitis, the infected periodontal tissues may act as reservoirs of bacteria and their products that can disseminate to the fetus-placenta unit. In severe periodontitis patients, the infection agents and their products are able to activate inflammatory signaling pathways locally and in extra-oral sites, including the placenta-fetal unit, which may not only induce preterm labor but also lead to PE and restrict intrauterine growth. Despite these evidences, the effectiveness of periodontal treatment in preventing gestational complications was still not established since it may be influenced by several factors such as severity of disease, composition of microbial community, treatment strategy, and period of treatment throughout pregnancy. This lack of scientific evidence does not exclude the need to control infection and inflammation in periodontitis patients during pregnancy, and treatment protocols should be validated. PMID:25688342

  9. The Role of Activated Cytotoxic T Cells in Etiopathogenesis of Periodontal Disease: Does It Harm or Does It Heal?

    PubMed Central

    Cifcibasi, Emine; Ciblak, Meral; Kiran, Bayram; Badur, Selim; Firatli, Erhan; Issever, Halim; Cintan, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic profile of blood mononuclear cells, specifically CD8+/CD28+ cells, in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP) in peripheral blood and in blood obtained from periodontal defect site which might contribute to tissue damage. 13 GAgP, 11 chronic periodontitis (CP) and 5 healthy controls (H) were included in the study. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Blood from the base of periodontal defect site and peripheral blood from the antecubital vein were obtained. Relative counts of CD45+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+/CD28+, CD8+/CD28−, CD19+, CD16+/CD56+/CD3, CD3+/CD16+/CD56+ receptors were determined with two color flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. BoP, PPD and CAL were significantly higher in both periodontitis groups than healthy controls (p <0.05). Activated cytotoxic T cells, CD8+/CD28+ cells, were significantly elevated in GAgP and CP groups compared to HC both in blood obtained from defect site and blood obtained from systemic circulation (p <0.05). GAgP and CP patients have an increased levels of activated cytotoxic T cells as a result of inflammation which may cause severe tissue damage that lead to severe and rapid loss of periodontal tissues. PMID:25788457

  10. On putative periodontal pathogens: an epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Hujoel, Philippe; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding on the role of microbiology on periodontitis causation is reviewed. An appraisal of the literature reveals several issues that have limited the attempts to investigate candidate periodontal pathogens as causes of periodontitis and confirms that only limited epidemiological evidence is available. Several aspects of the contemporary understanding on causal inference are discussed with examples for periodontitis. PMID:25874553

  11. Periodontal Dressing: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, Zahra; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the commercially available periodontal dressings, their physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and therapeutic effects. Electronic search of scientific papers from 1956 to 2012 was carried out using PubMed, Scopus and Wiley InterScience search engines using the searched terms periodontal dressing, periodontal pack. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated various properties of periodontal dressings. Physical and chemical properties of dressings are directly related to their dimensional changes and adhesion properties. Their biocompatibility and therapeutic effect are among the other factors evaluated in the literature. Chlorhexidine is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in studies. In general, when comparing the advantages with the disadvantages, application of periodontal dressing seems to be beneficial. Numerous factors are involved in selection of an optimal dressing such as surgeon’s intention, required time for the dressing to remain on the surgery site and its dimensional changes. PMID:24578815

  12. Perilous periodontitis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Roby V; Neelakantan, Shiba

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether periodontitis in pregnant women could be a risk factor for pre term low birth weight. The oral hygiene status, periodontal status and periodontal treatment needs of mothers who birthed infants with normal birth weight and normal gestation period (group A) and mothers who birthed pre term low birth weight infants (group B) were assessed and compared. The clinical parameters used were Oral Hygiene Index--simplified (OHI-S), gingival bleeding index (GBI), probing pocket depth and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). This article presents the study and its findings and draws conclusions as to the relationship between poor periodontal condition and pre term low birth weight. PMID:22216586

  13. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  14. Coordinated Pediatric and Periodontal Dental Care of a Child with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Gentry; Quinonez, Rocio B; Offenbacher, Steven; Keels, Martha Ann; Guthmiller, Janet M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the management of an eight-year-old Bulgarian male with Down syndrome presenting with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease in the early mixed dentition. Treatment involved full-mouth mechanical debridement and extraction of hopeless teeth under general anesthesia followed by systemic antibiotics and chemical adjunctive therapy. Microbial culture and sensitivity testing aided in diagnosis and guided treatment decisions. This case report demonstrates a multidisciplinary approach in the management of aggressive periodontal disease in an internationally adopted pediatric patient with special health care needs. PMID:26314608

  15. Neurobiological Patterns of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes chemical model for patterns of aggressive behavior. Addresses cultural, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that affect violent children. Identifies five patterns of aggression (overaroused, impulsive, affective, predatory, and instrumental) and examines these dimensions of aggression for each pattern: baseline, precipitators,…

  16. Periodontal medicine: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D C

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that we need to change how we think about the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although bacteria are a necessary factor in the equation, the reaction of the host's immuno-inflammatory system is responsible for most of the destruction found in periodontal disease. Thus, it makes sense that a number of environmental and acquired factors may modify a patient's risk of developing periodontal disease. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for a number of these risk factors including age, genetics, smoking, diabetes mellitus, stress and osteoporosis. PMID:11070627

  17. Levels of Candidate Periodontal Pathogens in Subgingival Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R R D S; Fermiano, D; Feres, M; Figueiredo, L C; Teles, F R F; Soares, G M S; Faveri, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, several new periodontal taxa have been associated with the etiology of periodontitis. A recent systematic review provides further support for the pathogenic role of 17 species/phylotypes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and levels of these species in subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP; n = 30), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP; n = 30), and periodontal health (PH; n = 30). All subjects underwent clinical and microbiological assessment. Nine subgingival plaque samples were collected from each subject and analyzed for their content of 20 bacterial species/phylotypes through the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique. Subjects from the GChP and GAgP groups presented the highest mean values for all clinical parameters in comparison with the PH group (P < 0.05). Subjects with GChP and GAgP showed significantly higher mean levels of Bacteroidetes sp. human oral taxon (HOT) 274, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, as well as higher mean levels of Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Selenomonas sputigena species than PH subjects (P < 0.05). GAgP subjects presented higher mean levels of TM7 sp. HOT 356 and F. alocis than GChP subjects (P < 0.05). A significantly higher mean prevalence of Bacteroidales sp. HOT 274, Desulfobulbus sp. HOT 041, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 362 was found in subjects with GChP and GAgP than in PH subjects. Mean levels of P. gingivalis (r = 0.68), T. forsythia (r = 0.62), F. alocis (r = 0.51, P = 0.001), and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 (r = 0.41) were correlated with pocket depth (P < 0.001). In conclusion, Bacteroidales sp. HOT 274, Desulfobulbus sp. HOT 041, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 362, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, in addition to F. alocis, F. fastidiosum, and S. sputigena, seem to be associated with periodontitis, and their role

  18. Spectroscopic Investigation on the Primary Photoreaction of Bathy Phytochrome Agp2-Pr of Agrobacterium fabrum: Isomerization in a pH-dependent H-bond Network.

    PubMed

    Singer, Patrick; Wörner, Sybille; Lamparter, Tilman; Diller, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    Bathy phytochrome Agp2 from Agrobacterium fabrum exhibits an unusually low pKa =7.6 in the Pr state in contrast to a pKa >11 in the Pfr state, indicating a pH-dependent charge distribution and H-bond network in the Pr chromophore binding pocket around neutral pH. Here, we report on ultrafast UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy of the primary Pr photoisomerization of Agp2 at pH 6 and pH 9 and upon H2 O/D2 O buffer exchange. The triexponential Pr kinetics slows down at increased pH and pronounced pH-dependent kinetic isotope effects are observed. The results on the Pr photoreaction suggest: 1) component-wise hindered dynamics on the chromophore excited-state potential energy surface at high pH and 2) proton translocation processes either via single-proton transfer or via significant reorganization of H-bond networks. Both effects reflect the interplay between the pH-dependent charge distribution in the Pr chromophore binding pocket on the one hand and chromophore excitation and its Z→E isomerization on the other hand. PMID:27075723

  19. Relationship between diabetes and periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Llambés, Fernando; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Caffesse, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a high prevalent disease. In the United States 47.2% of adults ≥ 30 years old have been diagnosed with some type of periodontitis. Longitudinal studies have demonstrated a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with more severe periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients and poorer glycemic control in diabetic subjects with periodontal disease. Periodontal treatment can be successful in diabetic patients. Short term effects of periodontal treatment are similar in diabetic patients and healthy population but, more recurrence of periodontal disease can be expected in no well controlled diabetic individuals. However, effects of periodontitis and its treatment on diabetes metabolic control are not clearly defined and results of the studies remain controversial. PMID:26185600

  20. Periodontal disease, periodontal treatment and systemic nitric oxide in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Verstraete, F J M; Jerin, A; Šentjurc, M; Kass, P H; Petelin, M; Pavlica, Z

    2013-06-01

    Thirty-two client-owned dogs treated for periodontal disease were divided in group 1 if no periodontitis, group 2 if ≤25%, and group 3 if >25% of the teeth present were affected with periodontitis. Blood was tested before and 2 weeks after periodontal therapy for nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO), plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) levels. No HbNO was detected in any of the animals tested. There was no significant difference in the NOx plasma levels within each group or across the groups before and after the treatment, but a noticeable increase in NOx plasma levels was observed in group 3 after the treatment. Plasma NT was detected in only one third of the animals. NO levels varied greatly across individual dogs. The data are suggestive of an overall increase in systemic NO response 2 weeks after periodontal treatment in dogs with advanced periodontal disease, but the response is greatly individually-dependent. PMID:23158853

  1. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028

  2. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  3. Lipoproteins and lipoprotein metabolism in periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Rachel; Barbour, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with periodontitis – a chronic infection of the oral cavity. This article summarizes the evidence that suggests periodontitis shifts the lipoprotein profile to be more proatherogenic. LDL-C is elevated in periodontitis and most studies indicate that triglyceride levels are also increased. By contrast, antiatherogenic HDL tends to be low in periodontitis. Periodontal therapy tends to shift lipoprotein levels to a healthier profile and also reduces subclinical indices of atherosclerosis. In summary, periodontal disease alters lipoprotein metabolism in ways that could promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:20835400

  4. Low-cost periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Slots, Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens. This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease. Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals. Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Valuable antibiotic therapies are amoxicillin-metronidazole (250 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of metronidazole, three times daily for 8 days) for young and middle-aged patients, and ciprofloxacin-metronidazole (500 mg of each, twice daily for 8 days) for elderly patients and for patients in developing countries who frequently harbor enteric rods subgingivally. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent

  5. Strategies for managing periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Steven E

    2010-04-01

    Most of the tissue destruction in periodontal disease is caused by the patient's inflammatory response. Classical approaches to controlling inflammation rely on attempts to eliminate pathogenic bacteria that incite the inflammatory response through mechanical or chemical means. This approach still has a place in treating periodontal inflammation today. Emerging and future approaches will rely more on modifying the inflammatory response itself, by limiting the activity of proinflammatory pathways and by amplifying pathways that resolve inflammation. PMID:20509367

  6. The Functional Property Changes of Muscular Na(v)1.4 and Cardiac Na(v)1.5 Induced by Scorpion Toxin BmK AGP-SYPU1 Mutants Y42F and Y5F.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangxue; Xu, Yijia; Zhao, Mingyi; Wang, Fangyang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yao; Liu, Yanfeng; Song, Yongbo; Zhang, Jinghai

    2015-05-19

    Scorpion toxins are invaluable therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which influence the voltage-gated sodium channels. However, the details were still unclear about the structure-function relationship of scorpion toxins on VGSC subtypes. In the previous study, we reported one α-type scorpion toxin Bmk AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) which had been demonstrated to ease pain in mice acetic acid writhing test. However, the function of Bmk AGP-SYPU1 on VGSCs is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BmK AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 heterologously expressed CHO cell lines by using Na⁺-specialized fluorescent dye and whole-cell patch clamp. The data showed that BmK AGP-SYPU1 displayed as an activator of hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5, which might indeed contribute to its biotoxicity to muscular and cardiac system and exhibited the functional properties of both the α-type and β-type scorpion toxin. Notably, Y5F mutant exhibited lower activatory effects on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 compared with BmK AGP-SYPU1. Y42F was an enhanced activator and confirmed that the conserved Tyr42 was the key amino acid involved in bioactivity or biotoxicity. These data provided a deep insight into the structure-function relationship of BmK AGP-SYPU1, which may be the guidance for engineering α-toxin with high selectivity on VGSC subtypes. PMID:25919575

  7. Periodontitis and bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Luigi; Francioni, Edoardo; Bianchi, Massimiliano; Mascitelli, Eleonora; Marco, Leila Brancato; Tonelli, Duvina Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Periodontitis is a plaque induced disease characterized by tissue destruction. The extent of the alveolar bone loss depends on the host response stimulated by bacterial infection. Recently researchers have focused on the role of the immune system, of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway and of cytokines network. Another recent field of interest is osteoimmunology that try to explain the relationship between immune and bone cells in activating bone resorption. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms allowed a better understanding of the relationship with other diseases like osteoporosis and also to hypothesize new therapies based on modulation of host response (host modulatory therapy - HMT). The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly discuss these topics. PMID:26604945

  8. Prevention of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    DuPont, G A

    1998-09-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

  9. Periodontal disease's contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamer, Angela R; Fortea, Juan O; Videla, Sebastià; Mayoral, Angela; Janal, Malvin; Carmona-Iragui, Maria; Benejam, Bessy; Craig, Ronald G; Saxena, Deepak; Corby, Patricia; Glodzik, Lidia; Annam, Kumar Raghava Chowdary; Robbins, Miriam; de Leon, Mony J

    2016-01-01

    People with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). After 60 years of age, >50% of DS subjects acquire dementia. Nevertheless, the age of onset is highly variable possibly because of both genetic and environmental factors. Genetics cannot be modified, but environmental risk factors present a potentially relevant intervention for DS persons at risk for AD. Among them, inflammation, important in AD of DS type, is potential target. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic peripheral inflammation and infections may contribute to AD pathogenesis in DS. People with DS have an aggressive form of periodontitis characterized by rapid progression, significant bacterial and inflammatory burden, and an onset as early as 6 years of age. This review offers a hypothetical mechanistic link between periodontitis and AD in the DS population. Because periodontitis is a treatable condition, it may be a readily modifiable risk factor for AD. PMID:27239536

  10. Authoritarianism and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Walker, W D; Rowe, R C; Quinsey, V L

    1993-11-01

    In Study 1, 198 men completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism, Sex Role Ideology, Hostility Towards Women, Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Rape Myth Acceptance scales, as well as measures of past sexually aggressive behavior and likelihood of future sexual aggression. As predicted, authoritarianism and sex role ideology were as closely related to self-reported past and potential future sexually aggressive behavior as were the specifically sexual and aggression-related predictors. Among 134 men in Study 2, authoritarianism and sex guilt positively correlated with each other and with self-reported past sexual aggression. In both studies, the relationship of authoritarianism and sexual aggression was larger in community than in university samples. PMID:8246111

  11. Rapid Enantiomeric Separation and Quantitation of Levetiracetam on α-Acid Glycoprotein (AGP) Chiral Stationary Phase by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Rouhollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and rapid chiral HPLC method was developed for enantioselective analysis of levetiracetam and its enantiomer [(R)-α-ethyl-2- oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide] in a pharmaceutical formulation and bulk material. Enantiomeric separation was achieved on a chiral-α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column (150×4.0 mm, 5 μm) using an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH=7) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The UV detector was set at 210 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-100 μg/mL and 0.4-20 μg/mL for levetiracetam and the (R)-enantiomer, respectively. LOD and LOQ for the (R)-enantiomer were 0.1 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. The run time of analysis was less than 5.0 min. PMID:26651564

  12. Leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and periodontal attachment loss.

    PubMed

    Höglund Åberg, Carola; Haubek, Dorte; Kwamin, Francis; Johansson, Anders; Claesson, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative periodontitis-associated bacterium that expresses a toxin that selectively affects leukocytes. This leukotoxin is encoded by an operon belonging to the core genome of this bacterial species. Variations in the expression of the leukotoxin have been reported, and a well-characterized specific clonal type (JP2) of this bacterium with enhanced leukotoxin expression has been isolated. In particular, the presence of the JP2 genotype significantly increases the risk for the progression of periodontal attachment loss (AL). Based on these findings we hypothesized that variations in the leukotoxicity are linked to disease progression in infected individuals. In the present study, the leukotoxicity of 239 clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans was analysed with different bioassays, and the genetic peculiarities of the isolates were related to their leukotoxicity based on examination with molecular techniques. The periodontal status of the individuals sampled for the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans was examined longitudinally, and the importance of the observed variations in leukotoxicity was evaluated in relation to disease progression. Our data show that high leukotoxicity correlates with an enhanced risk for the progression of AL. The JP2 genotype isolates were all highly leukotoxic, while the isolates with an intact leukotoxin promoter (non-JP2 genotypes) showed substantial variation in leukotoxicity. Genetic characterization of the non-JP2 genotype isolates indicated the presence of highly leukotoxic genotypes of serotype b with similarities to the JP2 genotype. Based on these results, we conclude that A. actinomycetemcomitans harbours other highly virulent genotypes besides the previously described JP2 genotype. In addition, the results from the present study further highlight the importance of the leukotoxin as a key virulence factor in aggressive forms of periodontitis. PMID:25093857

  13. Nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy in single-rooted teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ti-Sun; Schenk, Aniela; Lungeanu, Diana; Reitmeir, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of tooth related and patient related factors on the success of non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. In 41 patients (22 female) with untreated and/or recurrent periodontitis, no therapy, scaling and root planing (SRP), or access flap (AF) were assigned according to probing pocket depth (PPD). PPD and vertical relative attachment level (RAL-V) were obtained initially, 3 and 6 months after therapy. Baseline data were compared according to therapy, jaw, tooth type, and site. Factors influencing clinical parameters were identified using multilevel analyses. Baseline PPDs were deeper interproximally, in the maxilla and at premolars compared to buccal/oral sites, mandibular, and anterior teeth. At 6 months, PPD reduction and RAL-V gain were significantly greater at sites receiving SRP and AF as compared to untreated sites (p < 0.001). PPD reduction and RAL-V gain were significantly less (p < 0.005) in smokers as compared to nosmokers and at interproximal sites (p < 0.0001) as compared to buccal/oral sites. RAL-V gain was less in aggressive periodontitis, and PPD reduction was less in the maxilla (p < 0.001). In sites with greater bone loss and infrabony defects, a poorer response was observed regarding RAL-V gain or PPD reduction, respectively. The conclusions of the study are the following: (1) Nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies are effective in single-rooted teeth; (2) severe interproximal bone loss and infrabony defects deteriorate clinical results; and (3) there seem to be more defect-associated (tooth, site) factors influencing treatment outcome than patient-associated factors. PMID:17690922

  14. Lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Ricardo; Teles, Flavia; Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Paster, Bruce; Haffajee, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are initiated by bacterial species living in polymicrobial biofilms at or below the gingival margin and progress largely as a result of the inflammation initiated by specific subgingival species. In the past few decades, efforts to understand the microbiota of periodontal diseases have led to an exponential increase in information about biofilms associated with periodontal health and disease. In fact, the oral microbiota is one of the best characterized microbiomes that colonize the human body. Despite this increased knowledge, one has to ask if our fundamental concepts of the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases have really changed. In this chapter we will review how our comprehension of the structure and function of the subgingival microbiota evolved over the years in search of lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology. More specifically, this review focuses on: 1) how the data obtained through molecular techniques has impacted our knowledge of the etiology of periodontal infections; 2) the potential role of viruses in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases; 3) how concepts of microbial ecology have expanded our understanding of host microbial interactions that might lead to periodontal diseases; 4) the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; and 5) the impact of these evolving concepts on treatment and preventive approaches to periodontal infections. We will conclude by reviewing how novel systems biology approaches promise to unravel new details of the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and, hopefully, lead to a better understanding of periodontal disease mechanisms. PMID:23574465

  15. Periodontal plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Mounssif, Ilham

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge in terms of the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment of gingival recession. Whilst the main etiological factors (i.e. toothbrushing trauma and bacterial plaque) are well established, challenges still remain to be solved in the diagnostic, prognostic and classification processes of gingival recession, especially when the main reference parameter - the cemento-enamel junction - is no longer detectable on the affected tooth or when there is a slight loss of periodontal interdental attachment. Root coverage in single type gingival recession defects is a very predictable outcome following the use of various surgical techniques. The coronally advanced flap, with or without connective tissue grafting, is the technique of choice. The adjunctive use of connective tissue grafts improves the probability of achieving complete root coverage. Surgical coverage of multiple gingival recessions is also predictable with the coronally advanced flap and the coronally advanced flap plus the connective tissue graft, but no data are available indicating which, and how many, gingival recessions should be treated adjunctively with connective tissue grafting in order to limit patient morbidity and improve the esthetic outcome. None of the allograft materials currently available can be considered as a full substitute for the connective tissue graft, even if some recent results are encouraging. The need for future studies with patient-based outcomes (i.e. esthetics and morbidity) as primary objectives is emphasized in this review. PMID:25867992

  16. Angry and Aggressive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…

  17. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  18. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  19. Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

    1989-01-01

    Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable. PMID:21248947

  20. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  1. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  2. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  3. Recent approaches for the treatment of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nilu; Jain, Gaurav K; Javed, Shamama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khar, Roop K

    2008-11-01

    Periodontal disease is a localised inflammatory response caused by the infection of a periodontal pocket arising from the accumulation of subgingival plaque. Periodontal disease has been considered as a possible risk factor for other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and pre-term low birth weight infants. Advances in understanding the aetiology, epidemiology and microbiology of periodontal pocket flora have revolutionised the therapeutic strategies for the management of periodontal disease progression. This review summarises the recent developments in the field of intra-pocket drug delivery systems and identifies areas where further research may lead to a clinically effective intra-pocket delivery system. PMID:18789399

  4. Cost analysis of Periodontitis management in public sector specialist dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to quantify the cost of periodontitis management at public sector specialist periodontal clinic settings and analyse the distribution of cost components. Methods Five specialist periodontal clinics in the Ministry of Health represented the public sector in providing clinical and cost data for this study. Newly-diagnosed periodontitis patients (N = 165) were recruited and followed up for one year of specialist periodontal care. Direct and indirect costs from the societal viewpoint were included in the cost analysis. They were measured in 2012 Ringgit Malaysia (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using activity-based and step-down costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. Cost of dental equipment, consumables and labour (average treatment time) for each procedure was measured using activity-based costing method. Meanwhile, unit cost calculations for clinic administration, utilities and maintenance used step-down approach. Patient expenditures and absence from work were recorded via diary entries. The conversion from MYR to Euro was based on the 2012 rate (1€ = MYR4). Results A total of 2900 procedures were provided, with an average cost of MYR 2820 (€705) per patient for the study year, and MYR 376 (€94) per outpatient visit. Out of this, 90% was contributed by provider cost and 10% by patient cost; 94% for direct cost and 4% for lost productivity. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis was significantly higher than for chronic periodontitis (t-test, P = 0.003). Higher costs were expended as disease severity increased (ANOVA, P = 0.022) and for patients requiring surgeries (ANOVA, P < 0.001). Providers generally spent most on consumables while patients spent most on transportation. Conclusions Cost of providing dental treatment for periodontitis patients at public sector specialist settings were substantial and comparable with some non-communicable diseases. These findings

  5. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century. PMID:9700454

  6. Association of Periodontitis and Subsequent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a systemic and chronic inflammatory disease associated with multiple physical conditions. Distress and depression are other problems affecting the progression of periodontitis. However, the causal relationship between depression and periodontitis has not been adequately investigated. This aim of this study was to determine the association between periodontitis and the subsequent development of depression. We identified 12,708 patients with newly diagnosed periodontitis from 2000 to 2005 and 50,832 frequency-matched individuals without periodontitis. Both groups were followed until diagnosed with depression, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance program, or the end of 2011. The association between periodontitis and depressio was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models. The incidence density rate of depression was higher in the periodontitis group than in the nonperiodontitis group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval 1.58–1.89) when adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidity. Cox models revealed that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for depression in patients, except for comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), alcohol abuse, and cancer. Periodontitis may increase the risk of subsequent depression and was suggested an independent risk factor regardless of sex, age, and most comorbidities. However, DM, alcohol abuse, and cancer may prevent the development of subsequent depression because of DM treatment, the paradoxical effect of alcohol, and emotional distress to cancer, respectively. Prospective studies on the relationship between periodontitis and depression are warranted. PMID:26705230

  7. Association between Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Souzhi; Guo, Jianbin; Huang, Yongling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and the pathogenesis of periodontitis, ovariectomized rats were generated and the experimental periodontitis was induced using a silk ligature. The inflammatory factors and bone metabolic markers were measured in the serum and periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats using an automatic chemistry analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunohistochemistry. The bone mineral density of whole body, pelvis, and spine was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and image analysis. All data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 statistical software. It was found that ovariectomy could upregulate the expression of interleukin- (IL-)6, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and downregulate IL-10 expression in periodontal tissues, which resulted in progressive alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. This study indicates that changes of cytokines and bone turnover markers in the periodontal tissues of ovariectomized rats contribute to the damage of periodontal tissues. PMID:24683547

  8. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy for general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Mark I; Armitage, Gary C

    2016-06-01

    There remains a high prevalence of mild-to-moderate forms of periodontal diseases in both developed and developing countries. Although many periodontal specialty practices currently place strong emphasis on implant surgery, periodontal plastic surgery and esthetics, general dentists and hygienists have often assumed more responsibility than periodontal specialty practices for the diagnosis, treatment, assessment and maintenance, and possible referral, of their patients. To address these current trends and challenges, this volume of Periodontology 2000 presents a series of topics on the basic biological principles of periodontal disease, as well as on approaches to diagnosis, treatment planning and treatment, in what is called 'conservative' or 'noninvasive' periodontal therapy. These topics include risk assessment of the periodontal condition; reduction, elimination and/or control of etiologies and risk factors, including mechanical, antimicrobial and host-modulation approaches; considerations for evaluation of clinical outcomes based on treatment approaches; and selected topics in laser therapy, halitosis and gingival recession. PMID:27045427

  9. Accuracy of NHANES periodontal examination protocols.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Thornton-Evans, G O; Wei, L; Borgnakke, W S; Dye, B A

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of periodontitis prevalence determined by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols. True periodontitis prevalence was determined in a new convenience sample of 454 adults ≥ 35 years old, by a full-mouth "gold standard" periodontal examination. This actual prevalence was compared with prevalence resulting from analysis of the data according to the protocols of NHANES III and NHANES 2001-2004, respectively. Both NHANES protocols substantially underestimated the prevalence of periodontitis by 50% or more, depending on the periodontitis case definition used, and thus performed below threshold levels for moderate-to-high levels of validity for surveillance. Adding measurements from lingual or interproximal sites to the NHANES 2001-2004 protocol did not improve the accuracy sufficiently to reach acceptable sensitivity thresholds. These findings suggest that NHANES protocols produce high levels of misclassification of periodontitis cases and thus have low validity for surveillance and research. PMID:20858782

  10. Periodontitis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sete, Manuela Rubim Camara; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Sztajnbok, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown a potential association between periodontal and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Similar mechanisms of tissue destruction concerning periodontitis and other autoimmune diseases have stimulated the study of a possible relationship between these conditions. This study aims to review the literature about this potential association and their different pathogenic mechanisms. Considering that periodontal disease is a disease characterized by inflammation influenced by infectious factors, such as SLE, it is plausible to suggest that SLE would influence periodontal disease and vice versa. However, this issue is not yet fully elucidated and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association, as deregulation mainly in innate immune system, with action of phagocytic cells and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 in both conditions' pathogenesis, leading to tissue destruction. However, studies assessing the relationship between these diseases are scarce, and more studies focused on common immunological mechanisms should be conducted to further understanding. PMID:27267530

  11. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  12. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  13. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  14. Common Periodontal Diseases of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Salem; Al-Duhaimi, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE database search using key terms: “periodontal diseases in children,” “Periodontal diseasesin adolescents,” “periodontal diseases risk factors,” “microbiology of periodontal diseases,” “classification of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology of periodontal diseases,” and “treatment of periodontal diseases.” Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive. PMID:25053946

  15. Impact of tobacco use on periodontal status.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Slach, N A

    2001-04-01

    This article reviews the effects of smoked and smokeless tobacco on periodontal status, including the impact of smoking on periodontal therapy and potential mechanisms for the adverse effects of tobacco on the periodontium. Approximately half of periodontitis cases have been attributed to either current or former smoking. Both cigar and cigarette smokers have significantly greater loss of bone height than nonsmokers, and there is a trend for pipe smokers to have more bone loss than nonsmokers. Unlike smokers, who experience widespread periodontal destruction, the most prevalent effects of smokeless tobacco are localized to the site of placement, in the form of gingival recession and white mucosal lesions. Smoking has an adverse effect on all forms of periodontal therapy, and up to 90 percent of refractory periodontitis patients are smokers. The pathogenesis of smoking-related periodontal destruction has been attributed to alterations in the microflora and/or host response. Some data indicates that smoking may increase levels of certain periodontal pathogens, but there is more evidence that smoking has a negative effect on host response, such as neutrophil function and antibody production. An encouraging finding is that periodontal disease progression slows in patients who quit smoking and that these individuals have a similar response to periodontal therapy as nonsmokers. The facts presented in this paper will assist dental health professionals in treatment-planning decisions and provide them with important information to share with patients who use tobacco products. PMID:11336116

  16. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  17. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, K. S.; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis. PMID:24554877

  18. Proteomics – The research frontier in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhaya; Govila, Vivek; Saini, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition resulting from the interplay between the infectious agents and host factors. Various protein molecules play a vital role in the initiation, progression and severity of periodontal diseases. The study of proteins as biomarkers in periodontal diseases has been highlighted during the last few years. In periodontitis multiple bacteria derived (e.g. collagen degrading enzymes, elastase like enzymes etc) and host derived mediators (eg. PGE2, TNF, IL1, IL6, MMP's etc) expressed in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid, can be utilized as diagnostic markers for the disease. Another significant development regarding human genes and proteins has been the discovery of potential new drugs for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Therefore the information of the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases can be utilized for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment. PMID:25853048

  19. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Mediated Treatment for Periodontitis in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Gang; Fang, Dianji; Zhang, Chunmei; Bartold, Peter Mark; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodontitis. The periodontal lesion was generated in the first molars area of miniature pigs by the surgical removal of bone and subsequent silk ligament suture around the cervical portion of the tooth. Autologous PDLSCs were obtained from extracted teeth of the miniature pigs and then expanded ex vivo to enrich PDLSC numbers. When transplanted into the surgically created periodontal defect areas, PDLSCs were capable of regenerating periodontal tissues, leading to a favorable treatment for periodontitis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat periodontal diseases. PMID:18238856

  20. Neutrophil function and dysfunction in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, T E; Vaikuntam, J

    1994-01-01

    The polymorphonuclear leukocyte or neutrophil is an integral part of the acute inflammatory response. Its function as a protective cell in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease has been studied extensively. Abnormal neutrophil function has been associated (directly or indirectly) with the pathogenesis of early onset periodontal disease. This paper reviews the recent developments in neutrophil function and dysfunction as they relate to periodontal disease progression. PMID:8032460

  1. Mouthrinses as adjuncts in periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T F

    1996-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of related inflammatory disorders, initiated by dental plaque and causing destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Although the inflammatory response is a fundamental defence mechanism against bacterial infection, its persistence over a long period of time may extensively damage the periodontal tissues: cementum, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and dentogingival tissues. These disorders, despite recent improvements in oral health are still a major cause of tooth loss in patients over 35 years of age. PMID:8948174

  2. Interaction between periodontitis and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pengyu; Sun, Dianxing; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue. PMID:27588170

  3. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as

  4. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a potent immunoregulator of the periodontal host defense system and alveolar bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Herbert, B A; Novince, C M; Kirkwood, K L

    2016-06-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a perio-pathogenic bacteria that has long been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The mechanisms of its pathogenicity have been studied in humans and preclinical experimental models. Although different serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans have differential virulence factor expression, A. actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), leukotoxin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been most extensively studied in the context of modulating the host immune response. Following colonization and attachment in the oral cavity, A. actinomycetemcomitans employs CDT, leukotoxin, and LPS to evade host innate defense mechanisms and drive a pathophysiologic inflammatory response. This supra-physiologic immune response state perturbs normal periodontal tissue remodeling/turnover and ultimately has catabolic effects on periodontal tissue homeostasis. In this review, we have divided the host response into two systems: non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic. Non-hematopoietic barriers include epithelium and fibroblasts that initiate the innate immune host response. The hematopoietic system contains lymphoid and myeloid-derived cell lineages that are responsible for expanding the immune response and driving the pathophysiologic inflammatory state in the local periodontal microenvironment. Effector systems and signaling transduction pathways activated and utilized in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans will be discussed to further delineate immune cell mechanisms during A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. Finally, we will discuss the osteo-immunomodulatory effects induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans and dissect the catabolic disruption of balanced osteoclast-osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling, which subsequently leads to net alveolar bone loss. PMID:26197893

  5. Periodontal Proteomics: Wonders Never Cease!

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Kapoor, Shalini; Saksena, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are integral components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. Periodontal tissues comprise multicompartmental groups of interacting cells and matrices that provide continuous support, attachment, proprioception, and physical protection for the teeth. The proteome map, that is, complete catalogue of the matrix and cellular proteins expressed in alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and gingiva, is to be explored for more in-depth understanding of periodontium. The ongoing research to understand the signalling pathways that allow cells to divide, differentiate, and die in controlled manner has brought us to the era of proteomics. Proteomics is defined as the study of all proteins including their relative abundance, distribution, posttranslational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules, in a given cell or organism within a given environment and at a specific stage in the cell cycle. Its application to periodontal science can be used to monitor health status, disease onset, treatment response, and outcome. Proteomics can offer answers to critical, unresolved questions such as the biological basis for the heterogeneity in gingival, alveolar bone, and cemental cell populations. PMID:24490073

  6. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  7. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  8. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  9. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  10. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  11. Uncovering the molecular networks in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Fábio; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Amado, Francisco; Gomes, Pedro S.; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a complex immune-inflammatory disease that results from a preestablished infection in gingiva, mainly due to Gram-negative bacteria that colonize deeper in gingival sulcus and latter periodontal pocket. Host inflammatory and immune responses have both protective and destructive roles. Although cytokines, prostaglandins, and proteases struggle against microbial burden, these molecules promote connective tissue loss and alveolar bone resorption, leading to several histopathological changes, namely destruction of periodontal ligament, deepening of periodontal pocket, and bone loss, which can converge to attain tooth loss. Despite the efforts of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics/peptidomics, and metabolomics, there is no available biomarker for periodontitis diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment evaluation, which could assist on the established clinical evaluation. Nevertheless, some genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites have already shown a different expression in healthy subjects and in patients. Though, so far, ‘omics approaches only disclosed the host inflammatory response as a consequence of microbial invasion in periodontitis and the diagnosis in periodontitis still relies on clinical parameters, thus a molecular tool for assessing periodontitis lacks in current dental medicine paradigm. Saliva and gingival crevicular fluid have been attracting researchers due to their diagnostic potential, ease, and noninvasive nature of collection. Each one of these fluids has some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed in this review. PMID:24828325

  12. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  13. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  14. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  15. Acceleration of purine degradation by periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, V M; Teles, R; Trivedi, H M; Devizio, W; Xu, T; Mitchell, M W; Milburn, M V; Guo, L

    2009-09-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are characterized by bacterial plaque accumulation around the gingival crevice and the subsequent inflammation and destruction of host tissues. To test the hypothesis that cellular metabolism is altered as a result of host-bacteria interaction, we performed an unbiased metabolomic profiling of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites in humans, by liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The purine degradation pathway, a major biochemical source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, was significantly accelerated at the disease sites. This suggests that periodontal-disease-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are mediated through this pathway. The complex host-bacterial interaction was further highlighted by depletion of anti-oxidants, degradation of host cellular components, and accumulation of bacterial products in GCF. These findings provide new mechanistic insights and a panel of comprehensive biomarkers for periodontal disease progression. PMID:19767584

  16. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  17. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  18. Resistin: a potential biomarker for periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Kathariya, Rahul; Guttiganur, Nagappa; Gopalakrishnan, D; Bagchi, Paulami

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords "Diabetes Mellitus," "Periodontitis," and "Resistin," and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis. PMID:24692844

  19. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  20. RANKL Expression in Periodontal Disease: Where Does RANKL Come from?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenlei; Sun, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by periodontal pocket formation and alveolar bone resorption. Periodontal bone resorption is induced by osteoclasts and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) which is an essential and central regulator of osteoclast development and osteoclast function. Therefore, RANKL plays a critical role in periodontal bone resorption. In this review, we have summarized the sources of RANKL in periodontal disease and explored which factors may regulate RANKL expression in this disease. PMID:24719884

  1. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  2. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  3. Periodontitis and diabetes interrelationships: role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Iacopino, A M

    2001-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with several major complications affecting both the quality and length of life. One of these complications is periodontal disease (periodontitis). Periodontitis is much more than a localized oral infection. Recent data indicate that periodontitis may cause changes in systemic physiology. The interrelationships between periodontitis and diabetes provide an example of systemic disease predisposing to oral infection, and once that infection is established, the oral infection exacerbates systemic disease. In this case, it may also be possible for the oral infection to predispose to systemic disease. In order to understand the cellular/molecular mechanisms responsible for such a cyclical association, one must identify common physiological changes associated with diabetes and periodontitis that produce a synergy when the conditions coexist. A potential mechanistic link involves the broad axis of inflammation, specifically immune cell phenotype, serum lipid levels, and tissue homeostasis. Diabetes-induced changes in immune cell function produce an inflammatory immune cell phenotype (upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines from monocytes/polymorphonuclear leukocytes and downregulation of growth factors from macrophages). This predisposes to chronic inflammation, progressive tissue breakdown, and diminished tissue repair capacity. Periodontal tissues frequently manifest these changes because they are constantly wounded by substances emanating from bacterial biofilms. Diabetic patients are prone to elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (LDL/TRG) even when blood glucose levels are well controlled. This is significant, as recent studies demonstrate that hyperlipidemia may be one of the factors associated with diabetes-induced immune cell alterations. Recent human studies have established a relationship between high serum lipid levels and periodontitis. Some evidence now suggests that periodontitis itself may

  4. Systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Systemic antibiotics in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP), can offer an additional benefit over SRP alone in the treatment of periodontitis, in terms of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and pocket depth change, and reduced risk of additional CAL loss. However, antibiotics are not innocuous drugs. Their use should be justified on the basis of a clearly established need and should not be substituted for adequate local treatment. The aim of this review is to discuss the rationale, proper selection, dosage and duration for antibiotic therapy so as to optimize the usefulness of drug therapy. PMID:23559912

  5. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  6. Antibiotics/antimicrobials: systemic and local administration in the therapy of mild to moderately advanced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karin; Jepsen, Søren

    2016-06-01

    This review gives an update of the current scientific evidence on the efficacy of the adjunctive use of systemic and local antibiotics/antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. In particular, it addresses whether their use can improve the results of nonsurgical mechanical therapy in mild-to-moderate forms of the disease. Large numbers of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews with meta-analyses have clearly established that adjunctive systemic antibiotics, combined with mechanical debridement, offer clinical improvements additional to those obtained with scaling and root planing alone. These effects are more pronounced in aggressive periodontitis and in initially deep pockets, whereas more limited additional improvements, of 0.3 mm for additional pocket reduction and 0.2 mm for additional clinical attachment gain, have been documented for moderately deep sites (4-6 mm) in patients with chronic periodontitis. The marginal clinical benefit in patients with moderate disease has to be balanced against possible side effects. Notably, it has to be realized that an increasing number of warnings have been articulated against the unrestricted use of antibiotics in treating periodontal diseases because of the emerging global public health issue of bacterial resistance. The effects of the adjunctive local administration of antimicrobials have also been very well documented in several systematic reviews. Overall, in persistent or recurrent localized deep sites, the application of antimicrobials by sustained-delivery devices may offer a benefit of an additional 0.4 mm in pocket depth reduction and 0.3 mm in clinical attachment level gain. In conclusion, the slight additional benefits of adjunctive antimicrobials, which were shown for moderate forms of periodontitis, have to be balanced against their side effects and therefore their prescription should be limited as much as possible. PMID:27045432

  7. Studies on periodontitis and analyses of individuals at risk for periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an infectious disease initiated by microbial plaque, which accumulates on the tooth surface at the gingival margin and induces an inflammatory reaction. The function of the inflammatory process is to protect the host, however the process may also contribute to tissue destruction. Most individuals show gingival inflammation, but only a limited number suffer from periodontitis i.e. loss of attachment. Without treatment, periodontitis will result in tooth mobility and subsequent tooth mortality. Independent of ethnicity, 10%-15% of an adult population will develop severe periodontitis The aim of this thesis has been to analyse individuals at risk for periodontal disease. Four studies have been conducted in 2 different groups of individuals with: Recurrent periodontitis kept in a maintenance care program--studies I-III. Type 2 diabetes (T2D)--study IV. In study I, the clinicaleffect of local periodontitis treatment with an antibiotic gel was investigated. In study II, the microbiologicaleffect of periodontitis treatment with the same antibiotic gel as in study I was investigated. In study III, it was investigated whether the interleukin-l (IL-1alpha and beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility of chronic periodontitis. In study IV, the prevalence of periodontitis in individuals with T2D was investigated, together with the prevalence of diabetic complications in relation to periodontal disease. We also studied whether there was a difference in dental care habits and knowledge of oral health between T2D subjects with and without periodontal disease. In conclusion, this thesis did not find any significant clinical and microbiological differences between subjects with recurrent periodontal disease treated with a locally delivered metronidazole gel compared to a placebo gel. Neither could we find an association between genetic variants in the IL-lalpha, IL-beta and IL-6 genes in individuals with or

  8. Estimation of interleukin-18 in the gingival crevicular fluid and serum of Bengali population with periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vineet; Bandyopadhyay, Prasanta; Kundu, Debabrata; Das, Satadal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Host's immune response elicits cytokines in response to bacterial challenge. We explore role of one such cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) in periodontal health and disease. Aims: IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory and tumor suppressive cytokine. Dental literatures suggest that IL-18 might have a role to play in the progression from oral health to periodontal disease. Therefore, this study was undertaken to elucidate the level and role of IL-18 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of individuals with healthy gingiva, chronic gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. Settings and Design: Eighty individuals chosen for the study were divided into healthy control group (1A), chronic gingivitis (2A), chronic periodontitis (3A), and aggressive periodontitis (4A) with twenty individuals each. Criteria for the division were the subject's gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. Materials and Methods: The individuals underwent treatment (scaling in case of Groups 1A and 2A and scaling and root planing followed by flap surgery in Groups 3A and 4A) to form posttreatment Groups 1B, 2B, 3B, and 4B, respectively. Thus, a total of 160 GCF and 160 serum samples were collected and tested by ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparison was done by post hoc Tukey's test. Results: The mean IL-18 concentration was greatest in Group 3A (GCF 144.61 pg/μl, serum 55.12 pg/ml) followed by Group 4A (GCF 98.55 pg/μl, serum 39.06 pg/ml), Group 2A (GCF 22.27 pg/μl, serum 27.73 pg/ml) and lowest (GCF 17.94 pg/μl, serum 11.49 pg/ml) in Group 1A. Posttreatment groups (1B–4B) showed reduction in the mean IL-18 concentration in both GCF and serum. Conclusions: As the inflammation increased, there was a concomitant increase in the level of IL-18 and vice versa following periodontal therapy. PMID:27563198

  9. Protein biomarkers of periodontitis in saliva.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John J

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

  10. Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

    2002-07-01

    Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

  11. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity. PMID:25627227

  12. [The relationship of periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kasaj, Adrian; Gortan-Kasaj, Aristea; Willerhausen, Brita; Hoffmann, Oliver; Angelov, Nikola; Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George

    2007-09-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, dental-plaque induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, resulting in a gradual loss of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone. The interrelationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis has been studied for many years. At,present, there is strong evidence to suggest that the incidence and severity of periodontitis is influenced by the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus as well as by the degree of diabetes control by patients. Elevated blood glucose levels in poorly controlled diabetics result in an increase of protein glycosylation leading to amplified formation of so-called Advanced Glycation End products (AGE). AGEs are glucose products that have the ability to attract and stimulate inflammatory cells to produce inflammatory cytokines, elevating the risk of periodontal attachment and/or alveolar bone loss. Gram-negative periodontal infection significantly decreases glucose tolerance and can lead, like other types of inflammation, to an increase in the severity of diabetes. Thus, diabetes and periodontal disease form a system in which periodontitis is aggravated and metabolic control of blood glucose levels becomes more difficult. This in turn leads to mutual aggravation that results in a self-enforcing catabolic process, a vicious circle of inflammation, tissue destruction and insulin resistance. PMID:18044471

  13. Periodontal antimicrobials--finding the right solutions.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Aalam, Alexandre; Slots, Jørgen

    2005-02-01

    Strengthened by promising research data and commercial backing, interest in the field of anti-infective periodontal therapy is rapidly expanding. Management of the periodontal microbiota with antibiotic drugs and antiseptic agents in conjunction with mechanical debridement seems to be more effective than mechanical therapy alone, at least in the treatment of advanced periodontal disease. The choice of a periodontal chemotherapeutic regimen requires an understanding of the usual infecting flora, available antimicrobial agents, and pathogen susceptibility patterns. Systemic administration of combinations of metronidazole and either amoxicillin or ciprofloxacin has been widely used with great success; however the presence of subgingival yeasts and resistant bacteria can be a problem in some periodontitis patients. Valuable antiseptic agents for subgingival application include 10% povidone-iodine for professional use and 0.1-0.5% sodium hypochlorite for patient self-care. These antiseptics have significantly broader spectra of antimicrobial action, are less likely to induce development of resistant bacteria and adverse host reactions, and are considerably less expensive than commercially available antibiotics in controlled release devices. In practice, mechanical debridement combined with subgingival povidone-iodine application in the dental office and sodium hypochlorite irrigation for patient self-care are valuable antimicrobial remedies in the treatment of virtually all types of periodontal disease. Management of moderate to severe periodontitis may require additional systemic antibiotic and/or surgical treatment. PMID:15747646

  14. Treatment of periodontal disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Renvert, Stefan; Persson, G Rutger

    2016-10-01

    Within the next 40 years the number of older adults worldwide will more than double. This will impact periodontal treatment needs and presents a challenge to health-care providers and governments worldwide, as severe periodontitis has been reported to be the sixth most prevalent medical condition in the world. Older adults (≥ 80 years of age) who receive regular dental care retain more teeth than those who do not receive such care, but routine general dental care for these individuals is not sufficient to prevent the progression of periodontitis with the same degree of success as in younger individuals. There is a paucity of data on the efficacy of different periodontal therapies for older individuals. However, considering the higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions seen in older adults, it cannot be assumed that periodontal therapy will yield the same degree of success seen in younger individuals. Furthermore, medications can influence the status of the periodontium and the delivery of periodontal care. As an example, anticoagulant drugs are common among older patients and may be a contraindication to certain treatments. Newer anticoagulants will, however, facilitate surgical intervention in older patients. Furthermore, prescription medications taken for chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases, can affect the periodontium in a variety of ways. In summary, consideration of socio-economic factors, general health status and multiple-drug therapies will, in the future, be an important part of the management of periodontitis in older adults. PMID:27501494

  15. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ide, Mark; Harris, Marina; Stevens, Annette; Sussams, Rebecca; Hopkins, Viv; Culliford, David; Fuller, James; Ibbett, Paul; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Puenter, Ursula; Teeling, Jessica; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation. PMID:26963387

  16. Gene expression in periodontal tissues following treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beikler, Thomas; Peters, Ulrike; Prior, Karola; Eisenacher, Martin; Flemmig, Thomas F

    2008-01-01

    Background In periodontitis, treatment aimed at controlling the periodontal biofilm infection results in a resolution of the clinical and histological signs of inflammation. Although the cell types found in periodontal tissues following treatment have been well described, information on gene expression is limited to few candidate genes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles of immune and inflammatory genes in periodontal tissues from sites with severe chronic periodontitis following periodontal therapy in order to identify genes involved in tissue homeostasis. Gingival biopsies from 12 patients with severe chronic periodontitis were taken six to eight weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy, and from 11 healthy controls. As internal standard, RNA of an immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCaT) was used. Total RNA was subjected to gene expression profiling using a commercially available microarray system focusing on inflammation-related genes. Post-hoc confirmation of selected genes was done by Realtime-PCR. Results Out of the 136 genes analyzed, the 5% most strongly expressed genes compared to healthy controls were Interleukin-12A (IL-12A), Versican (CSPG-2), Matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), Down syndrome critical region protein-1 (DSCR-1), Macrophage inflammatory protein-2β (Cxcl-3), Inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (BIRC-1), Cluster of differentiation antigen 38 (CD38), Regulator of G-protein signalling-1 (RGS-1), and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene (C-FOS); the 5% least strongly expressed genes were Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine Kinase-2 (RIP-2), Complement component 3 (C3), Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Endothelin-1 (EDN-1), Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2), Matrix-metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), and Interferon regulating factor-7 (IRF-7). Conclusion Gene expression profiles found in periodontal tissues following therapy

  17. The Association Between Hyperlipidemia and Periodontal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Zakavi, Faramarz; Hajizadeh, Fatemeh; Saleki, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a local chronic inflammatory condition of the supporting structures of the teeth resulting from a dental plaque biofilm attached to teeth surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that this oral disease may have effects on systemic health. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between periodontitis and hyperlipidemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Iran during March 2011. In this case-control study, levels of serum lipids in 45 subjects with periodontitis were measured and compared with 45 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. Data were analyzed using student t-test and chi-square test with P < 0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Mean values of total cholesterol (CHL) (periodontitis group = 218.11 ± 29.77, control group = 162.31 ± 48.24) and triglycerides (TG) (periodontitis group = 209.77 ± 44.30, control group = 125.60 ± 44.16) were significantly higher in the periodontitis group (P < 0.001). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were higher in the case group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Frequency of pathological values of CHL and TG were significantly higher in cases compared with the controls (P = 0.002 and P = 0.015, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicates that hyperlipidemia may be associated with periodontal disease in healthy individuals; yet whether periodontitis causes an increase in levels of plasma lipids or whether hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for periodontal infection and cardiovascular disease, it needs further investigations. PMID:25763249

  18. [Microcirculation impairment in periodontal tissues in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis combined with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krechina, E K; Zorina, O A; Molchanov, A M; Shilov, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using the method of laser Doppler flowmetry the study of microcirculation in periodontal tissues in patients with moderate chronic generalized periodontitis and metabolic syndrome was carried out. The analysis of microcirculation values proved not only the reduction of blood flow intensity but also the decreased vasoactivity of microvessels essential to maintain normal microcirculation in periodontal tissues, as it provides active modulation of tissue blood flow and its adaptation to local metabolic needs. PMID:26925562

  19. Botryoid odontogenic cyst developing from lateral periodontal cyst: A rare case and review on pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Piyush; Bishen, Kundendu A.; Gupta, Nishant; Jamdade, Anshuman; Kumar, Gopa R.

    2012-01-01

    Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC) is considered to be a polycystic variant of the lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) as the specimen resembled a cluster of grapes. It is a non-inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The BOCs can be unicystic or multicystic. These cysts have potential to extend in the bone and become multilocular and they have a high recurrence rate. Till now, only 73 cases of BOC have been reported. The pathogenesis of BOC is still debatable. We review different pathogenesis proposed for BOC and discuss a rare case of BOC developing from lining of an abnormally large LPC which showed aggressive behaviour in terms of growth and size. PMID:23293492

  20. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos; Uribe-Querol, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:27019855

  1. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:27019855

  2. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  3. The periodontal – endodontic continuum: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha V, Raja; Emmadi, Pamela; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan; Thyegarajan, Ramakrishnan; Rajaraman, Vijayalakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal therapy deals with many aspects of the supporting structures, including the prevention and repair of lesions of the gingival sulcus. Endodontics deals primarily with disease of the pulp and periapical tissues. The success of both periodontal and endodontic therapy depends on the elimination of both disease processes, whether they exist separately or as a combined lesion. The relationship between periodontal and endodontic disease has been a subject of speculation for many years. This paper aims at presenting a comprehensive review of several aspects of perio-endo lesions. PMID:20142886

  4. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952

  5. Complement and dysbiosis in periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling crosstalk between complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) normally serves to coordinate host immunity. However, the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses C5 convertase-like enzymatic activity and adeptly exploits complement-TLR crosstalk to subvert host defenses and escape elimination. Intriguingly, this defective immune surveillance leads to the remodeling of the periodontal microbiota to a dysbiotic state that causes inflammatory periodontitis. Understanding the mechanisms by which P. gingivalis modulates complement function to cause dysbiosis offers new targets for complement therapeutics. PMID:22964237

  6. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Podzimek, Stepan; Vondrackova, Lucie; Duskova, Jana; Janatova, Tatjana; Broukal, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and psychiatric diseases). The study of salivary components proteomics clearly shows the relationship of periodontal diseases and diseases of distant systems, organs, or tissues. PMID:27143814

  7. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Gennaro, Susan; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Chhun, Nok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the association between maternal periodontal disease and poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and outline the role nurses can play in improving the oral health of pregnant women. Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight, but treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives are in a position to educate pregnant women on the benefits of good oral health and identify and refer women who are in need of dental care for treatment. PMID:18158527

  8. Membranes for periodontal regeneration: From commercially available to spatially designed and functionally graded materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottino, Marco Cicero

    The aging of the global population will lead to a considerable increase in the number of surgical and restorative procedures related to oral rehabilitation or periodontal regeneration. Periodontitis is one of the most aggressive pathologies that concern the integrity of the periodontal system that can lead to the destruction of the periodontium. Guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) have been used for the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues by utilizing an occlusive membrane. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the knowledge in the area of periodontal regeneration by investigating the properties of a commercially available freeze-dried collagen-based graft (AlloDermRTM) and by designing/fabricating a functionally graded membrane (FGM) via multilayer electrospinning. The effects of different rehydration times and of a simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking procedure on the biomechanical properties and matrix stability of the commercially available membrane were investigated. The results revealed that there are significant changes on the biomechanical properties of the graft as rehydration time increases. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking protocol has a synergistic effect in terms of enhancing biomechanical properties. A FGM consisting of a core-layer (CL) and two functional surface-layers (SL) was fabricated via sequential electrospinning. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) were incorporated to enhance bone formation (SL facing bone defect), and metronidazole benzoate (MET) was added to prevent bacterial colonization (SL facing the epithelial tissue). Degradation studies performed on both the CL and the FGM confirmed that the design holds promise in terms of providing the required mechanical stability to avoid membrane collapse and, therefore, enhance bone regeneration. Finally, it was demonstrated that MET incorporation into the SL that would face epithelial tissue is effective in

  9. Associations between FCGR2A rs1801274, FCGR3A rs396991, FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphisms and periodontitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Gwan Gyu; Lee, Young Ho

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Fcγ receptors (FCGRs) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to periodontitis in ethnically different populations. We did a literature search using PubMed and Embase, and conducted a meta-analysis on the associations between the FCGR2A H131R (rs1801274), FCGR3A F158V (rs396991), and FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphisms and periodontitis using allele contrast, the recessive model, the dominant model, and the homozygote contrast. A total of 17 separate comparisons with 1,421 patients with periodontitis and 1,454 controls, involving six Caucasian, six East Asian, two African and one South Asian population were considered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the FCGR2A H131R polymorphism showed no association between periodontitis and the FCGR2A R allele (OR=0.987, 95% CI=0.881-1.107, p=0.827). Stratification by ethnicity revealed an association between the RR+RH genotype with periodontitis in Caucasian population (OR=0.624, 95% CI=0.479-0.813, p=4.7×10(-5)), but not in East Asian, and African populations. Meta-analysis of the FCGR3A F158V polymorphism revealed an association between the FCGR3A V allele and periodontitis is in Caucasians (OR=1.457, 95% CI=1.014-2.092, p=0.042), but not in East Asians and Africans. In addition, analysis using the dominant model and homozygote contrast showed the same pattern for the FCGR3A V allele. Meta-analysis of the FCGR3B NA1/NA2 polymorphism using the recessive model revealed a significant association between the NA2/NA2 genotype and periodontitis in aggressive periodontitis (OR=2.853, 95% CI=1.673-4.863, 1.1×10(-5)). This meta-analysis demonstrates that the FCGR2A, and FCGR3A polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to periodontitis in Caucasians, and that the FCGR3B polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:23649770

  10. Supportive periodontal therapy and periodontal biotype as prognostic factors in implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Aisa, Francisco J.; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate bone loss around implants placed in patients with a history of treated chronic periodontitis and who did or did not attend supportive periodontal therapy, after one year in function. Furthermore, the influence of periodontal biotype and level of plaque was also evaluated. Material and Methods: Forty-nine patients participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects had a history of chronic periodontitis, which had been previously treated. After the active treatment, 27 patients attended supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the rest did not (No SPT). The O’Leary plaque index and periodontal biotype were recorded for each subject and 246 Astra Tech® OsseospeedTM implants were radiographically analysed (123 placed in SPT patients and 123 in No SPT patients) at the time of loading and one year later, measuring marginal bone loss with the program Dental Studio NX 6.0®. The statistical analysis was performed with Windows SPSS, applying Pearson’s correlation index and the Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann Whitney non-parametric tests. Results: Six patients were found to have periimplantitis and sixteen mucositis. The survival rate was 99.59% (100% SPT and 99.18% No SPT). Mean bone loss was 0.39 mm (range [-0.71 - 8.05]). Among SPT patients, 95% of the implants had losses less than or equal to the mean (mean bone loss of 0.16 mm) compared to 53.7% for the No SPT group (mean bone loss of 0.62 mm). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between bone loss around the implant and the patient’s periodontal biotype and plaque index. Conclusions: The marginal bone loss around implants in patients with treated chronic periodontitis is minimal if they are in a controlled SPT programme and there is individual control of plaque index. Moreover, the presence of a thin periodontal biotype represents a risk factor for additional bone loss. Key words:Peri-implantitis, chronic periodontitis, bacterial plaque, periodontal biotype. PMID:23722147

  11. The Trimeric Model: A New Model of Periodontal Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Tarakji, Bassel

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of periodontal disease is a complex and multidisciplinary procedure, requiring periodontal, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic treatment modalities. Several authors attempted to formulate models for periodontal treatment that orders the treatment steps in a logical and easy to remember manner. In this article, we discuss two models of periodontal treatment planning from two of the most well-known textbook in the specialty of periodontics internationally. Then modify them to arrive at a new model of periodontal treatment planning, The Trimeric Model. Adding restorative and orthodontic interrelationships with periodontal treatment allows us to expand this model into the Extended Trimeric Model of periodontal treatment planning. These models will provide a logical framework and a clear order of the treatment of periodontal disease for general practitioners and periodontists alike. PMID:25177662

  12. The epigenetic paradigm in periodontitis pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lavu, Vamsi; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-01-01

    Epigenome refers to “epi” meaning outside the “genome.” Epigenetics is the field of study of the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications include changes in the promoter CpG Islands, modifications of histone protein structure, posttranslational repression by micro-RNA which contributes to the alteration of gene expression. Epigenetics provides an understanding of the role of gene-environment interactions on disease phenotype especially in complex multifactorial diseases. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the supporting structures of the tooth. The role of the genome (in terms of genetic polymorphisms) in periodontitis pathogenesis has been examined in numerous studies, and chronic periodontitis has been established as a polygenic disorder. The potential role of epigenetic modifications in the various facets of pathogenesis of periodontitis is discussed in this paper based on the available literature. PMID:26015662

  13. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  14. Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R A; Page, R C; Wilde, G

    1977-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated in nine patients with juvenile periodontitis, with normal subjects and patients with the adult form of periodontitis as controls. Defective chemotactic responses were observed in neutrophils from seven of nine juvenile patients, and a reduced level of complement-derived chemotactic activity was demonstrated in serum from four patients. These determinations were normal in all the patients with adult periodontitis. Serum from five of the juvenile patients contained a heat-stable, non-dialyzable factor that markedly inhibited the chemotaxis of normal neutrophils. Thus the characteristic tissue destruction seen in juvenile periodontitis may be, at least in part, a consequence of a failure of host defense mechanisms. PMID:591063

  15. Clinical periodontics with the argon laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkbeiner, R. L.

    1995-04-01

    The argon laser has proven to be a valuable tool for the thermodynamic debridement of the periodontal lesion, incisions and tissue fusion. Illustrations of clinical applications and discussion of laser parameters will be provided.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalın, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women. Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status

  17. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Erhan; Akaln, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  18. Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D

    1989-09-01

    This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease. PMID:2773862

  19. Periodontal ligament stem cells: an update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chamila Prageeth Pandula, P K; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, Chengfei

    2014-05-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a serious infectious and inflammatory oral disease of humans worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities are effective for controlling periodontal disease. However, the regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues remains a major challenge in clinical practice due to the complex structure of the periodontium. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches combined with the usage of emerging biomaterials are entering a new era in periodontal regeneration. The present review updates the current knowledge of periodontal ligament stem cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration, and elaborates on the potentials for clinical application. PMID:24610628

  20. Quorum Sensing Inhibition, Relevance to Periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored. PMID:25709373

  1. Newly Identified Pathogens Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492

  2. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  3. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  4. Advanced drug delivery approaches against periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deeksha; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums involving the degeneration of periodontal ligaments, creation of periodontal pocket and resorption of alveolar bone, resulting in the disruption of the support structure of teeth. According to WHO, 10-15% of the global population suffers from severe periodontitis. The disease results from the growth of a diverse microflora (especially anaerobes) in the pockets and release of toxins, enzymes and stimulation of body's immune response. Various local or systemic approaches were used for an effective treatment of periodontitis. Currently, controlled local drug delivery approach is more favorable as compared to systemic approach because it mainly focuses on improving the therapeutic outcomes by achieving factors like site-specific delivery, low dose requirement, bypass of first-pass metabolism, reduction in gastrointestinal side effects and decrease in dosing frequency. Overall it provides a safe and effective mode of treatment, which enhances patient compliance. Complete eradication of the organisms from the sites was not achieved by using various surgical and mechanical treatments. So a number of polymer-based delivery systems like fibers, films, chips, strips, microparticles, nanoparticles and nanofibers made from a variety of natural and synthetic materials have been successfully tested to deliver a variety of drugs. These systems are biocompatible and biodegradable, completely fill the pockets, and have strong retention on the target site due to excellent mucoadhesion properties. The review summarizes various available and recently developing targeted delivery devices for the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:25005586

  5. Biochemical markers of the periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Castro, Cecilia Estela; Koss, Myriam Adriana; López, María Elena

    2003-01-01

    For many years the diagnosis of Periodontal Disease has been based on clinical and radiographic methods. Other more recent methods have the objective of studying the inflammatory response of the host. That way, immunologic and biological methods determine the free mediators in the periodontal infection. The components of the gingivo-crevicular liquid or fluid are used to identify or to diagnose the active disease, to anticipate the risk of acquiring the disease and to determine its progress. For it to be clinically useful important changes should be registered the way a specific site turns active or that a previously disease affected site improves its conditions as a result of periodontal therapy. The response of the neutrophillic granulocytes play an important role in the detection of Periodontal Disease. The unspecific defense system in the gingivo-crevicular fluid can be determined through cytokines and/or interleukines that serve to identify sites at risk on the patient. In Periodontal Disease, the cytokines are not only defense mediators of the gingival sulcus fluid, but are also an indicator of tissue destruction. The liberation of high levels of lysosomal enzymes by neutrophils, proteolytic enzymes as the collagenases, or intercytoplasmatic enzymes as dehydrogenase lactate and aspartate amino transferase can equally help monitor the progress of the Periodontal Disease. PMID:14595256

  6. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ulrike; Solominidou, Eleni; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Rüttermann, Stefan; Klocke, Astrid; Flemmig, Thomas Frank; Beikler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and NF-kB pathway associated processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders, for example, periodontal disease. The activation of these pathways is controlled by the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of RCAN1 in periodontal disease. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using specific rabbit polyclonal anti-RCAN1 antibodies. For expression analysis human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used. HUVEC were incubated for 2 h with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) or with wild type and laboratory strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Expression analysis of rcan1 and cox2 was done by real time PCR using specific primers for rcan1.4 and cox2. The expression of rcan1 was found to be significantly suppressed in endothelial cells of chronically inflamed periodontal tissues compared to healthy controls. Rcan1 and cox2 were significantly induced by VEGF and wild type and laboratory P. gingivalis strains. Interestingly, the magnitude of the rcan1 and cox2 induction was strain dependent. The results of this study indicate that RCAN1 is suppressed in endothelial cells of chronically inflamed periodontal tissues. During an acute infection, however, rcan1 seems to be upregulated in endothelial cells, indicating a modulating role in immune homeostasis of periodontal tissues. PMID:27403036

  7. In vivo identification of periodontal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Roguljic, H; Matthews, B G; Yang, W; Cvija, H; Mina, M; Kalajzic, I

    2013-08-01

    The periodontal ligament contains progenitor cells; however, their identity and differentiation potential in vivo remain poorly characterized. Previous results have suggested that periodontal tissue progenitors reside in perivascular areas. Therefore, we utilized a lineage-tracing approach to identify and track periodontal progenitor cells from the perivascular region in vivo. We used an alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) promoter-driven and tamoxifen-inducible Cre system (αSMACreERT2) that, in combination with a reporter mouse line (Ai9), permanently labels a cell population, termed 'SMA9'. To trace the differentiation of SMA9-labeled cells into osteoblasts/cementoblasts, we utilized a Col2.3GFP transgene, while expression of Scleraxis-GFP was used to follow differentiation into periodontal ligament fibroblasts during normal tissue formation and remodeling following injury. In uninjured three-week-old SMA9 mice, tamoxifen labeled a small population of cells in the periodontal ligament that expanded over time, particularly in the apical region of the root. By 17 days and 7 weeks after labeling, some SMA9-labeled cells expressed markers indicating differentiation into mature lineages, including cementocytes. Following injury, SMA9 cells expanded, and differentiated into cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. SMA9-labeled cells represent a source of progenitors that can give rise to mature osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and fibroblasts within the periodontium. PMID:23735585

  8. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574

  9. Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases by Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Mami; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka

    Many middle aged and old persons take periodontal diseases that mainly cause teeth loss and result in some systemic diseases. The prevention of periodontal diseases is very important for oral and systemic health, but the present diagnostic examination is not fully objective and suitable. To diagnose periodontal diseases exactly, some biomarkers shown inflammation, tissue degradation and bone resorption, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva are known. We demonstrated that GCF levels of calprotectin, inflammation-related protein, and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, bone metabolism-related protein, were associated with clinical condition of periodontal diseases, and suggested that these proteins may be useful biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Recently, determinations of genes and proteins by using microdevices are studied for diagnosis of some diseases. We detected calprotectin protein by chemiluminescent immunoassay on a microchip and showed the possibility of specific and quantitative detection of calprotectin in a very small amount of GCF. To determine plural markers in GCF by using microdevices contributes to develop accurate, objective diagnostic system of periodontal diseases.

  10. Magnesium deficiency is associated with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Meisel, P; Schwahn, C; Luedemann, J; John, U; Kroemer, H K; Kocher, T

    2005-10-01

    In the multifactorial pathogenesis of periodontitis, there are still unknown factors influencing the outcome of the disease. An association between magnesium and periodontitis has been suggested by preliminary studies. However, relevant clinical data are lacking. We investigated the association between magnesium status and periodontal health in a population-based analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological investigation involving 4290 subjects aged 20-80 yrs. We recorded periodontal risk factors and determined concentrations of serum magnesium and calcium, relating them to periodontal parameters. In a matched-pair study, 60 subjects using oral magnesium-containing drugs and 120 without were compared. In subjects aged 40 yrs and older, increased serum Mg/Ca was significantly associated with reduced probing depth (p<0.001), less attachment loss (p=0.006), and a higher number of remaining teeth (p=0.005). Subjects taking Mg drugs showed less attachment loss (p<0.01) and more remaining teeth than did their matched counterparts. These results suggest that nutritional magnesium supplementation may improve periodontal health. PMID:16183794

  11. Multiphasic Scaffolds for Periodontal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovski, S.; Vaquette, C.; Gronthos, S.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Bartold, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor–based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials. PMID:25139362

  12. Association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regenerative therapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers implementing eligibility inclusion criteria selected the studies. Results Of the 155, four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All studies were published between 2000 and 2004 and the samples’ size was 40 to 86 patients. Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene were included in all. Three out of four studies failed to identify an association between susceptible genotypes to periodontitis and clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration, while one found an association. The heterogeneity and small number of studies included prevented the conduct of a meta-analysis. No studies were identified evaluating the effect of other genotypes and as a result only IL-1 genotype studies were included. Conclusions Within the limits of the present review, no direct conclusion for the effect of a susceptible IL-1 genotype status to the clinical outcome after periodontal regeneration could be drawn. The need of more qualitative studies to explore a possible association emerges. Key words:Periodontitis, genotype, periodontal therapy, regeneration, susceptibility, systematic review. PMID:26946210

  13. Adolescents with high periodontal risk in Public Dental Service.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Leif; Adler, Lottie; Jonés, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of adolescents with high periodontal risk and to identify factors with influence on the decision to refer a patient to a specialist clinic of Periodontology, on compliance rate and on treatment outcome. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective study on adolescents at age 13-17. In total, clinical examinations and risk evaluations according to caries- and periodontal risk were performed on 50347 adolescents in general dentistry at ages 13, 15 and 17 in 2007. Individuals with a high periodontal risk were included in the present investigation. A high periodontal risk was defined as presence of sites with periodontal pocket depths >6mm and loss of periodontal tissue support. Multiple logistic regression analyses were adopted to calculate the influence of the potential predictors on the investigated dependent variables. In total, 0.5% of the adolescents were found to have high periodontal risk. The diagnosis local periodontitis and the number of periodontal pockets with probing depths >6 mm were positively and significantly correlated to referral to a periodontist. Eighteen percent dropped out before the treatment was completed. Smokers had a significantly lower compliance than non-smokers. The success rate was significantly lower for individuals with many periodontal pockets and for those with the diagnosis local periodontitis. The prevalence of adolescents classified as having high periodontal risk was low. A large frequency of subjects dropped out before the periodontal treatment was completed, especially at the specialist clinics. PMID:24620506

  14. Fibrinogen Degradation Products and Periodontitis: Deciphering the Connection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibrinogen degradation products (e.g. D-dimer) arise from digested fibrin clots and fibrinogen. Elevated concentrations accompany activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis and indicate chronic inflammatory diseases. D-Dimer tests are a quick, noninvasive method to rule out abnormal clotting. Periodontitis strongly affects the haemostatic system and evokes a procoagulant state. Correlation of chronic periodontitis with early indicators of disease (biomarkers) might be useful. Aim The aim of the study was to examine whether the plasma D-dimer concentration reflects the progression of chronic periodontitis and the beneficial effect of periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods Forty randomly selected subjects were divided into four groups, Group I: 10 healthy subjects, Group II: 10 with mild periodontitis, Group III: 10 with moderate periodontitis, Group IV: 10 with severe periodontitis. After thorough dental and periodontal examination, 3 mL of venous blood was collected for measurement of fibrinogen degradation products. Results The patients with moderate and chronic periodontitis exhibited high concentrations of D-dimer (mean value 434.98–535.52 mcg/mL), whereas subjects with mild or no periodontitis exhibited values of 329.78–211.29 mcg/mL. Concentrations of D-dimer were significantly reduced after therapy of all classes of periodontitis. Conclusion Periodontal treatment can reduce amount of D-dimer in the plasma. A higher than normal concentration is observed in chronic periodontitis. PMID:26816985

  15. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  16. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention.

    PubMed

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  17. Periodontitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs when inflammation or infection of the gums ( gingivitis ) is allowed to progress without treatment. Infection and ... Loose teeth Swollen gums Note: Early symptoms resemble gingivitis. Exams and Tests An exam of the mouth ...

  18. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  19. Investigation of hemorheological parameters in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Seringec, Nurten; Guncu, Guliz; Arihan, Okan; Avcu, Nihal; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are frequently associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). On the other hand, occurrence of CVD has also been related with increased blood viscosity. This study was planned to investigate four main hemorheological parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - and also some biochemical parameters (hs-CRP, fibrinogen, globulin etc.) in patients with periodontal disease. We hypothesized that poor periodontal health would be associated with deterioration of hemorheological properties. According to periodontal health status, subjects were divided into three groups as control (healthy), with plaque induced gingivitis and with chronic periodontitis. All groups included 15 males who had not received periodontal therapy in the last six months before the study, were non-smokers, had no systemic diseases and were not on any medication. Erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were measured with laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA). Plasma viscosity was measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient. Plasma viscosity (1.36 ± 0.01 mPa.s in the control group and 1.43 ± 0.02 mPa.s in the chronic periodontitis group, P <  0.01), erythrocyte aggregation tendency (aggregation index, amplitude and t½ were 58.82 ± 1.78% , 20.22 ± 0.40 au, 2.80 ± 0.25 s respectively in the control group, and 67.05 ± 1.47% , 22.19 ± 0.50 au, 1.84 ± 0.15 s in the chronic periodontitis group, P <  0.01), hs-CRP, fibrinogen and globulin levels were significantly higher, whereas HDL level was significantly lower in the chronic periodontitis group (P <  0.05) compared to the control group. All of these conditions may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in people with periodontal disease, via increasing blood viscosity. PMID:25261434

  20. Relationship between invasion of the periodontium by periodontal pathogens and periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luzia; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Felino, António; Pinto, Miguel Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of the periodontal tissues has been suggested as a relevant step in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. However, its exact importance remains to be defined. The present systematic review assessed the scientific evidence concerning the relationship between the quality or quantity of periodontal microbiota in periodontal tissues and development of periodontal disease. The databases Medline-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, ISI Web of Knowledge and SCOPUS were searched, up to January 2014. Studies that reported evaluation of periodontal pathogens invasion on human tissues were selected. The screening of 440 title/abstracts elected 26 papers for full-text reading. Twenty three papers were subsequently excluded because of insufficient data or a study protocol not related to the objectives of this systematic review. All included studies were case-control studies that evaluated intracellular or adherent bacteria to epithelial cells from periodontal pockets versus healthy sulci. Study protocols presented heterogeneity regarding case and control definitions and methodological approaches for microbial identification. No consistent significant differences were found related to the presence/absence or proportion of specific periopathogens across the studies, as only one study found statistically significant differences regarding the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.043), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), P. intermedia (P < 0.001), C. ochracea (P < 0.001) and C. rectus (P = 0.003) in epithelial cells from periodontal pockets vs. healthy sulci. All studies reported a larger unspecific bacterial load in or on the epithelial cells taken from a diseased site compared to a healthy sulcus. The current available data is of low to moderate quality and inconsistent mainly due to study design, poor reporting and methodological diversity. As so, there is insufficient evidence to support or exclude the invasion by periodontal pathogens as a key step in the

  1. Relationship between invasion of the periodontium by periodontal pathogens and periodontal disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Luzia; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Felino, António; Pinto, Miguel Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of the periodontal tissues has been suggested as a relevant step in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. However, its exact importance remains to be defined. The present systematic review assessed the scientific evidence concerning the relationship between the quality or quantity of periodontal microbiota in periodontal tissues and development of periodontal disease. The databases Medline-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, ISI Web of Knowledge and SCOPUS were searched, up to January 2014. Studies that reported evaluation of periodontal pathogens invasion on human tissues were selected. The screening of 440 title/abstracts elected 26 papers for full-text reading. Twenty three papers were subsequently excluded because of insufficient data or a study protocol not related to the objectives of this systematic review. All included studies were case-control studies that evaluated intracellular or adherent bacteria to epithelial cells from periodontal pockets versus healthy sulci. Study protocols presented heterogeneity regarding case and control definitions and methodological approaches for microbial identification. No consistent significant differences were found related to the presence/absence or proportion of specific periopathogens across the studies, as only one study found statistically significant differences regarding the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.043), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), P. intermedia (P < 0.001), C. ochracea (P < 0.001) and C. rectus (P = 0.003) in epithelial cells from periodontal pockets vs. healthy sulci. All studies reported a larger unspecific bacterial load in or on the epithelial cells taken from a diseased site compared to a healthy sulcus. The current available data is of low to moderate quality and inconsistent mainly due to study design, poor reporting and methodological diversity. As so, there is insufficient evidence to support or exclude the invasion by periodontal pathogens as a key step in the

  2. Interdisciplinary Management of Patient with Advanced Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Gagan Deep; Jayan, B; Chopra, S S; Mechery, Reenesh; Goel, Manish; Verma, Munish

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with advanced periodontal disease. Treatment involved orthodontic and periodontal management. Good esthetic results and dental relationships were achieved by the treatment. PMID:27319043

  3. The Role of Nutrition in Periodontal Health: An Update.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed. PMID:27589794

  4. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  5. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  6. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  7. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  8. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  9. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  10. A psychoanalytic study of aggression.

    PubMed

    Furst, S S

    1998-01-01

    Eleven participants carried out a study of aggression by utilizing clinical data from the analyses of patients who manifested significant problems in the management of aggression. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of the intrapsychic factors that determine the nature and intensity of aggressive tendencies, the place they occupy in the psychic economy, their patterns of expression, and the extrapsychic factors that trigger them. The findings of the study indicate, first, that aggression is multiply determined by developmental, genetic (experiential), and dynamic variables; second, that each cluster of variables affects the nature, intensity, and expression of aggression in a fairly specific way; third, the importance of aggression in the psychic economy is proportional to the extent to which it is overdetermined. The successful analysis of aggressive individuals depends not solely on interpretation and insight, but on the relationship to the analyst as new parent who does not threaten and prohibit. The relationship to the analyst permits developmental change, particularly the ability to organize, structure, and control aggression. As a result, it need not be expressed destructively, but may be placed in the service of constructive thought and action. PMID:9990829

  11. In search of Winnicott's aggression.

    PubMed

    Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

    2001-01-01

    Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

  12. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  13. Relationship between the Pathogenic Representatives of Periodontal Pockets Microbiocenosis in Patients with Periodontitis with Varying Degrees of Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zorina, O.A.; Kulakov, A.A.; Boriskina, O.A.; Rebrikov, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common disease that is considered to be a manifestation of the distortion of the ratio between the normal and conditionally pathogenic microflora of periodontal pockets. In this study, the ratio between the six most important periodontal pathogens and the total microflora of the periodontal pocket in healthy individuals and patients with varying severity of periodontitis was ascertained by quantitative real-time PCR. It was ascertained that the relative content ofPorphyromonas gingivalis,Prevotella intermedia, andTannerella forsythensis(Bacteroides forsythus) persistently develops in the total microflora of the periodontal pocket upon progressing periodontitis; this value is higher than that in the control group by more than two orders of magnitude upon a severe degree of chronic generalized periodontitis. PMID:22649688

  14. Lactoferrin: A Roadmap to the Borderland between Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Fine, D H

    2015-06-01

    Lactoferrin is one of a number of multifunctional proteins that are present in or on all mucosal surfaces throughout the body. Levels of lactoferrin are consistently elevated in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, corneal disease, and periodontitis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lactoferrin have been shown to be present in individuals susceptible to Escherichia coli-induced travelers' diarrhea and in tear fluid derived from virally associated corneal disease. Here, we review data showing a lactoferrin SNP in amino acid position 29 in the antimicrobial region of lactoferrin that acts against caries associated bacteria. This SNP was initially discovered in African American subjects with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) who had proximal bone loss but minimal proximal caries. Results were confirmed in a genetic association study of children from Brazil with this same SNP who showed a reduced level of caries. In vitro data indicate that lactoferrin from whole saliva derived from subjects with this SNP, recombinant human lactoferrin containing this SNP, or an 11-mer peptide designed for this SNP kills mutans streptococci associated with caries by >1 log. In contrast, the SNP has minimal effect on Gram-negative species associated with periodontitis. Moreover, periodontally healthy subjects homozygous for this lysine (K) SNP have lactoferrin in their saliva that kills mutans streptococci and have reduced proximal decay. The review summarizes data supporting the ecologic plaque hypothesis and suggests that a genetic variant in lactoferrin with K in position 29 when found in saliva and crevice fluid can influence community biofilm composition. We propose that, for caries, this SNP is ethnicity independent and protective by directly killing caries-provoking bacteria (reducing proximal decay). However, the clinical effect of this SNP in LAP is ethnicity dependent, destructive (increases LAP incidence), and complex with

  15. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  16. Tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Baljoon, Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal disease in terms of periodontal pocketing, periodontal bone loss, and tooth loss. The smoking destructive effect on periodontal bone may be of even "horizontal" and vertical "angular" pattern. The vertical bone loss or the "vertical defect" is a sign of progressive periodontal breakdown that involves the periodontal bone. Water pipe smoking has a sharp rise by the popularity in the recent years by men and women in Middle East countries. The general objective of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This thesis is based on two study populations, Swedish musicians and a Saudi Arabian population. All participants had a full set of intra-oral radiographs including 16 periapical and 4 bitewing projections that were assessed with regard to presence or absence of vertical defects. In Study I, the number of defects per person increased with age. Vertical defects were more common in the posterior as compared to the anterior region of the dentition and the distribution of defects within the maxilla as well as the mandible typically revealed a right-left hand side symmetry. Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with the prevalence and severity of vertical bone defects (Studies II and III). The relative risk associated with cigarette smoking was 2 to 3-fold increased. The impact of water pipe smoking was of the same magnitude as that of cigarette smoking and the relative risk associated with water pipe smoking was 6-fold increased compared to non-smoking. In addition, the risk of vertical defects increased with increased exposure in cigarette smokers as well as water pipe smokers (Study III). In Study IV, the proportion of vertical defects increased over a 10-year period and the increase over time was significantly associated with smoking. Moreover, the 10-year

  17. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  18. Treatment modalities and evaluation models for periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Mohammad; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Sahni, Jasjeet K

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common localized dental inflammatory disease related with several pathological conditions like inflammation of gums (gingivitis), degeneration of periodontal ligament, dental cementum and alveolar bone loss. In this perspective, the various preventive and treatment modalities, including oral hygiene, gingival irrigations, mechanical instrumentation, full mouth disinfection, host modulation and antimicrobial therapy, which are used either as adjunctive treatments or as stand-alone therapies in the non-surgical management of periodontal infections, have been discussed. Intra-pocket, sustained release systems have emerged as a novel paradigm for the future research. In this article, special consideration is given to different locally delivered anti-microbial and anti inflammatory medications which are either commercially available or are currently under consideration for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The various in vitro dissolution models and microbiological strain investigated to impersonate the infected and inflamed periodontal cavity and to predict the in vivo performance of treatment modalities have also been thrashed out. Animal models that have been employed to explore the pathology at the different stages of periodontitis and to evaluate its treatment modalities are enlightened in this proposed review. PMID:23373002

  19. Epigenetic Modifications of Histones in Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, M D; Jiao, Y; Larsson, L; Almeida, L O; Garaicoa-Pazmino, C; Le, J M; Squarize, C H; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V; Castilho, R M

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease driven by dysbiosis, an imbalance between commensal bacteria and the host organism. Periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults and occurs in about 50% of the US population. In addition to the clinical challenges associated with treating periodontitis, the progression and chronic nature of this disease seriously affect human health. Emerging evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with mechanisms beyond bacteria-induced protein and tissue degradation. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are able to induce epigenetic modifications in oral epithelial cells mediated by histone modifications. In this study, we found that dysbiosis in vivo led to epigenetic modifications, including acetylation of histones and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. In addition, in vitro exposure of oral epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharides resulted in histone modifications, activation of transcriptional coactivators, such as p300/CBP, and accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Given that oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense for the periodontium against bacteria, we also evaluated whether activation of pathogen recognition receptors induced histone modifications. We found that activation of the Toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 induced histone acetylation in oral epithelial cells. Our findings corroborate the emerging concept that epigenetic modifications play a role in the development of periodontitis. PMID:26496800

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontal Disease. An Update.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Archana; Almas, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    A review of the epidemiological, pathological and immunological relationships between two chronic inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD). RA is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, characterized by loss of connective tissue and mineralized structures, the so-called "synovial membrane." Periodontitis is the inflammatory destruction of the periodontal attachment and alveolar bone. While the etiology of these two diseases may differ, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are similar. And it is possible that individuals manifesting both PD and RA may suffer from a unifying underlying systemic deregulation of the inflammatory response. There is an overproduction of a variety of cytokines and MMPs that appears to be common in both diseases. Oral health parameters should be more closely monitored in patients with RA, an autoimmune disease. Data suggest that periodontal therapies combined with routine RA treatments further improve RA status. Interventions to prevent, minimize or treat periodontitis in arthritis patients will definitely promise a better quality of life for these patients. PMID:26521325

  1. Spatiotemporally controlled microchannels of periodontal mimic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Park, C H; Kim, K H; Rios, H F; Lee, Y M; Giannobile, W V; Seol, Y J

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic bioengineering of the oral, dental, and craniofacial complex requires optimized geometric organizations of fibrous connective tissues. A computer-designed, fiber-guiding scaffold has been developed to promote tooth-supporting periodontal tissue regeneration and functional restoration despite limited printing resolution for the manufacture of submicron-scaled features. Here, we demonstrate the use of directional freeze-casting techniques to control pore directional angulations and create mimicked topographies to alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, and apical fibers of natural periodontal ligaments. For the differing anatomic positions, the gelatin displayed varying patterns of ice growth, determined via internal pore architectures. Regardless of the freezing coordinates, the longitudinal pore arrangements resulted in submicron-scaled diameters (~50 µm), along with corresponding high biomaterial porosity (~90%). Furthermore, the horizontal + coronal ([Formula: see text]) freezing orientation facilitated the creation of similar structures to major fibers in the periodontal ligament interface. This periodontal tissue-mimicking microenvironment is a potential tissue platform for the generation of naturally oriented ligamentous tissues consistent with periodontal ligament neogenesis. PMID:25216511

  2. Human periodontal ligament cell sheets can regenerate periodontal ligament tissue in an athymic rat model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masateru; Yamato, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Okano, Teruo; Ishikawa, Isao

    2005-01-01

    Conventional periodontal regeneration methods remain insufficient to attain complete and reliable clinical regeneration of periodontal tissues. We have developed a new method of cell transplantation using cell sheet engineering and have applied it to this problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cell sheets retrieved from culture on unique temperature-responsive culture dishes, and to examine whether these cell sheets can regenerate periodontal tissues. The HPDL cell sheets were examined histologically and biochemically, and also were transplanted into a mesial dehiscence model in athymic rats. HPDL cells were harvested from culture dishes as a contiguous cell sheet with abundant extracellular matrix and retained intact integrins that are susceptible to trypsin-EDTA treatment. In the animal study, periodontal ligament-like tissues that include an acellular cementum-like layer and fibrils anchoring into this layer were identified in all the athymic rats transplanted with HPDL cell sheets. This fibril anchoring highly resembles native periodontal ligament fibers; such regeneration was not observed in nontransplanted controls. These results suggest that this technique, based on the concept of cell sheet engineering, can be useful for periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:15869425

  3. Non-Surgical Chemotherapeutic Treatment Strategies for the Management of Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Krayer, Joe W.; Leite, Renata S.; Kirkwood, Keith L.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Periodontal diseases are initiated by subgingival periodontal pathogens in susceptible periodontal sites. The host immune response towards periodontal pathogens helps to sustain periodontal disease and eventual alveolar bone loss. Numerous adjunctive therapeutic strategies have evolved to manage periodontal diseases. Systemic and local antibiotics, antiseptics, and past and future host immune modulatory agents are reviewed and discussed to facilitate the dental practitioner’s appreciation of this ever-growing field in clinical periodontics. PMID:20103470

  4. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  5. Sequelae of iatrogenic periodontal destruction associated with elastics and permanent incisors: literature review and report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Ting; Huang, Yu-Lan; Chang, Shih-Hao; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report 3 cases of localized aggressive periodontal bone destruction related to improper use of orthodontic elastic bands to close diastemas in permanent anterior teeth and to compare the results to previous studies. Some common signs and symptoms of this particular destruction were observed with these patients that had been previously reported when the comparisons of these cases were made. The patients usually experienced a painful sensation, and an isolated pyogenic-like granuloma appeared at the interdental area. Radiographs revealed localized periodontal destruction, with tooth extrusion and clinical crown divergence and radiographic root convergence; the two involved teeth moved simultaneously during mobility testing. Surgical intervention and treatment of the cases was described. The prognosis is usually decided by the severity of the condition, and many factors may influence the healing of treated cases. PMID:22353413

  6. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202

  7. Periodontal repair of periapical lesions: the borderland between pulpal and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Gold, S I; Moskow, B S

    1987-05-01

    A series of cases demonstrating the destruction of periapical periodontal structures, without pulpal involvement has been presented. Treatment using both surgery and antibiotics resulted in extensive healing without any concommitant endodontic therapy. The results suggest that lesions affecting the apical periodontium are either periodontal or pulpal in origin. Careful diagnosis allows the maintenance of pulp vitality in cases where apical destruction has a source other than an infected pulp. The commonly held belief that lateral and accessory canals are a significant source of pulpal contamination from deep periodontal pockets has been questioned. PMID:3475293

  8. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  9. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Jan

    2004-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic destructive periodontal disease. No other known factor can match the strength of smoking in causing harm to the periodontium. The harmful effects manifest themselves by interfering with vascular and immunologic reactions, as well as by undermining the supportive functions of the periodontal tissues. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. A review of the international literature that has accumulated over the past 20 years offers convincing evidence that smokers exhibit greater bone loss and attachment loss, as well as more pronounced frequencies of periodontal pockets, than non-smokers do. In addition, tooth loss is more extensive in smokers. Smoking, thus, considerably increases the risk for destructive periodontal disease. Depending on the definition of disease and the exposure to smoking, the risk is 5- to 20-fold elevated for a smoker compared to a never-smoker. For a smoker exposed to heavy long-life smoking, the risk of attracting destructive periodontal disease is equivalent to that of attracting lung cancer. The outcome of periodontal treatment is less favorable or even unfavorable in smokers. Although long-term studies are rare, available studies unanimously agree that treatment failures and relapse of disease are predominantly seen in smokers. This contention is valid irrespective of treatment modality, suggesting that smoking will interfere with an expected normal outcome following commonplace periodontal therapies. The majority of available studies agree that the subgingival microflora of smokers and non-smokers are no different given other conditions. As a consequence, the elevated morbidity in smokers does not depend on particular microflora. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of

  10. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return to the pre-antibiotic dark ages. Here, probiotics provide an effective alternative way, which is economical and natural to combat periodontal disease. Thus, a mere change in diet by including probiotic foods may halt, retard, or even significantly delay the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, promoting a healthy lifestyle to fight periodontal infections. PMID:21772717

  11. Platelet Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Muthukumaraswamy; Pulikkotil, Shaju J.; Sonia, Nath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Regeneration of the lost tissues has faced difficulties primarily due to the lack of support during the intricate healing processes. A surgical additive which can ‘jump start’ the healing process to a more predictable regenerative process is always on the wish list of any periodontist. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a second generation platelet concentrate that has been considered to be an important, easy to obtain, predictable surgical additive for periodontal regeneration. This autologous scaffold provides the much needed bio-chemical mediators which has the potential for enhancing reconstruction of the periodontium. This review article tries to understand as to why PRF would be an important link to reach predictable periodontal regeneration. PMID:27386002

  12. Application of ozone in the treatment of periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Adusumilli; Sathish, Manthena; Sri Harsha, Anumolu Venkatanaga

    2013-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are most common inflammatory diseases of supporting tissues of teeth. Role of microbial etiology and host response in progression of gingival and periodontal diseases has been well established. Because of the beneficial biological effects of ozone, due to its antimicrobial and immunostimulating effect, it is well indicated in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The objective of this article is to provide a general review about clinical applications of ozone in treatment of periodontal diseases and to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. PMID:23946585

  13. [Periodontitis and systemic diseases: from science to clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Z; Loos, B G; Teeuw, W; Kunnen, A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for an association between systemic diseases and periodontitis is strongest with diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. There is a moderate association of periodontitis with adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. Periodontal treatment has, on average, a positive effect on reducing systemic infection and improving the condition of the vascular system. For diabetes patients, periodontal treatment can also have a positive effect on metabolic regulation. There is insufficient evidence that periodontal treatment prevents adverse pregnancy outcomes and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26465017

  14. Emerging Therapeutic Strategies and Future Challenges in Clinical Periodontics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Hamada, Yusuke; John, Vanchit

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the protocol for treating periodontitis follows a standardized and straightforward algorithm: 1) review and reinforce oral hygiene; 2) perform scaling and root planing; 3) proceed to periodontal surgery if the disease process has not been arrested; then 4) enroll the patient in a customized periodontal maintenance recall program to maintain the health of the reduced periodontium. Multiple longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the aforementioned treatment regimen can arrest the progression of periodontitis and can increase the likelihood of tooth retention and periodontal stability. PMID:26939412

  15. Ultrasonic vs. hand instrumentation in periodontal therapy: clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Ranjitha; De Stefano, Jamie A

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in adults. Traditional nonsurgical periodontal therapy involves subgingival removal of hard and soft deposits on the root surface, along with maintenance of good oral hygiene. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy can either be definitive or part of the initial phase before surgical therapy. Mechanical therapy, either with hand or ultrasonic instrumentation, is the keystone of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. This requires considerable amounts of time and a high level of operator skill. The use of appropriate instruments greatly increases clinical efficiency. This article discusses the use of ultrasonic and hand instrumentation, along with recent advances, and the benefits of adjunctive therapy during nonsurgical periodontal therapy. PMID:27045433

  16. Management of chronic generalized periodontitis using diode laser

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Santosh; Doshi, Yogesh; Shah, Mona Udayan; Dabholkar, Charuta Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diode laser with nonsurgical periodontal therapy on chronic periodontitis. The patient, a 37-year-old female, with chronic periodontitis reported to the private dental clinic. Her health history indicated that she had good general health. The periodontal examination included a gingival index and complete periodontal probing depth with William's graduated probe. She was treated with 940 nm diode laser and scaling and root planning. Assessment was done after 6 months following laser therapy; the probing depths improved; gain in clinical attachment levels; no inflammation; the tissue tone was good, showing increased stippling. PMID:27041846

  17. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    PubMed Central

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

  18. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  19. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to obesity.

    PubMed

    Amar, S; Leeman, S

    2013-10-01

    Obesity affects over 35% of the adult population of the USA, and obesity-related illnesses have emerged as the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Obesity's secondary morbidities include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and cancer, in addition to increased occurrence and severity of infections. Sedentary lifestyle and weight gain caused by consumption of a high-fat diet contribute to the development of obesity, with individuals having a body mass index (BMI) score > 30 being considered obese. Genetic models of obesity (ob/ob mice, db/db mice, and fa/fa rats) have been insufficient to study human obesity because of the overall lack of genetic causes for obesity in human populations. To date, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model best serves research studies relevant to human health. Periodontal disease presents with a wide range of clinical variability and severity. Research in the past decade has shed substantial light on both the initiating infectious agents and host immunological responses in periodontal disease. Up to 46% of the general population harbors the microorganism(s) associated with periodontal disease, although many are able to limit the progression of periodontal disease or even clear the organism(s) if infected. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between obesity and increased incidence of periodontal disease. This review focuses on exploring the immunological consequences of obesity that exacerbate effects of infection by pathogens, with focus on infection by the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as a running example. PMID:23911141

  20. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Nora; ABUSLEME, Loreto; BRAVO, Denisse; DUTZAN, Nicolás; GARCIA-SESNICH, Jocelyn; VERNAL, Rolando; HERNÁNDEZ, Marcela; GAMONAL, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells). Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as a stage that

  1. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  2. Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension

  3. Periodontal considerations of the removable partial overdenture.

    PubMed

    Gomes, B C; Renner, R P

    1990-10-01

    1. An overdenture, whether complete or partial, is an excellent mode of treatment in the mutilated dentition for the preservation of the residual ridge. 2. Selection of patients for an overdenture should be based on past history of dental neglect, the status of the teeth and their periodontium, including present oral hygiene status, and patient motivation. The patients with a history of dental neglect, poor oral hygiene, and lack of motivation in having the teeth and the periodontium restored to health as well as strict compliance to a home-care regimen and recall schedule are not good candidates for treatment with an overdenture. 3. The choice of teeth or roots to serve as overdenture abutments must include their periodontal evaluation, which should consist of a detailed periodontal examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment when this is indicated, including chemical protection (fluoride gel) and an oral hygiene regimen tailored to individual needs. 4. The knowledge and expertise in the selection and implementation of appropriate periodontal treatment modalities is of paramount importance in restoring optimum periodontal health to the overdenture abutments before overdenture fabrication. 5. The maintenance phase of the overdenture abutments as well as of the existing natural teeth is of critical importance in the preservation of health of these abutments and teeth. This maintenance phase should consist of periodic recalls based on individual needs; a detailed periodontal evaluation, including patient's motivation and status of oral hygiene and denture hygiene; and detection of caries. If necessary, appropriate periodontal and/or restorative therapy should be performed, and oral hygiene measures reinforced. This will ensure longevity of both abutment teeth or roots and of the existing natural teeth resulting in a long-term success of an overdenture. 6. Because there is evidence of high incidence of periodontal disease and dental caries in overdenture wearers

  4. [Decision to extract for periodontal reasons].

    PubMed

    Bercy, P; Blase, D

    1995-01-01

    The decisions to extract that are discussed here mainly relate to severe periodontal bone losses and plain interradicular attacks. Extractions for periodontal reasons appear at several treatment stages: immediate extraction in terminal stages, e.g. for teeth without any strategic importance, or deferred extraction if one chooses to wait for treatment response. The elements of the decision are various: function and strategic importance of the tooth, extension of the lesion, level of the interradicular attack, any endoperiodontal lesions, fractures and luxations, radicular proximity, implication of wisdom teeth, evolution after treatment. All these factors are discussed. PMID:7480928

  5. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  6. Epidemiology of periodontal disease: a review and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Irfan, U M; Dawson, D V; Bissada, N F

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assimilate epidemiological evidence for the prevalence of periodontal disease in human populations, and for comprehensive understanding of the disease for health care providers. Periodontal disease is a pathological condition affecting the supporting structures of teeth. It is characterised by a bacterial challenge that can instigate a destructive host response leading to periodontal attachment loss, bone loss and ultimately, possible tooth loss. The specifics of the disease process are obscured by our incomplete understanding of the role of various risk factors. Periodontal epidemiology literature lacks consistency in methodology of research, which includes various definitions for periodontal disease and health; different approaches to measuring periodontal indices of pocket depth, and attachment loss; inconsistent study designs and lack of adjustments to known risk factors. These inconsistencies do not allow for effective comparison of epidemiological studies, which is essential to find strong associations of risk factors with periodontal disease, which in turn is necessary for the interpretation of risk and causality. This paper will address several areas within the topic of periodontal disease epidemiology, including definitions of periodontal disease instituted by researchers, approaches to epidemiological studies in periodontitis, and risk factors in periodontal disease. Consideration is given to aspects of design and analyses relevant to evaluation of reports in the literature. For the clinical practitioner this review provides a theoretical framework to approach patients with comprehensive knowledge of not only the disease presentation, but also the environmental factors that govern past history, present condition and future response to treatments and interventions. PMID:12666973

  7. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a two-way relationship.

    PubMed

    Casanova, L; Hughes, F J; Preshaw, P M

    2014-10-01

    Periodontitis and diabetes are common, complex, chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. That is, diabetes (particularly if glycaemic control is poor) is associated with an increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis, and, severe periodontitis is associated with compromised glycaemic control. Periodontal treatment (conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy) has been associated with improvements in glycaemic control in diabetic patients, with reductions in HbA1c of approximately 0.4% following periodontal therapy. For these reasons, management of periodontitis in people with diabetes is particularly important. The dental team therefore has an important role to play in the management of people with diabetes. An emerging role for dental professionals is envisaged, in which diabetes screening tools could be used to identify patients at high risk of diabetes, to enable them to seek further investigation and assessment from medical healthcare providers. PMID:25342350

  8. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers. PMID:16108413

  9. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  10. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  11. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area. PMID:20390357

  12. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  13. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration. PMID:26150714

  14. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011–2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916

  15. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916

  16. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Robert M; Middeldorp, Christel M; Cherny, Stacey S; Krapohl, Eva; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Corley, Robin; Rhee, Soo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard R; Hewitt, John K; Sham, Pak; Plomin, Robert; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2016-07-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were available for 10,765 twin pairs at age 7, for 8,557 twin pairs at age 9/10, and for 7,176 twin pairs at age 12. In TEDS, parental ratings of conduct disorder from the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) were available for 6,897 twin pairs at age 7, for 3,028 twin pairs at age 9 and for 5,716 twin pairs at age 12. In both studies, stability and heritability of aggressive behavioral problems was high. Heritability was on average somewhat, but significantly, lower in TEDS (around 60%) than in NTR (between 50% and 80%) and sex differences were slightly larger in the NTR sample. In both studies, the influence of shared environment was similar: in boys shared environment explained around 20% of the variation in aggression across all ages while in girls its influence was absent around age 7 and only came into play at later ages. Longitudinal genetic correlations were the main reason for stability of aggressive behavior. Individual differences in CBCL-Aggressive Behavior and SDQ-Conduct disorder throughout childhood are driven by a comparable but significantly different genetic architecture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786601

  17. Periodontal treatment influences risk markers for atherosclerosis in patients with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Buhlin, Kåre; Hultin, Margareta; Norderyd, Ola; Persson, Lena; Pockley, A Graham; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Rabe, Per; Klinge, Björn; Gustafsson, Anders

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of mechanical infection control for periodontitis and periodontal surgery on the prevalence of well-established risk factors for atherosclerosis, and plasma levels of cytokines, antibodies against heat shock proteins and markers of systemic inflammation. Sixty-eight patients between 39 and 73 years of age with severe periodontitis who had been referred to four specialist periodontology clinics in Sweden were investigated. A fasting venous blood sample was taken at baseline and additional samples were collected after 3 and 12 months. A total of 54 patients underwent periodontal treatment. The periodontal treatment was successful, as pathogenic gingival pockets decreased significantly. Plasma glucose, lipids and markers of systemic inflammation were not significantly altered after 3 months. One year after the initial treatment, HDL-C concentrations were significantly increased (Delta0.08mmol/L) whereas LDL-C concentrations decreased (Delta0.23mmol/L). Haptoglobin concentrations were also lower. Interleukin-18 and interferon-gamma levels were also lower after 12 months (60ng/L (-23%) and 11ng/L (-97%) respectively). Treatment had no effect on plasma levels of IgA, IgG1, IgG2 antibodies against heat shock proteins. In conclusion, this study indicates that standard treatment for periodontal disease induces systemic changes in several biochemical markers that reflect the risk for atherosclerosis. PMID:19411077

  18. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies. PMID:25506135

  19. The effect of phase-I periodontal therapy on pregnancy outcome in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B V Ramesh; Tanneeru, S; Chava, V K

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown periodontal diseases (gum diseases) as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as prematurity and low birth weight. Objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on pregnancy outcomes in women with periodontitis and to detect IgM and IgG status in cord blood during delivery. A total of 20 pregnant women in their 2nd trimester and associated with chronic generalised periodontitis were selected and recruited for the study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 (treatment group) and Group 2 (control). Periodontal parameters of all the subjects were recorded at baseline and after delivery. Data related to weight of the infant and type of delivery was recorded. During the delivery, cord blood was collected for the estimation of IgM and IgG antibodies. All the recordings were subjected for statistical analysis. The study concluded that maternal periodontitis was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24359045

  20. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  1. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  2. The Development of Aggression within Sibling Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    1995-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined responses to physically aggressive conflicts among siblings. Found that parents respond to half of children's aggression (especially if there is crying). Most parent and child responses were simple commands to stop the aggression. Reasoning was used less often, and physical intervention, rarely. Aggression was higher…

  3. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  4. Attributional bias and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Hudley, C; Friday, J

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student

  5. Biologic Markers for Odontogenic Periradicular Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Burgener, Bruna; Ford, Angelique R.; Situ, Hongsa; Fayad, Mohamed I.; Hao, Jian Jun; Wenckus, Christopher S.; Johnson, Bradford R.; BeGole, Ellen A.; George, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The diagnosis and assessment of apical periodontitis by traditional periapical radiographs can be challenging and might yield false-negative results. The aim of this study was to determine whether interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can be used as biological markers for apical periodontitis. Methods Forty healthy patients with teeth diagnosed with apical periodontitis of pulpal origin were included in the study. GCF samples were obtained from the diseased tooth and from a healthy contralateral control tooth. Total protein concentration in each sample was determined by using the Bio-Rad protein assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the concentration of IL-1β and DSP in the samples. Results Protein content of the GCF was statistically significantly higher in the disease group compared with the control group. The levels of IL-1β and DSP were not statistically different between disease and control groups. Conclusions Although this study was unable to demonstrate a significantly higher level of IL-1β or DSP in the GCF of teeth with apical periodontitis, the observed presence of a significantly higher level of total protein in the GCF of diseased teeth suggests the possible role of total protein level as a marker for periapical disease. PMID:20647085

  6. Mechanisms of Bone Resorption in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hienz, Stefan A.; Paliwal, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of periodontitis progression and its prevention is a key clinical challenge in periodontal disease treatment. Bone destruction is mediated by the host immune and inflammatory response to the microbial challenge. However, the mechanisms by which the local immune response against periodontopathic bacteria disturbs the homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favour of bone loss remain to be established. The osteoclast, the principal bone resorptive cell, differentiates from monocyte/macrophage precursors under the regulation of the critical cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. TNF-α, IL-1, and PGE2 also promote osteoclast activity, particularly in states of inflammatory osteolysis such as those found in periodontitis. The pathogenic processes of destructive inflammatory periodontal diseases are instigated by subgingival plaque microflora and factors such as lipopolysaccharides derived from specific pathogens. These are propagated by host inflammatory and immune cell influences, and the activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immune response via regulation of the Th1-Th2-Th17 regulatory axis. In summary, Th1-type T lymphocytes, B cell macrophages, and neutrophils promote bone loss through upregulated production of proinflammatory mediators and activation of the RANK-L expression pathways. PMID:26065002

  7. Underestimation of periodontitis in NHANES surveys.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2011-03-01

    The study design of national surveys of periodontal disease often uses partial-mouth examination protocols to rationalize the need for resources so that the collection of data from a large number of subjects can be achieved within the available means without significantly sacrificing precision and validity. Studies show that surveys that use partial examination protocols underestimate the prevalence of periodontitis, and the amount of underestimation varies depending on the number and type of sites examined, the case-definition of periodontal disease, tooth loss, and prevalence and severity of the disease. If a survey uses a partial-mouth examination it is recommended that the amount of underestimation be assessed in the same sample. This could be achieved by performing a full-mouth examination on a randomly selected subsample. Inflation factors should be calculated and used to adjust for the underestimation in disease prevalence because of the use of partial examination. Based on the NHANES III (1988 to 1994) data and adjusting for the bias caused by the examination protocol, it is estimated that approximately half of the United States population aged ≥30 years has periodontitis. PMID:21214340

  8. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  9. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  10. Radiography of spontaneous periodontitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Hamp, M; Olsson, S E; Lindberg, R; Schauman, P

    1997-10-01

    The pattern and distribution of periodontitis were investigated in 162 randomly selected dogs available for necropsy in veterinary practice. There were 82 males and 80 females of 50 different breeds (150 dogs were pure-bred and 12 were mongrels, aged between 7 months and 14 yr. Presence of periodontitis was determined by assessment of alveolar bone loss on radiographs of the skulls and jaws. Periodontitis occurred frequently with increasing age, although the prevalence varied markedly among and within different breeds. Of the breeds most represented in the sample, periodontitis was most frequently seen in poodles and dachshunds but was rarely recognized in German shepherd dogs. Regardless of age, the vast majority of the dogs displayed either one or both of two different radiographic patterns of alveolar bone loss. One pattern was characterized by slight, horizontal alveolar bone loss involving interradicular and interdental areas. The other pattern was one of predominantly crater-like, or narrow, vertical bone defects which, when advanced, often extended around a single root or tooth to surround the root apices. The two types of patterns did not seem to be breed-dependent. The posterior maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars were the most frequently affected teeth. Alveolar bone loss was most severe in the maxilla, while corresponding bone loss in the mandible was more often related to increasing age. PMID:9401931

  11. Periodontal restorative interrelationships: the isolated restoration.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1985-06-01

    Only by controlling plaque early and consistently, before periodontal and restorative problems require intervention in the form of a full prosthetic and periodontal reconstruction, the continued maintenance of a full dentition is assured. Plaque control is not merely continued prophylaxes, but a striving for a healthy biologic situation with the placement of every restoration. This is attainable only through ensuring a normal attachment apparatus and establishing that all restorative margins be accessible to plaque control measures. Deep, subgingival restorations are not only difficult to place and finish correctly, but, by providing an environment conducive to microbial plaque retention and proliferation, also lead to inflammatory periodontal destruction and recurrent carious lesions. Early detection, although difficult, is essential to avoid excessive destruction of the tooth and its supporting structures. A deterrent to early detection may be the response of the patient's tissue. Paradoxically, if the patient's periodontal tissues respond in a fibrotic manner to early gingival inflammation, rather than in a dramatic, edematous manner, the situation may appear clinically healthy. Waerhaug discussed "submarginal gingivitis," a situation in which the tissue will appear pink and firm, elicit to exudate or bleeding on probing, and mimic healthy to the casual examiner. When this is coupled with the difficulty inherent in detecting early recurrent carious lesions, resulting from the radiographic superimposition of the existing restoration or the deep subgingival extent of the restoration, the situation becomes all the more demanding of the practitioner's efforts. PMID:3860551

  12. Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lodiene, Greta; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This review article discusses the host response in apical periodontitis with the main focus on cytokines, produced under this pathological condition and contributing to the degradation of periradicular tissues. The pace of research in this field has greatly accelerated in the last decade. Here we provide an analysis of studies published in this area during this period. Material and methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic database. The keywords used for search were pathogenesis of apical periodontitis cytokines, periapical granuloma cytokines, inflammatory infiltrate apical periodontitis. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1999 to December 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the cytokine production, cytokine functions and periapical tissue destruction in the journals and books was performed. Results In total, 97 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in this article include cellular composition of an inflammatory infiltrate in the periapical lesions, mechanisms of the formation of the innate and specific immune response. Studies which investigated cytokine secretion and functions were identified and cellular and molecular interactions in the course of apical periodontitis described. Conclusions The abundance and interactions of various inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules can influence and alter the state and progression of the disease. Therefore, periapical inflammatory response offers a model, suited for the study of many facets of pathogenesis, biocompatibility of different materials to periapical tissues and development of novel treatment methods, based on the regulation of cytokines expression PMID:24421998

  13. Surgical Procedures in Predoctoral Periodontics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radentz, William H.; Caffesse, Raul G.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 58 dental school periodontics departments revealed the frequency of predoctoral dental students performing surgery, the frequency of specific procedures, the degree of participation or performance of students, incidence of preclinical surgical laboratories in the curricula, and materials and anesthesia used. A wide range in…

  14. Current status of tests for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Lamster, I B; Celenti, R S; Jans, H H; Fine, J B; Grbic, J T

    1993-08-01

    The methods applied to the diagnosis of periodontal disease are changing. Historically, static clinical and radiographic parameters have formed the basis of the periodontal evaluation. As the limitations of these traditional procedures became clear, several new techniques have been proposed as diagnostic tests for periodontal disease. These tests are based on improved understanding of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, and can be considered in three categories: assessment of physical changes in the periodontium, the bacterial infection, and the host response to the infection. Several technical questions must be addressed before these tests can be widely utilized. These specific concerns include such matters as the information available from the tests (e.g., Does the test provide a measure of disease severity or identify the site, region, or patient experiencing active disease?), the most appropriate test configurations, the statistical analysis of data from trials examining the accuracy of the tests, and selection of patients who would benefit from these procedures. Last, several important practical issues must be examined before these tests can be expected to gain widespread acceptance. These include familiarization of dental practitioners with the use of diagnostic tests and the medical laboratory, the role of regulatory agencies in determining the claims made by these tests, and the medical/dental insurance benefits provided for these services. PMID:8260006

  15. Links between atherosclerotic and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2016-02-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly prevalent in the modern community. Both pathologies are chronic inflammatory disorders, which are influenced by multiple risk factors. In part, these factors such as age, smoking, and diabetes overlap between PD and CVD. Epidemiological studies suggest that PD is strongly associated with increased CVD risk. Biochemical and physiological analyses involving in vitro experiments, animal models, and clinical studies provided evidence for the substantial impact of periodontal pathogens, their virulence factors, and bacterial endotoxins on all general pathogenic CVD mechanisms such as endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, lipid accumulation, vascular remodeling, and atherothrombosis. Interventional studies showed moderate beneficial effects of PD treatment on reducing systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, no interventional studies were performed to assess whether periodontal therapy can primarily prevent CVD. In summary, current data suggest for a strong contributory role of periodontal infection to CVD but cannot provide sufficient evidence for a role of PD as a cause for cardiovascular pathology. PMID:26777261

  16. HPLC-MS/MS Analyses Show That the Near-Starchless aps1 and pgm Leaves Accumulate Wild Type Levels of ADPglucose: Further Evidence for the Occurrence of Important ADPglucose Biosynthetic Pathway(s) Alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Francisco José; Li, Jun; Almagro, Goizeder; Montero, Manuel; Pujol, Pablo; Galarza, Regina; Kaneko, Kentaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Wada, Kaede; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a) involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM), ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) and starch synthase (SS), and (b) is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI). This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT) and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a) there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b) pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c) the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low. PMID:25133777

  17. An update on periodontal aetiopathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lijian

    2008-06-01

    Periodontal disease is the most commonly occurring yet unusual infection in humans. It is initiated by pathogenic plaque biofilm and characterized by bacteria-induced inflammatory destruction of tooth-supporting structures and alveolar bone. Periodontitis remains the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Currently, periodontal diseases are also recognized as serious infections with profound effects on general health. In recent years, new concepts and discoveries have been made in further understanding of the nature of periodontal disease and its aetiopathogenesis. These can be well reflected in recognition of dental plaque as a biofilm; identification and characterization of periodontopathogens and their virulence factors; recognition of the importance of host-microbe symbiosis in periodontal health; identification of novel innate host defence molecules in periodontal tissues; further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption; appreciation of the crucial role of host susceptibility in periodontal pathogenesis; and identification of risk factors and incorporation of risk assessment in clinical practice. Committed oral health care professionals should therefore keep abreast of these changing concepts in periodontology and updated strategies for appropriate evidence-based practice. These views are fundamentally important for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases and peri-implant infections, as well as for long-term maintenance of periodontal health and implant stability. This paper updates the advances in aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease and highlights the relevant clinical implications and future perspectives. PMID:22073461

  18. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  19. Recurrent idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashwini Sudhakar; Marathe, Swati Pramodan

    2015-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is an enlargement of the gingival tissue, which may be localized or generalized, characterized by hypertrophy and proliferation of the connective tissue, predominantly Type I collagen, with occasional presence of an increased number of cells, supposedly fibroblasts. Gingival fibromatosis occurs more commonly as a side- effect of systemic drugs, such as phenytoin, cyclosporine, nifedipine, or due to hereditary factors. However, in some cases, it is idiopathic. We report one such case in 30 -year- old - female who presented with a complaint of swelling of gums since 2 months. This case appears to be of special interest because of the recurrent nature of gingival enlargement along with excessive osseous destruction. PMID:25810601

  20. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  1. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  2. Periodontal dysbiosis linked to periodontitis is associated with cardiometabolic adaptation to high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Branchereau, Maxime; Reichardt, François; Loubieres, Pascale; Marck, Pauline; Waget, Aurélie; Azalbert, Vincent; Colom, André; Padmanabhan, Roshan; Iacovoni, Jason S; Giry, Anaïs; Tercé, François; Heymes, Christophe; Burcelin, Remy; Serino, Matteo; Blasco-Baque, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes are connected pandemic diseases, and both are risk factors for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, the molecular factors relating these two chronic pathologies are poorly understood. We have shown that, in response to a long-term fat-enriched diet, mice present particular gut microbiota profiles related to three metabolic phenotypes: diabetic-resistant (DR), intermediate (Inter), and diabetic-sensitive (DS). Moreover, many studies suggest that a dysbiosis of periodontal microbiota could be associated with the incidence of metabolic and cardiac diseases. We investigated whether periodontitis together with the periodontal microbiota may also be associated with these different cardiometabolic phenotypes. We report that the severity of glucose intolerance is related to the severity of periodontitis and cardiac disorders. In detail, alveolar bone loss was more accentuated in DS than Inter, DR, and normal chow-fed mice. Molecular markers of periodontal inflammation, such as TNF-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA levels, correlated positively with both alveolar bone loss and glycemic index. Furthermore, the periodontal microbiota of DR mice was dominated by the Streptococcaceae family of the phylum Firmicutes, whereas the periodontal microbiota of DS mice was characterized by increased Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Moreover, in DS mice the periodontal microbiota was indicated by an abundance of the genera Prevotella and Tannerella, which are major periodontal pathogens. PICRUSt analysis of the periodontal microbiome highlighted that prenyltransferase pathways follow the cardiometabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet. Finally, DS mice displayed a worse cardiac phenotype, percentage of fractional shortening, heart rhythm, and left ventricle weight-to-tibia length ratio than Inter and DR mice. Together, our data show that periodontitis combined with particular periodontal microbiota and microbiome is

  3. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  4. Estimation of nitric oxide as an inflammatory marker in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Menaka, K. B.; Ramesh, Amitha; Thomas, Biju; Kumari, N. Suchetha

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is not only important in host defense and homeostasis but it is also regarded as harmful and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The presence of NO in periodontal disease may reflect the participation of an additional mediator of bone resorption responsible for disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the level of NO in serum in chronic periodontitis, and correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Sixty subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups. NO levels were assayed by measuring the accumulation of stable oxidative metabolite, nitrite with Griess reaction. Results showed subjects with periodontitis had significantly high nitrite in serum than healthy subjects. NO production is increased in periodontal disease, this will enable us to understand its role in disease progression and selective inhibition of NO may be of therapeutic utility in limiting the progression of periodontitis. PMID:20407654

  5. Periodontal diseases: current and future indications for local antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Tatakis, D N

    2003-01-01

    The microbial etiology of gingivitis and periodontitis provides the rationale for use of adjunctive antimicrobial agents in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. Although mechanical removal of supra- and subgingival calcified and non-calcified plaque deposits has been proved effective to control the gingival inflammatory lesions as well as to halt the progression of periodontal attachment loss, some patients may experience additional benefits from the use of systemic or topical antimicrobial agents. Such agents are able to significantly affect supra- and subgingival plaque accumulation and/or suppress or eradicate periodontal pathogenic microflora. Currently, properly selected local antiseptic and systemic antibiotic therapies can provide periodontal treatment that is generally effective, low-risk and affordable. This paper will briefly review the host-related conditions in which the periodontal preventive and therapeutic approaches may be effectively assisted by a local antimicrobial regimen. Potential future indications for adjunctive local antimicrobial therapy will also be discussed. PMID:12974525

  6. Periodontal Management of a Patient Undergoing Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Clozza, Emanuele; Segelnick, Stuart L; Sigal, Samuel H; Rovner, Deborah N; Weinberg, Mea A

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the periodontal management of a patient with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the first part of this article, all medical and dental findings are reported to elaborate adequate diagnoses. A patient-specific treatment plan was structured given the challenging periodontal and systemic scenarios. The second part describes the periodontal therapy delivered in close interaction with the referring physicians. Last, the article reviews current principles and protocols in managing these patients. PMID:26901304

  7. The effect of nutrition on periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Varun; Bhatavadekar, Neel B; Uttamani, Juhi Raju

    2014-05-01

    The link between nutrients and periodontal disease has not been clearly established. A PubMed and Cochrane database literature search was conducted. The published research reveals only a possible relationship between vitamins and minerals and periodontal disease. Vitamin E, zinc, lycopene and vitamin B complex may have useful adjunct benefits. However, there is inadequate evidence to link the nutritional status of the host to periodontal inflammation. More randomized controlled trials are needed to explore this association. PMID:25087348

  8. Validation of self-reported periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P

    2005-10-01

    Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease. PMID:16183785

  9. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Diseases: An Update for the Clinician.

    PubMed

    John, Vanchit; Alqallaf, Hawra; De Bedout, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    A link between periodontal disease and various systemic diseases has been investigated for several years. Interest in unearthing such a link has grown as the health care profession is looking for a better understanding of disease processes and their relationships to periodontal and other oral diseases. The article aims to provide recent information on the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as; cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities. PMID:26939411

  10. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799

  11. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets. PMID:23574473

  12. Dissemination of Periodontal Pathogens in the Bloodstream after Periodontal Procedures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Chambrone, Leandro; Foz, Adriana Moura; Artese, Hilana Paula Carillo; Rabelo, Mariana de Sousa; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, there is no compilation of evidence-based information associating bacteremia and periodontal procedures. This systematic review aims to assess magnitude, duration, prevalence and nature of bacteremia caused by periodontal procedures. Study Design Systematic Review Types of Studies Reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases were searched in duplicate through August, 2013 without language restriction. Observational studies were included if blood samples were collected before, during or after periodontal procedures of patients with periodontitis. The methodological quality was assessed in duplicate using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Results Search strategy identified 509 potentially eligible articles and nine were included. Only four studies demonstrated high methodological quality, whereas five were of medium or low methodological quality. The study characteristics were considered too heterogeneous to conduct a meta-analysis. Among 219 analyzed patients, 106 (49.4%) had positive bacteremia. More frequent bacteria were S. viridans, A. actinomycetemcomitans P. gingivalis, M. micros and species Streptococcus and Actinomyces, although identification methods of microbiologic assays were different among studies. Clinical Implications Although half of the patients presented positive bacteremia after periodontal procedures, accurate results regarding the magnitude, duration and nature of bacteremia could not be confidentially assessed. PMID:24870125

  13. Periodontal treatment in a generalized severe chronic periodontitis patient: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Agrali, Omer Birkan; Kuru, Bahar Eren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the periodontal treatment is to provide healthy and functional dentition all through a lifetime. In this report, periodontal treatment of a 42-year-old male patient with generalized severe chronic periodontitis is presented. He received initial periodontal treatment together with adjunctive antimicrobials. The devital teeth were endodontically treated, and free gingival grafts were placed at the inadequate keratinized tissue zones before regenerative surgery. Following the surgical treatment using enamel matrix derivatives and xenogenic bone graft combination, the patient was put on a strict recall program. After 12 months, favorable clinical and radiographical improvements were obtained. The 7-year maintenance of the present case with several initially hopeless teeth has been shown and discussed in this report. It can be concluded that optimum oral hygiene level as well as the positive cooperation of the patient enhanced the success of periodontal treatment results even in extremely severe periodontal destruction. PMID:26038666

  14. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  15. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project. PMID:17610396

  16. Clinical and postextraction evaluation of periodontal disease indicators

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Rajashri; Kolte, Abhay; Wattamwar, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical attachment level is the most frequently used and acceptable parameter in monitoring periodontal status in diseased individual and denotes patterns of periodontal destruction. Awareness of root morphology and the condition of the periodontal tissues is essential for reliable periodontal pocket probing and for effective debridement of root surfaces. Clinically, it is challenging to observe exact nature of complex periodontal attachment loss. The aim of the present study was to evaluate patterns of periodontal destruction based on vertical and horizontal attachment loss. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 extracted teeth were obtained from chronic periodontitis patients. Prior to extraction, clinical measurements were recorded and after extraction, the teeth were stained with crystal violet. Root length, vertical and horizontal attachment loss were measured using digital caliper. Results: There was a significant difference between clinical attachment level and vertical attachment loss for both maxillary and mandibular teeth. Mean vertical attachment loss varied between 5.17 mm and 9.17 mm. Interproximal surfaces exhibited statistically significant vertical attachment loss in both maxillary and mandibular dentition. Results indicated that vertical attachment loss was more severe with teeth belonging to the anterior sextant whereas the horizontal attachment loss was more pronounced with posterior teeth. Conclusion: Both vertical and horizontal attachment loss were observed in all periodontally involved teeth. There was a difference in clinical measurements and actual periodontal status denoted by postextraction staining. These findings have an impact on determining the prognosis and appropriate treatment plan for patients. PMID:27143828

  17. Periodontitis and carotid atheroma: is there a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Tzorbatzoglou, I D; Sfyroeras, G S; Giannoukas, A D

    2010-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in the population. Several studies implicated that chronic periodontitis may affect the arterial wall inducing subclinical atherosclerosis by triggering a systemic inflammatory response. Three theories have been put forward to explain potential mechanisms involved: the theory of bacterial invasion, the cytokine theory and the autoimmunization theory. Periodontal inflammation could have a role in the initiation and progression of arterial diseases such as coronary artery disease and carotid atherosclerosis. Further clinical studies are required to investigate if there is a causal relationship of chronic periodontitis with echolucent unstable carotid plaques. PMID:20224528

  18. Periodontal Disease and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mobeen, N; Jehan, I; Banjay, N; Moore, J; McClure, EM; Pasha, O; Wright, LL; Goldenberg, RL

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Periodontal disease may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes; however, results have been mixed. Few studies have examined periodontal disease in developing countries. We describe the relationship between periodontal disease and birth outcomes in a community setting in Pakistan. METHODS Enrollment occurred at 20–26 wks. A study dentist performed the periodontal examination to assess probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingivitis index (GI) and plaque index (PI). Outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal mortality, <32 wk preterm birth (PTB), 32–36 wk PTB, and low birthweight (LBW), and are presented for increasing periodontal disease severity by quartiles (Q1-4). RESULTS Dental examinations and outcome data were completed for 1152 women. 81% were multiparous with a mean age of 27 yrs. 33% had no education. Dental caries were present in 47%, missing teeth in 27%, and 92% had no dental care in the last year. Periodontal disease was common: 87% had ≥ 4 teeth with a PD of >3mm, 54% had ≥4 teeth with a PI = 3, and 58% had ≥ 4 teeth with a GI = 3. In general, as the measure of periodontal disease increased, stillbirth, PTB <32 wks and neonatal mortality also increased. Late PTB and LBW were not related to measures of periodontal disease. Adjustment for demographic characteristics did not significantly change the relationships. CONCLUSION Pregnant Pakistani women have high levels of moderate to severe dental disease. Both stillbirth and neonatal mortality increased with the severity of periodontal disease. PMID:18455527

  19. Defining functional signatures of dysbiosis in periodontitis progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease that leads to tooth loss and has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The periodontal microbiome is highly diverse, and metatranscriptomic studies have indicated that the genes that are expressed by the microbiota are more relevant than the microbial composition in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A recent study of early metabolic activities in the dysbiotic microbiome reveals a functional signature that distinguishes periodontal sites that will become inflamed, supporting the idea that microbial communities as a whole drive disease progression. PMID:25926890

  20. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Jia, Ru; Cai, Yu; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis. PMID:26783845

  1. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Dom, Tuti Ningseh; Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  2. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota Following Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Laksmana, Theresia; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Huang, Yanyan; Chen, Weizhen; Jorgensen, Michael; Bumgarner, Roger; Chen, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a high throughput metagenomic approach to analyze the pre- and posttreatment of subgingival plaque in two subjects with aggressive periodontitis. DNA was extracted from subgingival samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the c2-c4 regions of the 16S rDNA using primers with bar codes to identify individual samples. The PCR products were pooled and sequenced for the v4 region of the 16S rDNA using the 454 FLX standard platform. The results were analyzed for species/phylotypes in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) and Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. The sequencing of the amplicons resulted in 24,673 reads and identified 208 species/phylotypes. Of those, 129 species/phylotypes were identified in both patients but their proportions varied. While >120 species/phylotypes were identified in all samples, 28-42 species/phylotypes cumulatively represent 90% of all subgingival bacteria in each sample. The remaining species/phylotypes each constituted ≤0.2% of the total subgingival bacteria. In conclusion, the subgingival microbiota are characterized by high species richness dominated by a few species/ phylotypes. The microbiota changed after periodontal therapy. High throughput metagenomic analysis is applicable to assess the complexity and changes of the subgingival microbiota. PMID:23341849

  4. Differential Measurement Periodontal Structures Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.

  5. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound offers great potential in development of a noninvasive periodontal assessment tool that would offer great yield real time information, regarding clinical features such as pocket depth, attachment level, tissue thickness, histological change, calculus, bone morphology, as well as evaluation of tooth structure for fracture cracks. In therapeutics, ultrasonic instrumentation is proven effective and efficient in treating periodontal disease. When used properly, ultrasound-based instrument is kind to the soft tissues, require less healing time, and are less tiring for the operator. Microultrasonic instruments have been developed with the aim of improving root-surface debridement. The dye/paper method of mapping ultrasound fields demonstrated cavitational activity in an ultrasonic cleaning bath. Piezosurgery resulted in more favorable osseous repair and remodeling in comparison with carbide and diamond burs. The effect of ultrasound is not limited to fracture healing, but that bone healing after osteotomy or osteodistraction could be stimulated as well. PMID:20142946

  6. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  7. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  8. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  9. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  10. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  11. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  12. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  13. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  14. Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606

  15. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Ekuni, Daisuke; Kawabata, Yuya; Kataoka, Kota; Kasuyama, Kenta; Maruyama, Takayuki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. A reduction of oxidative stress by drinking hydrogen-rich water (HW) might be beneficial to periodontal health. In this pilot study, we compared the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without drinking HW on periodontitis. Thirteen patients (3 women, 10 men) with periodontitis were divided into two groups: The control group (n = 6) or the HW group (n = 7). In the HW group, participants consumed HW 4–5 times/day for eight weeks. At two to four weeks, all participants received non-surgical periodontal treatment. Oral examinations were performed at baseline, two, four and eight weeks, and serum was obtained at these time points to evaluate oxidative stress. At baseline, there were no significant differences in periodontal status between the control and HW groups. The HW group showed greater improvements in probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level than the control group at two, four and eight weeks (p < 0.05). The HW group also exhibited an increased serum level of total antioxidant capacity at four weeks, compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Drinking HW enhanced the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment, thus improving periodontitis. PMID:26783840

  16. Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures Associated with Recurrence of Periodontitis in Periodontal Maintenance Therapy: 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Lages, Eugênio José Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Prospective studies that investigated the influence of surgical and nonsurgical procedures in the recurrence of periodontitis and tooth loss in periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) programs have not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the recurrence of periodontitis in regular compliers (RC) and irregular compliers (IC) individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures over 5 years in a program of PMT. Materials and Methods A total of 212 individuals participated in this study. Full-mouth periodontal examination including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were determined at all PMT visits over 5 years. The recurrence of periodontitis was evaluated in RC and IC individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures in PMT. The influences of risk variables of interest were tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Recurrence of periodontitis was significantly lower among RC when compared to IC. Individuals with recurrence of periodontitis and undergoing surgical procedures showed higher probing depth and clinical attachment loss than those who received non-surgical procedures. Recurrence of periodontitis was higher in individual undergoing surgical procedures and irregular compliance during PMT. Conclusions Irregular compliance and surgical procedures in individuals undergoing PMT presented higher rates of recurrence of periodontitis when compared to regular compliant patients undergoing non-surgical procedures. PMID:26496187

  17. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  18. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  19. Application of transtheoretical model to assess the compliance of chronic periodontitis patients to periodontal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Shilpa; Thomas, Raison; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present cross-sectional survey study was conducted to assess whether the transtheoretical model for oral hygiene behavior was interrelated in theoretically consistent directions in chronic periodontitis patients and its applicability to assess the compliance of the chronic periodontitis patients to the treatment suggested. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the proposed study. The selected patients were given four questionnaires that were constructed based on transtheoretical model (TTM), and the patients were divided subsequently into five different groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance groups) based on their answers to the questionnaires. Then, each patient was given four appointments for their periodontal treatment spaced with a time gap of 10 days. The patients visit for each appointments scheduled to them was documented. The results obtained were assessed using TTM. Results: Higher mean pro scores of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and process of change scores was recorded in maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group, respectively, whereas higher mean cons score was recorded in precontemplation group followed by contemplation group, preparation group, action group, and maintenance group, respectively. The difference scores of TTM constructs were statistically highly significant between all the five groups. Furthermore, the number of appointment attended in were significantly more than maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that transtheoretical model can be successfully applied to chronic periodontitis patients to assess their compliance to the suggested periodontal treatment. PMID:27307663

  20. Periodontal files--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Clark, S M; Baradaran, S; Adams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Periodontal files are used by many dentists for instrumentation of root surfaces as a part of periodontal treatment. The purposes of this study were: 1) to examine, evaluate, and compare several periodontal files in 3 different conditions: new, used, and used/sharpened and 2) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 sharpening devices. The main characteristics observed included: the number, shape, and interval of blades; the active, rake, and lip angles; changes induced by wear; the influence of sharpening; and the type of metal surfaces comprising the blades. There was a wide range of active angles on each individual file, from a high of 75 degrees to a low of 51 degrees. The range of active angles for all blades on all new files was even greater, from a high of 87 degrees to a low of 30 degrees. Wear, observed on some but not all blades, was not extensive and appeared either as abrasion or, occasionally, as fracture of the blade edge. Sharpness scores (5 = sharpest and 1 = dullest) for new file blades were also extremely variable and spanned the full range of values, with a majority of blades scoring 3.5 and below. Attempts to sharpen files with several devices produced inconsistent results. All 5 sharpening devices had significant shortcomings. It was concluded that the extreme ranges both in active angles and in sharpness scores probably have a significant influence on effectiveness of root instrumentation. PMID:8683416

  1. Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968

  2. Bonebiomarkers in Periodontal Disease: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Ram, V. Shankar; Parthiban; Sudhakar, Uma; Mithradas, Nimisha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis, is an inflammatory state of the tooth supporting structures and if left untreated, the disease continues to progressive bone destruction and subsequent tooth loss. The increasing prevelance of periodontal disease paved way to the development of new diagnostic tests that could detect the presence of active disease,the course of the disease and its response to treatment. Bone is a metabolically active tissue and undergo continuous remodelling, a process that largely relies on the activity of osteoclasts to remove bone and of osteoblasts to form bone. In health ,bone resorption and formation are coupled to each other and its long term maintenance of skeletal balance is brought about by the systemic hormones and local mediators.In contrasts,during disease there is a pronounced in balance in bone turnover. Bone biomarkers which are produced either in health or in disease state are tell tale markers which would be used to monitor the health status. This review highlights, the recent advances in the use of biomarkers of bone remodelling,that could facilitate the screening, diagnosis and management of periodontal diseases. PMID:25738099

  3. Proresolving Nanomedicines Activate Bone Regeneration in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hasturk, H.; Kantarci, A.; Freire, M.O.; Nguyen, D.; Dalli, J.; Serhan, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Therapies to reverse tissue damage from osteolytic inflammatory diseases are limited by the inability of current tissue-engineering procedures to restore lost hard and soft tissues. There is a critical need for new therapeutics in regeneration. In addition to scaffolds, cells, and soluble mediators necessary for tissue engineering, control of endogenous inflammation is an absolute requirement for success. Although significant progress has been made in understanding natural resolution of inflammation pathways to limit uncontrolled inflammation in disease, harnessing the biomimetic properties of proresolving lipid mediators has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the use of nano-proresolving medicines (NPRM) containing a novel lipoxin analog (benzo-lipoxin A4, bLXA4) to promote regeneration of hard and soft tissues irreversibly lost to periodontitis in the Hanford miniature pig. In this proof-of-principle experiment, NPRM-bLXA4 dramatically reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate into chronic periodontal disease sites treated surgically and dramatically increased new bone formation and regeneration of the periodontal organ. These findings indicate that NPRM-bLXA4 is a mimetic of endogenous resolving mechanisms with potent bioactions that offers a new therapeutic tissue-engineering approach for the treatment of chronic osteolytic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25389003

  4. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated. PMID:25857854

  5. Management of a Periodontal Pocket Using a Removable Orthodontic Appliance and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Köseoğlu, Serhat; Fidancıoğlu, Ahmet; Sağlam, Mehmet; Savran, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used successfully in treatment of bony defects caused by mesially tilted molars. PMID:26421197

  6. Prospective associations between measures of adiposity and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Monik; Hu, Frank B; Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2012-08-01

    Obesity induced inflammation may promote periodontal tissue destruction and bone resorption inducing tooth loss. We examined the association between measures of adiposity and self-reported periodontal disease, using data from 36,910 healthy male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who were free of periodontal disease at baseline and followed for ≤20 years (1986-2006). Self-reported height, weight, and periodontal disease data were collected at baseline, weight and periodontal disease were additionally collected on biennial follow-up questionnaires and waist and hip circumference were self-reported in 1987. These self-reported measures have been previously validated. The multivariable adjusted associations between BMI (kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and first report of periodontal disease diagnosis were evaluated using time-varying Cox models. We observed 2,979 new periodontal disease diagnoses during 596,561 person-years of follow-up. Significant associations and trends were observed between all measures of adiposity and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, smoking, race, dental profession, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and diabetes status at baseline. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with greater risk of periodontal disease (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.45). Elevated WC and WHR were significantly associated with a greater risk of periodontal disease (HR for extreme quintiles: WC = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.11-1.46; WHR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.17-1.54). The associations of BMI and WC were significant even among nondiabetics and never smokers. Given the high prevalence of overweight, obesity, and periodontal disease this association may be of substantial public health importance. PMID:21979390

  7. Smoking as a Permissive Factor of Periodontal Disease in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Mattheos, Nikos; Gyulai, Rolland; Nagy, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Background Population-based studies have identified smoking as a pathogenetic factor in chronic periodontitis. At the same time, chronic periodontal disease has also been found to occur more often in persons suffering from psoriasis than in controls with no psoriasis. It is known that smoking aggravates both periodontal disease and psoriasis, but so far it has not been investigated how smoking influences the occurrence and severity of periodontal disease in psoriasis. Methods A hospital-based study was conducted to investigate this question. The study population consisted of 82 psoriasis patients and 89 controls. All patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination, and a published classification based on bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level and probing depth was utilized for staging. Both patients and controls were divided into smoker and non-smoker groups, and the resulting groups were compared in terms of periodontal status. Beyond the descriptive statistics, odds ratios were computed. Results Psoriasis in itself increased the likelihood of severe periodontal disease to 4.373 (OR, as compared to non-smoker controls, p<0.05), while smoking increased it to 24.278 (OR, as compared to non-smoker controls, p<0.001) in the studied population. In other words, the risk of severe periodontal disease in psoriasis turned out to be six times higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Conclusions The results of this study corroborate those of other studies regarding the link between psoriasis and periodontal disease, but they also seem to reveal a powerful detrimental effect of smoking on the periodontal health of psoriasis patients, whereby the authors propose that smoking may have a permissive effect on the development of severe periodontal disease in psoriasis. PMID:24651659

  8. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  9. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  10. Investigating Three Explanations of Women's Relationship Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated explanations of women's partner aggression in a sample of 358 women. Women completed measures of physical aggression, control, and fear. Three explanations of women's partner aggression were explored: (a) that its use is associated with fear, (b) that it is reciprocal, and (c) that it is coercive. Each explanation received…

  11. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  12. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  13. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  14. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  15. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  16. Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

  17. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  18. Effects of Aggressive vs. Nonaggressive Films on the Aggressive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Charles

    Examined was the effect of viewing an aggressive film on the behavior of 22 moderately and mildly mentally retarded children (5-11 years old). Ss' doll playing was observed after they viewed a nonaggressive and an aggressive film. Results supported the hypothesis that Ss would exhibit more aggressive behavior following the aggressive than the…

  19. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  20. [Relationship diabetes mellitus-periodontal disease: etiology and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Foia, Liliana; Toma, Vasilica; Ungureanu, Didona; Aanei, Carmen; Costuleanu, M

    2007-01-01

    The interrelation between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease has been intensively studied for more than 50 years, a real bidirectional influence existing between patient's glycemic level disorder and periodontal territories alteration. Several studies developed in this direction emerged to the evidences that reveal a general increase of prevalence, extent and severity of gingivitis and periodontitis. Inflammation plays an important role in this interrelation, orchestrating both the periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus pathogeny and complications. Conversely, periodontal disease--infectious disease characterized by a significant inflammatory component--can seriously impair metabolic control of some diabetic patient. Moreover, treatment of periodontal disease and reduction of oral signs of inflammation may have a beneficial result on the diabetic condition (1). Less clear are the mechanisms governing this interrelation (even the literature is abundant in this direction), and, very probably, periodontal diseases serve as initiators of insulin resistance (in a way similar to obesity), thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is so imposed in order to clarify this aspect of the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease. PMID:18293711

  1. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  2. Periodontal Disease Is an Independent Predictor of Intracardiac Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Gregg S.; Qasim, Atif; Verma, Nitin; Arishiro, Kumiko; Notohara, Yasuhiro; Crudu, Vitalie; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan) involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Results. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77%) had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2). In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P = 0.001) was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P = 0.024). There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. Conclusions. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification. PMID:24106721

  3. Global oral health inequalities: task group--periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration. PMID:21490234

  4. Decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets with recellularization potential.

    PubMed

    Farag, A; Vaquette, C; Theodoropoulos, C; Hamlet, S M; Hutmacher, D W; Ivanovski, S

    2014-12-01

    The periodontal ligament is the key tissue facilitating periodontal regeneration. This study aimed to fabricate decellularized human periodontal ligament cell sheets for subsequent periodontal tissue engineering applications. The decellularization protocol involved the transfer of intact human periodontal ligament cell sheets onto melt electrospun polycaprolactone membranes and subsequent bi-directional perfusion with NH4OH/Triton X-100 and DNase solutions. The protocol was shown to remove 92% of DNA content. The structural integrity of the decellularized cell sheets was confirmed by a collagen quantification assay, immunostaining of human collagen type I and fibronectin, and scanning electron microscopy. ELISA was used to demonstrate the presence of residual basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the decellularized cell sheet constructs. The decellularized cell sheets were shown to have the ability to support recellularization by allogenic human periodontal ligament cells. This study describes the fabrication of decellularized periodontal ligament cell sheets that retain an intact extracellular matrix and resident growth factors and can support repopulation by allogenic cells. The decellularized hPDL cell sheet concept has the potential to be utilized in future "off-the-shelf" periodontal tissue engineering strategies. PMID:25270757

  5. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  6. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. PMID:25904141

  7. [Pathogenetic mechanisms in the treatment of periodontitis using xenogeneic peritoneum].

    PubMed

    Borovskiĭ, E V; Volozhin, A I; Lavrova, V S; Seksenova, L Sh

    1990-01-01

    Water-free cattle parietal peritoneum was used in surgical treatment of 62 patients with severe periodontitis. Use of xenoperitoneum in multiple-modality treatment of periodontitis was conducive to bone tissue regeneration in bone pockets, to a more rapid recovery of gingival temperature round incisors and molars. PMID:2389266

  8. Upregulation of Gingival Tissue miR-200b in Obese Periodontitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kalea, A.Z.; Hoteit, R.; Suvan, J.; Lovering, R.C.; Palmen, J.; Cooper, J.A.; Khodiyar, V.K.; Harrington, Z.; Humphries, S.E.; D’Aiuto, F.

    2015-01-01

    Increased local immune and inflammatory responses in obese individuals with periodontitis may explain the aggressive clinical presentation and altered treatment response when compared to that of normal weight subjects. Our goal was to identify any differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of gingival tissue in periodontitis when obesity is present, which may suggest novel molecular pathways that this miRNA network may affect. Total RNA was extracted from gingival tissue biopsies collected from normal weight and obese individuals with periodontitis; miRNA expression profiling was performed with Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 arrays; and results were validated with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In silico identification of previously confirmed miRNA gene targets was conducted through miRTarBase and miRWalk databases, and pathway enrichment analysis identified enriched miRNA gene sets. Expression of selected genes in the same biopsy samples was tested with qRT-PCR. The gingival tissue miRNA profile of obese patients, compared to that of normal weight patients, showed 13 upregulated and 22 downregulated miRNAs, among which miR-200b was validated by qRT-PCR to be significantly increased in obesity. Functional analysis of 51 experimentally validated miR-200b gene targets identified enrichment of genes involved in cell motility, differentiation, DNA binding, response to stimulus, and vasculature development pathways not previously identified in the obesity-specific disease profile. Furthermore, the expression of the miR-200b gene targets ZEB1/2, GATA2, and KDR was confirmed by qRT-PCR as being lower in obese patients with periodontitis versus normal weight patients, suggesting a role of miR-200b in regulation of a set of gene targets and biological pathways relevant to wound healing and angiogenesis. Functional studies to explore the role of miR-200b in the above processes may offer new insights on putative therapeutic

  9. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  10. Guiding periodontal pocket recolonization: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Teughels, W; Newman, M G; Coucke, W; Haffajee, A D; Van Der Mei, H C; Haake, S Kinder; Schepers, E; Cassiman, J-J; Van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    2007-11-01

    The complexity of the periodontal microbiota resembles that of the gastro-intestinal tract, where infectious diseases are treatable via probiotics. In the oropharyngeal region, probiotic or replacement therapies have shown some benefit in the prevention of dental caries, otitis media, and pharyngitis, but their effectiveness in the treatment of periodontitis is unknown. Therefore, this study addressed the hypothesis that the application of selected beneficial bacteria, as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, would inhibit the periodontopathogen recolonization of periodontal pockets. Analysis of the data showed, in a beagle dog model, that when beneficial bacteria were applied in periodontal pockets adjunctively after root planing, subgingival recolonization of periodontopathogens was delayed and reduced, as was the degree of inflammation, at a clinically significant level. The study confirmed the hypothesis and provides a proof of concept for a guided pocket recolonization (GPR) approach in the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:17959900

  11. Utility of Periodontal exploration in patients with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Santos-García, Rocío; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Cordero, Mario D.; Rios-Santos, José V.; Jaramillo-Santos, María R.; Climent, Mariano H.

    2012-01-01

    Objetive: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology, which affects predominantly women. Mitochondrial alteration could have a role in the pathophysilogical mechanisms of inflammatory conditions as FM and periodontitis. The aim of the present study was assay the relationship between both diseases and mitochondrial dysfunction. Patient and Methods: We study the presence of periodontitis in twelve patients diagnosed of FM and mitochondrial dysfunction described. The diagnosis of FM was established according to ACR criteria and clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: Only one patients of twelve included and agreed to participate in the study were diagnosed with periodontitis. Conclusions: Pending studies with larger numbers of patients, we can conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction in FM is a itself event not related with periodontitis. Periodontitis could be considered a exclusion criterion in all studies about mitochondrial dysfunction in patients. Key words:Peridontitis, fibromyalgia, mitocondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress. PMID:24558523

  12. Laser phototherapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. A review.

    PubMed

    de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Simões, Alyne; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Tunér, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Many studies in the literature address the effect of low-power lasers in the management of pathologies related to periodontal tissues. Due to the lack of standardized information and the absence of a consensus, this review presents the current status of laser phototherapy (LPT) in periodontics and discusses its benefits and limits in the treatment of periodontal disease. The literature was searched for reviews and original research articles relating to LPT and periodontal disease. The articles were selected using either electronic search engines or manual tracing of the references cited in key papers. The literature search retrieved references on wound and bone healing, analgesia, hypersensitivity, inflammatory process and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Each topic is individually addressed in this review. The current literature suggests that LPT is effective in modulating different periodontal disease aspects in vitro, in animals, and in simple clinical models. Further development of this therapy is now dependent on new clinical trials with more complex study designs. PMID:20640471

  13. [Oxidative stress and antioxitant therapy of chronic periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Y X; Guo, S J; Wu, Y F

    2016-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a progressive, infectious inflammation disease, caused by the dysbiosis of oral resident flora, leading to the destruction of periodontium. The onset of pathogenic microorganisms is the etiological factor of periodontitis, while the immuno-inflammatory response affects the progression of the disease. Under chronic periodontitis, oxidative stress occurs when excessive reactive oxygen species are produced and exceed the compensative capacity of the organism. Oxidative stress leads to the destruction of periodontium, in a direct way(damaging the biomolecule) or an indirect way(enhancing the produce of inflammatory cytokine and destructive enzymes). Therefore, as the antagonist of the reactive oxygen species, antioxidants may be helpful to treat the chronic periodontitis. This paper reviewed relevant literatures about the destructive role of excessive reactive oxygen species and protective role of antioxidants in chronic periodontitis. PMID:27480437

  14. Diagnostic Applications of Cone-Beam CT for Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the diagnostic application of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the field of periodontology. Data. Original articles that reported on the use of CBCT for periodontal disease diagnosis were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1990 to January 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “CBCT,” “volumetric CT,” “periodontal disease ,” and “periodontitis.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. Bony defects, caters, and furcation involvements seem to be better depicted on CBCT, whereas bone quality and periodontal ligament space scored better on conventional intraoral radiography. CBCT does not offer a significant advantage over conventional radiography for assessing the periodontal bone levels. PMID:24803932

  15. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  16. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  17. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  18. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  19. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba Gingivalis in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Maybodi, Fahimeh; Haerian Ardakani, Ahmad; Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Haerian Ardakani, Alireza; Zafarbakhsh, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis are commensal protozoa which inhabit the human oral cavity. These parasites are found in patients with poor oral hygiene and might be a reason for progressive periodontal diseases. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the frequency of these protozoa in saliva and plaque samples. Materials and Method In this clinical trial, samples of saliva and dental plaque were collected from 46 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy. The samples were assessed for the frequency of parasites. Results The frequency of Entamoeba gingivalis was reduced in saliva (p= 0.007) and plaque (p= 0.027) three weeks after the treatment. Likewise, the frequency of Trichomonas tenax reduced in saliva (p= 0.030); however, the decrease was not significant in plaque (p= 0.913). Trichomonas tenax frequency in dental plaque directly related to the severity of periodontitis (r= 0.565, p≤ 0.000). In contrast, the number of Entamoeba gingivalis in both saliva (r= -0.405, p≤ 0.005) and plaque (r= -0.304, p= 0.040) was inversely related with the severity of the periodontal disease. Conclusion Nonsurgical periodontal treatment could reduce the number of Trichomonas Tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis in the oral environment of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602391

  20. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  1. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

  2. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  3. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  4. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Heravi, Farzin; Radvar, Mehrdad; Anbiaee, Najmeh; Madani, Azam Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the introduction of skeletal anchorage system, recently it is possible to successfully intrude molar teeth. On the other hand, there have been concerns about periodontal changes associated with intrusion and there are few studies on this topic, especially for posterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Ten female patients were enrolled in this study. Maxillary molar intrusion was achieved by inserting two miniscrews and a 17 × 25 titanium molybdenum alloy spring. Crestal height changes were evaluated at three intervals including: Baseline (T0), end of active treatment (T1) and 6 months after retention (T2). Other variables including probing depth, gingival recession, attachment level and bleeding on probing were evaluated by clinical measurements in the three above mentioned intervals. One-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov test ascertained the normality of the data. For all patients, the changes in tooth position and crestal height were evaluated using one-sample t-test. (P < 0.05) Results: Supra-erupted molars were successfully intruded a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 mm during active treatment (T0-T1). A mean bone resorption of 0.9 ± 0.9 mm in mesial crest and 1 ± 0.8 mm in distal crest had occurred in total treatment (T0-T2). A mean of 0.6 ± 1.4 mm bone was deposited on mesial crest during the retention period (T1-T2) following tooth relapse. On average, 0.8 ± 0.4 mm attachment gain was obtained. Gingival margin coronalized a mean of 0.8 ± 0.6 mm throughout the entire treatment. Probing depth showed no significant change during treatment. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height. PMID:26288629

  5. Higher prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in deeper periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ayako; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis, a complex chronic inflammatory disease caused by subgingival infection, is among the most prevalent microbial diseases in humans. Although traditional microbiological research on periodontitis has focused on putative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, the herpes virus is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis because bacterial etiology alone does not adequately explain various clinical aspects. In this study, we established for the first time, more Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is found deeper in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients. Subgingival samples were collected from 85 patients with chronic periodontitis having two periodontal sites with probing depths (PD) of ≤ 3 mm (shallow) or ≥ 5 mm (deep) and were subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was more frequently detected in patients with deeper PD sites (66%) than in those with shallow PD sites (48%) or healthy controls (45%). Coexistence of EBV DNA and P. gingivalis was significantly higher in patients with deeper PD sites (40%) than in those with shallow PD sites (14%) or healthy controls (13%). Although no difference in clinical index for periodontitis, the odds ratio of EBV DNA in patients with deeper PD sites was 2.36, which was 2.07-fold higher than that in those with shallow PD sites. Interestingly, the odds of acquiring chronic periodontitis (PD ≥ 5 mm) were higher in the presence of both EBV DNA and P. gingivalis compared with either EBV DNA or P. gingivalis only. In addition, we also observed that EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) in positive cells of human gingival tissues. These results would suggest that EBV DNA may serve as a pathogenic factor leading to chronic periodontitis among Japanese patients. PMID:23991022

  6. Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijayetha P.; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. Aim To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Results There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). The decrease in TAC, Vitamin C and SOD levels among CP with DM patients as compared to controls was highly significant (p<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the probing pocket depth and MDA levels among periodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). Conclusion There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:27190790

  7. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  8. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  9. Photodynamic dosimetry in the treatment of periodontitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Roger C.; Loebel, Nicolas G.; Andersen, Dane M.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to effectively kill human periopathogens in vitro. However, the translation of in vitro work to in vivo clinical efficacy has been difficult due to the number of variables present in any given patient. Parameters such as photosensitizer concentration, duration of light therapy and amount of light delivered to the target tissue all play a role in the dose response of PDT in vivo. In this 121 patient study we kept all parameters the same except for light dose which was delivered at either 150 mW or 220 mW. This clearly demonstrated the clinical benefits of a higher light dose in the treatment of periodontitis.

  10. OCT for diagnosis of periodontal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B.W., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a hand-held in vivo scanning device for use in the oral cavity. We produced, using this scanning device, in vivo OCT images of dental tissues in human volunteers. All the OCT images were analyzed for the presence of clinically relevant anatomical structures. The gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction were visible in all the images. The cemento-enamel junction was discernible in 64% of the images and the alveolar bone presumptively identified for 71% of the images. These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in vivo OCT images of human dental tissue.

  11. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. PMID:26916604

  12. Association of periodontal status with liver abnormalities and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aisyah; Furuta, Michiko; Shinagawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takeshita, Toru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between periodontal status and liver abnormalities has been reported, it has not been described in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which often coexists with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We examined the association of a combination of liver abnormality and MetS with periodontal condition in Japanese adults, based on the level of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 4,207 males aged 45.4 ± 8.9 years and 1,270 females aged 45.9 ± 9.7 years had annual workplace health check-ups at a company in Japan. Periodontal status was represented as periodontal pocket depth at the mesio-buccal and mid-buccal sites for all teeth. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and metabolic components were examined. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between deep pocket depth and the coexistence of elevated ALT and MetS in males with low alcohol consumption. Females showed no such relationship. In conclusion, the association between periodontal condition and the combination of elevated ALT and MetS was confirmed in males. That is, a clear association between liver abnormalities and periodontal condition was seen in male subjects with no or low alcohol consumption and MetS, providing new insights into the connection between liver function and periodontal health. PMID:26666857

  13. Plasmin is essential in preventing periodontitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sulniute, Rima; Lindh, Tomas; Wilczynska, Malgorzata; Li, Jinan; Ny, Tor

    2011-08-01

    Periodontitis involves bacterial infection, inflammation of the periodontium, degradation of gum tissue, and alveolar bone resorption, which eventually leads to loss of teeth. To study the role of the broad-spectrum protease plasmin in periodontitis, we examined the oral health of plasminogen (Plg)-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, the periodontium was unaffected at all time points studied; in Plg-deficient mice, periodontitis progressed rapidly, within 20 weeks. Morphological study results of Plg-deficient mice revealed detachment of gingival tissue, resorption of the cementum layer, formation of necrotic tissue, and severe alveolar bone degradation. IHC staining showed massive infiltration of neutrophils in the periodontal tissues. Interestingly, doubly deficient mice, lacking both tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, developed periodontal disease similar to that in Plg-deficient mice; however, mice lacking only tissue- or urokinase-type plasminogen activator remained healthy. Supplementation by injection of Plg-deficient mice with human plasminogen for 10 days led to necrotic tissue absorption, inflammation subsidence, and full regeneration of gum tissues. Notably, there was also partial regrowth of degraded alveolar bone. Taken together, our results show that plasminogen is essential for the maintenance of a healthy periodontium and plays an important role in combating the spontaneous development of chronic periodontitis. Moreover, reversal to healthy status after supplementation of Plg-deficient mice with plasminogen suggests the possibility of using plasminogen for therapy of periodontal diseases. PMID:21704601

  14. Pulpal disease and bursts of periodontal attachment loss.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R S; Clarke, N G

    1993-11-01

    Progression of periodontitis is currently thought to occur during bursts of activity, followed by periods of remission, when healing may occur. This concept contrasts with the older hypothesis that periodontitis was continuously, but slowly, progressive throughout life. At present, there is no proof of the conventional (microbiological) hypothesis which gives a major role to site-specific bacteria in the initiation of bursts of attachment loss. An alternative hypothesis is presented in this paper which accounts for periodontal attachment loss by pathways that are independent of plaque. Severe lesions of the periodontium caused by pulpal pathoses (apical and retrograde periodontitis) are known to form at any level of the periodontium, not only at the root apex. When these lesions cause destruction of the periodontal tissues at the alveolar crest, and when plaque, calculus and gingivitis are also present, an endodontic origin is rarely suspected. Three pathways are proposed to account for the development of localized periodontal attachment loss consequent to pulpal disease. This hypothesis accounts for the sudden deterioration of periodontal sites under regular review, the strict localization of alveolar defects with normal alveolar bone immediately adjacent, the presence of site-specific bacteria (secondary colonizers of deep pockets) which cannot cause disease when transferred to healthy sites, and the antibody responses directed against them. PMID:8144246

  15. Effect of vitamin D and calcium on periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hildebolt, Charles F

    2005-09-01

    The anthropological record indicates that we are exposed to considerably less ultraviolet radiation (required for the synthesis of vitamin D) and consume considerably less calcium than did our early ancestors. Most U.S. citizens have calcium intakes and serum levels of vitamin D far below recommended values. This is despite there having been extensive evidence that optimal calcium and vitamin D intakes not only benefit our postcranial bone health but also have many other health benefits. Numerous articles indicate that vitamin D and calcium deficiencies result in bone loss and increased inflammation, which are well recognized symptoms of periodontal disease. For more than 40 years, investigators have suggested that calcium intake may be associated with alveolar bone resorption, and more recently there have been a number of studies in which investigators have suggested that calcium and vitamin D may benefit periodontal health, and it has been suggested that calcium deficiency may be a risk factor for periodontal disease. There has not, however, been a vitamin-D-calcium-periodontitis clinical trial in which randomization and masking were carefully controlled, the periodontal disease status of patients known, periodontal disease measures were the primary outcomes, and levels of intake optimized to produce maximal effects. Such research might demonstrate that calcium and vitamin D are important adjuncts to standard treatments for preventing and treating periodontal disease. PMID:16171451

  16. Secondhand Smoke and Periodontal Disease: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Gary D.; Beck, James D.; Ágústsdóttir, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between secondhand smoke and periodontal disease in nonsmokers. Methods. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with 2739 lifetime nonsmokers aged 53–74 years, unexposed to other sources of tobacco, who received a complete periodontal examination at visit 4. Exposure was reported as average hours per week in close contact with a smoker in the preceding year. We defined severe periodontitis as 5 or more periodontal sites with probing pocket depth of 5 millimeters or more and clinical attachment levels of 3 millimeters or more in those sites. Other outcomes were extent of periodontal probing depths of 4 millimeters or more and extent of clinical attachment levels of 3 millimeters or more. Results. In a binary logistic regression model, adjusted odds of severe periodontitis for those exposed to secondhand smoke 1 to 25 hours per week increased 29% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7); for those exposed to secondhand smoke 26 hours per week, the odds were twice as high (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.4) as for those who were unexposed. Conclusions. Exposure to secondhand smoke and severe periodontitis among nonsmokers had a dose-dependent relationship. PMID:21551377

  17. Membranes for Periodontal Regeneration--A Materials Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Marco C; Thomas, Vinoy

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Unquestionably, no single implantable biomaterial can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of multiple tissue types, especially in very large periodontal defects. With the global aging population, it is extremely important to find novel biomaterials, particularly bioactive membranes and/or scaffolds, for guided tissue (GTR) and bone regeneration (GBR) to aid in the reestablishment of the health and function of distinct periodontal tissues. This chapter offers an update on the evolution of biomaterials (i.e. membranes and bioactive scaffolds) as well as material-based strategies applied in periodontal regeneration. The authors start by providing a brief summary of the histological characteristics and functions of the periodontium and its main pathological condition, namely periodontitis. Next, a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes is given, followed by a critical appraisal of the most recent advances in the development of bioactive materials that enhance the chance for clinical success of periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:26201279

  18. Tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Dabra, Sarita; Chhina, Kamalpreet; Soni, Nitin; Bhatnagar, Rakhi

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major public health issue and the development of effective therapies to treat the disease and regenerate periodontal tissue is an important goal of today's medicine. Regeneration of periodontal tissue is perhaps one of the most complex process to occur in the body. Langer and colleagues proposed tissue engineering as a possible technique for regenerating the lost periodontal tissues. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field, which involves the application of the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences to help in the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve the function of damaged tissues and organs. A Google/Medline search was conducted and relevant literature evaluating the potential role of the tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration, which included histological studies and controlled clinical trials, was reviewed. A comprehensive search was designed. The articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. The available literature was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicate tissue engineering to be a promising, as well as an effective novel approach to reconstruct and engineer the periodontal apparatus. Here, we represent several articles, as well as recent texts that make up a special and an in-depth review on the subject. The purpose behind writing this brief review has been to integrate the evidence of research related to tissue engineering so as to implement them in our daily practice. PMID:23559940

  19. Periodontitis progession in patients subjected to supportive maintenance care.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Leif; Lagervall, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance care following the initial active therapy phase plays an essential part in periodontal treatment to prevent disease progression and includes supportive periodontal therapy based on the patient's individual needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal proximal alveolar bone loss and tooth loss in periodontitis-prone patients during the active treatment and maintenance phase. In addition, the effect on disease progression of potential predictors was investigated. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective longitudinal study over a period of at least 10 years on a randomly selected population of patients referred for periodontal treatment in a specialist periodontal clinic. The mean number of teeth lost between baseline and the first re-evaluation was 2.4 and another 2.3 teeth were lost between the first and last re-evaluation. More than 50% of the periodontal pockets > or = 6 mm were reduced to < or = 5 mm at the re-evaluations. The mean longitudinal bone loss was 9% of the root length, corresponding to a mean annual marginal bone loss of about 0.09 mm. Smoking was significantly correlated to an increased longitudinal tooth loss, while the number of periodontal pockets > or = 6 mm at baseline was significantly correlated to an increased longitudinal bone loss. The magnitudes of marginal bone loss and tooth loss during a maintenance phase of 10-26 years were in accordance with the results from longitudinal studies performed on normal populations in Sweden. PMID:18973081

  20. Evaluation of TLR2 and 4 in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Arulpari; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Katamreddy, Vineela; Subbareddy, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection due to oral bacteria. Members of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and activate signalling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 in tissues with or without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were collected from controls (30 subjects with healthy periodontal tissues) and experimental group (30 subjects with chronic periodontitis). Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for evaluation of TLR-2 and TLR-4. Mann Whitney U-test, Pearson Chi-square Test was used for statistics. Results The results showed that there is a significant (p-value= 0.004) association between TLR-4 and the experimental group comprising of chronic periodontitis patients in comparison to the insignificant (p-value= 0.085) TLR-2 expression. Conclusion This study concludes that TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressed in the gingival tissues recognize different bacterial cell wall components thus helping us to associate its potential in diagnosing periodontal disease. Hence, in the future, these scientific findings can pave the way in using TLR as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal disease. PMID:27504418

  1. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  2. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627

  3. Immunolocalization of Ki-67 in different periodontal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, Penubolu Lakshmi; Rao, Suresh Rango; Madapusi, Balaji Thodur; Narasimhan, Malathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ki-67 which is a non-histone nuclear protein which is expressed in proliferating cells, during all the active phases of the cell cycle. Increased Ki-67 expression has been seen in several inflammatory and malignant conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis and squamous cell carcinoma. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyze the expression of Ki-67 in gingival tissues by immunohistochemistry in smokers and non-smokers with healthy gingiva and chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Gingival biopsies (n = 32) were obtained from smokers who had clinically healthy gingiva (n = 8), smokers with periodontitis (n = 8), chronic periodontitis (n = 8) and healthy gingiva (n = 8). The expression of Ki-67 was evaluated immunohistochemically. Statistical analysis used: Mean and standard deviation were estimated for the gingival tissue extract sample for each study group. Mean values were compared between different study groups by, one way ANOVA, post hoc analysis. In this study P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The mean number of Ki-67 positive cells/field was higher in the smokers with periodontitis group. When the mean Ki-67 positive cells were compared between different groups, statistical significant difference was observed between healthy and both the periodontitis groups (P = 0.000) and between smokers group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Ki-67 was maximally expressed in smoker with periodontitis followed by chronic periodontitis patients, healthy smokers and healthy control patients which shed light on the toxic effects of tobacco in dysregulating the cell cycle and cellular proliferation. The findings of this study also help us to understand the role of the cell cycle in resolution of periodontal inflammation which is a salient feature in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:24872622

  4. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Indian population since last decade

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Anuja; Yadav, Om Prakash; Narula, Sugandha; Dutta, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: India suffers lot of disparities in terms of oral health care and 95% of the Indian population suffers from periodontal disease. The aim of this review is to estimate the risk factors responsible for periodontal diseases as well as prevalence for the same in the last decade to make an attempt to develop a strategy to improve formulation of an effective oral health care policy in India. Materials and Methods: Keywords such as “prevalence of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology,” “periodontitis in India,” and “oral hygiene status in India” were searched for appropriate studies to obtain a bibliographic database. The references of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications that included studies conducted in India estimating periodontal diseases with adequate sample size. Clinical parameters, sample size, and findings for each study were tabulated from 2006 to 2015 (till September 15, 2015) in chronological order to observe the prevalence as well as epidemiology of periodontal disease in India. Results: The projection of periodontal disease is disturbing. In addition, the majority of studies done have used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) as its epidemiological tool that can grossly underestimate the presence of deep pockets. Conclusion: Current knowledge has shown that periodontitis does not present a linear progression and is not age-dependent. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. A structured all-inclusive survey of all districts of the states is a prerequisite for the constitution of an apt and cogent health care policy in our country. PMID:27114945

  5. Human Memory B Cells in Healthy Gingiva, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Mahanonda, Rangsini; Champaiboon, Chantrakorn; Subbalekha, Keskanya; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Rattanathammatada, Warattaya; Thawanaphong, Saranya; Rerkyen, Pimprapa; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Nagano, Keiji; Lang, Niklaus P; Pichyangkul, Sathit

    2016-08-01

    The presence of inflammatory infiltrates with B cells, specifically plasma cells, is the hallmark of periodontitis lesions. The composition of these infiltrates in various stages of homeostasis and disease development is not well documented. Human tissue biopsies from sites with gingival health (n = 29), gingivitis (n = 8), and periodontitis (n = 21) as well as gingival tissue after treated periodontitis (n = 6) were obtained and analyzed for their composition of B cell subsets. Ag specificity, Ig secretion, and expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and granzyme B were performed. Although most of the B cell subsets in healthy gingiva and gingivitis tissues were CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(-) memory B cells, the major B cell component in periodontitis was CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(+)CD138(+)HLA-DR(low) plasma cells, not plasmablasts. Plasma cell aggregates were observed at the base of the periodontal pocket and scattered throughout the gingiva, especially apically toward the advancing front of the lesion. High expression of CXCL12, a proliferation-inducing ligand, B cell-activating factor, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-21 molecules involved in local B cell responses was detected in both gingivitis and periodontitis tissues. Periodontitis tissue plasma cells mainly secreted IgG specific to periodontal pathogens and also expressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a bone resorption cytokine. Memory B cells resided in the connective tissue subjacent to the junctional epithelium in healthy gingiva. This suggested a role of memory B cells in maintaining periodontal homeostasis. PMID:27335500

  6. Aggressive Angiomyxoma with Perineal Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Seema; Kohli, Supreethi; Kumar, Vinod; Chandoke, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor involving the pelvic-perineal region. It occurs during the third and fourth decade of life and is predominantly seen in females. It presents clinically as a soft tissue mass in variable locations such as vulva, perianal region, buttock, or pelvis. Assessment of extent of the tumor by radiological evaluation is crucial for surgical planning; however, biopsy is essential to establish diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal angiomyxoma with an unusual extension to the perineum. PMID:24987570

  7. Reconstruction of pink esthetics: The periodontal way.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, K; Arshad, L Mohamed; Priya, B Dhathri

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures involving gingival reconstruction have become an integral part of current periodontal practice. The ability to cover unsightly exposed, sensitive roots and recontour soft tissue recessions have added an esthetic angle to the traditional concept of biological and functional periodontal health. The recession of the gingiva, either localized or generalized, may be associated with one or more surfaces, resulting in attachment loss and root exposure, which can lead to clinical problems such as diminished cosmetic appeal and aesthetic concern. Marginal gingival recession, therefore, can cause major functional and aesthetic problems and should not be viewed as merely a soft tissue defect, but rather as the destruction of both the soft and hard tissue. Treatment proposals for this type of defect have evolved based on the knowledge for healing the gingiva and the attachment system. This case report describes a clinical case of severe Miller Class II gingival recession treated by two stages of surgery that combined a free gingival graft and connective tissue grafting. First, a free gingival graft (FGG) was performed to obtain an adequate keratinized tissue level. Three months later, a connective tissue graft (CTG)was performed to obtain root coverage. The results indicated that the FGG allows for a gain in the keratinized tissue level and the CTG allows for root coverage with decreased recession level after 6 months. Therefore, for this type of specific gingival recession, the combined use of FGG and CTG still serves as a Gold Standard in predictable root coverage. PMID:25684918

  8. NSAIDs and Bleeding in Periodontal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    K, Sharath; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Arvind; Shetty, Devanand

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium on bleeding during periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirteen medically healthy men and women of mean age 37.5±17.67 (mean age± standard deviation) were selected for the study. All the subjects were divided into three groups: control (C) and test groups (T1) and (T2). Each subject of T1 group and T2 group was given ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium respectively, prior to surgery. Bleeding times of patients were recorded prior to performance of periodontal flap surgical procedures. Results: It was found that there was increased bleeding time and increased peri-operative bleeding when ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium were taken prior to surgery and this was statistically significant. (2.5538 (T1), 1.8385 (T2) versus 1.2385 (C) minute, p= .001) (mean blood loss) and (62.0325 ± 9.0594 (T1), 51.082 ± 9.792 (T2) versus 37.4992 ± 5.99 (C) millilitre, p = .000). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that pre-operative administration of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium could increase bleeding time and peri - operative blood loss. PMID:24995237

  9. Aging, inflammation, immunity and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Graves, Christina L; Gonzalez, Octavio A; Dawson, Dolph; Morford, Lorri A; Huja, Pinar Emecen; Hartsfield, James K; Huja, Sarandeep S; Pandruvada, Subramanya; Wallet, Shannon M

    2016-10-01

    The increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease have long been associated with aging, such that this oral condition affects the majority of the adult population over 50 years of age. Although the immune system is a critical component for maintaining health, aging can be characterized by quantitative and qualitative modifications of the immune system. This process, termed 'immunosenescence', is a progressive modification of the immune system that leads to greater susceptibility to infections, neoplasia and autoimmunity, presumably reflecting the prolonged antigenic stimulation and/or stress responses that occur across the lifespan. Interestingly, the global reduction in the host capability to respond effectively to these challenges is coupled with a progressive increase in the general proinflammatory status, termed 'inflammaging'. Consistent with the definition of immunosenescence, it has been suggested that the cumulative effect of prolonged exposure of the periodontium to microbial challenge is, at least in part, a contributor to the effects of aging on these tissues. Thus, it has also been hypothesized that alterations in the function of resident immune and nonimmune cells of the periodontium contribute to the expression of inflammaging in periodontal disease. Although the majority of aging research has focused on the adaptive immune response, it is becoming increasingly clear that the innate immune compartment is also highly affected by aging. Thus, the phenomenon of immunosenescence and inflammaging, expressed as age-associated changes within the periodontium, needs to be more fully understood in this era of precision and personalized medicine and dentistry. PMID:27501491

  10. Periodontal regeneration in gingival recession defects.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L

    1999-02-01

    Surgical treatment of gingival recession defects aims at obtaining soft tissue coverage of exposed root surfaces and/or augmentation of gingival tissue dimensions. A variety of protocols have been developed to manage these clinical problems. Since one goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus of the tooth, full restoration of defect should be accomplished following mucogingival procedures. This implies regeneration of all periodontal structures, including formation of new cementum with inserting connective tissue fibers, alveolar bone regeneration and recreation of a functional and aesthetic morphology of the mucogingival complex. Animal and human histological studies have shown that healing at gingiva-root interface following pedicle flaps or free soft tissue grafts generally includes a long junctional epithelium with varying amounts of a new connective tissue attachment in the most apical aspect of the covered root surface. Limited bone regeneration has been observed. Adjunctive use of root conditioning agents and cell excluding, wound-stabilizing devices may amplify regenerative outcomes. Changes in the amount of keratinized tissue, which can significantly affect the aesthetic outcome of treatment, have been shown to depend on the interactions among various tissues involved in the healing process and the selected surgical procedure. PMID:10321221

  11. Periodontal disease in Paget’s disease of bone

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Niccolò; Ferrari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 59-year-old man suffering from Paget’s disease of bone and periodontal disease was examined in anticipation of bisphosphonate treatment. The previous therapy with clodronate resulted ineffective and markers of bone turnover were markedly elevated. Periodontal disease was correctly approached and treated with an excellent outcome. 5 mg zoledronate iv infusion induced a remarkable reduction of bone markers which persisted on time within the normal range. After zoledronate treatment no signs of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) were observed. A correct management of periodontal disease is mandatory in pagetic patients on bisphosphonate treatment. PMID:26604949

  12. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  13. Combined Periodontal, Orthodontic, and Prosthetic Treatment in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sabatoski, Claudio Vinicius; Bueno, Regis Claret; Reyes Pacheco, Ariel Adriano; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man had a significant loss of bone and supporting tissues with pathologic migration of several teeth and several missing teeth. He was treated with an interdisciplinary therapeutic protocol that included nonsurgical periodontal therapy based on strict control of supragingival plaque, subgingival periodontal therapy, orthodontic and endodontic treatment, and replacement of restorations. The orthodontic therapy was performed in a severely reduced bone support and the presence of pathological tooth migration after periodontal disease control. The interdisciplinary treatment protocol was the key to achieve a significant improvement in his facial and dental esthetics, masticatory function, and quality of life. PMID:26587295

  14. Periodontal effects and dental caries associated with smokeless tobacco use.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, J A; Burt, B A

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been increasing in the United States with concomitant social, medical, legal, and regulatory ramifications. This paper examines the association between the use of smokeless tobacco and the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Existing literature consists primarily of case reports and cross-sectional studies among teenagers. The limited evidence suggests an association between smokeless tobacco use and gingival recession. There is insufficient evidence to support any associations between smokeless tobacco use and gingivitis, periodontitis, or dental caries. Methods to improve future epidemiologic research to examine possible associations between smokeless tobacco use and periodontal effects or dental caries are discussed. PMID:3101120

  15. Modifications of the dental pulp in marginal periodontitis. Electronomicroscopical contributions.

    PubMed

    Deva, V; Vătăman, Maria; Manolea, H

    2006-01-01

    Histological studies on teeth with marginal periodontitis, but without cavity lesions have shown a frequent apparition of modifications in the pulp tissue structure. In this study, by using the electron microscopy method, we have shown a series of interesting aspects of the intimate modifications that appear on the level of all components of the pulp tissue. The observations show that the degree of affecting can be correlated to the type of marginal periodontitis, and at the same time they contribute to a right evaluation of the defensive abilities of the pulp of the teeth with marginal periodontitis. PMID:16838061

  16. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. PMID:25443675

  17. Does Treatment of Periodontal Disease Influence Systemic Disease?

    PubMed

    Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2015-10-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common human diseases globally, with gingivitis affecting up to 90% and periodontitis affecting 50% of adults. Tooth enamel is the only nonshedding tissue in the human body. In the absence of proper oral hygiene measures, microbial biofilm (dental plaque) develops on the teeth to include more than 700 different bacterial species, along with viruses, fungi, archea, and parasites. With time, ecological imbalances promote the growth of selected commensal species that induce host inflammatory pathways resulting in tissue destruction, including ulceration of the periodontal epithelium. PMID:26427573

  18. [Active periodontitis as a potential risk factor of preferm delivery].

    PubMed

    Bilińska, Maria; Osmola, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    The influence of active periodontitis on the incidence of preterm delivery has been widely described in numerous scientific papers. Studies suggest that an implementation of a periodontal treatment during pregnancy is not only safe for both, the mother and the child, but it also has a beneficial effect on the pregnancy and embryo-fetal development, consequently reducing morbidity and mortality among premature infants. Therefore, mandatory dental examinations in pregnant women may facilitate early implementation of periodontal treatment and reduce the rates of preterm delivery PMID:25011221

  19. Problems in the study of rodent aggression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Robert J; Wall, Philip M; Blanchard, D Caroline

    2003-09-01

    Laboratory research has produced detailed descriptions of aggression and defense patterns in the rat, mouse, and hamster, showing strong similarities, but also some differences, across these species. Research on target sites for attack, in conjunction with analyses of the situational antecedents of attack behaviors and of responsivity of these to conditions that elicit fear, has also provided a strong basis for analysis of offensive and defensive aggression strategies and for identification of combinations of these modalities such as may occur in maternal aggression. These patterns have been empirically differentiated from phenomena such as play fighting or predation and compared for laboratory rodents and their wild ancestors. An array of tasks, suitable for use with pharmacological and experimental manipulations, is available for analysis of both aggression and defense. These developments should produce a firm basis for research using animal models to analyze a broad array of aggression-related phenomena, including systematic approaches to understanding the normal antecedents and consequences of each of several differentiable types of aggressive behavior. Despite this strong empirical and analytic background, laboratory animal aggression research has been in a period of decline, spanning several decades, relative to comparable research focusing on areas such as sexual behavior or stress. Problems that may have contributed to the relative neglect of aggression research include confusion about the interpretation of different tasks for eliciting aggression; difficulties and labor intensiveness of observational measures needed for an adequate differentiation of offensive and defensive behaviors; analytic difficulties stemming from the sensitivity of offensive aggression to the inhibitory effects of fear or defensiveness; lack of a clear relationship between categories of aggressive behavior as defined in animal studies and those used in human aggression research; and

  20. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  1. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  2. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. PMID:26216041

  3. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  4. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  5. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. PMID:27179788

  6. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  7. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented. PMID:24002556

  8. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques. PMID:26963568

  9. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research. PMID:25068818

  10. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354

  11. Risk assessment and periodontal prevention in primary care.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raul I; Compton, Robert; Dietrich, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The role of risk factors and risk assessment in the prediction of clinical periodontal outcomes, and thus in patient management, continues to be a subject of high professional interest and clinical relevance globally. Advances in our understanding of periodontal disease causality and the role of risk factors as predictors of future disease risk have led to the development of various quantitative tools to calculate risk and inform clinical decision-making. We review the conceptual basis for periodontal risk calculation and frame its potential, as well as its limitations, in the context of similar advances in medical care. Lastly, we discuss how broader health-policy changes are taking place that will probably lead to incorporation of risk-factor assessments in periodontal treatment planning and care management. PMID:27045428

  12. Dental Caries and Periodontal Status of Mentally Handicapped Institutilized Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632

  13. Combined Endodontic-Periodontal Treatment of a Palatogingival Groove.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Ramos-Barbosa, Isabel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Dablanca-Blanco, Ana Belén; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Blanco-Carrión, Juan

    2015-11-01

    A palatogingival groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the involved tooth to develop a severe periodontal lesion. These grooves often present a clinical challenge because diagnosis and treatment planning require an interdisciplinary approach. This case report describes the successful management of a right maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove in combination with an extensive periodontal pocket and pulp necrosis of the involved tooth. Collaborative management used a combination of endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, odontoplasty, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using protein complex derived from enamel matrix (Emdogain; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). Despite a predicted poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This report also discusses the rationale behind the treatment modalities. PMID:26395912

  14. Biological plaque control: novel therapeutic approach to periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Naoyuki

    2012-03-01

    Despite its important role in the control of periodontal disease, mechanical plaque control is not properly practiced by most individuals. Therefore, adjunctive chemical plaque control using chlorhexidine and antibiotics has also been suggested as an additional therapeutic strategy to augment mechanical plaque control. However, the additional effects of adjunctive antibiotic therapy are small, and topical chlorhexidine therapy is not without side effects. Given current limitations, new approaches for the control of biofilm are required. The new therapeutic approaches discussed in this review are divided into two categories: probiotics and vaccines. Probiotics is an interesting new field of periodontology research that aims to achieve biological plaque control by eliminating pathogenic bacteria. In addition, passive immunization using egg yolk antibody raised against periodontal pathogens may be an effective approach for the treatment of periodontitis. Further study to evaluate the possible effects of these biological plaque control methods against periodontal disease is warranted. PMID:22466880

  15. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  16. Relationship between maternal periodontal status and preterm low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203

  17. Identification of epithelial auto-antigens associated with periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, P; Simonian, M; Nadkarni, M A; DeCarlo, A A; Chapple, C C; Hunter, N

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that patients with periodontitis have serum antibodies to oral Gram positive bacteria that are cross-reactive with epithelial antigens. In the present report cross-reactive epithelial antigens including CD24, lactate dehydrogenase A [LDM-A], antioxidant protein 2 [AOP 2] and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 [NFAT 5], were identified by screening a cDNA expression library with pooled patient sera. Titres of antibodies to CD24 peptide correlated negatively with indices of periodontal disease severity. Strong expression of CD24 in the reactive periodontal epithelium and inflamed gingival attachment contrasted with low to undetectable expression in the external gingival epithelium. In periodontitis, a local action of these auto-reactive antibodies could modulate the regulatory potential associated with expression of CD24 in this epithelium. PMID:15654832

  18. Complement involvement in periodontitis: molecular mechanisms and rational therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Lambris, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a network of interacting fluid-phase and cell surface-associated molecules that trigger, amplify, and regulate immune and inflammatory signaling pathways. Dysregulation of this finely balanced network can destabilize host-microbe homeostasis and cause inflammatory tissue damage. Evidence from clinical and animal model-based studies suggests that complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a polymicrobial community-induced chronic inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. This review discusses molecular mechanisms of complement involvement in the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal microbiome and the resulting destructive inflammation, culminating in loss of periodontal bone support. These mechanistic studies have additionally identified potential therapeutic targets. In this regard, interventional studies in preclinical models have provided proof-of-concept for using complement inhibitors for the treatment of human periodontitis. PMID:26306443

  19. The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Teles, Flavia; Teles, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis from a wide age spectrum (20-83 years of age). PMID:27501490

  20. Immunomicrobial pathogenesis of periodontitis: keystones, pathobionts, and host response.

    PubMed

    Hajishengallis, George

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms underlying the breakdown of periodontal host-microbe homeostasis, which can precipitate dysbiosis and periodontitis in susceptible hosts. Dysbiotic microbial communities of keystone pathogens and pathobionts are thought to exhibit synergistic virulence whereby not only can they endure the host response but can also thrive by exploiting tissue-destructive inflammation, which fuels a self-feeding cycle of escalating dysbiosis and inflammatory bone loss, potentially leading to tooth loss and systemic complications. Here, I discuss new paradigms in our understanding of periodontitis, which may shed light into other polymicrobial inflammatory disorders. In addition, I highlight gaps in knowledge required for an integrated picture of the interplay between microbes and innate and adaptive immune elements that initiate and propagate chronic periodontal inflammation. PMID:24269668