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Sample records for aggressive personality traits

  1. The Genetic and Environmental Covariation among Psychopathic Personality Traits, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…

  2. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples.

  3. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples. PMID:26213380

  4. Impulsive personality traits in male pedophiles versus healthy controls: is pedophilia an impulsive-aggressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; McGeoch, Pamela G; Poznansky, Olga; Itskovich, Yelena; Murphy, Sean; Klein, Erik; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Despite the extensive literature documenting the pervasive and pernicious effects of childhood sexual abuse, there is surprisingly little psychiatric literature on pedophilia and its etiology remains enigmatic. In recent years, the psychiatric literature on the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of impulsive-aggressive disorders has grown significantly. As some investigators have conceptualized pedophilia as an impulsive-aggressive disorder, it is of interest whether recent advances in the study of impulsive-aggressive disorders might shed light on pathological mechanisms underlying pedophilia. In the following study, 20 male subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of pedophilia, heterosexual type were recruited from an outpatient facility for sexual offenders and compared to 24 demographically similar control subjects. Groups were compared on three personality instruments--the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Impairment-Questionnaire (DAPI-Q)--to assess for select impairment in impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Pedophiles showed severe and pervasive personality impairment relative to controls. Although there was evidence of impulsivity, the findings do not suggest a predominance of impulsive-aggressive traits, and in fact provide evidence of inhibition, passive-aggression, and harm avoidance. The notion of "compulsive-aggression" in pedophilia is proposed.

  5. Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits in combined antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.

  6. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26837478

  8. Cognitive Distortions and Self-Regulatory Personality Traits Associated with Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Poorthuis, Astrid; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated mechanisms behind proactive and reactive aggression, by examining whether four types of self-serving cognitive distortions and the personality traits agreeableness and conscientiousness differently predicted proactive and reactive aggression. Self-report questionnaires and a peer nominations method were administered to 173 sixth grade children (age 10-13) of regular elementary schools in the Netherlands. Negative binomial regression analyses showed that proactive aggression was predicted by self-centered and disagreeable tendencies, whereas reactive aggression was predicted by the misattribution of blame to others and the self-regulatory aspects of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Findings emphasize the need to differentiate proactive and reactive aggression in order to accurately predict, prevent and treat aggressive behaviors in childhood.

  9. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  10. Aggressive/hostile personality traits and injury accidents: an eight-year prospective study of a large cohort of French employees -- the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Consoli, Silla M.; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Chastang, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Background Aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel are considered to be a major traffic safety problem in several countries. However, the psychological mechanisms of anger and/or aggression on the roads remain largely unclear. This study examines a large cohort of French employees followed over the 1994–2001 period to establish whether psychometric measures of aggression/hostility were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury accidents (I-A). Methods A total of 11 754 participants aged from 39 to 54 in 1993 were included in this study. Aggression/hostility was measured in 1993 using the French version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Driving behaviors and I-A were recorded in 2001. Sociodemographic and alcohol consumption data were available from the cohort annual follow-up. The relationship between aggression/hostility scores and I-A was assessed using Negative Binomial regression models with time-dependent covariates. Results The overall BDHI scoring was not statistically predictive of subsequent I-A: adjusted rate ratios (aRR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–1.28 for participants with intermediate scores and 1.25, 95% CI 0.98–1.61 for those with high scores, both compared to those with low scores. The only BDHI subscales found to be associated with I-A were “irritability” (aRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.75 for participants with high scores) and “negativism” (aRR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.71 for participants with high scores). Conclusion Overall aggression/hostility personality traits did not predict injury accidents in this large cohort of French employees, suggesting that aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel extends beyond the individual’s general propensity for aggression. PMID:16332284

  11. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  12. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  13. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Aggression was operationalized as the proportion of the most extreme shocks delivered to the fictitious opponent under conditions of low and high provocation. Results indicated that lower levels of agreeableness were associated with higher levels of trait aggressivity. In turn, higher levels of trait aggressivity predicted extreme aggression in intoxicated, but not sober, participants under low, but not high, provocation. Findings highlight the importance of examining determinants of intoxicated aggression within a broader theoretical framework of personality. PMID:19968409

  14. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework. PMID:25047304

  15. Viewing relational aggression through multiple lenses: temperament, personality, and personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Smack, Avante J; Reardon, Kathleen W

    2014-08-01

    Dispositional trait frameworks offer great potential to elucidate the nature and development of psychopathology, including the construct of relational aggression. The present study sought to explore the dispositional context of relational aggression across three dispositional frameworks: temperament, personality, and personality pathology. Participants comprised a large community sample of youth, aged 6 to 18 years (N = 1,188; 51.2% female). Ratings of children's relational aggression, temperament, personality, and personality pathology traits were obtained through parent report (86.3% mothers). Results showed convergence and divergence across these three dispositional frameworks. Like other antisocial behavior subtypes, relational aggression generally showed connections with traits reflecting negative emotionality and poor self-regulation. Relational aggression showed stronger connections with temperament traits than with personality traits, suggesting that temperament frameworks may capture more relationally aggressive content. Findings at the lower order trait level help differentiate relational aggression from other externalizing problems by providing a more nuanced perspective (e.g., both sociability and shyness positively predicted relational aggression). In addition, there was little evidence of moderation of these associations by gender, age, or age2, and findings remained robust even after controlling for physical aggression. Results are discussed in the broader context of conceptualizing relational aggression in an overarching personality-psychopathology framework.

  16. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J

    1995-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that high trait aggressive individuals are more affected by violent media than are low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 1, participants read film descriptions and then chose a film to watch. High trait aggressive individuals were more likely to choose a violent film to watch than were low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 2, participants reported their mood before and after the showing of a violet or nonviolent videotape. High trait aggressive individuals felt more angry after viewing the violent videotape than did low trait aggressive individuals. In Study 3, participants first viewed either a violent or a nonviolent videotape and then competed with an "opponent" on a reaction time task in which the loser received a blast of unpleasant noise. Videotape violence was more likely to increase aggression in high trait aggressive individuals than in low trait aggressive individuals.

  17. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  18. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  19. Relationship between team identification and trait aggression: a replication.

    PubMed

    Wann, Daniel L; Shelton, Sarah; Smith, Tony; Walker, Rhonda

    2002-04-01

    Research yielded no significant relationship between sport fandom and trait aggression. The current study replicated previous efforts using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, an updated version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. In contrast to past work, the current study did yield a significant relationship between fandom and aggression for men. PMID:12027356

  20. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  1. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  2. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness: Relations with Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Cherie L.; Cegala, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Finds that persons scoring positively on argumentativeness and negatively on aggressiveness reported behaviors consistent with the authoritative parenting style and that negative argumentativeness and positive aggressiveness is associated with the authoritarian prototype. (SR)

  3. Personality correlates of aggression: evidence from measures of the five-factor model, UPPS model of impulsivity, and BIS/BAS.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F

    2012-09-01

    Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower order personality traits in relation to three forms of aggression: reactive, proactive, and relational. Traits related to interpersonal antagonism and impulsivity, especially impulsive behavior in the context of negative affect, were consistently related to aggression across multiple indices. These findings suggest that certain lower order traits are of critical importance to understanding who engages in aggressive behavior and why this behavior occurs. PMID:22610830

  4. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  5. Associations between Personality and Physical Aggression in Chinese and U.S. Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Temper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer M.; Hartl, Amy C.; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Youth aggression is a serious global issue, but research identifying personality traits associated with aggression has focused on adults. Little is known about whether similar associations exist during adolescence; even less is known about these associations across cultures. This study examined links between personality and physical aggression in…

  6. Cluster B personality pathology in incarcerated girls: structure, comorbidity, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; South, Susan C; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have linked Cluster B personality pathology to aggression in clinical and community samples. However, the structure of Cluster B traits, and association to aggression and psychopathology, has yet to be investigated among young female offenders. In order to better inform treatments for female aggression, we studied 121 incarcerated girls, aged 13 to 19 years, who completed a series of self-report inventories that measured overt and relational aggression, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Personality was assessed through a structured interview. Factor analysis of Cluster B traits revealed a three factor solution, with each factor demonstrating a unique pattern of association to relational and overt aggression and psychopathology. The implications with regard to treatment of personality pathology and aggression in the juvenile justice setting are discussed.

  7. Moral reasoning and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mudrack, Peter E

    2006-06-01

    Moral reasoning should not be clearly associated with measures of personality traits. Although this assumption pervades the moral reasoning literature, it may not always be true. This paper provides evidence that moral reasoning, as assessed with P scores of the Defining Issues Test, is indeed positively associated with five traits from the California Psychological Inventory: Achievement via Independence, Intellectual Efficiency, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Capacity for Status. Such relationships make conceptual sense, shed light on the meaning and implications of moral reasoning, call into question prevailing assumptions in the literature, and may encourage investigators to broaden the types of research questions asked in the context of moral reasoning.

  8. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide. PMID:26202623

  9. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  10. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  11. Unprovoked aggression: effects of psychopathic traits and sadism.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Seibert, L Alana

    2011-02-01

    Psychopathic individuals engage in the most violent and cold-blooded acts of aggression. In the laboratory, psychopathy traits have been linked to the commission of unprovoked aggression. The purpose of this study was to assess affective motives that may underlie the relationship between psychopathy and unprovoked aggression. One hundred thirty-seven men viewed a series of photographs depicting violent imagery, completed a lexical decision task designed to assess state affect, and competed in a laboratory-based aggression paradigm. Results indicated that participants who responded faster to happiness words after viewing violent imagery (i.e., sadistic) were significantly more likely to engage in unprovoked aggression. Additionally, Factor 1 psychopathy (emotional detachment) predicted increased probability of unprovoked aggression; however, this relationship was not mediated by sadism. Rather, Factor 1 and sadism each independently predicted unprovoked aggression. The implications of the present data suggest that the type of violence evinced may inform the risk for perpetration of future acts. That is, the individual who demonstrates unprovoked violence may be more likely to employ aggressive tactics across situational contexts than the individual who demonstrates only impulsive acts of hostile/reactive aggression. PMID:21223265

  12. Personality Correlates of Aggression: Evidence from Measures of the Five-Factor Model, UPPS Model of Impulsivity, and BIS/BAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F.

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower…

  13. Creating your own hostile environment: a laboratory examination of trait aggressiveness and the violence escalation cycle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Buckley, Katherine E; Carnagey, Nicholas L

    2008-04-01

    A dyadic interactive aggression paradigm tested hypotheses from the General Aggression Model about how trait aggressiveness can create behaviorally hostile social environments. Pairs of college student participants competed in a modified reaction time task in which they repeatedly delivered and received each other's punishments. The trait aggressiveness of both participants influenced the punishment intensities (aggression level) set by each member of the dyad on later trials. Furthermore, there was a pattern of escalation from early to later trials. These trait aggressiveness effects (both self and partner) on later aggressive behavior were largely mediated by partner aggression levels during early trials. Results also suggested two aggressive motives--hostile and instrumental--resulted from high partner aggression during early trials and these motives partially mediated the effects of trait aggressiveness and of early trial aggression on later aggressive behavior. PMID:18340032

  14. Sensitive Periods for Developing a Robust Trait of Appetitive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Köbach, Anke; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Violent behavior can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study, we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression. We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behavior patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression. PMID:26528191

  15. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  16. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  17. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  18. Sculpture preferences and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Moffett, L A; Dreger, R M

    1975-02-01

    Factor analyzed the preference ratings of 70 male and 70 female undergraduates for 36 slides of sculpture. A principal factors solution with orthogonal rotations yielded 6 factors: ambiguous abstraction vs. controlled human realism, mildly distorted representation, emotional detachment, traditional portraiture vs. surrealism, highly distorted representation, and geometric abstraction. Some of these factors were similar to the Apollonian, the Dionysian, and the Pythagorean dimensions previously postualted by Nietzsche and Knapp. Preference scores for each factor were computed and correlated with scores on the 16 PF and with selected educational and physical variables. A few small, significant (p less than .05) correlations were found, supporting the hypothesis that artistic style preferences resemble the personality traits of the spectator. PMID:1113250

  19. Risky and aggressive driving in young adults: Personality matters.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Konstantinou, Nikos; Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Kapardis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Young, novice drivers constitute a disproportionate percentage of fatalities and injuries in road traffic accidents around the world. This study, attempts to identify motivational factors behind risky driving behavior, and examines the role of personality, especially sensation seeking, impulsivity and sensitivity to punishment/reward in predicting negative driving outcomes (accident involvement and traffic offences) among young drivers. Gender and driver's age are additional factors examined in relation to driving outcomes and personality. Adopting the contextual mediated model of traffic accident involvement (Sümer, 2003), the study is based on the theory that personality, age and gender represent distal factors that predict accident involvement indirectly through their relationship with stable tendencies towards aberrant driving behavior. Results from correlations and Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 6 indicated that direct personality effects on driving outcomes were few, whereas personality had significant correlations with aberrant driving behavior, showing that personality is a distal but important predictor of negative driving outcomes. These high risk traits appear to be at a peak among young male drivers. Thus, personality is important in understanding aggressive and risky driving by young adults and needs to be taken into consideration in designing targeted accident prevention policies.

  20. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  1. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  2. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    PubMed

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  3. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  4. Personality traits, personality disorders, and migraine: a review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rachel E; Smitherman, Todd A; Baskin, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism has been associated with migraine, although research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the extent to which neuroticism reflects a stable disposition or instead is a function of general somatic distress or situational influences. With the possible exception of harm avoidance, research has not consistently identified any other personality trait unique among migraineurs. Personality disorders have been researched less extensively, but existing data suggests that borderline personality disorder, in particular, is associated with increased negative impact of migraine, risk for medication overuse, and poor response to treatment that is likely of greater clinical importance than any personality trait per se.

  5. The association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in non-referred boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Silverthorn, Persephanie; Frick, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in a non-referred sample of boys (n=86) and girls (n=114) in the fifth through ninth grades at two public schools in a large urban area. Psychopathic traits were measured by both teacher- and self-report ratings, whereas aggression and delinquency were assessed through self-report ratings. Self-reported psychopathic traits were associated with both aggression and delinquency and teacher-reported psychopathic traits were associated with higher levels of aggression. There were no clear differences for the callous-unemotional, narcissism, or impulsivity dimensions in their associations with aggression and delinquency. Also, psychopathic traits predicted aggression and delinquency for both boys and girls. The one clear gender difference was in the stronger associations between psychopathic traits and relational aggression for girls.

  6. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  7. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0–2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others. PMID:27375520

  8. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others.

  9. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others. PMID:27375520

  10. [Juvenile criminality: general strain theory and the reactive-proactive aggression trait].

    PubMed

    Greco, Romy; Curci, Antonietta; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to test General Strain Theory's (GST) assumptions, and to integrate the model including the proactive-reactive aggression trait. GST hypothesizes crime to be enacted in response to extra-personal stimuli (strain) and their subsequent negative emotions, especially anger. However, there exist also internally-driven manifestations of crime (instrumental or proactive), motivated by stimuli that are of an intrapersonal origin. Further, individuals differ to each other in the tendency to commit reactive or proactive or both manifestations of crime. With the goal to gain a more comprehensive model, GST variables and the reactive-proactive aggression trait are together tested as to their ability to predict criminal behaviour. Participants in the present research are 68 adolescent males with age ranging from 14 to 19 (M = 16.94, SD = 0.95). Half of the participants were jailed adolescents at the Fornelli Juvenile Detention Centre in Bari, while the remaining were adolescents with no criminal record, matched for age and level of education with the former group. An interview was administered to assess the experienced strain events, anger, and crime committed by the participants in the three months preceding the interview and also before. The reactive-proactive aggression trait was additionally measured. Results of the present study supported GST's assumptions, and confirmed the utility of integrating the model to include the proactive-reactive aggression trait. Strain events experienced in three-month time were found to influence property and violent offences committed by participants in the same time-interval as well as over this time. Furthermore,jailed participants were more likely to react with anger, and violence to strain events than non-jailed individuals, although the number of events experienced by both groups in the preceding months is similar. Finally, the results of the present study showed that proactive aggression is a strong

  11. Beyond traits: personality as intersubjective themes.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that research in the idiographic tradition is more conducive to effective clinical work than the uncritical adoption of specific "evidence-based therapies" for discrete symptomatic disorders. She views pressures on therapists to adopt evidence-based therapies without consideration of individual differences and personal subjectivity as the misapplication of a research paradigm to the clinical situation. Reviewing some recent empirical work on individuality and therapeutic process, she critiques efforts to formulate personality diagnosis on the basis of externally observable traits without attention to internal experience, and she contends that intrapsychic themes account for personality differences more powerfully than traits, even when traits are construed dimensionally.

  12. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  13. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Results: Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P < 0.018). Also, a positive correlation was observed between basal plasmatestosterone levels and criminal thinking traits (r = 0. 376, P < 0.05) and Millon compulsive (r = 0.386, P < 0.010) in both genders. In female participants, a positive correlation between basal plasmatestosterone levels and psychoticism (r = 0. 25, P < 0.019) and Cloninger AUTO TCI (r = 0.507, P < 0.004) was observed. In males participants positive correlation between baseline plasmatic Testosterone levels and Millon Antisocial trait (r = 0. 544, P < 0.19) and Millon Hypomania trait (r = 0. 485, P < 0.41) and Millon Drug Abuse trait (r = 0.632, P < 0.05) was reported. Conclusion: Our results suggest gender differences in clinical and personality variables related with basal plasma testosterone level. In men, high plasma testosterone levels were associated with clinical traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits. PMID:26664080

  14. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  15. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Blair, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marker system or the social response reversal system) are related to reactive aggression shown by patients with "acquired sociopathy" due to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Impairment in the capacity to form associations between emotional unconditioned stimuli, particularly distress cues, and conditioned stimuli (the violence inhibition mechanism model) is related to the instrumental aggression shown by persons with developmental psychopathy.

 PMID:11723191

  16. Relationship between personality traits and vocational choice.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sedeño, Manuel; Navarro, Jose I; Menacho, Inmaculada

    2009-10-01

    Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests.

  17. Analysis of Associations between Behavioral Traits and Four Types of Aggression in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Fumihiro; ARATA, Sayaka; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: “sociability with humans,” “reactivity to stimuli,” “chase proneness” and “fear of sounds.” While “reactivity to stimuli” correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), “sociability with humans” correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  18. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Fumihiro; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Canine aggression is one of the behavioral problems for which veterinary behaviorists are most frequently consulted. Despite this, the classification of canine aggression is controversial, and there are several classification methodologies. While the etiology of canine aggression differs among the types of aggression, the behavioral background underlying aggression is not well understood. Behavior trait-based evaluation of canine aggression would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of managing canine aggression problems. We developed a questionnaire addressing 14 behavioral items and items related to four types of canine aggression (owner-, child-, stranger- and dog-directed aggression) in order to examine the associations between behavioral traits and aggression in Shiba Inu. A total of 400 Shiba Inu owners recruited through dog events (n=134) and veterinary hospitals (n=266) completed the questionnaire. Factor analysis sorted the behavioral items from both the event and clinic samples into four factors: "sociability with humans," "reactivity to stimuli," "chase proneness" and "fear of sounds." While "reactivity to stimuli" correlated significantly positively with all of the four types of aggression (P=0.007 to <0.001), "sociability with humans" correlated significantly negatively with child- and stranger-directed aggression (P<0.001). These results suggest that the behavioral traits involved in canine aggression differ among the types of aggression and that specific behavioral traits are frequently simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. PMID:23719752

  19. Predicting short-term institutional aggression in forensic patients: a multi-trait method for understanding subtypes of aggression.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Van Rybroek, Gregory J; Rogstad, Jill E; Yahr, Laura E; Tomony, James D; Saewert, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Accurately predicting inpatient aggression is an important endeavor. The current study investigated inpatient aggression over a six-month time period in a sample of 152 male forensic patients. We assessed constructs of psychopathy, anger, and active symptoms of mental illness and tested their ability to predict reactive and instrumental aggression. Across all levels of analyses, anger and active symptoms of mental illness predicted reactive aggression. Traits of psychopathy, which demonstrated no relationship to reactive aggression, were a robust predictor of instrumental aggression. This study (a) reestablishes psychopathy as a clinically useful construct in predicting inpatient instrumental aggression, (b) provides some validation for the reactive/instrumental aggression paradigm in forensic inpatients, and (c) makes recommendations for integrating risk assessment results into treatment interventions.

  20. Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

    1996-03-01

    Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality.

  1. Aggression and personality: association with amino acids and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E; Mortensen, E L; Breum, L; Alling, C; Larsen, O G; Bøge-Rasmussen, T; Jensen, C; Bennicke, K

    1996-03-01

    Associations in 52 normal individuals were examined between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine, and concentrations of monoamine metabolites in the CSF, and scores on an aggression questionnaire, the Kinsey Institute Reaction List II, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. There was a significantly positive correlation between CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels and extroverted aggression scores, and a significantly negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA levels and introverted aggression scores. Males showed higher plasma Trp concentrations than females, and significantly positive correlations between plasma Trp concentrations and scores on extroverted aggression and the Eysenck E scale. Males, furthermore, showed a significantly negative correlation between CSF Trp levels and scores on the Eysenck P scale, and a significantly positive correlation between concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol in CSF and scores on moral aggression. These results suggest that central serotonin influences aggression in normal individuals through effects on personality. PMID:8685288

  2. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  3. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  4. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  5. Nurse manager personal traits and leadership characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H E; Woods, C Q; Boyle, D K; Bott, M J; Taunton, R L

    1995-01-01

    A portion of an Organizational Dynamics Paradigm provided the framework for examining urban hospital nurse managers' personality and staff nurses' perceptions of their leadership. Nurse managers' personality traits were comparable to American women in general. On motivation to manage they scored lower than business and health services managers and higher than female public school administrators. Staff nurses rated managers favorably on leadership style, power, and influence. Personality was linked modestly to motivation to manage and selected aspects of leadership.

  6. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires.

  7. Social and economic antecedents and consequences of adolescent aggressive personality: Predictions from the interactionist model.

    PubMed

    Conger, Rand D; Martin, Monica J; Masarik, April S; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development of adolescent aggressive personality traits. In turn, we hypothesized that adolescent aggressiveness would have a negative influence on adolescent functioning as an adult in terms of economic success, personality development, and close relationships 11 years later. Findings were generally supportive of the interactionist model proposition that social and economic difficulties in the family of origin intensify risk for adolescent aggressive personality (the social causation hypothesis) and that this personality trait impairs successful transition to adult roles (the social selection hypothesis) in a transactional process over time and generations. These results underscore how early development leads to child influences that appear to directly hamper the successful transition to adult roles (statistical main effects) and also amplify the negative impact of dysfunctional family systems on the transition to adulthood (statistical interaction effects). The findings suggest several possible points of intervention that might help to disrupt this negative developmental sequence of events. PMID:26439065

  8. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  9. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  10. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  11. Understanding the personality disorder and aggression relationship: an investigation using contemporary aggression theory.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael; Talevski, Diana; Ogloff, James R P

    2015-02-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between certain personality disorders (PDs) and increased rates of aggression and violence. At present, understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this relationship is limited. This study was designed to examine the contention (Gilbert & Daffern, 2011) that the application of a contemporary psychological aggression theory, the General Aggression Model (GAM; Anderson & Bushman, 2002), may assist in elucidating the PD-aggression relationship. Eighty-seven offenders undergoing presentence evaluation were assessed for Axis II PDs and psychopathy, aggression, and three constructs delineated by the GAM: scripts, normative beliefs, and anger. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine the relative contributions of these variables to aggression. The results upheld a relationship between several PDs and aggression, and suggested that for these PDs, the consideration of scripts, beliefs supportive of aggression, and anger facilitated an improved understanding of aggressiveness. Overall, the findings indicate that the GAM offers valuable insight into the psychological features that characterize individuals with PD who are prone to aggression.

  12. Assessing aggression in persons with autism spectrum disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E

    2014-12-01

    Aggression is a commonly co-occurring problem with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Comorbid aggression can be every bit as debilitating as core symptoms of ASD itself. As a result, careful identification of aggression, the context in which it occurs, and factors that maintain the behavior all have important implications for treatment. As a result, researchers have begun to develop methods and measures to assess aggression among persons with ASD. The purpose of this paper was to review measures that have been used to assess aggression among persons with ASD. We located 25 different assessment methods for both children and adults. The current status and future directions of this area of research are discussed.

  13. Symposium on Understanding Human Behavior and Experience -- Traits, States, and Situations -- Perspectives from Research on Aggression and Violent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, L. D.

    This paper analyzes precursors of aggressive behavior and discusses the trait characteristics of aggression. The accumulating evidence for the heritability of aggression, the consistent physiological differences found between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects, the fact that males exhibit more aggression than females, and the belief that…

  14. Relationship between identification with the role of sport fan and trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Wann, D L; Fahl, C L; Erdmann, J B; Littleton, J D

    1999-06-01

    The current research was designed to test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between people's identification of themselves as sport fans and trait aggression. 70 participants were asked to complete the Sport Fandom Questionnaire to assess their fandom and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory to assess their trait aggression. As expected, no significant relationship between fandom and aggression was found. PMID:10485114

  15. Trait Predictors of Aggression and Crash-Related Behaviors Across Drivers from the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive driving is acknowledged as a contributor to motor vehicle crashes. This study explored a theoretical model of aggressive expression and crash-related outcomes using self-report data collected, using an online questionnaire, from drivers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The proposed model tested whether the personality traits of boredom proneness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, coupled with trait driving anger, predicted aggressive driving; and whether aggressive driving predicted crash-related outcomes (loss of concentration and control, near misses, and moving violations). The structural model was confirmed, with aggressive expressions of anger being found to mediate the relationships driving anger and impulsivity had with the crash-related outcomes. Multigroup invariance analysis showed that the model remained invariant across drivers from the United Kingdom and Ireland, suggesting that the contributing factors for aggressive expression and crash involvement are similar across both countries. When self-reported crash-related conditions were compared between drivers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, drivers in the United Kingdom reported more aggressive driving, more minor crashes, more incidents of road rage, and more frequent losses of concentration and vehicle control.

  16. Obsessional personality traits and ABO blood types.

    PubMed

    Rinieris, P; Stefanis, C; Rabavilas, A

    1980-01-01

    The relation of ABO blood types to obsessional personality traits, as measured by the Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI), was studied in a sample of 600 normal individuals. High scorers of the LOI trait portion demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of phenotype O and a significantly higher incidence of phenotypes AB, A and B, taken together, compared to those of a general population sample and the entire study group. Findings of the present study, in conjunction with previous findings concerning a lower incidence of phenotype O and a higher incidence of phenotype A in obsessive compulsive patients, could be interpreted as indicating that phenotype O may be associated with personality traits hindering the development of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology.

  17. Personality domains and traits that predict self-reported aberrant driving behaviours in a southeastern US university sample.

    PubMed

    Beanland, Vanessa; Sellbom, Martin; Johnson, Alexandria K

    2014-11-01

    Personality traits are meaningful predictors of many significant life outcomes, including mortality. Several studies have investigated the relationship between specific personality traits and driving behaviours, e.g., aggression and speeding, in an attempt to identify traits associated with elevated crash risk. These studies, while valuable, are limited in that they examine only a narrow range of personality constructs and thus do not necessarily reveal which traits in constellation best predict aberrant driving behaviours. The primary aim of this study was to use a comprehensive measure of personality to investigate which personality traits are most predictive of four types of aberrant driving behaviour (Aggressive Violations, Ordinary Violations, Errors, Lapses) as indicated by the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). We recruited 285 young adults (67% female) from a university in the southeastern US. They completed self-report questionnaires including the DBQ and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, which indexes 5 broad personality domains (Antagonism, Detachment, Disinhibition, Negative Affectivity, Psychoticism) and 25 specific trait facets. Confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate evidence for the DBQ internal structure. Structural regression analyses revealed that the personality domains of Antagonism and Negative Affectivity best predicted both Aggressive Violations and Ordinary Violations, whereas the best predictors of both Errors and Lapses were Negative Affectivity, Disinhibition and to a lesser extent Antagonism. A more nuanced analysis of trait facets revealed that Hostility was the best predictor of Aggressive Violations; Risk-taking and Hostility of Ordinary Violations; Irresponsibility, Separation Insecurity and Attention Seeking of Errors; and Perseveration and Irresponsibility of Lapses.

  18. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  19. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    PubMed

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  20. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression.

  1. The Relation Between Trait Mindfulness and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  2. The relation between trait mindfulness and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    There has been an abundance of research in recent years on mindfulness, including mindfulness within individuals seeking substance use treatment. However, to date, there has been no research on whether trait mindfulness is associated with increased aggression among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Past research has demonstrated that individuals in substance use treatment evidence higher levels of aggression than non-substance abusers, and preliminary research has shown that trait mindfulness is inversely associated with aggression in non-substance-use treatment-seeking populations. The current study examined whether trait mindfulness was associated with aggression among men seeking residential substance use treatment (N = 116). Results demonstrated that lower trait mindfulness was associated with increased aggression (physical, verbal, and aggressive attitude). Moreover, this relation held for both verbal aggression and aggressive attitude after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age, all known predictors of aggression. Findings provide the first evidence that mindfulness is negatively associated with aggression among men in substance use treatment, which could have important implications for intervention. That is, mindfulness-based interventions may prove helpful for the treatment of both substance use and aggression. PMID:25192702

  3. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    PubMed

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  4. Mothers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness as a Predictor of Maternal and Child Behavior during Playtime Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Steven R.; Roberts, Felicia; Rack, Jessica J.; Delaney, Julie E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores associations between mothers' trait verbal aggressiveness (VA) and maternal and child behavior during playtime interactions. Forty mothers completed a 10-minute play period with one of their children (range = 3-8 years) and then responded to D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley's (1986) trait VA scale. Mothers' trait VA was…

  5. Does Gender Moderate the Relationship between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Physical Aggression?

    PubMed

    Nwafor, Chidozie E; Onyeizugbo, Euckay U; Anazonwu, Charles O

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the interaction effect of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and gender on physical aggression among Nigerian adolescents. Two hundred and ninety five (295) senior secondary school students who were between 14-16 years of age participated in the study. These participants included boys (152) and girls (143). They were selected from a public senior secondary school in Anambra a South Eastern State of Nigeria and all the participants were of Igbo ethnic group. The raw data for Callous-unemotional traits and Physical Aggression were collected using Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) by Frick (2004) and Aggression Scale by Orpinas and Frankowski (2001) respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, and conditional process analysis (model number 1; Hayes, 2013). The results showed that gender correlated significantly with uncaring and physical aggression but did not correlate significantly with CU and callousness. The results further showed that gender, CU traits, uncaring and callousness subscales significantly predicted physical aggression. Gender also moderated the effect of CU traits and uncaring on physical aggression, but did not moderate the effect of callousness on physical aggression. The discussion focused on the ways of helping individuals with high level of CU traits to reduce aggression, also the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies and the implications of the finding were highlighted.

  6. Trait Aggressiveness Is Not Related to Structural Connectivity between Orbitofrontal Cortex and Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Frederike; Münte, Thomas F.; Wiechert, Juliana; Heldmann, Marcus; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies in both pathological and healthy samples have suggested altered functional connectivity between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala as a possible cause of anger and aggression. In patient populations presenting with pathological aggression, there is also evidence for changes in structural connectivity between OFC and amygdala. In healthy samples, however, the relationship between white matter integrity and aggression has not been studied to date. Here, we investigated the relationship between trait aggressiveness and structural OFC-amygdala connectivity in a large sample (n = 93) of healthy young men. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we measured the distribution of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along the uncinate fascicle bilaterally. We found no differences in either measure between participants high and low in physical aggressiveness, or between those high and low in trait anger. Our results therefore argue against a direct relationship between structural OFC-amygdala connectivity and normal-range trait aggressiveness. PMID:24977414

  7. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.

  8. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention. PMID:23512713

  9. Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-06-01

    Persuasive messages are more effective when they are custom-tailored to reflect the interests and concerns of the intended audience. Much of the message-framing literature has focused on the advantages of using either gain or loss frames, depending on the motivational orientation of the target group. In the current study, we extended this research to examine whether a persuasive appeal's effectiveness can be increased by aligning the message framing with the recipient's personality profile. For a single product, we constructed five advertisements, each designed to target one of the five major trait domains of human personality. In a sample of 324 survey respondents, advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they cohered with participants' dispositional motives. These results suggest that adapting persuasive messages to the personality traits of the target audience can be an effective way of increasing the messages' impact, and highlight the potential value of personality-based communication strategies.

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Aggression in Personality Disordered Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Royce; Coussons-Read, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurochemical studies have pointed to a modulatory role in human aggression for a variety of central neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as cytokines. While animal studies of cytokines suggest an aggression-facilitating role for central cytokines, especially for interleukin-1β and other cytokines, no cerebrospinal fluid studies of cytokines have yet been reported in regard to human aggression. Methods: Basal lumbar cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from 38 physically healthy subjects with DSM-5 Personality Disorder and assayed for cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 (log IL-6) and cerebrospinal fluid soluble IL-1 Receptor II protein in the context of their relationship with measures of aggression. Results: Cerebrospinal fluid soluble interleukin-1 Receptor II (r=.35, r2 = .12, P= .03), but not log interleukin-6 (r = -.05, r2 = .00, P= .76), levels were positively correlated with a composite measure of aggression. Adding relevant covariates, including cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, to the statistical model doubled the strength of this relationship (partial r = .54, r2 = .29, P= .002). No relationship was seen with history of suicidal behavior or with any measure of impulsivity, negative affectivity, or of general dimensions of personality. Conclusion: These data suggest a positive relationship between at least one inflammatory cytokine in the central nervous system and aggression in human subjects. This finding adds to the complex picture of the central neurochemistry of impulsive aggression in human subjects. PMID:25650410

  11. Impulsive-aggressive traits and suicidal adolescents and young adults with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Oquendo, Maria A; Giner, Lucas; Zalsman, Gil; Roche, Ansley M; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and alcohol use disorders among adolescents and young adults are serious public health problems. In the study of suicidal behavior among young people with alcoholism, it has been shown that aggression and impulsivity are higher among those who attempted suicide. Impulsivity has been related to suicidal and self-destructive behaviors within different psychiatric conditions, i.e. alcohol and substance use disorders, mood disorders, conduct disorder, impulse control disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder. The term impulsivity has been used to define different constructs such as (1) personality trait or cognitive style in which disinhibition is the core characteristic, (2) a tendency to act immediately in response to external or internal stimuli, and (3) a group of psychiatric disorders with behavioral dyscontrol. Among adolescents suicidal behavior is transmitted in families independently of psychiatric conditions, but not independently of impulsivity/aggression. Two causal links between impulsiveness and alcoholism have been proposed: (1) adolescents who develop alcoholism possess higher premorbid levels of impulsiveness than those who do not develop alcoholism, and (2) levels of impulsiveness differentiate both populations only after the development of alcoholism, with higher levels of impulsiveness among those adolescents who developed alcoholism. Cognitive behavioral techniques have shown promising results in the treatment of adolescents with alcohol and substance use disorder and suicidality. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents and young adults suffering from alcoholism and its subsequent devastating effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies.

  12. Volitional personality trait change: Can people choose to change their personality traits?

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nathan W; Fraley, R Chris

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has found that most people want to change their personality traits. But can people actually change their personalities just because they want to? To answer this question, we conducted 2, 16-week intensive longitudinal randomized experiments. Across both studies, people who expressed goals to increase with respect to any Big Five personality trait at Time 1 tended to experience actual increases in their self-reports of that trait-as well as trait-relevant daily behavior-over the subsequent 16 weeks. Furthermore, we tested 2 randomized interventions designed to help participants attain desired trait changes. Although 1 of the interventions was inefficacious, a second intervention that trained participants to generate implementation intentions catalyzed their ability to attain trait changes. We also tested several theoretical processes through which volitional changes might occur. These studies suggest that people may be able to change their self-reported personality traits through volitional means, and represent a first step toward understanding the processes that enable people to do so.

  13. Forms of non-suicidal self-injury as a function of trait aggression.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Evan M; Ammerman, Brooke A; Kulper, Daniel A; Uyeji, Lauren L; Jenkins, Abigail L; McCloskey, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    To date, the considerable body of research on predictors of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has conceptualized NSSI as a unitary construct despite the fact that NSSI can exist in many forms (e.g., hitting, cutting, burning). The goal of the present study is to examine differential prediction of forms of NSSI. Specifically, we examined trait aggression as a predictor of more aggressive forms of NSSI (i.e., hitting). We hypothesized that higher trait aggression would differentiate those who engaged in hitting forms of NSSI from those who did not, whereas other factors (i.e., emotion regulation and trait anger) would serve as a non-specific predictor of NSSI. We also hypothesized that higher trait aggression would be related to lifetime frequency of hitting NSSI, but not other forms of NSSI, whereas emotion regulation and anger would act as predictors of other forms of NSSI. To test these hypotheses, a large sample of young adults completed measures of trait aggression, trait anger, emotion regulation, and NSSI behaviors. Results were generally in line with our hypotheses. Higher levels of trait aggression differentiated those who engaged in hitting NSSI from those who did not and was also associated with greater frequency of hitting NSSI. These results imply that different factors predict different forms of NSSI and that NSSI may be best examined as a multi-faceted construct. PMID:25778908

  14. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. PMID:27521777

  15. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study.

  16. Effects of serotonin-2A receptor binding and gender on personality traits and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie C

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are personality traits associated with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Behavioral expression of these traits differs by gender and has been related to central serotonergic function. We assessed the relationships between serotonin-2A receptor function, gender, and personality traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder characterized by impulsive-aggression and recurrent suicidal behavior. Participants, who included 33 BPD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), were assessed for Axis I and II disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination, and with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-Revised for BPD. Depressed mood, impulsivity, aggression, and temperament were assessed with standardized measures. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]altanserin as ligand and arterial blood sampling was used to determine the binding potentials (BPND) of serotonin-2A receptors in 11 regions of interest. Data were analyzed using Logan graphical analysis, controlling for age and non-specific binding. Among BPD subjects, aggression, Cluster B co-morbidity, antisocial PD, and childhood abuse were each related to altanserin binding. BPND values predicted impulsivity and aggression in BPD females (but not BPD males), and in HC males (but not HC females.) Altanserin binding was greater in BPD females than males in every contrast, but it did not discriminate suicide attempters from non-attempters. Region-specific differences in serotonin-2A receptor binding related to diagnosis and gender predicted clinical expression of aggression and impulsivity. Vulnerability to suicidal behavior in BPD may be related to serotonin-2A binding through expression of personality risk factors.

  17. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress. PMID:26441709

  18. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress. PMID:26441709

  19. A Comparison of Passive Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) has historically played an important role in clinical theorizing and was diagnosable prior to the DSM-IV, in which the construct was relabeled ‘negativistic’, expanded to include negative affective symptoms, and appendicized. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the expansion of PAPD to include content related to negative moods and non-specific personality pathology compromised its discriminant validity. In an undergraduate sample (N = 1215), a self-report measure of PAPD was only moderately related to NEGPD and showed less diagnostic overlap with other PDs than NEGPD. Furthermore, a conjoint factor analysis yielded a strong first factor (moodiness) which appeared less specific to passive aggressive behavior than three other factors (irresponsibility, inadequacy and contempt). We conclude that future research on this potentially important clinical construct should focus on core passive aggressive features and abandon the negativistic content that has been added to it in successive editions of the DSM. PMID:22329420

  20. The Function of Aggression in Personality Disordered Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffern, Michael; Howells, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that psychological interventions for personality disorders should focus on improving adaptive expression of the functional needs expressed through problematic behaviors such as aggression. The measurement of function is a necessary condition for devising a function-based treatment approach. Two studies that employ a method…

  1. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure.

  2. Instructional Dissent as an Expression of Students' Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if college students' verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness traits promote their tendencies to engage in instructional dissent (i.e., expressive, rhetorical, vengeful). Participants were 172 undergraduate students who completed a self-report survey measuring these traits and their dissent practices…

  3. Borderline personality traits in hysterical neurosis.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the traits of the psychopathology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) compared with hysterical neurosis. A total of 48 subjects with BPD and 40 subjects with hysterical neurosis both defined by DSM-III-R were assessed by Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB). Statistical analysis was done by quantification of the second type, a multivariate data analysis. The total scores of DIB were BPD group, 6.13 +/- 1.52; hysterical neurosis group, 4.9 +/- 2.12 (t = 3.05, P = 0.0016). The correlation ratio (index of to what extent the two groups are discriminated) was 0.2442. Among the four parameters of: (i) affect, (ii) cognition, (iii) impulse-action pattern, (iv), and interpersonal relationships, the partial coefficient correlations of (iii) and (iv) were significantly high (0.342, 0.287, P < 0.01). The question items with high independent coefficients were manipulation (0.4416), intolerance of aloneness (0.3797), demanding nature (0.3768), self-mutilation (0.3609), visual hallucination (0.3395). Those with low score of independent coefficients were counterdependency (0.0533), identity disturbance (0.1010), depression (0.1551), loneliness (0.1752), hypomanic episode (0.1936). Both of BPD and hysterical neurosis groups were not so fairly well discriminated. However, these results suggested that impulse-action pattern and disorder of interpersonal relationships were traits of borderline personality disorder. We could admit manipulation, intolerance of aloneness as its symptoms. In addition, counterdependency, identity disturbance were comparatively common to both. There were some borderline personality traits symptomatically in hysterical neurosis. PMID:11285092

  4. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predictive values of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and of hostile interpretation bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a hostile manner, were studied. The sample consisted of n = 37 male adult patients with mixed diagnoses and n = 29 male nonpatients that responded to vignettes and pictures of ambiguous situations, using both open and closed answer formats. ASPD was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II disorders (SCID-II), and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) measured RA and PA. Results showed that although both RA and PA types were predicted by ASPD traits, RA was additionally predicted by a hostile interpretation bias. These findings suggest that reducing hostile bias is a promising avenue for clinical treatment of ASPD-patients high in RA.

  5. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years). PMID:27252661

  6. Childhood trauma and parental style: Relationship with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and aggression in healthy and personality disordered subjects.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Lee, Royce; Gozal, David; Coussons-Read, Mary; Coccaro, Emil F

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that early life trauma is associated with elevations in circulating markers of inflammation in human subjects. History of aggression as a behavior, or aggression as a personality trait, is also associated with elevations of these inflammatory markers. Since early life trauma is associated with the development and maintenance of aggression in later life we examined the relationship of early life adversity, plasma inflammation markers (IL-6 and CRP) and oxidative stress markers (8-OH-DG and 8-ISO), and aggression in adult subjects with (n=79) and without (n=55) personality disorder. We used a series of mediated and moderated path models to test whether the effects of early adversity on later aggression may be mediated through markers of inflammation. Childhood abuse and parental control were associated with basal IL-6 and CRP concentrations. Path modeling suggested that childhood abuse was associated with aggression indirectly through CRP while parental control influenced aggression indirectly through IL-6 and CRP. Furthermore, these effects were independent of the effect of current depression. The results suggest that disruption of inflammatory processes represent one pathway by which early adversity influences aggression.

  7. Core features of personality disorder: differentiating general personality dysfunctioning from personality traits.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Han; Kamphuis, Jan H; Verheul, Roel

    2012-10-01

    The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) and Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP-118) to measure GPD, and the NEO-PI-R to measure SPT. The sample consisted of 424 psychiatric patients. Using principal component analysis, GPD and SPT appeared to be clearly distinct components of personality. Our GPD model consisted of three factors, i.e., Self-identity dysfunctioning, Relational dysfunctioning, and Prosocial functioning. This model remained by and large intact when combined with SFT factors. Our findings support the distinction between personality traits and personality dysfunction laid down in the recent proposal by the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force.

  8. [Trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude in the background of Attila József's suicide].

    PubMed

    Zsédel, Krisztina; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although recently many studies have indicated close connection between aggressive behaviour and suicide, and we can infer at Attila Jozsef's high trait-aggression from several cases, there is no research so far that would analyse the topic of the poet's aggression. We examine in this study the high trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude of Attila Jozsef and put the question how could those two contribute to his suicide. Recollections of Attila Jozsef's contemporaries reveal that the poet's life was accompanied along with auto- and heteroaggression. By analysing his Rorschach-test, we can also conclude on the weakness of his aggression-control. During his psychoanalytic treatment from 1931 on, some difficult memories and unacceptable desires became revoked, and his aggressive outbreaks became unmanageable, first of all against some females in his life. His free-association works from this period are full of rude, incestuous, aggressive expressions. In spite of these, there is no trace of aggression in his poems - he masks his aggression in them by keeping precisely to formal criteria. We suppose that behind the masking there are unconscious processes, such as a very strong desire to get attached and fear of solitude that led to his aspiration to consciously form "the myth of the good poet". Art's healing power could not prevail as the spontaneous creative process has been turned into a conscious one. His impulses that came to light in the analytic process and were only partly sublime may have returned thus and became urgent and pressing again. We suppose that his high trait-aggression and his conscious poetic attitude together contributed to his life's tragic ending. PMID:26202624

  9. How are personality trait and profile agreement related?

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri; Borkenau, Peter; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kuppens, Peter; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that if we compute self-other agreement on some personality traits then we possess no or very little information about the individuals who are the targets of this judgment. This idea is largely based on two separate ways of computing self-other agreement: trait agreement (rT) and profile agreement (rP), which are typically associated with two different trait-centered and person-centered approaches in personality research. Personality traits of 4115 targets from Czech, Belgian, Estonian, and German samples were rated by themselves and knowledgeable informants. We demonstrate that trait agreement can be partialled into individual contributions so that it is possible to show how much each individual pair of judges contributes to agreement on a particular trait. Similarly, it is possible to decompose agreement between two personality profiles into the individual contributions of traits from which these profiles are assembled. If normativeness is separated from distinctiveness of personality scores and individual profiles are ipsatized, then mean profile agreement rP becomes identical to mean trait agreement rT. The views that trait-by-trait analysis does not provide information regarding accuracy level of a particular pair of judges and profile analysis does not permit assessment of the relative contributions of traits to overall accuracy are not supported. PMID:26106356

  10. Autonomy and authenticity of enhanced personality traits.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Jan Christoph; Merkel, Reinhard

    2009-07-01

    There is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity and possible threats by neuroenhancements. We present six neuroenhancement scenarios and analyse how autonomy accounts evaluate them. Some cases are considered differently by criminal courts; we demonstrate where academic autonomy theories and legal reasoning diverge and ascertain whether courts should reconsider their concept of autonomy. We argue that authenticity is not an appropriate condition for autonomy and that new enhancement technologies pose no unique threats to personal autonomy.

  11. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation reduces provoked aggression associated with primary psychopathy traits.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; McCloskey, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathy has long been associated with aggressive behavior; however, the neurochemical underpinnings of this relationship are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system abnormalities have been associated with provoked aggression in general. In addition, 5-HT dysregulation has been linked to empathy, a trait that is lacking in individuals who score high on primary psychopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5-HT modulates the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression. Participants (N = 47) completed a self-report measure of psychopathy and were then administered either 40 mg paroxetine (acutely augmenting 5-HT) or placebo. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction-time game in which electric shocks were exchanged with an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent. Results indicated that primary psychopathy (but not secondary psychopathy) was related to aggressive responding to provocation. Moreover, 5-HT augmentation attenuated this effect, supporting the notion that aggressive responding associated with primary psychopathic traits may be due in part to 5-HT dysregulation. PMID:22984854

  12. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  13. Basic Religious Beliefs and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Ali Reza; Sarvarazemy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective Spiritual beliefs can help people find meaning of life, and can also influence their feelings, behaviors and mental health. The present research studied the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence and God) and five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. Method One hundred seventy eight students of Islamic Azad University in Torbat-jam were randomly selected and completed the basic religious beliefs and NEO Questionnaires. Results Data showed that basic religious beliefs have a significant negative correlation with neuroticism (r=-0.29),and a significant positive relationship with extraversion(r=0.28),openness(r=0.14),agreeableness (r=0.29),and conscientiousness (r=0.48). Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that basic religious beliefs can anticipate neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but they cannot anticipate the openness factor significantly. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate that basic religious beliefs have a positive relationship with good characteristics that help people resolve the challenges of their lives and identity crisis. Thus, the results of this study support the idea of Religious Cognitive–Emotional Theory that religiosity is correlated with positive personality traits. PMID:22952550

  14. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  15. Relationship between Personality Traits and Performance among School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Siadat Sayyed; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zaman, Azhdari; Zahra, Amiri; Mohtaram, Abooeimehrizi

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to explore the relationship between personality traits and performance among school principals. The main objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between principals' personality traits such as introversion, extroversion neuroticism and emotional stability between several performance dimensions. A descriptive…

  16. An Examination of Personality Traits of Motorsports Management Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Harder, Joseph T.; Peters, Randell

    2013-01-01

    For the motorsports industry, there is a strong desire to recruit individuals that have realistic expectations of the profession as well as exhibit the personality traits needed to be successful in the industry over time. The study sought to examine and compare personality traits of motorsports management students to those of practitioners…

  17. Unitary personality source traits analyzed for heritability.

    PubMed

    Cattell, R B; Rao, D C; Schuerger, J M; Vaughan, D S

    1981-01-01

    1,768 12- to 18-year-old boys, in pairs from five constellations (identical and fraternal twins, brothers, unrelated boys raised together and a random general population sample) were measured by the O-A (performance) personality battery on source traits UI 16, 17 and 19. Corrections were made for ages and test validities in computing observed variances. Nine equations were set up in the multiple abstract variance (MAVA) model giving expectancies from seven unknown abstract variances (genetic, threptic, and genothreptic covariances) with respect to observed variances. Maximum likelihood analysis showed that genetic or threptic contribution alone was unable to fit the data, and the best fit was given by a parsimonious form of MAVA dropping genothreptic correlations. Population heritabilities calculated on this basis were 0.46 for UI 16 (ego assertion), 0.21 for UI 17 (control, upbringing), and 0.50 for UI 19 (independence). When compared with an earlier study by the O-A, but by a different analysis, and with the same data analyzed by tho other methods, a reasonably consistent conclusion emerges that UI 17 is little inherited, while UI 16 and UI 19 are rather strongly inherited. The contribution of the behavior-genetic evidence to the theories about these source traits is discussed. It is concluded that UI 16 is initially in development a temperament factor, probably with physiological associations in metabolic rate, etc.; that UI 19 is a strong and sex-related temperament factor, and that UI 17 is a sentiment pattern of cultured inhibition almost wholly dependent on family and social upbringing.

  18. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.

  19. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing. PMID:26915682

  20. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  1. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  2. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  3. Inhibitory control and trait aggression: neural and behavioral insights using the emotional stop signal task.

    PubMed

    Pawliczek, Christina M; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Kohn, Nils; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute

    2013-10-01

    Deficits in response inhibition and heightened impulsivity have been linked to psychiatric disorders and aggression. They have been investigated in clinical groups as well as individuals with trait characteristics, yielding insights into the underlying neural and behavioral mechanisms of response inhibition and impulsivity. The motor inhibition tasks employed in most studies, however, have lacked an emotional component, which is crucial given that both response inhibition and impulsivity attain salience within a socio-emotional context. For this fMRI study, we selected a group with high trait aggression (HA, n=17) and one with low trait aggression (LA, n=16) from 550 males who had completed an Aggression Questionnaire. Neural activation was compared to an emotional version (including angry and neutral faces) of the stop signal task. Behavioral results revealed impaired response inhibition in HA, associated with higher motor impulsivity. This was accompanied by attenuated activation in brain regions involved in response inhibition, including the pre-supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor cortex. Together, these findings offer evidence that a reduced inhibition capacity is present in HA. Notably, response inhibition improved during anger trials in both groups, suggesting a facilitation effect through heightened activation in the related brain regions. In both groups, inclusion of the anger stimuli enhanced the activation of the motor and somatosensory areas, which modulate executive control, and of limbic regions including the amygdala. In summary, the investigation of response inhibition in individuals with high and low trait characteristics affords useful insights into the underlying distinct processing mechanisms. It can contribute to the investigation of trait markers in a clinical context without having to deal with the complex mechanisms of a clinical disorder itself. In contrast, the mechanisms of emotional response inhibition did not differ between groups

  4. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  5. Bullying-Victimization Problems and Aggressive Tendencies in Spanish Secondary Schools Students: The Role of Gender Stereotypical Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Raul; Larranaga, Elisa; Yubero, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents data concerning culturally prescribed gender traits and their influence on bullying/victimization problems and aggressive tendencies from a wide sample of 1,654 Spanish adolescents. The aims of this study were to clarify the effect of masculine traits on male and female secondary students' aggression, and also to explore the…

  6. Personality traits in established schizophrenia: aspects of usability and differences between patients and controls using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Tomas; Söderman, Erik; Gustavsson, J. Petter; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder. Aims: To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP. Methods: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 107) and healthy controls (n = 119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach’s alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used. PMID:27103375

  7. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression. PMID:24204980

  8. Costs and Benefits of Competitive Traits in Females: Aggression, Maternal Care and Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kristal E.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression. PMID:24204980

  9. Types of Aggression, Responsiveness to Provocation, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Luna C.; Frick, Paul J.; Kimonis, Eva R.; Aucoin, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in the behavioral and psychophysiological responses to provocation and in the level of callous-unemotional traits in boys exhibiting different patterns of aggression. Eighty-five boys (ages 13-18) in a juvenile detention center played a competitive computer task against a hypothetical peer who provided…

  10. Repulsed by violence: disgust sensitivity buffers trait, behavioral, and daily aggression.

    PubMed

    Pond, Richard S; Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Deckman, Timothy; Bonser, Ian M; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Many models of aggression include negatively valenced emotions as common elicitors of aggressive behavior. Yet, the motivational direction of these emotions is not taken into account. The current work explored whether sensitivity to a negative emotion associated with behavioral avoidance-disgust-will predict lower levels of aggression. Five studies tested the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity predicts less aggression. In Study 1 (N = 92), disgust sensitivity predicted less trait physical and verbal aggression. In Study 2 (N = 268), participants high in disgust sensitivity were less likely to behave aggressively towards a stranger on a reaction-time task. In Study 3 (N = 51), disgust sensitivity was associated with less intimate partner violence inclinations. Study 4 (N = 247) replicated this effect longitudinally. In Study 5 (N = 166), each domain of disgust (i.e., moral, sexual, and pathogen disgust) had a buffering effect on daily aggression when daily experiences activated those specific domains. These results highlight the usefulness of considering the motivational direction of an emotion when examining its influence on aggression. PMID:21707194

  11. Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in Asian adolescents: relations to narcissism, anxiety, schizotypal traits, and peer relations.

    PubMed

    Seah, Suzanne L; Ang, Rebecca P

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationship between reactive and proactive aggression, and narcissism, anxiety, schizotypal traits, and interpersonal relations in a sample of 698 Asian adolescents from Grades 7 to 9. Proactive aggression was found to be significantly associated with narcissism, whereas reactive aggression was significantly associated with anxiety, schizotypal traits, and poor interpersonal relations. Study findings provide support from a cross-cultural standpoint for differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression and represent an initial attempt to illustrate the generalizability of existing findings on the distinction between the two subtypes in an Asian context. Implications for theory building of the reactive-proactive aggression typology are discussed. PMID:18506675

  12. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training.

    PubMed

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel. PMID:27244064

  13. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  14. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-05-22

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.

  15. Pruritus in psoriasis: a study of personality traits, depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Remröd, Charlotta; Sjöström, Karin; Svensson, Åke

    2015-04-01

    Pruritus intensity is often not proportional to disease severity in patients with psoriasis or other pruritic dermatoses. Increasing evidence indicates that psychological factors may play an important role in the overall aetiology of pruritus. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with psoriasis and severe pruritus differ psychologically from those with mild pruritus. In this study of 101 patients with plaque psoriasis, those with severe pruritus reported significantly higher scores for both depression and anxiety. Using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, 4 personality traits were significantly associated with severe pruritus: Somatic trait anxiety, Embitterment, Mistrust, and Physical trait aggression. These results indicate that patients with psoriasis and severe pruritus might have a more vulnerable psychological constitution. This suggests important opportunities for clinicians to identify patients who could benefit from psychological interventions.

  16. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  17. Alprazolam treatment of avoidant personality traits in social phobic patients.

    PubMed

    Reich, J; Noyes, R; Yates, W

    1989-03-01

    The authors examined the effect of alprazolam treatment on avoidant personality traits in 14 DSM-III-R social phobics. Six of the nine avoidant traits examined improved with treatment. However, all but one trait (avoiding social or occupational activities requiring interpersonal contact) returned to baseline levels posttreatment. Treatment response and intercorrelation of items indicated two traits that may represent a separate segment of avoidant personality: "No close friends or confidants outside of relatives and family members" and "Exaggerates the potential dangers or risks of everyday situations."

  18. Aggression in US soldiers post-deployment: Associations with combat exposure and PTSD and the moderating role of trait anger.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Joshua E; Quartana, Phillip J; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Kok, Brian C; Riviere, Lyndon A

    2015-01-01

    Anger and aggression are among the most common issues reported by returning service members from combat deployments. However, the pathways between combat exposure and anger and aggression have not been comprehensively characterized. The present study aimed to characterize the relationship between trait anger, combat exposure, post-deployment PTSD, and aggression. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 2,420) were administered anonymous surveys assessing combat exposure, current PTSD symptoms and aggression, as well as trait anger items 3 months after returning from deployment to Afghanistan. PTSD symptom levels were related to aggression at higher levels of trait anger, but not evident among soldiers who had lower levels of trait anger. The pathway from combat exposure to PTSD, and then to aggression, was conditional upon levels of trait anger, such that the pathway was most evident at high levels of trait anger. This was the first study to our knowledge that concurrently modeled unconditional and conditional direct and indirect associations between combat exposure, PTSD, trait anger, and aggression. The findings can be helpful clinically and for developing screening protocols for combat exposed Soldiers. The results of this study suggest the importance of assessing and managing anger and aggression in soldiers returning from combat deployment. Anger is one of the most common complaints of returning soldiers and can have debilitating effects across all domains of functioning. It is imperative that future research efforts are directed toward understanding this phenomenon and developing and validating effective treatments for it.

  19. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits.

  20. Personality Trait Development and Social Investment in Work

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Nathan W.; Roberts, Brent W.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of employed individuals was used to test the relationship between social investment at work—the act of cognitively and emotionally committing to one’s job—and longitudinal and cross-sectional personality trait development. Participants provided ratings of personality traits and social investment at work at two time-points, separated by approximately three years. Data were analyzed using latent change models. Cross-sectional results showed that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability were related to social investment at work. Additionally, a positive association was found between longitudinal change in social investment in work and change in personality traits—especially conscientiousness. Finally, the correlated changes in social investment and personality traits were invariant across age groups, suggesting that personality traits remain malleable across the lifespan. PMID:22822278

  1. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  2. Intimate Relationships and Personal Distress: The Invisible Harm of Psychological Aggression.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Schkeryantz, Emily L

    2015-10-01

    Aggression in intimate relationships is pervasive, has been implicated in personal distress, and yet may not be perceived as harmful. Two studies (cross-sectional, longitudinal) examined whether being the target of psychologically aggressive behavior by a partner is uniquely associated with personal distress, beyond the effects of general couple functioning, perpetrating aggression, or experiencing physical aggression. New instances of psychological aggression by a partner predicted increases in personal distress. Study 2 also examined participants' perceptions of what causes them stress. Although psychological aggression by a partner predicted personal distress, participants did not perceive their relationship as a source of stress. This suggests a pattern of "invisible harm" in which individuals victimized by psychological aggression may not recognize the harm they are experiencing.

  3. Borderline personality traits and disorder: predicting prospective patient functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in DSM-V will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. This study addressed one aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of five-factor model personality traits and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms for predicting prospective patient functioning. Method Five-factor personality traits and BPD features were correlated with one another and predicted 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-year psychosocial functioning scores for 362 personality-disordered patients. Results Traits and symptom domains related significantly and pervasively to one another and to prospective functioning. FFM extraversion and agreeableness tended to be most incrementally predictive of psychosocial functioning across all intervals; cognitive and impulse action features of BPD features incremented FFM traits in some models. Conclusions These data suggest that BPD symptoms and personality traits are important long-term indicators of clinical functioning that both overlap with and increment one another in clinical predictions. Results support the integration of personality traits and disorders in DSM-V. PMID:20658814

  4. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    PubMed

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.

  5. Personality Processes: Mechanisms by which Personality Traits “Get Outside the Skin”

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    It is time to better understand why personality traits predict consequential outcomes, which calls for a closer look at personality processes. Personality processes are mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits. They include reactive and instrumental processes that moderate or mediate the association between traits and outcomes. These mechanisms are illustrated here by a selection of studies of traits representing the three broad domains of personality and temperament: negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint. Personality processes are studied over the short-term, as in event-sampling studies, and over the long-term, as in lifespan research. Implications of findings from the study of processes are considered for resolving issues in models of personality structure, improving and extending methods of personality assessment, and identifying targets for personality interventions. PMID:21740225

  6. Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2012-08-01

    Animal personalities have been demonstrated for almost 200 species, with stable dimensions of responses (aggressive to fearful; shy to bold) across contexts and with a heritable basis to these traits. As a long-lived and highly social species, elephants (Loxodonta africana) were expected to demonstrate complex dimensions to individual characteristics or personalities, which would be obvious to human observers and validated by behavioral observations. We used principal-components analysis of ratings on 26 behavioral adjectives applied to one social unit, coded as the EB family, which has been observed for 38 years. Eleven adult females were rated by four observers and found to have individually variable traits on four dimensions described by principal-components analysis. The first component was associated with effective and confident family leadership. Component 2 was age-related, and defined by playfulness, exploration and high levels of activity, suggesting both an experience and an age-related element to its structure. Component 3 represented gentleness and at its other extreme, aggression, and Component 4 was related to constancy (predictability and popularity), with both of these latter components reflecting social integration. Leadership among elephant females represents the successful negotiation among individual interests, and our components were related to a capacity to affect the behavior of others in the absence of aggressive dominance. The family matriarch, Echo, was high on elements associated with leadership. The importance of the matriarch in this family's success suggests that elements of personality may underlie interfamilial variation in long-term survival and reproduction.

  7. Evaluating Callous-Unemotional Traits as a Personality Construct.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the importance of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as a personality construct in isolation from other facets of psychopathy. Specifically, we review research suggesting that these traits are useful for designating a subgroup of youth with serious conduct problems who differ from other antisocial youth on important biological, emotional, cognitive, and social characteristics. In addition, the temperamental features related to CU traits are risk factors for impairments in conscience development in young children. Thus, these traits could advance theoretical models explaining the development of severe antisocial behavior and psychopathy. CU traits also have important clinical utility because they designate a particularly severe and impaired subgroup of antisocial youth, leading to their inclusion in the DSM-5. As a result of this inclusion in diagnostic classification, there has been an increased focus on how to best assess CU traits, and we discuss several key issues in their assessment, highlighting several limitations in existing measures. Finally, the increased use of CU traits, separately from other facets of psychopathy, makes it important to determine how these traits relate to other personality constructs. Thus, we examine how measures of CU traits relate to the broader construct of psychopathy and to other basic personality dimensions.

  8. Personality traits predict brain activation and connectivity when witnessing a violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Hortensius, Ruud; Sinke, Charlotte; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    As observers we excel in decoding the emotional signals telling us that a social interaction is turning violent. The neural substrate and its modulation by personality traits remain ill understood. We performed an fMRI experiment in which participants watched videos displaying a violent conflict between two people. Observers' attention was directed to either the aggressor or the victim. Focusing on the aggressor (vs. focusing on the victim) activated the superior temporal sulcus (STS), extra-striate body area (EBA), occipital poles and centro-medial amygdala (CMA). Stronger instantaneous connectivity occurred between these and the EBA, insula, and the red nucleus. When focusing on the victim, basolateral amygdala (BLA) activation was related to trait empathy and showed increased connectivity with the insula and red nucleus. STS activation was associated with trait aggression and increased connectivity with the hypothalamus. The findings reveal that focusing on the aggressor of a violent conflict triggers more activation in categorical (EBA) and emotion (CMA, STS) areas. This is associated with increased instantaneous connectivity among emotion areas (CMA-insula) and between categorical and emotion (EBA-STS) areas. When the focus is on the victim, personality traits (aggression/empathy) modulate activity in emotion areas (respectively STS and postcentral gyrus/ BLA), along with connectivity in the emotional diencephalon (hypothalamus) and early visual areas (occipital pole). PMID:26337369

  9. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress. PMID:26954662

  10. Do Personality Traits Conform to Lists or Hierarchies?

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, John C.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Are personality traits mostly related to one another in hierarchical fashion, or as a simple list? Does extracting an additional personality factor in a factor analysis tend to subdivide an existing factor, or does it just add a new one? Goldberg’s “bass-ackwards” method was used to address this question, based on rotations of 1 to 12 factors. Two sets of data were employed: ratings by 320 undergraduates using 435 personality-descriptive adjectives, and 512 Oregon community members’ responses to 184 scales from 8 personality inventories. In both, the view was supported that personality trait structure tends not to be strongly hierarchical: allowing an additional dimension usually resulted in a new substantive dimension rather than in the splitting of an old one, and once traits emerged they tended to persist. PMID:25147420

  11. A One Year Study of Adolescent Males with Aggression and Problems of Conduct and Personality: A Comparison of MDT and DBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Houston, Marsha-Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy, (MDT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, (DBT) in a Residential Treatment Center for adolescent males. All clients were admitted to the same Residential Treatment Center. Clients presented with physical aggression, suicidal ideation, with mixed personality disorders/traits. One…

  12. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  13. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  14. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  15. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait 'stability', which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  16. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P < 0.001). We also examined links between FA and the personality meta-trait ‘stability’, which is defined as the common variance underlying agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  17. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression. PMID:25047298

  18. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  19. Personality Traits of Police Cadets: Relationship to Academy Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topp, Bruce W.; Kardash, Carol Anne

    A study examined the relationship of the personality traits of 94 police cadets to their performance at a southwestern state law enforcement academy. The overall training success (percentage of total points earned) of recruits enrolled in 11 weeks of on-site training classes was the primary criterion of the study, and raw personality factor scores…

  20. Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

    2014-06-01

    While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution.

  1. An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.) places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic…

  2. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  3. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  4. Personality Traits as a Function of Beliefs and Childhood Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlin, George

    The origins of personality traits and emotions have long been a subject of investigation and controversy. Beginning with Freud, an argument has been made from a wide variety of perspectives that early childhood relationships to parents are a primary factor in shaping personality. Within a cognitive paradigm, people's beliefs about themselves and…

  5. Predicting Adult Occupational Environments from Gender and Childhood Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen A.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, the authors of this study examined associations among childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments more than 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were…

  6. The Impact of Vision Loss on Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koustriava, Eleni; Charalampidou, Maria; Gerapostolou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences in personality traits amongst adults with blindness, adults with low vision and sighted adults. Moreover, the relationship between the four scales of Eysenck's personality questionnaire and the demographic characteristics of participants with visual impairments was examined. There are no…

  7. Mechanisms by which Childhood Personality Traits Influence Adult Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test a lifespan health-behavior model in which educational attainment and health behaviors (eating habits, smoking, and physical activity) were hypothesized as mechanisms to account for relations between teacher ratings of childhood personality traits and self-reported health status at midlife. Design The model was tested on 1,054 members of the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort, which is a population-based cohort participating in a longitudinal study of personality and health spanning 40 years from childhood to midlife. Outcome Self-reported health status as a latent construct indicated by general health, functional status, and body mass index. Results Childhood Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect/Imagination influenced adult health status indirectly through educational attainment, healthy eating habits, and smoking. Several direct effects of childhood traits on health behaviors and health status were also observed. Conclusion The model extends past associations found between personality traits and health behaviors or health status by identifying a life-course pathway based on the health-behavior model through which early childhood traits influence adult health status. The additional direct effects of personality traits indicate that health-behavior mechanisms may not provide a complete account of relations between personality and health. PMID:17209705

  8. Personality over ontogeny in zebra finches: long-term repeatable traits but unstable behavioural syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wuerz, Yvonne; Krüger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time intervals between behavioural tests, but rarely thoroughly investigated across long time intervals crossing different stages of ontogeny. We performed such a longitudinal test across three life stages in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), representing about 15-20% of their life span in captivity, and found repeatabilities ranging from 0.03 to 0.67. Fearlessness and exploration were the most repeatable traits both within and across life stages. Activity and aggression were repeatable across, but not or only partly within life stages. Boldness was not repeatable. Furthermore, we found no evidence for a consistent behavioural syndrome structure across ontogeny. Our results indicate that the consistency of behavioural traits and their correlations might be overestimated and suggest that life-long stability of animal personality should not simply be assumed. PMID:26813709

  9. Personality over ontogeny in zebra finches: long-term repeatable traits but unstable behavioural syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A crucial assumption of animal personality research is that behaviour is consistent over time, showing a high repeatability within individuals. This assumption is often made, sometimes tested using short time intervals between behavioural tests, but rarely thoroughly investigated across long time intervals crossing different stages of ontogeny. We performed such a longitudinal test across three life stages in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), representing about 15-20% of their life span in captivity, and found repeatabilities ranging from 0.03 to 0.67. Fearlessness and exploration were the most repeatable traits both within and across life stages. Activity and aggression were repeatable across, but not or only partly within life stages. Boldness was not repeatable. Furthermore, we found no evidence for a consistent behavioural syndrome structure across ontogeny. Our results indicate that the consistency of behavioural traits and their correlations might be overestimated and suggest that life-long stability of animal personality should not simply be assumed. PMID:26813709

  10. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  11. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. PMID:26431683

  12. A Metastructural Model of Mental Disorders and Pathological Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such comorbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions—internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism—can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. Methods We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders, and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric outpatients. Results Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism, and detachment. Conclusions These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders, and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder. PMID:25903065

  13. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    PubMed

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  14. Personality Traits of Suicidality Are Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Suicidal Women Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ducasse, Déborah; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Guillaume, Sébastien; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Courtet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Both Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) might increase the risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality dimensions specifically involved in suicidal vulnerability and PMS/PMDD. Method We collected data from 232 women consecutively hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We examined the relationship between impulsivity, aggressiveness/hostility, hopelessness, trait anger, affect intensity, emotional lability, and PMS/PMDD. Notably, we created an algorithm from the shortened Premenstrual Assessment form in order to assess PMDD status. Results The proportions of PMS and PMDD among female suicide attempters were 50% and 23% respectively. Women with PMS or PMDD were more likely to endorse most of these personality traits to than those without even after controlling for potential confounders. We found an impulsive-aggressive pattern of personality in women with PMS or PMDD, independently from the time of the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, trait anger remained associated with both PMS and PMDD independently of every other personality traits. The higher the anger level, the higher the risk was to suffer from both PMS and PMDD. Conclusions This study demonstrates a strong, independent association between PMS/PMDD and trait anger among a representative sample of female suicide attempters. It is of major interest for clinicians in view of addressing a substantial public health problem among women of reproductive age. PMID:26863007

  15. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  16. Aggression in borderline personality disorder: A multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Mancke, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2015-07-01

    This article proposes a multidimensional model of aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) from the perspective of the biobehavioral dimensions of affective dysregulation, impulsivity, threat hypersensitivity, and empathic functioning. It summarizes data from studies that investigated these biobehavioral dimensions using self-reports, behavioral tasks, neuroimaging, neurochemistry as well as psychophysiology, and identifies the following alterations: (a) affective dysregulation associated with prefrontal-limbic imbalance, enhanced heart rate reactivity, skin conductance, and startle response; (b) impulsivity also associated with prefrontal-limbic imbalance, central serotonergic dysfunction, more electroencephalographic slow wave activity, and reduced P300 amplitude in a 2-tone discrimination task; (c) threat hypersensitivity associated with enhanced perception of anger in ambiguous facial expressions, greater speed and number of reflexive eye movements to angry eyes (shown to be compensated by exogenous oxytocin), enhanced P100 amplitude in response to blends of happy versus angry facial expressions, and prefrontal-limbic imbalance; (d) reduced cognitive empathy associated with reduced activity in the superior temporal sulcus/gyrus and preliminary findings of lower oxytocinergic and higher vasopressinergic activity; and (e) reduced self-other differentiation associated with greater emotional simulation and hyperactivation of the somatosensory cortex. These biobehavioral dimensions can be nicely linked to conceptual terms of the alternative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) model of BPD, and thus to a multidimensional rather than a traditional categorical approach. PMID:26191822

  17. Are the interpersonal and identity disturbances in the borderline personality disorder criteria linked to the traits of affective instability and impulsivity?

    PubMed

    Koenigsberg, H W; Harvey, P D; Mitropoulou, V; New, A S; Goodman, M; Silverman, J; Serby, M; Schopick, F; Siever, L J

    2001-08-01

    This study examines the degree to which two putative biologically influenced personality traits, affective instability and impulsive aggression, are associated with some of the interpersonal and intrapsychic disturbances of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and with choice of defense mechanism. In a sample of 152 personality disorder patients, affective instability and impulsive aggression were measured. Defense mechanisms were assessed in 140 of these patients using the Defensive Style Questionnaire (DSQ). The correlations between the traits of affective instability and impulsive aggression and the eight DSM-III-R criteria for borderline personality disorder and 20 DSQ defenses were examined. Affective instability was significantly correlated with the DSM-III-R criteria of identity disturbance, chronic emptiness or boredom, inappropriate anger, suicidality, and the affective instability criteria. It also was associated with the defenses of splitting, projection, acting out, passive aggression, undoing, and autistic fantasy. Impulsive aggression was related to unstable interpersonal relationships, inappropriate anger and impulsiveness and with the defense of acting out. It was negatively correlated with the defenses of suppression and reaction formation. A number of the interpersonal and experiential disturbances and defense mechanisms that are features of BPD are associated with the traits of affective instability and impulsive aggression among patients with personality disorders. PMID:11556702

  18. Love at a Distance: Aggression and Hatred in a Schizoid Personality.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Matthew H

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the history of aggression as a drive derivative with a particular emphasis on understanding the role that it plays in the schizoid personality. The author's hypothesis is that schizoid defenses reveal a distinction between aggression and what is commonly referred to as "hatred." Hatred is a defensive maneuver intended to control aggression. It is not a destructive force embedded within it. I propose that the schizoid person defends himself or herself by engaging in a sustained seduction away from the aggression embedded within love. The schizoid is, in the most defensive expression of himself or herself, being seduced by hatred.

  19. Additive and nonadditive genetic variation in avian personality traits.

    PubMed

    van Oers, K; Drent, P J; de Jong, G; van Noordwijk, A J

    2004-11-01

    Individuals of all vertebrate species differ consistently in their reactions to mildly stressful challenges. These typical reactions, described as personalities or coping strategies, have a clear genetic basis, but the structure of their inheritance in natural populations is almost unknown. We carried out a quantitative genetic analysis of two personality traits (exploration and boldness) and the combination of these two traits (early exploratory behaviour). This study was carried out on the lines resulting from a two-directional artificial selection experiment on early exploratory behaviour (EEB) of great tits (Parus major) originating from a wild population. In analyses using the original lines, reciprocal F(1) and reciprocal first backcross generations, additive, dominance, maternal effects ands sex-dependent expression of exploration, boldness and EEB were estimated. Both additive and dominant genetic effects were important determinants of phenotypic variation in exploratory behaviour and boldness. However, no sex-dependent expression was observed in either of these personality traits. These results are discussed with respect to the maintenance of genetic variation in personality traits, and the expected genetic structure of other behavioural and life history traits in general.

  20. Personality traits and vulnerability or resilience to substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Annabelle M; Volkow, Nora D; Moeller, F Gerard; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Clear evidence supports a genetic basis for substance use disorders (SUD). Yet, the search to identify individual gene contributions to SUD has been unsuccessful. Here, we argue for the study of endophenotypes within the frame of individual differences, and identify three high-order personality traits that are tied to specific brain systems and genes, and that offer a tractable approach to studying SUD. These personality traits, and the genes that moderate them, interact dynamically with the environment and with the drugs themselves to determine ultimately an individual's vulnerability or resilience to developing SUD.

  1. Personality Traits and Vulnerability or Resilience to Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Annabelle M.; Volkow, Nora D.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Clear evidence supports a genetic basis for Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Yet the search to identify individual gene contributions to SUD has been quite unsuccessful. Here we argue for the study of endophenotypes within the frame of individual differences, and identify three high-order personality traits that are tied to specific brain systems and genes, and that offer a tractable approach to studying SUD. These personality traits, and the genes that moderate them, interact dynamically with the environment and with the drugs themselves to ultimately determine an individual’s vulnerability or resilience to developing SUD. PMID:24612993

  2. Defining the construct of reactive aggression in borderline personality disorder: Commentary on "Aggression in borderline personality disorder--A multidimensional model".

    PubMed

    Flory, Janine D

    2015-07-01

    Comments on the article by F. Mancke et al. (see record 2015-31349-001). The article presents a multidimensional model of aggression in the context of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with a selective review of the research literature. BPD is arguably the most widely researched personality disorder, and the review suggests that there has been extensive progress in characterizing behavioral and biological correlates of aggression. What is not clear from the review, and indeed, the broader literature, is whether the research cited in this review is specific to BPD or can generally be applied to reactive aggression in the context of other disorders (or by extension into the normative range of the behavior). The review by Mancke et al. also highlights the fact that there is a general lack of research establishing predictive validity of aggression in BPD, with most research comparing two groups sampled at one time point.

  3. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  4. Handprints of the Mind: Decoding Personality Traits and Handwritings

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Mahesh Ramanina; Harish, Nikitha; Aslam, Arun; Padmanabiah, Mangala; Magaji, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Context: Handwriting analysis is a unique, specialized and emerging scientific process that has been carried out and applied for centuries now. However, its reliability and effectiveness as a method of assessing personality and behavior is not established and is still a debatable issue. The present paper aimed to examine the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis and to explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. Aim: The aim was to study the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis. Objectives: To explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. To study the possibility of using Graphotherapy as a remedial tool in aid of teaching/learning techniques and behavior modifications. Hypothesis: There are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of personality through Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) and handwriting analysis. Materials and Methods: N = 60, age group = 8-12 years. Tools: CPQ - a 16 personality factor scale and a semi-structured proforma. Simple random sampling technique was used. Results: The P values for the study sample were found to be greater than 0.05 at 5% level of significance to all the 14 dimensions of personality hence going in line with the null hypothesis that states “there are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of Personality through CPQ and handwriting analysis.” Graphologists were thoroughly trained to interpret on the same 14 dimensions of personality as that of CPQ, most samples were analyzed to have a lying loop, a trait, which might also be attributed to the difference found in Trait-H, further asserting the subjective limitations of most psychological tests. PMID:26702172

  5. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Binboga, Erdal; Guven, Senol; Catıkkaş, Fatih; Bayazıt, Onur; Tok, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychophysiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and personality traits in young taekwondo athletes. A total of 20 male and 10 female taekwondo athletes (mean age = 18.6 years; ± 1.8) volunteered for the study. The Five Factor Personality Inventory and the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure personality and cognitive state anxiety. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured twice, one day and approximately one hour prior to the competition, to determine psychophysiological arousal. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Several "Big Five" facets were related to the EDA delta scores that were measured both one day and one hour before the competition. Two stepwise regressions were conducted to examine whether personality traits could significantly predict both EDA delta scores. The final model, containing only neuroticism from the Big Five factors, can significantly explain the variations in the EDA delta scores measured one day before the competition. Agreeableness can significantly explain variations in the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. No relationship was found between cognitive anxiety and the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. In conclusion, personality traits, especially agreeableness and neuroticism, might be useful in understanding arousal responses to competition.

  6. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-01-01

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  7. Personality and morphological traits affect pigeon survival from raptor attacks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Cramer, Julia F.; Pârâu, Liviu G.; Miranda, Ana C.; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances. PMID:26489437

  8. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  9. Personality and morphological traits affect pigeon survival from raptor attacks.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Cramer, Julia F; Pârâu, Liviu G; Miranda, Ana C; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2015-10-22

    Personality traits have recently been shown to impact fitness in different animal species, potentially making them similarly relevant drivers as morphological and life history traits along the evolutionary pathways of organisms. Predation is a major force of natural selection through its deterministic effects on individual survival, but how predation pressure has helped to shape personality trait selection, especially in free-ranging animals, remains poorly understood. We used high-precision GPS tracking to follow whole flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) with known personalities and morphology during homing flights where they were severely predated by raptors. This allowed us to determine how the personality and morphology traits of pigeons may affect their risk of being predated by raptors. Our survival model showed that individual pigeons, which were more tolerant to human approach, slower to escape from a confined environment, more resistant to human handling, with larger tarsi, and with lighter plumage, were more likely to be predated by raptors. We provide rare empirical evidence that the personality of prey influences their risk of being predated under free-ranging circumstances.

  10. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-01-01

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  11. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  12. Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta-Analysis of Value-Personality Correlations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between personality traits and basic value dimensions. Furthermore, we developed novel country-level hypotheses predicting that contextual threat moderates value-personality trait relationships. We conducted a three-level v-known meta-analysis of correlations between Big Five traits and Schwartz's (1992) 10 values involving 9,935 participants from 14 countries. Variations in contextual threat (measured as resource threat, ecological threat, and restrictive social institutions) were used as country-level moderator variables. We found systematic relationships between Big Five traits and human values that varied across contexts. Overall, correlations between Openness traits and the Conservation value dimension and Agreeableness traits and the Transcendence value dimension were strongest across all samples. Correlations between values and all personality traits (except Extraversion) were weaker in contexts with greater financial, ecological, and social threats. In contrast, stronger personality-value links are typically found in contexts with low financial and ecological threats and more democratic institutions and permissive social context. These effects explained on average more than 10% of the variability in value-personality correlations. Our results provide strong support for systematic linkages between personality and broad value dimensions, but they also point out that these relations are shaped by contextual factors.

  13. Associations Between Changes in Normal Personality Traits and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms over 16 years

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However one critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in five-factor model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (N=290) or other PDs (N=72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions. PMID:25364942

  14. The structure of phenotypic personality traits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L R

    1993-01-01

    This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification. PMID:8427480

  15. The structure of phenotypic personality traits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L R

    1993-01-01

    This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification.

  16. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  17. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  18. Plasma oxytocin and personality traits in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Marie; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Petersson, Maria; Gustavsson, Petter; Svanborg, Pär; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-07-01

    The oxytocin system is regarded as being of relevance for social interaction. In spite of this, very few studies have investigated the relationship between oxytocin and personality traits in clinical psychiatric populations. We assessed the relationship between personality traits and plasma oxytocin levels in a population of 101 medication-free psychiatric outpatients (men = 37, women = 64). We used the Karolinska Scale of Personality (KSP) and diagnostic and symptomatic testing. Plasma oxytocin levels were analysed with a specific radioimmunoassay at inclusion and after one month for testing of stability. Plasma oxytocin levels were stable over time and did not differ between patients with or without personality disorders, nor were they related to severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms. The KSP factors Impulsiveness and Negative Emotionality were significant independent predictors of plasma oxytocin. A subscale analysis of these personality factors showed significant positive correlations between baseline plasma oxytocin and the KSP subscales monotony avoidance and psychic anxiety. The significant association between the KSP factor Impulsiveness and oxytocin levels observed at baseline was observed also one month later in men. These findings suggest that personality traits such as Impulsiveness and Negative emotionality which are linked to social functioning in several psychiatric disorders seem to be associated with endogenous plasma oxytocin levels. These variations in oxytocin levels might have an impact on social sensitivity or social motivation with possible gender differences.

  19. Pathological personality traits modulate neural interactions.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Engdahl, Brian E; Leuthold, Arthur C; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), includes an empirically supported dimensional model of personality pathology that is assessed via the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG; 248 sensors) to evaluate resting-state neural network properties associated with the five primary DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains (negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism) in 150 healthy veterans ("control" group) and 179 veterans with various psychiatric disorders ("psychopathology" group). Since a fundamental network property is the strength of functional connectivity among network elements, we used the absolute value of the pairwise correlation coefficient (aCC) between prewhitened MEG sensor time series as a measure of neural functional connectivity and assessed its relations to the quantitative PID-5 scores in a linear regression model, where the log-transformed aCC was the dependent variable and individual PID scores, age, and gender were the independent variables. The partial regression coefficient (pRC) for a specific PID-5 score in that model provided information concerning the direction (positive, negative) and size (absolute value) of the PID effect on the strength of neural correlations. We found that, overall, PID domains had a negative effect (i.e., negative pRC; decorrelation) on aCC in the control group, but a positive one (i.e., positive pRC; hyper-correlation) in the psychopathology group. This dissociation of PID effects on aCC was especially pronounced for disinhibition, psychoticism, and negative affect. These results document for the first time a fundamental difference in neural-PID relations between control and psychopathology groups. PMID:26319544

  20. Evaluation of behavioral impulsivity and aggression tasks as endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Michael S.; New, Antonia S.; Siever, Larry J.; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Flory, Janine D.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is marked by aggression and impulsive, often self-destructive behavior. Despite the severe risks associated with BPD, relatively little is known about the disorder’s etiology. Identification of genetic correlates (endophenotypes) of BPD would improve the prospects of targeted interventions for more homogeneous subsets of borderline patients characterized by specific genetic vulnerabilities. The current study evaluated behavioral measures of aggression and impulsivity as potential endophenotypes for BPD. Subjects with BPD (N = 127), a non cluster B personality disorder (OPD N = 122), or healthy volunteers (HV N = 112) completed self report and behavioral measures of aggression, motor impulsivity and cognitive impulsivity. Results showed that BPD subjects demonstrated more aggression and motor impulsivity than HV (but not OPD) subjects on behavioral tasks. In contrast, BPD subjects self-reported more impulsivity and aggression than either comparison group. Subsequent analyses showed that among BPD subjects behavioral aggression was associated with self-reported aggression, while behavioral and self-report impulsivity measures were more modestly associated. Overall, the results provide partial support for the use of behavioral measures of aggression and motor impulsivity as endophenotypes for BPD, with stronger support for behavioral aggression measures as an endophenotype for aggression within BPD samples. PMID:19232640

  1. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  2. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  3. An Exploration of Personality Traits in Older Adult Amateur Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don D.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question for the study was, "Will older adult amateur musicians' personality profiles reflect the traits found in professional musicians?" Participants (N = 58, ages 52 to 79) recruited from a New Horizons Institute "band camp" for older adult amateur musicians completed a musical background questionnaire and the Cattell…

  4. Personality Traits and Intelligence Predict Academic School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which personality traits and intelligence scores predict school level academic performance (AP), (British GCSE: General Certificate of Secondary Education; America Grade 10) in different disciplines. The participant sample consisted of approximately 250 school pupils from three schools in the South East of…

  5. The Controversial Role of Personality Traits in Entrepreneurial Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, David J.; Wilson, Kerry M.

    2003-01-01

    The usefulness of personality traits in the explanation and prediction of entrepreneurship is critically evaluated, and both contemporary theory and existing empirical findings are reviewed, emphasizing the need for conceptual clarity and methodological reform. Detailed recommendations for future research are outlined, and this critique is…

  6. The Role of Personality Traits in Web Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayram, Servet; Deniz, Levent; Erdogan, Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships among personality traits and learners' academic achievement in a web based environment and attitudes towards web based education. 127 students enrolled in the e-MBA Masters Degree of Bilgi University constituted the study group of the research. A survey method was used for the study and the data…

  7. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  8. Personality Traits and Occupational Stress among Chinese Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of personality traits for occupational stress among Chinese university academics. Two hundred and forty-six participants responded to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that the strongest predictor for occupational…

  9. The Roots of Creativity: Cognitive Ability or Personality Trait?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews his own and others' findings on the personality traits of psychoticism, neuroticism, and introversion and their relationship with creativity and originality. Findings show some correlation between creativity in the arts with introversion, neurotic behavior, and higher scores of psychoticism. (CL)

  10. Exploring the genetics of nestling personality traits in a wild passerine bird: testing the phenotypic gambit.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Kluen, Edward

    2012-12-01

    When several personality traits covary, they form a behavioral syndrome. Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of a behavioral syndrome requires knowledge of its genetic underpinning. At present, our understanding of the genetic basis of behavioral syndromes is largely restricted to domestic and laboratory animals. Wild behavioral syndromes are mostly inferred on the basis of phenotypic correlations, and thus make the "phenotypic gambit" of assuming that these phenotypic correlations capture the underlying genetic correlations. On the basis of 3 years of reciprocal cross-fostering of 2896 nestlings of 271 families within a pedigreed population, we show that the nestling personality traits handling aggression, breathing rate, and docility are heritable (h(2) = 16-29%), and often have a pronounced "nest-of-rearing" variance component (10-15%), but a relatively small "nest-of-origin" variance component (0-7%). The three nestling personality traits form a behavioral syndrome on the phenotypic and genetic level. Overall, the phenotypic correlations provide a satisfactory description of the genetic ones, but significantly underestimate the magnitude of one of the pairwise genetic correlations, which mirrors the conclusion based on domestic and laboratory studies.

  11. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  12. Mentoring Highly Aggressive Children: Pre-Post Changes in Mentors' Attitudes, Personality, and Attachment Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Melissa A.; Fiala, Samuel E.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring…

  13. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…

  14. Conceptualizing and Measuring Self-Criticism as Both a Personality Trait and a Personality State.

    PubMed

    Zuroff, David C; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Kelly, Allison C; Leybman, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    Blatt's ( 2004 , 2008 ) conceptualization of self-criticism is consistent with a state-trait model that postulates meaningful variation in self-criticism both between persons (traits) and within person (states). We tested the state-trait model in a 7-day diary study with 99 college student participants. Each evening they completed a 6-item measure of self-criticism, as well as measures of perceived social support, positive and negative affect, compassionate and self-image goals during interactions with others, and interpersonal behavior, including overt self-criticism and given social support. As predicted, self-criticism displayed both trait-like variance between persons and daily fluctuations around individuals' mean scores for the week; slightly more than half of the total variance was between persons (ICC = .56). Numerous associations at both the between-persons and within-person levels were found between self-criticism and the other variables, indicating that individuals' mean levels of self-criticism over the week, and level of self-criticism on a given day relative to their personal mean, were related to their cognitions, affect, interpersonal goals, and behavior. The results supported the construct validity of the daily self-criticism measure. Moreover, the findings were consistent with the state-trait model and with Blatt's theoretical analysis of self-critical personality.

  15. Fathers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness as Predictors of Adult Sons' Perceptions of Fathers' Sarcasm, Criticism, and Verbal Aggressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that approximately 40% of the variance in adult sons' reports of fathers' messages (sarcasm, criticism, and verbal aggressiveness) was attributable to fathers' self-reported argumentativeness and verbal aggression. (SR)

  16. Interrelations of Justice, Rejection, Provocation, and Moral Disgust Sensitivity and Their Links with the Hostile Attribution Bias, Trait Anger, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Bondü, Rebecca; Richter, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Several personality dispositions with common features capturing sensitivities to negative social cues have recently been introduced into psychological research. To date, however, little is known about their interrelations, their conjoint effects on behavior, or their interplay with other risk factors. We asked N = 349 adults from Germany to rate their justice, rejection, moral disgust, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attribution bias, trait anger, and forms and functions of aggression. The sensitivity measures were mostly positively correlated; particularly those with an egoistic focus, such as victim justice, rejection, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attributions and trait anger as well as those with an altruistic focus, such as observer justice, perpetrator justice, and moral disgust sensitivity. The sensitivity measures had independent and differential effects on forms and functions of aggression when considered simultaneously and when controlling for hostile attributions and anger. They could not be integrated into a single factor of interpersonal sensitivity or reduced to other well-known risk factors for aggression. The sensitivity measures, therefore, require consideration in predicting and preventing aggression. PMID:27303351

  17. Interrelations of Justice, Rejection, Provocation, and Moral Disgust Sensitivity and Their Links with the Hostile Attribution Bias, Trait Anger, and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Richter, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Several personality dispositions with common features capturing sensitivities to negative social cues have recently been introduced into psychological research. To date, however, little is known about their interrelations, their conjoint effects on behavior, or their interplay with other risk factors. We asked N = 349 adults from Germany to rate their justice, rejection, moral disgust, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attribution bias, trait anger, and forms and functions of aggression. The sensitivity measures were mostly positively correlated; particularly those with an egoistic focus, such as victim justice, rejection, and provocation sensitivity, hostile attributions and trait anger as well as those with an altruistic focus, such as observer justice, perpetrator justice, and moral disgust sensitivity. The sensitivity measures had independent and differential effects on forms and functions of aggression when considered simultaneously and when controlling for hostile attributions and anger. They could not be integrated into a single factor of interpersonal sensitivity or reduced to other well-known risk factors for aggression. The sensitivity measures, therefore, require consideration in predicting and preventing aggression. PMID:27303351

  18. Association between personality traits and substance use in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-03-02

    Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor.

  19. Association between personality traits and substance use in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor. PMID:26990262

  20. Individual Differences in the Extent and Development of Aggressive Cognitive-Associative Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.

    1996-01-01

    Extends L. Berkowitz's neoassociationist aggression model by considering the role of personality variables. Experiment one tested the hypothesis that high-trait-aggressive individuals have more developed aggressive cognitive-associative networks than low-trait-aggressive individuals. In experiment two, participants rated the stimulus words used in…

  1. Personality Trait Similarity Between Spouses in Four Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Thomas A.; H⊆ebí ková, Martina; Urbánek, Tomáš; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of trait similarity (assortative mating) in married couples in four cultures, using both self-reports and spouse ratings on versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. There was evidence of a subtle but pervasive perceived contrast bias in the spouse rating data. However, there was strong agreement across methods of assessment and moderate agreement across cultures in the pattern of results. Most assortment effects were small, but correlations exceeding .40 were seen for a subset of traits, chiefly from the Openness and Agreeableness domains. Except in Russia, where more positive assortment was seen for younger couples, comparisons of younger and older cohorts showed little systematic difference. This suggested that mate selection, rather than convergence over time, accounted for similarity. Future research on personality similarity in dyads can utilize different designs, but should assess personality at both domain and the facet levels. PMID:18665894

  2. Aggression in Persons with Dementia: Use of Nursing Theory to Guide Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dettmore, Diane; Kolanowski, Ann; Boustani, Malaz

    2009-01-01

    With approximately four million people in the United States today diagnosed with dementia, one of the most devastating problems faced by caregivers and patients is dealing with aggressive behavior. Aggression occurs in half of persons diagnosed with dementia and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, increased risk of abuse, and caregiver burden. This paper uses the Need-driven Dementia-compromised Behavior (NDB) model to explain aggression and discusses therapeutic approaches to care that combines non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions targeting both the management of aggression crisis and preventing its future recurrence. A clinical algorithm guided by the NBD model is provided for practitioners. PMID:19215808

  3. Pathological personality traits can capture DSM-IV personality disorder types.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes an alternative diagnostic approach to the assessment of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III with the aim of stimulating further research. Diagnosis of a PD using this approach is predicated on the presence of personality impairment and pathological personality traits. The types of traits present (e.g., callousness vs. emotional lability) are used to derive DSM-IV PD scores. Concerns have been raised, however, that such a trait-based approach will yield PD constructs that differ substantially from those generated using the approaches articulated in previous iterations of the DSM. We empirically examined this issue in a sample of 109 adults who were currently receiving mental health treatment. More specifically, we examined the correlations between interview-based PD scores derived from DSM-IV to DSM-5 PD trait counts, and tested them in relation to the 30 specific facets of the five-factor model, as well as internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Overall, the DSM-IV PD scores and DSM-5 PD trait counts correlated significantly with one another (Mr = .63), demonstrated similar patterns of interrelations among the PDs, and manifested highly similar patterns of correlations with general personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology. These results indicate that the DSM-5 PD trait counts specified in the alternative DSM-5 PD diagnostic approach capture the same constructs as those measured using the more traditional DSM-IV diagnostic system.

  4. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  5. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  6. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    PubMed

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  7. An integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression: implications for predicting counterproductive workplace behavior.

    PubMed

    Bing, Mark N; Stewart, Susan M; Davison, H Kristl; Green, Philip D; McIntyre, Michael D; James, Lawrence R

    2007-05-01

    This study presents an integrative typology of personality assessment for aggression. In this typology, self-report and conditional reasoning (L. R. James, 1998) methodologies are used to assess 2 separate, yet often congruent, components of aggressive personalities. Specifically, self-report is used to assess explicit components of aggressive tendencies, such as self-perceived aggression, whereas conditional reasoning is used to assess implicit components, in particular, the unconscious biases in reasoning that are used to justify aggressive acts. These 2 separate components are then integrated to form a new theoretical typology of personality assessment for aggression. Empirical tests of the typology were subsequently conducted using data gathered across 3 samples in laboratory and field settings and reveal that explicit and implicit components of aggression can interact in the prediction of counterproductive, deviant, and prosocial behaviors. These empirical tests also reveal that when either the self-report or conditional reasoning methodology is used in isolation, the resulting assessment of aggression may be incomplete. Implications for personnel selection, team composition, and executive coaching are discussed.

  8. The link between psychosis and aggression in persons with dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shub, Denis; Ball, Valdesha; Abbas, Asghar-Ali Ali; Gottumukkala, Aruna; Kunik, Mark E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine whether aggression is linked to psychosis in persons with dementia. An electronic search using PubMed for articles in English focusing on psychosis and aggression or agitation in adults aged 65+ with dementia. Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and randomized controlled treatment studies examining the outcomes of aggression and psychosis were eligible for inclusion. Eighteen articles were selected for final analysis. Of the seven cross-sectional and two longitudinal studies directly examining the correlation of aggression and psychosis, most showed a positive association. Outcome data from the nine treatment studies was more mixed. Limited data link psychosis with aggression in persons with dementia. Prospectively designed studies looking at the temporal relationship of these variables are needed to make a stronger causal argument.

  9. Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

  10. Implicit and explicit personality: a test of a channeling hypothesis for aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Frost, Brian C; Ko, Chia-Huei Emily; James, Lawrence R

    2007-09-01

    D. G. Winter, O. P. John, A. J. Stewart, E. C. Klohnen, and L. E. Duncan (1998) proposed that self-beliefs about personality influence the channels through which people express their implicit motives. On the basis of this hypothesis, the authors predicted that self-beliefs about aggressiveness would influence the channel(s) through which people express their aggressive motive and the justification mechanisms they use to defend expression of this motive. For example, the authors predicted that people who were implicitly prepared to rationalize a desire to harm others would engage in (a) overt aggression if they viewed themselves as aggressive or (b) passive aggression if they viewed themselves as nonaggressive. The implicit aspects of aggressiveness were measured via conditional reasoning (L. R. James et al., 2005). Results based on intramural basketball players supported the channeling hypothesis.

  11. Impact of Missing Data on Person-Model Fit and Person Trait Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bo; Walker, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of missing data on person-model fit and person trait estimation in tests with dichotomous items. Under the missing-completely-at-random framework, four missing data treatment techniques were investigated including pairwise deletion, coding missing responses as incorrect, hotdeck imputation,…

  12. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)—A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7–10 years). PMID:27252661

  13. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood. PMID:26259042

  14. Sport participation, screen time, and personality trait development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A; Laborde, Sylvain

    2015-09-01

    This investigation explored the contribution of extracurricular sport and screen time viewing (television viewing and electronic gaming) to personality trait stability and change during childhood. Two independent samples of 3,956 young children (age 6) and 3,862 older children (age 10) were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parent-reported child sport participation, screen time, and personality traits were measured at baseline and again 24 months later. Young children who were more active recorded more of a decrease in introversion, less of a decrease in persistence, and less of an increase in reactivity, than those who were less active. Older children who were more active recorded less of an increase in introversion and more of an increase in persistence than those who were less active. In addition, young children who continued participation in extracurricular sport had greater intra-individual stability of personality for introversion. These finding suggest that an active lifestyle might help to facilitate desirable personality trait stability and change during childhood.

  15. Personality traits of pair members predict pair compatibility and reproductive success in a socially monogamous parrot breeding in captivity.

    PubMed

    Fox, Rebecca A; Millam, James R

    2014-01-01

    While pair behavioral compatibility seems to be a determinant of reproductive success in at least some species of monogamous birds, the specific factors underlying among-pair variation in behavioral compatibility remain poorly understood. However, recent research on the relationship between personality traits and reproductive success in several species of socially monogamous birds suggests that the fit between mates' personality traits might play a role in determining behavioral compatibility. To test this hypothesis, we used ten pairs formed by free choice from a captive population of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) to investigate whether personality ratings could be used to predict pair compatibility and reproductive success in pairs breeding for the first time. We found that pairs that ultimately hatched eggs paired disassortatively for agreeableness (an aggregate measure of social style which measures birds' tendency to be aggressive vs. gentle, submissive, and tolerant of others' behavior), and, as predicted, showed lower intrapair aggression and better coordination during incubation. Conversely, unsuccessful pairs paired assortatively for agreeableness, showed higher levels of intrapair aggression, and showed poorer coordination during incubation. Our results suggest that personality measurements may provide a useful adjunct to other information currently used in selecting mates for birds breeding in captivity.

  16. The Bright and Dark Side Correlates of Creativity: Demographic, Ability, Personality Traits and Personality Disorders Associated with Divergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the personality trait and personality disorder correlates of creative potential, as assessed by a divergent thinking (DT) test. Over 4,000 adult managers attending an assessment center completed a battery of tests including a "bright side," normal personality trait measures (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, or…

  17. Relationship of personality traits and drug of choice by cocaine addicts and heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Bertacca, S; Zaimovic, A; Pirani, M; Branchi, B; Ferri, M

    2008-01-01

    The link between specific personality profiles and a single psychotropic drug of choice is still unclear and only partially explored. The present study compares three groups of male subjects: 85 patients manifesting heroin dependence (age: 30.07 +/- 2.78), 60 patients manifesting cocaine dependence (age: 31.96 +/- 3.1), and 50 healthy subjects from a random population sample (age: 33.25 +/- 1.45). The patients included in the study showed a long-lasting history of dependence on heroin or cocaine, respectively, 5.2 +/- 2.5 years, 4.6 +/- 2.9 years, and were stabilized in treatment, and abstinent, at least 4 weeks at the time of the diagnostic assessment. Heroin addicts (52.90%) were on methadone maintenance treatment. Cocaine addicts (11.60%) were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Personality traits were measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and Cloninger's Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Character and quantification of aggressiveness were measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Heroin-dependent patients (group A) scored significantly higher on hysteria, masculine-feminine and social introversion subscales of the MMPI, and significantly lower on the harm avoidance (HA) subscale of the TPQ than cocaine addicts. In contrast, scores on the MMPI for hypochondria, psychopathic deviance, and paranoia dimensions were more elevated in cocaine addicts than in heroin-dependent patients. Cocaine addicts scored higher than heroin addicts on the "direct" aggressiveness subscale and on the BDHI total score. Cocaine addicts did not differ from healthy controls on harm avoidance (behavioral control). Although cocaine addicts showed more consistent psychopathic deviance and overt aggressiveness than heroin addicts, higher harm avoidance (behavioral control), hypochondria (or worry about their health), and social extroversion may reduce their proneness to overt antisocial behavior and allow

  18. Personality traits as intermediary phenotypes in suicidal behavior: genetic issues.

    PubMed

    Baud, Patrick

    2005-02-15

    A genetic contribution to the risk of suicidal behavior is now supported by many studies. It probably involves specific factors acting on their own, independently of the genetic transmission of associated psychiatric disorders. A history of childhood maltreatment, adverse events, psychosocial stress, psychological traits and major psychiatric disorders all appear to contribute to the global risk of suicide attempt or completion. The interplay between previously identified risk factors, different as they are in nature and degree of complexity, still remains to be clarified. A stress-diathesis model has been proposed, where trait-like genetic and developmental risk factors (the diathesis) interact through still unknown mechanisms with actual (stress-related) factors to create the conditions for a suicidal gesture. Disentangling the effects of these risk factors, and specifically the effects of the genetic factors influencing these different pathological conditions, appears to be a difficult task. Indeed the results of candidate gene association studies suggest that genetic vulnerability factors for various related psychiatric phenotypes (major psychiatric disorders and personality traits) partly overlap with more specific factors predisposing to suicidal behavior. Personality traits are partly under genetic control and may be closer to the genetic effects than psychiatric syndromes. We review here the available data on the genetics of personality traits presumably involved in suicidal behavior, focusing on the association studies carried out with serotonin-related genes. We suggest that future studies on the genetic vulnerability to suicidal behavior should include the investigation of endophenotypes, with the aim of deciphering the mechanisms underlying the genetic susceptibility to these closely associated phenotypes.

  19. Aggression in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Social Information Processing and Response to Peer Provocation.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Sarah A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; King, Sara; Willoughby, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Callous/unemotional traits (CU) moderate children's conduct problems (CP) in numerous domains, including social functioning. The present study examined whether CU traits also moderate the aggressiveness of children's social information processing (SIP) and responses to varying intensities of peer provocation. Sixty elementary school-age children (46 males) were grouped into those without CP or CU (controls, n = 32), those with CP but not CU (CP-only; n = 14), and those with both CP and CU (CPCU, n = 14). Participants completed a task that measured two aspects of SIP (response generation and hostile attribution bias) and a computerized reaction time task (CRTT) that measured behavior, affect, and communication before and after provocation under instrumental and hostile aggressive conditions. Children with CPCU generated more aggressive responses than controls on measures of SIP. On the CRTT, all children exhibited reactive aggression following high provocation, but only children with CPCU exhibited proactive aggression, and reactive aggression following low provocation; no differences in affect were found. In a series of exploratory analyses, CPCU children communicated antisocially, while CP-only communicated prosocially. Finally, children with CPCU did not seem to hold a grudge following the final instance of provocation, instead gradually returning to baseline like their non-CU peers. These distinct social cognitive and behavioral profiles hint at different etiologies of CP and CPCU, underscoring the variability of aggression in these populations.

  20. Aggression in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Social Information Processing and Response to Peer Provocation.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Sarah A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; King, Sara; Willoughby, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Callous/unemotional traits (CU) moderate children's conduct problems (CP) in numerous domains, including social functioning. The present study examined whether CU traits also moderate the aggressiveness of children's social information processing (SIP) and responses to varying intensities of peer provocation. Sixty elementary school-age children (46 males) were grouped into those without CP or CU (controls, n = 32), those with CP but not CU (CP-only; n = 14), and those with both CP and CU (CPCU, n = 14). Participants completed a task that measured two aspects of SIP (response generation and hostile attribution bias) and a computerized reaction time task (CRTT) that measured behavior, affect, and communication before and after provocation under instrumental and hostile aggressive conditions. Children with CPCU generated more aggressive responses than controls on measures of SIP. On the CRTT, all children exhibited reactive aggression following high provocation, but only children with CPCU exhibited proactive aggression, and reactive aggression following low provocation; no differences in affect were found. In a series of exploratory analyses, CPCU children communicated antisocially, while CP-only communicated prosocially. Finally, children with CPCU did not seem to hold a grudge following the final instance of provocation, instead gradually returning to baseline like their non-CU peers. These distinct social cognitive and behavioral profiles hint at different etiologies of CP and CPCU, underscoring the variability of aggression in these populations. PMID:25936288

  1. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence.

  2. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence. PMID:19237190

  3. Clinician perceptions of personal safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression in a forensic psychiatric setting.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Daffern, M

    2006-02-01

    Inpatient mental health clinicians need to feel safe in the workplace. They also require confidence in their ability to work with aggressive patients, allowing the provision of therapeutic care while protecting themselves and other patients from psychological and physical harm. The authors initiated this study with the predetermined belief that a comprehensive and integrated organizational approach to inpatient aggression was required to support clinicians and that this approach increased confidence and staff perceptions of personal safety. To assess perceptions of personal safety and confidence, clinicians in a forensic psychiatric hospital were surveyed using an adapted version of the Confidence in Coping With Patient Aggression Instrument. In this study clinicians reported the hospital as safe. They reported confidence in their work with aggressive patients. The factors that most impacted on clinicians' confidence to manage aggression were colleagues' knowledge, experience and skill, management of aggression training, use of prevention and intervention strategies, teamwork and the staff profile. These results are considered with reference to an expanding literature on inpatient aggression. It is concluded that organizational resources, policies and frameworks support clinician perceptions of safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression. However, how these are valued by clinicians and translated into practice at unit level needs ongoing attention.

  4. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits of Women's College Students in Relation to Early Departure from College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sarah E.; Scepansky, James A.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits of coeducational students have been shown to correlate with early withdrawal intention from college (Lounsbury, Saudargas, & Gibson, 2004). The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits as well as seven narrow personality traits in relation to withdrawal intention among 103 female…

  5. Personality and defensive reactions: fear, trait anxiety, and threat magnification.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Adam M; Cooper, Andrew; Abdelall, Maura; Smillie, Luke D; Corr, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (rRST) of personality (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) maintains that trait individual differences in the operation of defensive systems relate to facets of human personality, most notably anxiety and fear. We investigated this theory in 2 separate studies (total N=270) using a threat scenario research strategy (Blanchard, Hynd, Minke, Minemoto, & Blanchard, 2001). Consistent with rRST, results showed that individuals with high fear questionnaire scores tended to select defensive responses entailing orientation away from threat (e.g., run away) and that fear-prone individuals also tended to perceive threats as magnified. The extent of this threat magnification mediated the positive association observed between fear and orientation away from threat. Overall, results suggest that interindividual variance in defensive reactions is associated with a variety of existing personality constructs but that further research is required to determine the precise relationship between personality and defensive reactions.

  6. Borderline personality disorder and related traits in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2009-05-01

    Persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related traits appear in many forensic psychiatry settings. Their clinical hallmarks affecting judgment, insight, impulsivity, motivations, and regulation of emotions, as well as their frequently chaotic lives (internal and external), inaccurate perceptions, rationalizations, and comorbid syndromes can have a marked effect on many civil, criminal, and institutional (eg, corrections) issues. Individuals with BPD are overrepresented in civil, criminal, and child custody forensic situations. The character psychopathology of these individuals is substantial, but is often not obvious to laypersons, including lawyers, judges, and jurors. The presence of BPD rarely affects basic responsibility for the person's actions, nor does it usually compromise most forms of competency. Function, not diagnosis, is the key arbiter of forensic relevance. BPD is associated with an increase in the likelihood of doctor-patient problems, including patient complaints and lawsuits that may not be deserved. Forensic professionals evaluating persons with BPD and related traits should be aware of personal and professional bias, particularly that associated with true countertransference.

  7. Taxonomy and structure of Persian personality-descriptive trait terms.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mohammad N; De Raad, Boele; Farzad, Valiolla; Fotoohie, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    We described the development of a taxonomy of Persian personality-descriptive terms in two studies. In Study 1, judges scanned Persian dictionaries and several Persian novels for person-descriptive terms. The resulting set of person-descriptive terms was classified into different categories of description, including the category of dispositional trait-descriptive adjectives. Of the 544 most familiar traits, 126 traits were selected to collect self-ratings. In Study 2, self-ratings were provided by 2400 students. Ratings were factor analysed (Principal Components Analysis) followed by Varimax rotation. Factor structures with two to six factors were discussed. The two-factor structure and the three-factor structure confirm the Big Two and the Big Three, respectively. Of the structures with five and six factors, the five-factor structure appears to be the more appropriate choice, with the factors labelled Morality, Positive versus Negative Emotionality, Achievement, Thoughtfulness and Affection. Gender differences were measured on both the five-factor structure and the six-factor structure. The discussion section emphasised both cross-cultural commonalities and cultural deviations in reference to the Big Five.

  8. Who punishes? Personality traits predict individual variation in punitive sentiment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Vakirtzis, Antonios; Kristjánsdóttir, Lilja; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cross-culturally, participants in public goods games reward participants and punish defectors to a degree beyond that warranted by rational, profit-maximizing considerations. Costly punishment, where individuals impose costs on defectors at a cost to themselves, is thought to promote the maintenance of cooperation. However, despite substantial variation in the extent to which people punish, little is known about why some individuals, and not others, choose to pay these costs. Here, we test whether personality traits might contribute to variation in helping and punishment behavior. We first replicate a previous study using public goods scenarios to investigate effects of sex, relatedness and likelihood of future interaction on willingness to help a group member or to punish a transgressor. As in the previous study, we find that individuals are more willing to help related than unrelated needy others and that women are more likely to express desire to help than men. Desire to help was higher if the probability of future interaction is high, at least among women. In contrast, among these variables, only participant sex predicted some measures of punitive sentiment. Extending the replication, we found that punitive sentiment, but not willingness to help, was predicted by personality traits. Most notably, participants scoring lower on Agreeableness expressed more anger towards and greater desire to punish a transgressor, and were more willing to engage in costly punishment, at least in our scenario. Our results suggest that some personality traits may contribute to underpinning individual variation in social enforcement of cooperation. PMID:23531805

  9. [Addiction and personality traits: sensation seeking, anhedonia, impulsivity].

    PubMed

    Sarramon, C; Verdoux, H; Schmitt, L; Bourgeois, M

    1999-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of three dimensional traits of personality (Sensation Seeking, Anhedonia, Impulsivity) among 65 patients admitted in a psychiatric ward, with or without addictive behaviors. Our objective is to establish that these personality traits are commun to all addictive behaviors and to test the hypothesis that high scores on the three scales are linked to a greater probability of presenting with addictive behaviors. The two most frequent types of addiction were alcoholism and drug abuse. The subjects presenting with one or several addictive behaviors had higher average scores on the three scales. Our results printed in the same direction for the subjects having shown an addictive behavior in their past history. The risk to present with an addictive behavior increased with the total scores of these self-report questionnaires. There was a significant relationship between 3 sub-dimensions on the Sensation Seeking Scale and addictive behavior. Each time sub-scores of boredom susceptibility, disinhibition and thrill and adventure rise by one, the risk to present with an addictive behavior is multiplied by 1.4 for the first two and by 1.3 for the third one. Subjects with high scores on the anhedonia and impulsivity scales respectively show a risk multiplied by 1.6 and 3.3 of developing an addictive behavior. These results of this transverse study confirm the link between addiction behavior and these three personality traits.

  10. Who punishes? Personality traits predict individual variation in punitive sentiment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Vakirtzis, Antonios; Kristjánsdóttir, Lilja; Havlíček, Jan

    2013-02-18

    Cross-culturally, participants in public goods games reward participants and punish defectors to a degree beyond that warranted by rational, profit-maximizing considerations. Costly punishment, where individuals impose costs on defectors at a cost to themselves, is thought to promote the maintenance of cooperation. However, despite substantial variation in the extent to which people punish, little is known about why some individuals, and not others, choose to pay these costs. Here, we test whether personality traits might contribute to variation in helping and punishment behavior. We first replicate a previous study using public goods scenarios to investigate effects of sex, relatedness and likelihood of future interaction on willingness to help a group member or to punish a transgressor. As in the previous study, we find that individuals are more willing to help related than unrelated needy others and that women are more likely to express desire to help than men. Desire to help was higher if the probability of future interaction is high, at least among women. In contrast, among these variables, only participant sex predicted some measures of punitive sentiment. Extending the replication, we found that punitive sentiment, but not willingness to help, was predicted by personality traits. Most notably, participants scoring lower on Agreeableness expressed more anger towards and greater desire to punish a transgressor, and were more willing to engage in costly punishment, at least in our scenario. Our results suggest that some personality traits may contribute to underpinning individual variation in social enforcement of cooperation.

  11. Social familiarity modulates personality trait in a cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, L.; Vitorino, A.; Oliveira, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits, such as exploration–avoidance, are expected to be adaptive in a given context (e.g. low-risk environment) but to be maladaptive in others (e.g. high-risk environment). Therefore, it is expected that personality traits are flexible and respond to environmental fluctuations, given that consistency across different contexts is maintained, so that the relative individual responses in relation to others remains the same (i.e. although the magnitude of the response varies the differences between high and low responders are kept). Here, we tested the response of male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) to a novel object (NO) in three different social contexts: (i) social isolation, (ii) in the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific, and (iii) in the presence of a familiar conspecific. Males in the familiar treatment exhibited more exploratory behaviour and less neophobia than males in either the unfamiliar or the social isolation treatments. However, there were no overall correlations in individual behaviour across the three treatments, suggesting a lack of consistency in exploration–avoidance as measured by the NO test in this species. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol responsiveness to an acute stressor between the three treatments. Together, these results illustrate how behavioural traits usually taken as measures of personality may exhibit significant flexibility and lack the expected consistency across different social contexts. PMID:22859562

  12. [Personality traits and vulnerability markers--problems of assessment].

    PubMed

    von Zerssen, D

    1994-01-01

    Personality traits play an increasing role in research on the vulnerability to mental disorders. Problems of their assessment are dealt with here with special reference to work of our own in this area. Personality inventories for self-rating or informants' rating are appropriate instruments for retrospective as well as prospective investigations. They should be short and, at the same time, suites for the assessment of the main dimensions of personality, the "Big Five". The Munich Personality Test (MPT) and the Six Factor Test (SFT) serve as examples in this context. They were already successfully applied in clinical and outpatient settings and in "high-risk" studies. In retrospective investigations, a newly developed method for the operationalized diagnosis of personality types from case history data can be used as well. On the basis of this approach, we have recently developed a Biographical Personality Interview (BPI) which, in combination with personality inventories, can be regarded an optimal device for the assessment of premorbid personality in psychiatric patients.

  13. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  14. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at <30 years and ≥35 years of age for young and late onset groups, respectively. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis I disorders (SCID-P) was used prospectively for diagnoses. Premorbid personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia.

  15. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject’s ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  16. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak. PMID:25978647

  17. Research Review: The Importance of Callous-Unemotional Traits for Developmental Models of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Paul J.; White, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reviews research suggesting that the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style designates an important subgroup of antisocial and aggressive youth. Specifically, callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt, absence of empathy, callous use of others) seem to be relatively stable across childhood and…

  18. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA

    2014-12-30

    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects. PMID:25468626

  19. Personality Traits in Patients with Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Adami Dehkordi, Mahboobeh; Javanbakht, Maryam; Sarfarazi Moghadam, Shima; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Abolbashari, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus is a common complaint in patients referred to otorhinolaryngology clinics and is a condition where one hears a sound without any distinguishable external acoustic source or electrical stimulus. About 3-30% of adults experience different degrees of tinnitus during their life. This study aims to ascertain and compare personality traits between patients with tinnitus and a control group. Materials and Methods: In a case control study, 66 participants were assessed. The case group consisted of 33 patients who suffered from tinnitus for at least two months, in addition to 33 healthy volunteers who were selected among their family (preferably of the same age and sex). A standard demographic questionnaire and an Eyzenck personality questionnaire were filled for both groups. A tinnitus severity index (TSI) questionnaire was only filled for the case group. Data from each group was compared by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests. SPSS V.18 was the selected software. Results: Statistical analysis showed a meaningful difference in neuroticism (P=0.001) and extraversion (P=0.001) between the patients and the controls; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups regarding psychotism. Conclusion: Tinnitus can be associated with personality characteristics. This study showed that in patients with tinnitus, neuroticism increases and extraversion decreases. Considering the personality and psychotic traits observed in the patients with tinnitus, psychiatric consultation is recommended. PMID:26568941

  20. Exploring the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games.

    PubMed

    Park, Jowon; Song, Yosep; Teng, Ching-I

    2011-12-01

    The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference.

  1. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  2. The Utility of Forms and Functions of Aggression in Emerging Adulthood: Association with Personality Disorder Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Houston, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 679 (341 women) emerging adults (M = 18.90 years; SD = 1.11; range = 18.00-22.92) participated in a study on the utility of forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggression. We examined the link between these four subtypes of aggression and personality pathology (i.e., psychopathic…

  3. Personality traits and environmental choices: On the search for understanding.

    PubMed

    Farizo, Begoña A; Oglethorpe, David; Soliño, Mario

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that individuals will choose among alternative courses of action for power generation from wind farms according to their personality profiles. Through a factor analysis we found that certain characteristics of personality do indeed have an effect on environmental choice. The study involves an extensive survey based on the Big Five Traits model to find a pattern of choice that will help to better understand environmental decisions and be useful for policy makers to identify target groups and preview reactions to different courses of action. The research is potentially useful for the better preparation and design of publicity material, awareness raising campaigns and information provision for complex or unpopular policies affecting the environment or in environmental education in general. This research is especially interested in shedding some light on how personality is involved in the processes of environmental decision making, despite the limitations of the present study. PMID:27220093

  4. Personality traits and environmental choices: On the search for understanding.

    PubMed

    Farizo, Begoña A; Oglethorpe, David; Soliño, Mario

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that individuals will choose among alternative courses of action for power generation from wind farms according to their personality profiles. Through a factor analysis we found that certain characteristics of personality do indeed have an effect on environmental choice. The study involves an extensive survey based on the Big Five Traits model to find a pattern of choice that will help to better understand environmental decisions and be useful for policy makers to identify target groups and preview reactions to different courses of action. The research is potentially useful for the better preparation and design of publicity material, awareness raising campaigns and information provision for complex or unpopular policies affecting the environment or in environmental education in general. This research is especially interested in shedding some light on how personality is involved in the processes of environmental decision making, despite the limitations of the present study.

  5. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  6. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905

  7. Correlations for Adolescent Resilience Scale with big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Motoyuki; Oshio, Atsushi; Kaneko, Hitoshi

    2006-06-01

    Currently, individuals tend to encounter many unavoidable, painful events and hardships in the process of growth and development. To lead one's life adapting to these social conditions, it is necessary to maintain one's mental health even while experiencing challenging events; in other words, resilience is required. This study of 130 undergraduates focused on the Adolescent Resilience Scale which assesses capacity for successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances and examined correlations with scores on the Big Five Personality Inventory. A significant negative correlation of -.59 (p<.001) was noted for scores on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Neuroticism dimension of the Big Five Personality Inventory, accounting for 35% of the variance, and positive values with the Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness dimensions (rs= .37, .40, .48, accounting for 14, 16, and 18% of the variance, respectively. Personalities of adolescents who have psychological traits leading to resilience may be partially predicted using these results. PMID:16933700

  8. Personality and cognitive profiles of a general synesthetic trait.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-07-29

    The recent sharp increase in studies on synesthesia has taught us a lot about this fascinating condition. Still, while we define synesthesia as 'the mixing of senses', the great majority of synesthesia studies focus on only one synesthesia type (in particular grapheme-color synesthesia). In this study, a large group of subjects are tested on the presence or absence of different types of synesthesia. Efforts to recruit a representative sample of the Dutch population, not related to or aware of synesthesia as a research topic, helped counter a selection bias or a self-report bias in our subject group. A sharp increase in synesthesia prevalence was found, at least partially due to including many different types of synesthesia in the synesthesia 'diagnoses'. The five synesthesia types reported in the Novich et al (2011) study were obtained; Colored Sequences, Colored Music, Colored Sensations, Spatial Sequences, Non-Visual Sequelae, as well as an additional synesthesia type, Sequence-Personality. No differences were found between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in education level, handedness, age, and sex. The synesthetes showed increased intelligence as compared with matched non-synesthetes. This was a general effect rather than bound to a specific cognitive domain or to a specific (synesthesia-type to stimulus-material) relationship. The expected effect of increased "Openness" in synesthetes was obtained, as well as two unexpected effects in personality traits (increased "Neuroticism" and decreased "Conscientiousness"). We also found increased "Emotionality" (experiencing emotions) and increased "Fantasizing", but synesthetes did not differ in cognitive appraisal of emotions (identifying/analyzing/verbalizing of emotions). The personality and cognitive characteristics were found related to having synesthesia (in general) rather then to particular synesthesia subtypes. This supports the existence of a general synesthetic 'trait', over the notion of relatively

  9. Personality and cognitive profiles of a general synesthetic trait.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-07-29

    The recent sharp increase in studies on synesthesia has taught us a lot about this fascinating condition. Still, while we define synesthesia as 'the mixing of senses', the great majority of synesthesia studies focus on only one synesthesia type (in particular grapheme-color synesthesia). In this study, a large group of subjects are tested on the presence or absence of different types of synesthesia. Efforts to recruit a representative sample of the Dutch population, not related to or aware of synesthesia as a research topic, helped counter a selection bias or a self-report bias in our subject group. A sharp increase in synesthesia prevalence was found, at least partially due to including many different types of synesthesia in the synesthesia 'diagnoses'. The five synesthesia types reported in the Novich et al (2011) study were obtained; Colored Sequences, Colored Music, Colored Sensations, Spatial Sequences, Non-Visual Sequelae, as well as an additional synesthesia type, Sequence-Personality. No differences were found between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in education level, handedness, age, and sex. The synesthetes showed increased intelligence as compared with matched non-synesthetes. This was a general effect rather than bound to a specific cognitive domain or to a specific (synesthesia-type to stimulus-material) relationship. The expected effect of increased "Openness" in synesthetes was obtained, as well as two unexpected effects in personality traits (increased "Neuroticism" and decreased "Conscientiousness"). We also found increased "Emotionality" (experiencing emotions) and increased "Fantasizing", but synesthetes did not differ in cognitive appraisal of emotions (identifying/analyzing/verbalizing of emotions). The personality and cognitive characteristics were found related to having synesthesia (in general) rather then to particular synesthesia subtypes. This supports the existence of a general synesthetic 'trait', over the notion of relatively

  10. An Investigation of Students' Personality Traits and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to validate an instrument of attitudes toward science and to investigate grade level, type of school, and gender differences in Taiwan's students' personality traits and attitudes toward science as well as predictors of attitudes toward science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary students and 1,954 secondary students completed the School Student Questionnaire in 2008. Factor analyses, correlation analyses, ANOVAs, and regressions were used to compare the similarities and differences among male and female students in different grade levels. The findings were as follows: female students had higher interest in science and made more contributions in teams than their male counterparts across all grade levels. As students advanced through school, student scores on the personality trait scales of Conscientiousness and Openness sharply declined; students' scores on Neuroticism dramatically increased. Elementary school and academic high school students had significantly higher total scores on interest in science than those of vocational high and junior high school students. Scores on the scales measuring the traits of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness were the most significant predictors of students' attitudes toward science. Implications of these findings for classroom instruction are discussed.

  11. CT dose minimization using personalized protocol optimization and aggressive bowtie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yin, Zhye; Jin, Yannan; Wu, Mingye; Yao, Yangyang; Tao, Kun; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; De Man, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we propose to use patient-specific x-ray fluence control to reduce the radiation dose to sensitive organs while still achieving the desired image quality (IQ) in the region of interest (ROI). The mA modulation profile is optimized view by view, based on the sensitive organs and the ROI, which are obtained from an ultra-low-dose volumetric CT scout scan [1]. We use a clinical chest CT scan to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept: the breast region is selected as the sensitive organ region while the cardiac region is selected as IQ ROI. Two groups of simulations are performed based on the clinical CT dataset: (1) a constant mA scan adjusted based on the patient attenuation (120 kVp, 300 mA), which serves as baseline; (2) an optimized scan with aggressive bowtie and ROI centering combined with patient-specific mA modulation. The results shows that the combination of the aggressive bowtie and the optimized mA modulation can result in 40% dose reduction in the breast region, while the IQ in the cardiac region is maintained. More generally, this paper demonstrates the general concept of using a 3D scout scan for optimal scan planning.

  12. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    PubMed

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally.

  13. Childhood trauma is associated with maladaptive personality traits.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Hudson W; Pereira, Rebeca; Frozi, Julia; Bisol, Luísa W; Ottoni, Gustavo L; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-06-01

    The association between childhood trauma and personality traits has been poorly characterized and reported. Our aim was to evaluate whether distinct types of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with various personality dimensions using data from a large web-based survey. A total of 12,225 volunteers responded anonymously to the Internet versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) via our research website, but only 8,114 subjects (75.7% women, mean age 34.8±11.3yrs) who met the criteria for validity were included in the analysis. Childhood trauma was positively associated with harm avoidance and was negatively associated with self-directedness and, to a lesser extent, with cooperativeness. The associations were robust with emotional abuse and neglect but were non-significant or mild with physical trauma. Emotional neglect was associated with reduced reward dependence and persistence. All types of abuse, but not neglect, were associated with increased novelty seeking scores. Reporting of childhood trauma, especially of an emotional nature, was associated with maladaptive personality traits. Further investigation of the effects of different types of childhood trauma on psychological and neurobiological parameters is warranted. PMID:25541148

  14. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  15. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  16. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

  17. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12614507

  18. PSYCHOPATHIC PERSONALITY TRAITS IN MIDDLE-AGED MALE TWINS:A BEHAVIOR GENETIC INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Michael; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Kosson, David S.; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Lyons, Michael J.; Franz, Carol E.; Eisen, Seth A.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic personality is characterized by Interpersonal dominance, Impulsivity, sensation seeking, poor planning, and aggressiveness. Studies have shown that the Multidimensional Personality Question-naire (MPQ) can be used to estimate scores on the fearless-dominant (FD) and the Impulsive-antisocial (IA) dimensions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), the best validated self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits. Prior behavior genetic studies reported roughly equal genetic and nonshared environmental influences for both FD and IA, which remained stable from adolescence to young adulthood. However, no prior studies address genetic and environmental influences on these dimensions beyond early adulthood. We utilized the classic twin method to examine genetic and environmental influences on variance in FD and IA in a sample of middle-aged male twins. Biometric modeling indicated that the variance In both factors Is best explained by additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences. FD showed roughly equal contributions from genetic and environmental factors, whereas IA showed greater contributions from environmental than genetic factors. Additionally, the small phenotypic correlation between FD and IA was explained entirely by nonshared environmental factors. PMID:20695807

  19. Improving Assessment of Personality Disorder Traits Through Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Allan; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    When assessing personality disorder traits, not all judges make equally valid judgments of all targets. The present study uses social network analysis to investigate factors associated with reliability and validity in peer assessment. Participants were groups of military recruits (N = 809) who acted as both targets and judges in a round-robin design. Participants completed self- and informant versions of the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology. Social network matrices were constructed based on reported acquaintance, and cohesive subgroups were identified. Judges who shared a mutual subgroup were more reliable and had higher self-peer agreement than those who did not. Partitioning networks into two subgroups achieved more consistent improvements than multiple subgroups. We discuss implications for multiple informant assessments. PMID:17760855

  20. Personality Traits Prospectively Predict Verbal Fluency in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N=4,790; age range 14–94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between Conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the lifespan. A disposition towards emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance. PMID:21707179

  1. Altered striatal circuits underlie characteristic personality traits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toru; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Tabu, Hayato; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been suggested to share personality traits characterised by low novelty-seeking and high harm-avoidance. Although a link between novelty-seeking and dopamine is hypothesised, the link is not fully supported by 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Meanwhile, tractography studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) link personality to the connectivity of the striatum in healthy subjects. Here, we investigated neurochemical and anatomical correlates of characteristic personality traits in PD. Sixteen PD patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. All patients and 17 randomly selected controls were scanned with 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-[N-(11)C-methyl]tropane ([(11)C]CFT) PET to measure striatal dopamine transporter availability. All subjects were scanned with MRI to evaluate the connectivity of the striatum using probabilistic tractography. PET findings revealed no correlation of novelty-seeking and harm-avoidance with [(11)C]CFT uptake in patients or controls. Novelty-seeking correlated positively with the connectivity strength of the striatum with the hippocampus and amygdala in both patients and controls. Harm-avoidance and the fibre connectivity strength of the striatum including ventral area with the amygdala correlated negatively in patients and positively in controls, which differed significantly between the groups. Our data support the notion that the fibre connectivity of the striatum with limbic and frontal areas underlies the personality profile. Furthermore, our findings suggest that higher harm-avoidance in PD is linked to alterations of the network, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. PMID:27334907

  2. Polymorphism in the Serotonin Receptor 2a (HTR2A) Gene as Possible Predisposal Factor for Aggressive Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Nanasi, Tibor; Szekely, Anna; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive manifestations and their consequences are a major issue of mankind, highlighting the need for understanding the contributory factors. Still, aggression-related genetic analyses have so far mainly been conducted on small population subsets such as individuals suffering from a certain psychiatric disorder or a narrow-range age cohort, but no data on the general population is yet available. In the present study, our aim was to identify polymorphisms in genes affecting neurobiological processes that might explain some of the inter-individual variation between aggression levels in the non-clinical Caucasian adult population. 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were simultaneously determined in 887 subjects who also filled out the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Single marker association analyses between genotypes and aggression scores indicated a significant role of rs7322347 located in the HTR2A gene encoding serotonin receptor 2a following Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.0007) both for males and females. Taking the four BPAQ subscales individually, scores for Hostility, Anger and Physical Aggression showed significant association with rs7322347 T allele in themselves, while no association was found with Verbal Aggression. Of the subscales, relationship with rs7322347 was strongest in the case of Hostility, where statistical significance virtually equaled that observed with the whole BPAQ. In conclusion, this is the first study to our knowledge analyzing SNPs in a wide variety of genes in terms of aggression in a large sample-size non-clinical adult population, also describing a novel candidate polymorphism as predisposal to aggressive traits. PMID:25658328

  3. Students’ Aggression and Its Relevance to Personal, Family, and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Shahghasemi, Zohreh; Davarinia Motlagh Ghochan, Arezoo; Baratpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggression is defined as behaviors intended to hurt, harm, or injure another person. Aggression is by no means a new concern in human society, especially in youth. Universities are among the institutions in which most of the members are young people and because of facing with various personal and social stressors, the students usually experience high level of stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine aggression among university students and its association with their personal, family, and social characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on a representative sample (n = 809) of university students (1 state university and 2 private universities) locating in Gonabad, Iran in 2012. Using proportional to size stratified sampling, we selected the respondents and gathered the required data using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS (version 20) and analyzed through t test, ANOVA, and regression model. Results: A total of 381 (47.2%) male and 428 (52.8%) female students participated in the study. Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 21.79 (2.86) years. Overall mean aggression score (SD) in the students was 72.45 (15.49) and this score for in dorm and out of dorm students was 74.31 (15.59) and 70.93 (15.23), respectively. There were significant associations between the mean aggression score of dormitory students and sex (P = 0.004), age (P = 0.044), and type of the university (P = 0.039). On the other hand, there was no significant association between all independent factors and mean aggression score of students living out of dorm. Conclusions: Regarding the control of aggressive behaviors, paying attention to male, young students living in dormitory, especially in non-governmental universities has the highest priority. PMID:26756005

  4. Next steps in research on aggression in borderline personality disorder: Commentary on "Aggression in borderline personality disorder--A multidimensional model".

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Comments on the article by F. Mancke et al. (see record 2015-31349-001). The article proposes a multidimensional model of aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the basis of an overview of empirical studies supporting the proposed dimensions. We applaud the authors for the timeliness of this piece and their comprehensive summary of the empirical literature on aggression in BPD. We highlight several issues for further attention and study. We first discuss the proposed multidimensional model itself with an emphasis on the choice of constructs, clinical applications, and limitations. We acknowledge the importance of this first step in model-building (i.e., the identification of potentially important dimensions as inferred from variable-focused, group-based comparisons). However, we encourage the necessary next steps-a movement toward a mechanistic and dynamic understanding of these dimensions that relies more heavily on a person-centered approach and enhances clinical relevance. In that spirit, we make some suggestions for future research on aggression in BPD that may have increased translational value for prevention and intervention. PMID:26191825

  5. Predicting Adult Occupational Environments from Gender and Childhood Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen A.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests, and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, this study examined associations between childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments over 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were assessed on the Big Five by their teachers when aged 6–12 years. In middle-age (late 40’s) they reported their occupation. Holland’s RIASEC vocational types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) were used to characterize the job environments of reported occupations. Childhood Openness/Intellect and Conscientiousness, but no other Big Five traits, were associated with occupational environments. For the most strongly sex-typed work environments, associations with Openness/Intellect were moderated by gender. Discussion of these findings suggested that the roots of the strongest gender stereotyping effects in occupations may be found not only in the social factors associated with gender, but also in the individual differences of children related to Openness/Intellect. PMID:20822206

  6. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14-16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262

  7. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14–16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262

  8. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14-16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms.

  9. Genetics of personalities: no simple answers for complex traits.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    Identifying the genes that underlie phenotypic variation in natural populations, and assessing the consequences of polymorphisms at these loci for individual fitness are major objectives in evolutionary biology. Yet, with the exception of a few success stories, little progress has been made, and our understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype is still in its infancy. For example, although body length in humans is largely genetically determined, with heritability estimates greater than 0.8, massive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have only been able to account for a very small proportion of this variation (Gudbjartsson et al. 2008). If it is so difficult to explain the genetics behind relatively 'simple' traits, can we envision that it will at all be possible to find genes underlying complex behavioural traits in wild non-model organisms? Some notable examples suggest that this can indeed be a worthwhile endeavour. Recently, the circadian rhythm gene Clock has been associated with timing of breeding in a wild blue tit population (Johnsen et al. 2007; Liedvogel et al. 2009) and the Pgi gene to variation in dispersal and flight endurance in Glanville fritillary butterflies (Niitepold et al. 2009). A promising candidate gene for influencing complex animal personality traits, also known as behavioural syndromes (Sih et al. 2004), is the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. Within the last decade, polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in novelty seeking and exploration behaviour in a range of species, from humans to great tits (Schinka et al. 2002; Fidler et al. 2007). In this issue, Korsten et al. (2010) attempt to replicate this previously observed association in wild-living birds, and test for the generality of the association between DRD4 and personality across a number of European great tit populations.

  10. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  11. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  12. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  13. Alcohol Expectancies in Relation to Personality and Aggression among Juvenile Delinquents in Northern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman A.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Sidorov, Pavel I.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related…

  14. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed. PMID:25643223

  15. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed.

  16. Clinical and personality traits in emotional disorders: Evidence of a common framework.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Kotov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Certain clinical traits (e.g., ruminative response style, self-criticism, perfectionism, anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and thought suppression) increase the risk for and chronicity of emotional disorders. Similar to traditional personality traits, they are considered dispositional and typically show high temporal stability. Because the personality and clinical-traits literatures evolved largely independently, connections between them are not fully understood. We sought to map the interface between a widely studied set of clinical and personality traits. Two samples (N = 385 undergraduates; N = 188 psychiatric outpatients) completed measures of personality traits, clinical traits, and an interview-based assessment of emotional-disorder symptoms. First, the joint factor structure of these traits was examined in each sample. Second, structural equation modeling was used to clarify the effects of clinical traits in the prediction of clinical symptoms beyond negative temperament. Third, the incremental validity of clinical traits beyond a more comprehensive set of higher-order and lower-order personality traits was examined using hierarchical regression. Clinical and personality traits were highly correlated and jointly defined a 3-factor structure-Negative Temperament, Positive Temperament, and Disinhibition-in both samples, with all clinical traits loading on the Negative Temperament factor. Clinical traits showed modest but significant incremental validity in explaining symptoms after accounting for personality traits. These data indicate that clinical traits relevant to emotional disorders fit well within the traditional personality framework and offer some unique contributions to the prediction of psychopathology, but it is important to distinguish their effects from negative temperament/neuroticism. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505406

  17. Gender Differences in Psychopathic Traits, Types, and Correlates of Aggression among Adjudicated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…

  18. Trait Argumentativeness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Minimally Rational Argument: An Observational Analysis of Friendship Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semic, Beth A.; Canary, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Finds that argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness did not correlate with the development and defense of undergraduate students' ideas but that the dyad's composition (in terms of argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness) affected the proportion of ideas developed through argument. Suggests that argumentativeness and aggressiveness research…

  19. The moderating effects of cluster B personality traits on violence reduction training: a mixed-model analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerhart, James I; Ronan, George F; Russ, Eric; Seymour, Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapies have positive effects on anger and aggression; however, individuals differ in their response to treatment. The authors previously found that dynamic factors, such as increases in readiness to change, are associated with enhanced outcomes for violence reduction training. This study investigated how less dynamic factors, specifically Cluster B personality traits, moderate the effects of violence reduction training. The authors used mixed modeling to fit growth curves to 14 weeks of anger strategies data and evaluated whether the presence of Cluster B traits affected pretreatment anger levels and rates of change. As expected, overall levels of negative anger strategies decreased across the 14-week treatment. Participants with antisocial, borderline, and histrionic personality features reported higher rates of negative anger strategies, whereas those with narcissistic personality features reported fewer negative anger strategies. Those with antisocial personality features improved at a rate similar to the overall trend of those without Cluster B traits. Those with borderline and histrionic features improved at an accelerated rate.

  20. Personality Traits as Risk Factors for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Michio; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical outcome of antidepressant treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is thought to be associated with personality traits. A number of studies suggest that depressed patients show high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and cooperativeness, as measured on the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). However, the psychology of these patients is not well documented. Methods Psychological evaluation using Cloninger’s TCI, was performed on treatment-resistant MDD patients (n = 35), remission MDD patients (n = 31), and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 174). Results Treatment-resistant patients demonstrated high scores for harm avoidance, and low scores for reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness using the TCI, compared with healthy controls and remission patients. Interestingly, patients in remission continued to show significantly high scores for harm avoidance, but not other traits in the TCI compared with controls. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between reward dependence and harm avoidance in the treatment-resistant depression cohort, which was absent in the control and remitted depression groups. Conclusions This study suggests that low reward dependence and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23717477

  1. Who Multitasks on Smartphones? Smartphone Multitaskers' Motivations and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Shim, Hongjin

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the psychological determinants of smartphone multitasking. Smartphone multitasking comprises the following three different subtypes: multitasking with nonmedia activities, cross-media multitasking with nonsmartphone media, and single-device multitasking within the smartphone. The primary motivations for smartphone multitasking were first identified--efficiency, utility, and positive affect--and the ways in which they are associated with the three subtypes were examined; among the primary motivations, efficiency and positive affect predicted the degree of total smartphone-multitasking behavior. The personality traits that are pertinent to all of the primary motivations--need for cognition (NFC) and sensation seeking (SS)--were also investigated. Further analyses revealed that the motivations for and the extent of smartphone multitasking can vary as functions of a user's NFC and SS. In this study, NFC was not only a meaningful predictor of the cognitive needs that drive smartphone multitasking but also increased the likelihood of multitasking through its interaction with SS.

  2. New evidence for the cerebellar involvement in personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Picerni, Eleonora; Petrosini, Laura; Piras, Fabrizio; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Cutuli, Debora; Chiapponi, Chiara; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Following the recognition of its role in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum has been involved in cognitive, emotional, and even personality domains. This study investigated the relationships between cerebellar macro- and micro-structural variations and temperamental traits measured by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). High resolution T1-weighted, and Diffusion Tensor Images of 100 healthy subjects aged 18–59 years were acquired by 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance scanner. In multiple regression analyses, cerebellar Gray Matter (GM) or White Matter (WM) volumes, GM Mean Diffusivity (MD), and WM Fractional Anisotropy (FA) were used as dependent variables, TCI scores as regressors, gender, age, and education years as covariates. Novelty Seeking scores were associated positively with the cerebellar GM volumes and FA, and negatively with MD. No significant association between Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence or Persistence scores and cerebellar structural measures was found. The present data put toward a cerebellar involvement in the management of novelty. PMID:24106465

  3. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter. PMID:16086606

  4. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  5. A multi-rater framework for studying personality: The trait-reputation-identity model.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Samuel T; Connelly, Brian S

    2016-10-01

    Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters. Drawing on the logic of the Johari window (Luft & Ingham, 1955), the Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry Model (Vazire, 2010), and Socioanalytic Theory (Hogan, 1996; Hogan & Blickle, 2013), we present a new model that separates personality variance into consensus about underlying traits (Trait), unique self-perceptions (Identity), and impressions conveyed to others that are distinct from self-perceptions (Reputation). We provide three demonstrations of how this Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) Model can be used to understand (a) consensus and discrepancies across rating sources, (b) personality's links with self-evaluation and self-presentation, and (c) gender differences in traits. We conclude by discussing how researchers can use the TRI Model to achieve a more sophisticated view of personality's impact on life outcomes, developmental trajectories, genetic origins, person-situation interactions, and stereotyped judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504526

  6. A multi-rater framework for studying personality: The trait-reputation-identity model.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Samuel T; Connelly, Brian S

    2016-10-01

    Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters. Drawing on the logic of the Johari window (Luft & Ingham, 1955), the Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry Model (Vazire, 2010), and Socioanalytic Theory (Hogan, 1996; Hogan & Blickle, 2013), we present a new model that separates personality variance into consensus about underlying traits (Trait), unique self-perceptions (Identity), and impressions conveyed to others that are distinct from self-perceptions (Reputation). We provide three demonstrations of how this Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) Model can be used to understand (a) consensus and discrepancies across rating sources, (b) personality's links with self-evaluation and self-presentation, and (c) gender differences in traits. We conclude by discussing how researchers can use the TRI Model to achieve a more sophisticated view of personality's impact on life outcomes, developmental trajectories, genetic origins, person-situation interactions, and stereotyped judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Genomic mapping of social behavior traits in a F2 cross derived from mice selectively bred for high aggression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapid response to selection was previously observed in mice selected for high levels of inter-male aggression based on number of attacks displayed in a novel social interaction test after isolation housing. Attack levels in this high aggression line (NC900) increased significantly within just four generations of selective breeding, suggesting the presence of a locus with large effect. We conducted an experiment using a small (n ≈ 100) F2 cross between the ICR-derived, non-inbred NC900 strain and the low aggression inbred strain C57BL/6J, genotyped for 154 fully informative SNPs, to determine if a locus with large effect controls the high-aggression selection trait. A second goal was to use high density SNP genotyping (n = 549,000) in the parental strains to characterize residual patterns of heterozygosity within NC900, and evaluate regions that are identical by descent (IBD) between NC900 and C57BL/6J, to determine what impacts these may have on accuracy and resolution of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in the F2 cross. Results No evidence for a locus with major effect on aggressive behavior in mice was identified. However, several QTL with genomewide significance were mapped for aggression on chromosomes 7 and 19 and other social behavior traits on chromosomes 4, 7, 14, and 19. High density genotyping revealed that 28% of the genome is still segregating among the six NC900 females used to originate the F2 cross, and that segregating regions are present on every chromosome but are of widely different sizes. Regions of IBD between NC900 and C57BL/6J are found on every chromosome but are most prominent on chromosomes 10, 16 and X. No significant differences were found for amounts of heterozygosity or prevalence of IBD in QTL regions relative to global analysis. Conclusions While no major gene was identified to explain the rapid selection response in the NC900 line, transgressive variation (i.e. where the allele from the C57BL/6J increased attack

  8. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.

  9. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies.

  10. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies. PMID:24411982

  11. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression.

  12. Divalproex in the treatment of impulsive aggression: efficacy in cluster B personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Eric; Tracy, Katherine A; Swann, Alan C; Coccaro, Emil F; McElroy, Susan L; Wozniak, Patricia; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2003-06-01

    Impulsive aggressive behavior is common in psychiatric disorders and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. However, little systematic treatment data exist from placebo-controlled trials for this symptom domain. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which outpatients with a score of > or =15 on the Aggression scale of the Overt Aggression Scale-Modified (OAS-M) and who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for Cluster B personality disorder (n=96), intermittent explosive disorder (n=116), or post-traumatic stress disorder (n=34) were randomized to divalproex sodium or placebo for 12 weeks duration. Based on average OAS-M Aggression scores over the last 4 weeks of treatment, a treatment effect was not observed in the intent-to-treat data set (combined across the three psychiatric disorders), but was observed in both intent-to-treat and evaluable data sets for patients with Cluster B personality disorders. In the Cluster B evaluable data set, statistically significant treatment differences favoring divalproex were also observed for component items of the OAS-M Aggression score, including verbal assault and assault against objects, as well as OAS-M Irritability score, and Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-Severity at multiple time points throughout the study. No treatment group difference was noted for overall premature discontinuation rate; however, across psychiatric diagnoses, 21 (17%) patients in the divalproex group prematurely discontinued because of an adverse event, as compared to 4 (3%) patients in the placebo group (p <0.001). While a treatment effect was not observed when all diagnostic groups were combined, in a large subgroup of patients with Cluster B disorders, divalproex was superior to placebo in the treatment of impulsive aggression, irritability, and global severity.

  13. Effects of Trait Hostility, Mapping Interface, and Character Identification on Aggressive Thoughts and Overall Game Experience After Playing a Violent Video Game.

    PubMed

    Jung, Younbo; Park, Namkee; Lee, Kwan Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of trait-level hostility, interface types, and character identification on aggressive thoughts and overall game experience after playing a violent video game. Results showed that the mapping interface made participants with high trait-level hostility more readily accessible to aggressive contracts, yet it did not have any significant impact for participants with low trait-level hostility. Participants with low trait-level hostility reported more positive game experience in the mapping interface condition, while participants with high trait-level hostility in the same condition reported more negative game experience. Results also indicated that character identification has moderating effects on activating aggressive thoughts and mediating effects on overall game experience. Implications regarding possible ways of reducing potentially negative outcomes from violent games are discussed.

  14. Effects of Trait Hostility, Mapping Interface, and Character Identification on Aggressive Thoughts and Overall Game Experience After Playing a Violent Video Game.

    PubMed

    Jung, Younbo; Park, Namkee; Lee, Kwan Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of trait-level hostility, interface types, and character identification on aggressive thoughts and overall game experience after playing a violent video game. Results showed that the mapping interface made participants with high trait-level hostility more readily accessible to aggressive contracts, yet it did not have any significant impact for participants with low trait-level hostility. Participants with low trait-level hostility reported more positive game experience in the mapping interface condition, while participants with high trait-level hostility in the same condition reported more negative game experience. Results also indicated that character identification has moderating effects on activating aggressive thoughts and mediating effects on overall game experience. Implications regarding possible ways of reducing potentially negative outcomes from violent games are discussed. PMID:26587734

  15. The fear of other persons' laughter: Poor neuronal protection against social signals of anger and aggression.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Rominger, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-01-30

    The fear of other persons' laughter (gelotophobia) occurs in the context of several psychiatric conditions, particularly in the schizophrenia spectrum and social phobia. It entails severe personal and inter-personal problems including heightened aggression and possibly violence. Individuals with gelotophobia (n=30; 24 with social phobia or Cluster A diagnosis) and matched symptom-free controls (n=30) were drawn from a large screening sample (n=1440). EEG coherences were recorded during the confrontation with other people's affect expressions, to investigate the brain's modulatory control over the emotionally laden perceptual input. Gelotophobia was associated with more loose functional coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortex during the processing of expressions of anger and aggression, thus leaving the individual relatively unprotected from becoming affected by these social signals. The brain's response to social signals of anger/aggression and the accompanied heightened permeability for this kind of information explains the particular sensitivity to actual or supposed malicious aspects of laughter (and possibly of other ambiguous social signals) in individuals with gelotophobia, which represents the core feature of the condition. Heightened perception of stimuli that could be perceived as offensive, which is inherent in several psychiatric conditions, may be particularly evident in the fear of other persons' laughter.

  16. Note on the relationship between trait anxiety and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loo, R

    1979-01-01

    Administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-Trait scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to 97 females and 105 males under neutral conditions. The interrelationships gave limited support to Eysenck's hypothesis that anxiety is a dimension oblique to extraversion and neuroticism such that high anxiety is associated with high introversion and neuroticism. Trait anxiety was independent of the psychoticism and lie dimensions.

  17. A behavioral genetic analysis of callous-unemotional traits and Big Five personality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior.

  18. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  19. Personality Assessment Inventory Internalizing and Externalizing Structure in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Associations with Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Elbogen, Eric B.; Clancy, Carolina P.; Hertzberg, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n’s = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. PMID:25131806

  20. Personality traits modulate neural responses to emotions expressed in music.

    PubMed

    Park, Mona; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Bao, Yan; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Welker, Lorenz; Reiser, Maximilian; Meindl, Thomas; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-07-26

    Music communicates and evokes emotions. The number of studies on the neural correlates of musical emotion processing is increasing but few have investigated the factors that modulate these neural activations. Previous research has shown that personality traits account for individual variability of neural responses. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the dimensions Extraversion and Neuroticism are related to differences in brain reactivity to musical stimuli expressing the emotions happiness, sadness and fear. 12 participants (7 female, M=20.33 years) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and were scanned while performing a passive listening task. Neurofunctional analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Neuroticism scores and activations in bilateral basal ganglia, insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to music expressing happiness. Extraversion scores were marginally negatively correlated with activations in the right amygdala in response to music expressing fear. Our findings show that subjects' personality may have a predictive power in the neural correlates of musical emotion processing and should be considered in the context of experimental group homogeneity.

  1. Using a Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Framework to Predict Physical Aggression Trajectories in Newlywed Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…

  2. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  3. Genome-wide association study of personality traits in bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Zhang, Dandan; Badner, Judith A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zhang, Xiaotong; Dinwiddie, Stephen; Romanos, Benjamin; Plenys, Natalie; Liu, Chunyu; Gershon, Elliot S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association study was carried out on personality traits among bipolar patients as possible endophenotypes for gene discovery in bipolar disorder. Methods The subscales of Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) were used as quantitative phenotypes. The genotyping platform was the Affymetrix 6.0 SNP array. The sample consisted of 944 individuals for TCI and 1007 for ZKPQ, all of European ancestry, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Results Genome-wide significant association was found for two subscales of the TCI, rs10479334 with the ‘Social Acceptance versus Social Intolerance’ subscale (Bonferroni P = 0.014) in an intergenic region, and rs9419788 with the ‘Spiritual Acceptance versus Rational Materialism’ subscale (Bonferroni P = 0.036) in PLCE1 gene. Although genome-wide significance was not reached for ZKPQ scales, lowest P values pinpointed to genes, RXRG for Sensation Seeking, GRM7 and ITK for Neuroticism Anxiety, and SPTLC3 gene for Aggression Hostility. Conclusion After correction for the 25 subscales in TCI and four scales plus two subscales in ZKPQ, phenotype-wide significance was not reached. PMID:21368711

  4. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use. PMID:27149691

  5. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use.

  6. Cluster B and C personality traits, symptom correlates, and treatment utilization in postacute schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Amanda; Essman, William; Beck-Jennings, Josephine; Davis, Louanne; McIlvried, John; Lysaker, Paul H

    2006-09-01

    Unusually high levels of Cluster B and C personality traits have been observed in schizophrenia. While these have been linked to poorer function, less clear is the association of these personality traits with symptoms and service utilization. To examine this issue, 46 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, Third Edition, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and an inventory was taken of medical and psychiatric service utilization. Two sets of multiple regression analyses using Cluster B and C traits to predict treatment utilization and symptoms revealed that emotional discomfort symptoms were significantly related to level of borderline traits. Higher levels of positive symptoms were linked with more avoidant traits and fewer dependent traits. Higher levels of negative symptoms were linked with greater avoidant traits. Service utilization was predicted by borderline, antisocial, and avoidant traits. Implications for rehabilitation and treatment are discussed.

  7. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a sample of 124 young women were correlated with interpersonal dysfunction as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Results suggest that MPQ traits vary in their associations with interpersonal distress and in their coverage of specific kinds of interpersonal difficulties among women undergoing the transition to adulthood. PMID:22064504

  8. Reassessment of Inferring Personality Traits from Bender-Gestalt Drawing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed patients with closure difficulty on the Bender-Gestalt (N=50) and patients with edging tendencies on the Bender-Gestalt (N=50) for possible personality traits associated with those drawing styles. Results did not support using clients' Bender-Gestalt drawing style as a basis for inferring personality traits. (LLL)

  9. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  10. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  11. Use of the Metacognitive English Language Learning Strategies Based on Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between use of the Metacognitive English Language Learning Strategies (MELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language based on personality traits, and the role of personality traits in the prediction of use of such Strategies. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for…

  12. Sex-Typed Attitudes, Sex-Typed Contingency Behaviors, and Personality Traits of Male Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    This study examined the contingency behaviors, attitudinal dispositions, and personality traits of male caregivers in day care settings. A random sample of 20 male caregivers was contrasted with 20 female caregivers and 20 male engineers on measures of sex-typed attitudes and personality traits. Male and female caregivers were also contrasted on…

  13. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Effects of the Big Five Personality Traits, Grades and the Validity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Carol Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the Big Five personality traits and expected student grades relate to student evaluations of teachers and courses at the college level. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were found to be personality traits favoured in instructors, whereas neuroticism was not. A…

  14. Personality Traits and Educational Identity Formation in Late Adolescents: Longitudinal Associations and Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Luyckx, Koen; Germeijs, Veerle; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Changes in personality traits in late adolescence and young adulthood are believed to co-occur with changes in identity, but little research is available that supports this hypothesis. The present study addressed this relatively understudied area of research by examining longitudinal associations of Big Five personality traits (i.e., Neuroticism,…

  15. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  16. The Relationships among Attachment Style, Personality Traits, Interpersonal Competency, and Facebook Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.; Wright, Stephen L.; Hudiburgh, Lynette M.

    2012-01-01

    Among emerging adult populations, the increasingly prevalent use of online social media, such as Facebook, and its relationship to individual personality traits and interpersonal relationships are of growing interest to researchers. The current study sought to investigate how attachment style, personality traits based on the Five Factor Model, and…

  17. The Mutual Impact of Personality Traits on Seating Preference and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemyari, Camellia; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Parva, Mohammad; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between students' seating positions and their classroom performance. However, the role of personality traits on seating preference in the classroom has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how students choose their seats according to their personality traits in a…

  18. An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Personality Trait of Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Levy, Levy J.; Park, Soo-Hee; Gibson, Lucy W.; Smith, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Based on samples of 398 middle school students, 568 high school students, and 1159 college students, self-directed learning was found to be related to cumulative grade-point-average at all levels as well as to Big Five personality traits (Openness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion), narrow personality traits (Optimism,…

  19. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  20. Physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, habitual aggression, and violence.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the existing literature on physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and persistent violence/aggression. Coverage is provided of findings from studies utilizing peripheral, electrocortical, and neuroimaging measures. The review begins with a discussion of how psychopathy and antisocial personality are defined, and how these conditions relate to one another and to violent behavior. A case is made that the relationships psychopathy and ASPD show with violent and aggressive behavior, and similarities and differences in associations of each with physiological measures of various types can be understood in terms of symptomatic features these conditions have in common versus features that distinguish them. Following this, an overview is provided of major lines of evidence emerging from psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies conducted to date on these conditions. The final section of the chapter summarizes what has been learned from these existing studies and discusses implications and directions for future research.

  1. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  2. Specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction as predictors of the presence and severity of personality disorders in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, Han; Kamphuis, Jan H; Verheul, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction in relation to the presence and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders in a Dutch clinical sample. Two widely used measures of specific personality traits were selected, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a measure of normal personality traits, and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire as a measure of pathological traits. In addition, 2 promising measures of personality dysfunction were selected, the General Assessment of Personality Disorder and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Theoretically predicted associations were found between the measures, and all measures predicted the presence and severity of DSM-IV personality disorders. The combination of general personality dysfunction models and personality traits models provided incremental information about the presence and severity of personality disorders, suggesting that an integrative approach of multiple perspectives might serve comprehensive assessment of personality disorders.

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Traits: A Comparison of SCID-II BPD and NEO-PI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkin, John F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Hospitalized female patients with borderline personality disorder were assessed for Axis II disorders by the Structured Clinical Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-II) and for personality traits with the NEO Personality Inventory. The relationship of results to social adjustment and the utility of…

  4. Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60–.90 for traits and .25–.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532

  5. Potential Markers of Aggressive Behavior: The Fear of Other Persons' Laughter and Its Overlaps with Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Schulter, Günter; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Hofer, Ellen; Pichler, Natascha; Papousek, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggested that some outbreaks of aggression and violence may be related to a fear of being laughed at and ridiculed. The present study examined the potential association of the fear of other persons' laughter (gelotophobia) with emotion-related deficits predisposing for aggression, anger and aggression proneness, and its overlaps with relevant mental disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Gelotophobic individuals were compared to a non-phobic control group with respect to emotion regulation skills and strategies, alexithymia, anger proneness, and aggressive behavior. Social phobia was diagnosed using the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID-I) for DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Additionally, the SCID-II modules for Cluster A Personality Disorders, which includes schizoid, paranoid, and schizotypal personality disorder were administered to all participants. The findings show that gelotophobia is associated with deficits in the typical handling of an individual's own affective states, greater anger proneness and more aggressive behavior according to self-report as compared to non-phobic individuals. 80% of the subjects in the gelotophobia group had an additional diagnosis of social phobia and/or Cluster A personality disorder. The additional diagnoses did not predict additional variance of anger or aggressive behavior as compared to gelotophobia alone. Conclusions/Significance Features related to aggression and violence that are inherent in mental disorders such as social phobia and Cluster A personality disorders may be particularly evident in the symptom of fear of other persons' laughter. PMID:22675438

  6. Relationship between personality traits and perceived internalized stigma in bipolar patients and their treatment partners.

    PubMed

    Bassirnia, Anahita; Briggs, Jessica; Kopeykina, Irina; Mednick, Amy; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor

    2015-12-15

    Internalized stigma of mental disorders has significant negative outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between personality traits and internalized stigma of mental disorders in bipolar patients and their treatment partners. Five different questionnaires were utilized in this study: (1) Demographic data questionnaire, (2) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for personality traits, (3) Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) for stigma, (4) Self Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) for mania and (5) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. The scores of personality traits were combined to create externalizing and internalizing personality trait scores. Results showed that patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners both experienced internalized stigma of mental health disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between internalized stigma and internalizing personality traits, but not externalizing traits. In a multi-variate regression analysis, internalizing personality trait score was found to be a significant predictor of internalized stigma. In conclusion, patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners perceive higher level of internalized stigma of mental disorders if they have internalizing personality traits.

  7. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  8. How and Why Children Change in Aggression and Delinquency from Childhood to Adolescence: Moderation of Overreactive Parenting by Child Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, A. D.; Prinzie, P.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examines how and why children change in aggression and delinquency from age 6 to 15 years. Besides assessing the shape of the developmental trajectories of aggression and delinquency, we investigated whether child personality characteristics, parenting, and interactions between these two predict the development of…

  9. Network Diversity and Affect Dynamics: The Role of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-01-01

    People divide their time unequally among their social contacts due to time constraints and varying strength of relationships. It was found that high diversity of social communication, dividing time more evenly among social contacts, is correlated with economic well-being both at macro and micro levels. Besides economic well-being, it is not clear how the diversity of social communication is also associated with the two components of individuals’ subjective well-being, positive and negative affect. Specifically, positive affect and negative affect are two independent dimensions representing the experience (feeling) of emotions. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the daily diversity of social communication and dynamic affect states that people experience in their daily lives. We collected two high-resolution datasets that capture affect scores via daily experience sampling surveys and social interaction through wearable sensing technologies: sociometric badges for face-to-face interaction and smart phones for mobile phone calls. We found that communication diversity correlates with desirable affect states–e.g. an increase in the positive affect state or a decrease in the negative affect state–for some personality types, but correlates with undesirable affect states for others. For example, diversity in phone calls is experienced as good by introverts, but bad by extroverts; diversity in face-to-face interaction is experienced as good by people who tend to be positive by nature (trait) but bad for people who tend to be not positive by nature. More broadly, the moderating effect of personality type on the relationship between diversity and affect was detected without any knowledge of the type of social tie or the content of communication. This provides further support for the power of unobtrusive sensing in understanding social dynamics, and in measuring the effect of potential interventions designed to improve well-being. PMID:27035904

  10. Network Diversity and Affect Dynamics: The Role of Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-01-01

    People divide their time unequally among their social contacts due to time constraints and varying strength of relationships. It was found that high diversity of social communication, dividing time more evenly among social contacts, is correlated with economic well-being both at macro and micro levels. Besides economic well-being, it is not clear how the diversity of social communication is also associated with the two components of individuals' subjective well-being, positive and negative affect. Specifically, positive affect and negative affect are two independent dimensions representing the experience (feeling) of emotions. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the daily diversity of social communication and dynamic affect states that people experience in their daily lives. We collected two high-resolution datasets that capture affect scores via daily experience sampling surveys and social interaction through wearable sensing technologies: sociometric badges for face-to-face interaction and smart phones for mobile phone calls. We found that communication diversity correlates with desirable affect states--e.g. an increase in the positive affect state or a decrease in the negative affect state--for some personality types, but correlates with undesirable affect states for others. For example, diversity in phone calls is experienced as good by introverts, but bad by extroverts; diversity in face-to-face interaction is experienced as good by people who tend to be positive by nature (trait) but bad for people who tend to be not positive by nature. More broadly, the moderating effect of personality type on the relationship between diversity and affect was detected without any knowledge of the type of social tie or the content of communication. This provides further support for the power of unobtrusive sensing in understanding social dynamics, and in measuring the effect of potential interventions designed to improve well-being.

  11. Network Diversity and Affect Dynamics: The Role of Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-01-01

    People divide their time unequally among their social contacts due to time constraints and varying strength of relationships. It was found that high diversity of social communication, dividing time more evenly among social contacts, is correlated with economic well-being both at macro and micro levels. Besides economic well-being, it is not clear how the diversity of social communication is also associated with the two components of individuals' subjective well-being, positive and negative affect. Specifically, positive affect and negative affect are two independent dimensions representing the experience (feeling) of emotions. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the daily diversity of social communication and dynamic affect states that people experience in their daily lives. We collected two high-resolution datasets that capture affect scores via daily experience sampling surveys and social interaction through wearable sensing technologies: sociometric badges for face-to-face interaction and smart phones for mobile phone calls. We found that communication diversity correlates with desirable affect states--e.g. an increase in the positive affect state or a decrease in the negative affect state--for some personality types, but correlates with undesirable affect states for others. For example, diversity in phone calls is experienced as good by introverts, but bad by extroverts; diversity in face-to-face interaction is experienced as good by people who tend to be positive by nature (trait) but bad for people who tend to be not positive by nature. More broadly, the moderating effect of personality type on the relationship between diversity and affect was detected without any knowledge of the type of social tie or the content of communication. This provides further support for the power of unobtrusive sensing in understanding social dynamics, and in measuring the effect of potential interventions designed to improve well-being. PMID:27035904

  12. The Convergent and Concurrent Validity of Trait-Based Prototype Assessment of Personality Disorder Categories in Homeless Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Connolly, Adrian J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    The "DSM-5" proposal indicates that personality disorders (PDs) be defined as collections of maladaptive traits but does not provide a specific diagnostic method. However, researchers have previously suggested that PD constructs can be assessed by comparing individuals' trait profiles with those prototypic of PDs and evidence from the five-factor…

  13. Multifinality in the Development of Personality Disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment Interaction Model of Antisocial and Borderline Traits

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more common among females, some (e.g., Paris, 1997) have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying personality disorders in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD. PMID:19583882

  14. Who Multitasks on Smartphones? Smartphone Multitaskers' Motivations and Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Shim, Hongjin

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the psychological determinants of smartphone multitasking. Smartphone multitasking comprises the following three different subtypes: multitasking with nonmedia activities, cross-media multitasking with nonsmartphone media, and single-device multitasking within the smartphone. The primary motivations for smartphone multitasking were first identified--efficiency, utility, and positive affect--and the ways in which they are associated with the three subtypes were examined; among the primary motivations, efficiency and positive affect predicted the degree of total smartphone-multitasking behavior. The personality traits that are pertinent to all of the primary motivations--need for cognition (NFC) and sensation seeking (SS)--were also investigated. Further analyses revealed that the motivations for and the extent of smartphone multitasking can vary as functions of a user's NFC and SS. In this study, NFC was not only a meaningful predictor of the cognitive needs that drive smartphone multitasking but also increased the likelihood of multitasking through its interaction with SS. PMID:26985783

  15. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    PubMed

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.

  16. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  17. Personality and Substance Use in Midlife: Conscientiousness as a Moderator and the Effects of Trait Change.

    PubMed

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Whiteman, Shawn D; Hampson, Sarah E; Roberts, Brent W; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2012-06-01

    Personality traits predict substance use in adolescence, but less is known about prospective substance use in middle age and beyond. Moreover, there is growing interest in how personality change and the multiplicative effects among personality traits relate to substance use. Participants included approximately 4,000 adults aged 25-74 who participated in two waves of the Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) study. Higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, and lower levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted longitudinal substance use. Increases in neuroticism and openness predicted increased substance use while increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted decreased substance use. Higher levels of conscientiousness moderated two of the other trait main effects. Personality, trait change, and interactions among traits reliably forecasted 10-year substance-use behaviors.

  18. Trait Verbal Aggressiveness and the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Fathers' Interaction Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds that fathers' verbal aggressiveness was inversely related to both the appropriateness and effectiveness of plans they generated (in response to a five-phase scenario) for interacting with oppositional sons. (SR)

  19. Associations between plasma glucose and DSM-III-R cluster B personality traits in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, P; Mattila-Evenden, M; Gustavsson, P J; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Asberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Associations between personality traits, measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Impulsiveness subscale from the Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness and Empathy (IVE) Inventory, and with self-assessed personality traits and disorders (SCID-II Screen Questionnaire), and plasma insulin, glucagon and glucose, respectively, were explored in a sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients of both sexes. No relationships between the peptide hormones and personality measures were found. However, fasting glucose values, which were all essentially within the normal biological variation, were significantly related to several personality measures. For males, a low blood glucose was associated with low stable general level of functioning, with high IVE Impulsiveness, and with self-assessed histrionic and narcissistic traits. High number of self-assessed personality traits for all cluster B personality disorders was strongly associated with high IVE Impulsiveness. The results of the present study support the generalizability of earlier findings from alcoholic impulsive offenders: in males, low blood glucose is associated with an extrovert and impulsive, acting-out behavior that includes the breaking of societal norms and rules. In contrast, for females a positive relationship between fasting glucose and self-assessed histrionic personality traits was found. Because no association between global level of functioning and glucose was found in women, these personality traits may not necessarily be maladaptive, as was the case for males.

  20. Mentoring highly aggressive children: pre-post changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies.

    PubMed

    Faith, Melissa A; Fiala, Samuel E; Cavell, Timothy A; Hughes, Jan N

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the degree to which mentoring highly aggressive children was associated with changes in mentors' attitudes, personality, and attachment tendencies. Participants were 102 college students who each mentored an aggressive, high-risk child across three academic semesters (spring, fall, spring). We examined pre- to post-mentoring changes in attitudes about mentoring efficacy and future parenting, Big Five personality characteristics, and attachment tendencies. Mentors also rated the impact of the mentoring relationship in their lives, and both mentors and mentees rated support of the mentoring relationship. Results indicated a statistically significant decrease over time in mentors' ratings of self-efficacy, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness. These findings held even when controlling for ratings of relationship impact. However, mentors who rated the mentoring relationship as supportive tended to experience increased openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness and less attachment-related avoidance over time. Child-rated support negatively predicted mentors' post-mentoring attitudes toward future parenting. Discussed are the potential costs of mentoring highly aggressive children and strategies that could help increase benefits to mentors.

  1. Traits and trade-offs are insufficient for evolutionary personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Sheldon, Melanie S; Nichols, Charles P

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by D. Nettle, who has clearly shown that evolutionary psychologists need to focus more attention on individual differences, not just species-typical universals. Such differences are not mere "noise," and evolutionary theory will gain by understanding how they are produced and maintained. However, by focusing on personality traits and the five-factor personality model, Nettle left unaddressed many of the most important aspects of human personality. An evolutionary psychology of personality must ultimately explain not just trait differences but also differences in personal goals, values, motives, identities, and life narratives--essential elements of human individuality and functionality. K. M. Sheldon et al suggest four reasons why traits and the five-factor personality model do not provide an optimal approach for explaining the evolution of personality: (a) As constructs, traits provide little purchase for explaining the causes of behavior; (b) trait concepts do not acknowledge or explain people's variations around their own baselines, variations that are likely crucial for adaptation; (c) traits do not explain or even describe true human uniqueness, i.e. the ways in which a person is different from everybody else; and (d) traits do not explain personality from the inside, by considering what people are trying to do in their lives. In raising these issues Sheldon et al are suggesting that the important question for evolutionary personality study is not why people fall at different points on a continuum regarding traits x, y, and z, but rather why each person is inevitably unique while still sharing the same evolved psychology.

  2. An Examination of Students' Adaptation, Aggression, and Apprehension Traits with Their Instructional Feedback Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Colleen C.; Martin, Matthew M.; Vallade, Jessalyn I.

    2013-01-01

    Feedback orientations refer to students' perceptions of instructional feedback utility, retention, sensitivity, and confidentiality. In this paper, we report three studies that investigated the relationships among feedback orientations and communication traits. Specifically, we examined the associations among communication adaptation traits (Study…

  3. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  4. Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142

  5. Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor.

  6. Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno U.; Ibegbunam, Josephat

    2015-01-01

    Quality personality traits and socio-demographic variables are essential elements of effective counselling. This correlational study investigated personality traits and socio-demographic variables as predictors of counselling effectiveness of counsellors in Enugu State. The instruments for data collection were Personality Traits Assessment Scale…

  7. BDNF val66met genotype and schizotypal personality traits interact to influence probabilistic association learning.

    PubMed

    Skilleter, Ashley Jayne; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Moustafa, Ahmed Abdelhalim; Gendy, Rasha; Chan, Mico; Arifin, Nur; Mitchell, Philip Bowden; Weickert, Thomas Wesley

    2014-11-01

    The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism rs6265 influences learning and may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Healthy people with high schizotypal personality traits display cognitive deficits that are similar to but not as severe as those observed in schizophrenia and they can be studied without confounds of antipsychotics or chronic illness. How genetic variation in BDNF may impact learning in individuals falling along the schizophrenia spectrum is unknown. We predicted that schizotypal personality traits would influence learning and that schizotypal personality-based differences in learning would vary depending on the BDNF val66met genotype. Eighty-nine healthy adults completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and a probabilistic association learning test. Blood samples were genotyped for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. An ANOVA was performed with BDNF genotype (val homozygotes and met-carriers) and SPQ score (high/low) as grouping variables and probabilistic association learning as the dependent variable. Participants with low SPQ scores (fewer schizotypal personality traits) showed significantly better learning than those with high SPQ scores. BDNF met-carriers displaying few schizotypal personality traits performed best, whereas BDNF met-carriers displaying high schizotypal personality traits performed worst. Thus, the BDNF val66met polymorphism appears to influence probabilistic association learning differently depending on the extent of schizotypal personality traits displayed.

  8. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  9. The Relationship of Personality Traits and Self-Monitoring Behavior to Choice of Business Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Noel Mark; Michaels Chad; Levas, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale, 177 undergraduate business students assessed their personality traits. Personalities and self-monitoring differed by major (accounting, management information systems, marketing) in ways that supported conventional stereotypes. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

  10. Hardiness and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the construct of hardiness with the Big Five personality traits among 362 Chinese university students. Participants in the study responded to the Dispositional Hardiness Scale (Bartone, Ursano, Wright, & Ingraham, 1989) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results indicate that personality traits…

  11. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects. PMID:27082867

  12. The Five-Factor Model personality traits in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-30

    Personality is one of important factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia because it affects patients' symptoms, cognition and social functioning. Several studies have reported specific personality traits in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy subjects. However, the results were inconsistent among studies. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measures five personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Here, we performed a meta-analysis of these personality traits assessed by the NEO-FFI in 460 patients with schizophrenia and 486 healthy subjects from the published literature and investigated possible associations between schizophrenia and these traits. There was no publication bias for any traits. Because we found evidence of significant heterogeneity in all traits among the studies, we applied a random-effect model to perform the meta-analysis. Patients with schizophrenia showed a higher score for N and lower scores for E, O, A and C compared with healthy subjects. The effect sizes of these personality traits ranged from moderate to large. These differences were not affected by possible moderator factors, such as gender distribution and mean age in each study, expect for gender effect for A. These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a different personality profile compared with healthy subjects.

  13. Three-pronged assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder and its consequences: personality functioning, pathological traits, and psychosocial disability.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self-functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality) and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the 3 dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the 5-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were cofactored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the 5-factor level, included (a) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction); (b) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness); (c) disinhibition; (d) poor basic functioning; and (e) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic

  14. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  15. Exploring Depressive Personality Traits in Youth: Origins, Correlates, and Developmental Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that depressive personality (DP) disorder may represent a persistent, trait-based form of depression that lies along an affective spectrum ranging from personality traits to diagnosable clinical disorders (Klein & Bessaha, 2009). A significant gap in this area of research concerns the development of DP and its applicability to youth. The present research explored the construct of DP traits in youth. Specifically, this study examined the reliability, stability, and validity of the construct, potential origins of DP traits, and the developmental consequences of DP traits. A sample of 143 youth (M age = 12.37 years, SD = 1.26) and their caregivers completed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires on two occasions, separated by a 12 month interval. The measure of DP traits was reliable and moderately stable over time. Providing evidence of construct validity, DP traits were associated with a network of constructs, including a negative self-focus, high negative and low positive emotionality, and heightened stress reactivity. Moreover, several potential origins of DP traits were identified, including a history of family adversity, maternal DP traits, and maternal depression. Consistent with hypotheses regarding their developmental significance, DP traits predicted the generation of stress and the emergence of depression (but not nondepressive psychopathology) during the pubertal transition. Finally, depression predicted subsequent DP traits, suggesting a reciprocal process whereby DP traits heighten risk for depression, which then exacerbates these traits. These findings support the construct of DP traits in youth, and suggest that these traits may be a useful addition to developmental models of risk for youth depression. PMID:19825262

  16. The Enduring Impact of Maladaptive Personality Traits on Relationship Quality and Health in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Marci E. J.; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1630 adults aged 55–64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals’ relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current paper we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality on social and health outcomes with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. PMID:23998798

  17. Adolescent aggression and social cognition in the context of personality: impulsivity as a moderator of predictions from social information processing.

    PubMed

    Fite, Jennifer E; Goodnight, Jackson A; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2008-01-01

    This study asked how individual differences in social cognition and personality interact in predicting later aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between immediate response evaluations in social information processing (SIP) and later aggressive behavior would be moderated by impulsivity. In particular, the immediate positive evaluations of aggressive responses would be more strongly related to later aggressive behavior for high-impulsive than for low-impulsive individuals, because high-impulsive children would be less likely to integrate peripheral information and consider long-term future consequences of their actions. Participants were 585 adolescents (52% male) and their mothers and teachers from the longitudinal Child Development Project. Structural equation modeling indicated that teacher-reported impulsivity at ages 11-13 moderated the association between adolescents' endorsement of aggressive responses in hypothetical, ambiguous situations and subsequent mother-reported aggressive behavior. Specifically, positive endorsement of aggressive responses at age 13 was significantly related to later aggressive behavior (age 14-17) for participants with high and medium levels of impulsivity, but this association was not significant for participants with low levels of impulsivity. This study provides evidence of personality variables as potential moderators of the link between SIP and behavior. PMID:18459110

  18. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  19. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    PubMed

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  20. The effect of age and role information on expectations for big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin; Roberts, Brent W

    2006-11-01

    In four studies, the authors investigated the extent to which expectations for personality traits in age-graded roles correspond to patterns of personality trait change across the life course. In Studies 1 (N = 43) and 2 (N = 126), the authors examined the age-graded roles of high school student, college student, parent, and grandparent and found that expectations for how people behave in these age-graded roles showed strong parallels to the documented pattern of personality trait development and that this pattern of expectations was largely shared by younger and older participants. In Studies 3 (N = 252) and 4 (N = 123), the authors separated age and role information (e.g., marital, parental, and employment status) and found that people use both sources of information independently in forming expectations of others. The implications for understanding the interplay of expectations and personality trait development are discussed.

  1. The road not taken: Women’s life paths and gender-linked personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Nicky J.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2013-01-01

    Key studies have established an association between women's social roles and their midlife personalities. The current research expands our understanding by examining personality traits in midlife women who followed normative or non-normative life paths. The normative/non-normative distinction was based on two kinds of social roles that college-educated women undertook until midlife: work and family. Gender-linked personality traits were compared between (1) women in high status professions and women in moderate status professions; (2) women without children and women with children; and (3) single mothers and married mothers. Composite measures of gender-linked traits, based on expert-identified Q-sort items, were used. Each non-normative social role group exhibited a different pattern of gender-linked personality traits inconsistent with conventional female gender roles. PMID:23559687

  2. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  3. Moral Disengagement Moderates the Link between Psychopathic Traits and Aggressive Behavior among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Bussey, Kay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between three psychopathic dimensions (callousness/unemotionality, grandiosity/manipulation, and impulsivity/irresponsibility) and reactive and instrumental aggression in a community sample of early adolescents (N = 243, age M = 12.29, SD = 1.18). The moderating role of moral disengagement (MD) was also…

  4. Spatial Rotation, Aggression, and Gender in First-Person-Shooter Video Games and Their Influence on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krone, Beth K.

    2012-01-01

    As shown by the neuropsychological educational approach to the cognitive remediation model, first-person-shooter video game play eliminates gender-related deficits in spatial rotation. Spatial rotation increases academic success and decreases social and economic disparities. Per the general aggression model, first-person-shooter video game play…

  5. Concurrent and Prospective Relationships between Social Engagement and Personality Traits in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    The current research examined the longitudinal relationship between social engagement and personality traits in older adults. Specifically, the present research examined how engagement in family and community roles related to conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability in a sample of 100 Illinois residents age 60 to 86 assessed twice over a period of two and a half years. Social engagement and personality traits were prospectively related to conscientiousness and agreeableness over time in three ways. First, concurrent relationships during Wave 1 suggest that agreeable older adults are more socially engaged. Next, Wave 1 standing on both personality traits and social engagement predicted respective change over time. In addition, changes in engagement and personality traits covaried over time. The specific patterns present in the current study suggest that while some relationships were consistent with research findings in young adulthood and midlife, role investment in old age may have a distinctly different meaning than role investment earlier in the lifespan. These patterns suggest that personality traits can both inform our understanding of engagement during older adulthood and that personality traits may be meaningful outcomes of the aging experience in their own right. PMID:22268792

  6. Syndromal versus contextualized personality assessment: differentiating environmental and dispositional determinants of boys' aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Lindgren, K P; Zakriski, A L

    2001-12-01

    Two studies examined how "syndromal" approaches to assessment confound differences between individuals in the person and situation variables that contribute to their behavior. In a field study, a widely used instrument was found to be sensitive to the base rates of boys' aggression but, as expected, did not discriminate between boys who were similar in their behavior base rates but different in their social environments and how they responded to them. A laboratory experiment replicated this finding and demonstrated that social observers discriminated between targets on the basis of their functional properties even though syndrome scores did not. The results clarify how syndromal methods can obscure situational factors, conflict with people's social knowledge, and reinforce the view that syndromes exist "in the individual" rather than in person-environment interactions. Implications for developing more contextually sensitive instruments are discussed.

  7. Perceptions of aggressive conflicts and others' distress in children with callous-unemotional traits: ‘I'll show you who's boss, even if you suffer and I get in trouble'

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Byrd, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits may have a particularly malevolent view of social conflicts and a pervasive insensitivity to others' distress. The current study examined whether children with CU traits have unique expectations and values regarding the consequences of aggressive conflicts and a ubiquitous lack of concern for others' feelings independent of co-occurring aggression. Methods Participants were 96 (46 males, 50 females) children recruited from elementary schools within an urban city. Associations between CU traits and child reports of outcome expectancies/values following aggressive conflicts and facets of empathy were examined after controlling for aggression, academic abilities, and demographic covariates. Results Children with higher CU traits were less likely to expect that aggression would result in victim suffering and feelings of remorse. After controlling for co-occurring aggression, children with higher CU traits were more likely to expect that aggression would result in peer dominance, while children with higher levels of aggression were more likely to expect that attacking others would reduce their aversive behavior. Children with higher CU traits were less concerned that aggressive behavior would result in punishment, victim suffering, and feelings of remorse. Moreover, children with higher CU traits reported lower levels of empathetic concern and sadness in response to others' distress outside of aggressive conflicts. Conclusions Children with CU traits tend to minimize the extent to which aggression causes victim suffering and openly acknowledge caring less about distress and suffering in others. They are less intimidated by the possibility of being punished for aggressive behavior and tend to view aggression as an effective means for dominating others. In sum, children with CU traits have a particularly malicious social schema that may be difficult to change using conventional treatment methods. PMID:22066467

  8. Paranoid personality traits in a panic disorder population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reich, J; Braginsky, Y

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between panic disorder and paranoid personality, panic disorder patients (N = 28) who were referred to an anxiety disorder clinic in a community mental health center were evaluated for paranoid personality traits on a standardized personality self-report instrument. Paranoid personality disorder was found in 54% of subjects. Paranoid subjects were found to have an earlier age of onset, longer duration of illness, and more psychopathology. Possible etiologies and implications for treatment of these findings are discussed.

  9. Personality traits of pharmacy and medical students throughout their course of studies

    PubMed Central

    Cordina, Maria; Lauri, Mary-Anne; Buttigieg, Raphael; LAURI, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists and medical doctors are two professional groups that very often receive their education and practice in the same environment. However, their approach to patient care and collaboration tends to be different and this may lead to both frustration and conflict which may adversely affect patient care. Personality has been identified as a psychological issue that could contribute to conflict in a work situation. Objective: To study the personality traits of a cohort of students studying pharmacy and medicine at the University of Malta in their first and final year. Methods: The Gordon Personal Profile – Inventory was administered to a cohort of pharmacy and medical students in their first year and once again administered to the same cohort who completed their course of study in their final year. Basic demographic data was also collected. Results: In first year the most pronounced traits for both student groups were those of Emotional Stability and Personal Relations. Over a period of five years, there were shifts in personality traits. In their final year pharmacy students were characterized by high scores for Cautiousness and Personal Relations while medical students exhibited medium scores in Cautiousness and Emotional Stability. Conclusion: The changes in personality traits over the duration of the course were not radical changes but rather that of traits becoming more pronounced. PMID:26759618

  10. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect. PMID:26467525

  11. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.

  12. Person memory: the role of traits, group stereotypes, and specific behaviors in the cognitive representation of persons.

    PubMed

    Wyer, R S; Martin, L L

    1986-04-01

    Subjects read a list of statements describing behaviors manifested by a target person who had previously been described by a set of personality trait adjectives. Some statements referred to the person by name, whereas others referred to him as a member of a stereotyped social group. The consistency of the behaviors with expectancies based on these general target characterizations was varied. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the trait-adjective characterization of the target and the target's group membership had similar implications, the relative ease of recalling behaviors that were consistent and inconsistent with these implications depended on whether subjects had the opportunity to think more extensively about the information they received after all of it had been presented. Results of Experiment 2 showed that when a target's trait-adjective description and his group membership had dissimilar implications, subjects organized the person's behaviors around separate concepts, depending on whether the behavior statements referred to him by name or by group membership. Moreover, when subjects were told after they read the behaviors that the person described by trait adjectives was the same as the one referred to by group membership, they did not alter the cognitive representations they formed initially. These and other results suggested the existence of a priority system for engaging in goal-directed cognitive activity en route to forming a person impression, with lower priority activities giving way to higher priority ones when processing demands are high. PMID:3712219

  13. Connecting DSM-5 Personality Traits and Pathological Beliefs: Toward a Unifying Model

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Schade, Nick; Krueger, Robert F.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the DSM-IV model of personality disorders has led to the development of alternative conceptualizations, including pathological trait models and models linked to particular theoretical approaches, such as Beck and Freeman’s (1990) cognitive framework. An important issue involves the potential to interweave such models into a single, parsimonious system that combines their distinct advantages. In this study, pathological trait and dysfunctional belief data from 616 individuals in a non-clinical sample were evaluated for commensurability using structural equation modeling. These models can be integrated via five higher-order factors, and that specific dimensions of dysfunctional beliefs can be differentiated based on features of the DSM-5 trait model. Overall, these results suggest that traits provide scaffolding for individual differences in pathological personality, within which dysfunctional beliefs offer specific vectors for clinical intervention in a cognitive framework. Implications of the empirical commensurability of trait and cognitive models are discussed. PMID:24273380

  14. Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: a Biology x Sex x Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Klein, Daniel N; Crowell, Sheila E; Derbidge, Christina; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Although antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more common among males and borderline PD (BPD) is more common among females, some authors have suggested that the two disorders reflect multifinal outcomes of a single etiology. This assertion is based on several overlapping symptoms and features, including trait impulsivity, emotional lability, high rates of depression and suicide, and a high likelihood of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Furthermore, rates of ASPD are elevated in the first degree relatives of those with BPD, and concurrent comorbidity rates for the two disorders are high. In this article, we present a common model of antisocial and borderline personality development. We begin by reviewing issues and problems with diagnosing and studying PDs in children and adolescents. Next, we discuss dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms of trait impulsivity as predisposing vulnerabilities to ASPD and BPD. Finally, we extend shared risk models for ASPD and BPD by specifying genetic loci that may confer differential vulnerability to impulsive aggression and mood dysregulation among males and impulsive self-injury and mood dysregulation among females. Although the precise mechanisms of these sex-moderated genetic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood, they appear to interact with environmental risk factors including adverse rearing environments to potentiate the development of ASPD and BPD.

  15. Relationship between personality traits and pharmacist performance in a pharmacy practice research trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Sutton, Jane; Austin, Zubin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacy practice research is one avenue through which new pharmacy services can be integrated into daily pharmacy practice. However, pharmacists’ participation in this research has not been well characterized. Drawing from the literature on work performance and personality traits, 4 hypotheses were developed to gain insight into pharmacists’ performance in a pharmacy practice research trial. Methods: This study was an observational, cross-sectional survey of pharmacists participating in a research trial. All pharmacists were asked to complete the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a validated, reliable instrument of personality traits. These results were then compared with measures of pharmacists’ performance in the trial. Results: Thirty pharmacists expressed interest in participating in the trial; 23 completed the BFI and 14 actively participated in the pharmacy practice research trial. No statistically significant differences were identified in the examination of the predetermined hypotheses. Exploratory analyses revealed significant relationships between the BFI trait of extroversion and pharmacists’ participation in the study, obtaining prescribing authority for the study and the number of patients lost to follow-up. Discussion: In addition to identifying a number of personality traits that have been shared by other samples of pharmacists, this work suggests the possibility of an interaction between pharmacists’ personality traits and their performance in a pharmacy practice research trial. Conclusion: Future research should better characterize the relationship between pharmacists’ personality traits and participation in pharmacy practice research trials to gain insight into the context of pharmacy practice and how pharmacists are integrating this research into their practices. PMID:26448772

  16. Passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder: a population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Tambs, Kristian; Røysamb, Espen; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the familial aggregation of passive aggressive personality disorder (PAPD), and explore issues regarding PAPD raised by the DSM-IV Personality Disorder Work Group. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-four Norwegian twins from the population-based Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Because of the rarity of the twins meeting full diagnostic criteria for PAPD a dimensional representation of the disorder was used for the analyses. Overlap with other axis II disorders was assessed by polychoric correlations, while familial aggregation was explored by structural equation twin models. Overlap was highest with paranoid (r = 0.52) and borderline personality disorder (r = 0.53), and lowest with schizoid (r = 0.26). Significant familial aggregation was found for PAPD. The twin correlations and parameter estimates in the full model indicated genetic and shared environmental effects for females, and only shared environmental effects for males, but the prevalence of endorsed PAPD criteria in this community sample was too low to permit us to conclude with confidence regarding the relative influence of genetic and shared environmental factors on the familial aggregation of PAPD.

  17. The role of emotion regulation in the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive and premeditated aggression.

    PubMed

    Long, Katherine; Felton, Julia W; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lejuez, Carl W

    2014-10-01

    Given the high rates of aggressive behavior among highly psychopathic individuals, much research has sought to clarify the nature of the relation between psychopathy and aggression. The present study examined relations between Fearless Dominance (PPI FD), Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI SCI), and Coldheartedness (PPI CH) Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and aggression dimensions (premeditated and impulsive aggression) in a sample of substance users receiving inpatient treatment. At the univariate level, PPI FD traits were significantly and positively related to premeditated aggression, but were not significantly related to impulsive aggression. PPI SCI traits were positively related to both forms of aggression, whereas PPI CH was not significantly related to either aggression dimension. Emotion regulation difficulties, as measured by the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004), were negatively related to PPI FD traits, positively related to PPI SCI traits, and negatively related to PPI CH traits. Both PPI SCI and PPI FD traits exerted significant indirect effects on impulsive aggression through the DERS. In contrast, the DERS did not mediate the relations between psychopathic traits and premeditated aggression. Results provide a more nuanced understanding of the psychopathy-aggression relations and suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may be an important mediator of the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive aggression. PMID:25198433

  18. Sexual Assault and Rape Perpetration by College Men: The Role of the Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voller, Emily K.; Long, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 521 college men completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey to examine whether variation in the Big Five personality traits in a normal, college population provides any insight into the nature of sexual assault and rape perpetrators. Rape perpetrators reported lower levels of…

  19. Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI…

  20. Offender Characteristics in Lethal Violence with Special Reference to Antisocial and Autistic Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…

  1. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  2. You Have What? Personality! Traits That Predict Leadership Styles for Elementary Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This research explored relationships between followers' perceptions of elementary school principals' Big Five Personality Traits, using the "International Personality Item Pool" (IPIP) (Goldberg, 1999), and principals' Leadership Styles, using the "Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire" (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio, 2004). A sample…

  3. Personality Traits and Learning Styles of Secondary School Students in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djigic, Gordana; Stojiljkovic, Snežana; Markovic, Andrijana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the personality dimensions and learning styles of secondary school students, attending grammar and technical vocational school. The aim of the study is to examine differences in personality traits and learning styles between students from these types of schools, as well as to determine the predictive power of…

  4. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Job Performance of Online Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Charles; Kirwan, Jeral R.; Bova, Mark; Belcher, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and how they relate to online teacher effectiveness. The primary method of data collection for this study was through the use of surveys primarily building upon the Personality Style Inventory (PSI) (Lounsbury & Gibson, 2010), a work-based personality…

  5. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

  6. Personality Traits Moderate the Effect of Workload Sources on Perceived Workload in Flying Column Police Officers.

    PubMed

    Chiorri, Carlo; Garbarino, Sergio; Bracco, Fabrizio; Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index) after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task). All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed. PMID:26640456

  7. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Outcome of Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Giurea, A.; Fraberger, G.; Kolbitsch, P.; Lass, R.; Schneider, E.; Kubista, B.; Windhager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ten to twenty percent of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are dissatisfied with their clinical outcome. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of personality traits on the subjective outcome of TKA. We investigated 80 patients with 86 computer navigated TKAs. We asked for patients satisfaction and divided patients into two groups (satisfied or dissatisfied). 12 personality traits were tested by the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). Postoperative examination included Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Radiologic investigation was done in all patients. 84% of our patients were satisfied, while 16% were not satisfied. The FPI-R showed statistical significant influence of four personality traits on patient satisfaction: life satisfaction (p = 0.006), performance orientation (p = 0.015), somatic distress (p = 0.001), and emotional stability (p = 0.002). All clinical scores (VAS, WOMAC, and KSS) showed significantly better results in the satisfied patient. Radiological examination showed optimal alignment of all TKAs. There were no complications requiring revision surgery. The results of our study show that personality traits may influence patients satisfaction and clinical outcome after TKA. Therefore patients personality traits may be a useful predictive factor for postoperative satisfaction after TKA. PMID:26989686

  8. Personality Traits Moderate the Effect of Workload Sources on Perceived Workload in Flying Column Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Chiorri, Carlo; Garbarino, Sergio; Bracco, Fabrizio; Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index) after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task). All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed. PMID:26640456

  9. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence: directionality of effects and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-08-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more insight in the directionality of effect and the developmental interdependence of the Big Five and identity processes as forwarded in multilayered personality models, the present study assessed personality and identity in 1,037 adolescents 4 times over a period of 3 years. First, using cross-lagged path analysis, Big Five traits emerged as consistent predictors of identity exploration processes, whereas only one significant path from identity exploration to the Big Five was found. Second, using latent class growth analysis, 3 Big Five trajectory classes were identified, resembling the distinctions typically made between resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers. These classes were characterized by different initial levels and (to a lesser extent) rates of change in commitment and exploration processes. In sum, important developmental associations linking personality traits to identity processes were uncovered, emphasizing the potential role of personality traits in identity development. Developmental implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, S.; Rice, D.; McIntyre, A.; Getty, H.; Speechley, M.; Sequeira, K.; Shapiro, A. P.; Morley-Forster, P.; Teasell, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery. PMID:27445616

  11. Personality Traits across Cultures and Research on Obedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by Twenge on the issue of psychological traits that may differ with culture and ethnicity in discussing the partial replication of Milgram's obedience research (Burger, January 2009). But since a major stimulus for Milgram's research was the destruction of European Jewry (Benjamin & Simpson, January 2009; Blass, 2009), what…

  12. Too much of a good thing: curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance.

    PubMed

    Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Robbins, Steven B; Ilies, Remus; Holland, Ed; Westrick, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between personality traits and performance are often assumed to be linear. This assumption has been challenged conceptually and empirically, but results to date have been inconclusive. In the current study, we took a theory-driven approach in systematically addressing this issue. Results based on two different samples generally supported our expectations of the curvilinear relationships between personality traits, including Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability, and job performance dimensions, including task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behaviors. We also hypothesized and found that job complexity moderated the curvilinear personality–performance relationships such that the inflection points after which the relationships disappear were lower for low-complexity jobs than they were for high-complexity jobs. This finding suggests that high levels of the two personality traits examined are more beneficial for performance in high- than low-complexity jobs. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the use of personality in personnel selection. PMID:20939656

  13. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  14. Personality traits in patients with Parkinson's disease: assessment and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-06-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence on the association between personality traits and Parkinson's disease (PD), with a twofold aim. First, to better identify non-motor symptoms, such as affective symptoms and personality changes, that could help to define the pre-motor phase of PD; second, to better understand the neurobiological bases of personality traits, a goal that is not fully accomplished by a purely anatomical approach. A literature review was performed on studies of personality traits in PD patients, in electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline and PsychInfo, conducted in July 2011. We found evidence that the existence of a characteristic premorbid personality profile of PD patients is not actually sustained by robust empirical evidence, mainly due to the methodological bias of the retrospective assessment of personality; PD patients present a personality profile of low novelty seeking and high harm avoidance. We concluded that the definition of a pre-motor phase of PD, based on non-motor symptoms, should search for the presence of concomitant affective disorders and for a positive psychiatric history for affective disorders rather than for a typical personality profile or personality changes. The low novelty seeking profile is probably related to the dopaminergic deficit, while the high harm avoidance profile is probably associated with the presence of affective disorders. Clinical implications of these findings, in regard to personality assessment and pharmacological treatments in PD, are also discussed.

  15. Behavioral and trait rating assessments of personality in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Iwanicki, Suzanne; Lehmann, Julia

    2015-08-01

    The study of personality in animals is a rapidly growing scientific field and numerous species have been reported to show consistent personality profiles. Much animal personality research has focused on nonhuman primates, with the main emphasis being placed on Old World primates, particularly rhesus macaques and chimpanzees. So far, little work has been done on cooperatively breeding nonhuman primates and New World species. Here, we study personality in the cooperatively breeding common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to broaden the taxonomic range of such research and to widen the perspective of comparative personality research. We use behavioral data collection and observer trait ratings to assess marmoset personality dimensions. The resulting behavioral and rating-derived personality dimensions, when viewed in tandem, resemble the human five-factor model and include extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness. Correlations between the behavioral data and the observer trait-rated personality components suggest that the personality construct of common marmosets exhibits both convergent and discriminant validity. The finding of a distinct Conscientiousness component in this species extends previous knowledge in comparative personality psychology and warrants reconsideration of proposed taxonomic trait distributions.

  16. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care.

  17. Five-factor trait instability in borderline relative to other personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is related to five-factor model (FFM) traits and can be characterized as involving psychological and behavioral instability. A previous study comparing the FFM trait stability across individuals with borderline and other personality disorders found that the BPD group tended to have lower stability, particularly on neuroticism and conscientiousness and the overall configuration of FFM profiles over 6 years, suggesting that associated psychological and behavioral variability may be due to trait variability. The current study was designed to test the degree to which these findings replicate in another sample using different diagnostic and trait measures and extending the measurement period to 10 years. Results are consistent with previous findings in showing lower differential (rank-order) stability on conscientiousness, greater mean-level decreases on neuroticism, lower individual-level stability on conscientiousness, and lower ipsative stability of trait profile configurations among those with BPD. However, unlike the previous study, no differences were observed for differential or individual-level neuroticism or mean-level conscientiousness. Overall, findings show that the instability characteristic of BPD extends into typically stable personality traits, and that it does so with some specificity in terms of which traits are affected and how instability manifests.

  18. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757

  19. Personality trait inferences of Turkish immigrant and neutral targets: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Bye, Hege H; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated whether personality traits attributed to immigrant targets differ from personality inferences made for a neutral target, and whether trait attributions differ for assimilated and integrated immigrant targets. Participants (n = 340) were randomized to one of three conditions in which they read the same story about a person, but where the person was described as either: (a) an assimilated Turkish immigrant; (b) an integrated Turkish immigrant; or (c) neutral (no nationality or religious practice indicated). Subsequently, they rated the personality of the described person on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (observer rating version) and completed the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Impression Management scale) with reference to themselves. Both immigrant targets were rated as significantly higher on extraversion and lower on neuroticism than the neutral target. The integrated target was rated as more open than the neutral target, and as higher than the assimilated target on neuroticism when controlling for impression management. PMID:23170867

  20. Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality…

  1. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits. PMID:25809424

  2. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association datasets of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-N; Kim, B-H; Cho, J; Ryu, S; Shin, H; Sung, J; Shin, C; Cho, N H; Sung, Y A; Choi, B-O; Kim, H-L

    2015-04-01

    Although several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of human personality have been recently published, genetic variants that are highly associated with certain personality traits remain unknown, due to difficulty reproducing results. To further investigate these genetic variants, we assessed biological pathways using GWA datasets. Pathway analysis using GWA data was performed on 1089 Korean women whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the 5-factor model of personality. A total of 1042 pathways containing 8297 genes were included in our study. Of these, 14 pathways were highly enriched with association signals that were validated in 1490 independent samples. These pathways include association of: Neuroticism with axon guidance [L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions]; Extraversion with neuronal system and voltage-gated potassium channels; Agreeableness with L1CAM interaction, neurotransmitter receptor binding and downstream transmission in postsynaptic cells; and Conscientiousness with the interferon-gamma and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta polypeptide pathways. Several genes that contribute to top-ranked pathways in this study were previously identified in GWA studies or by pathway analysis in schizophrenia or other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we report the first pathway analysis of all five personality traits. Importantly, our analysis identified novel pathways that contribute to understanding the etiology of personality traits.

  3. Personality Traits in Obesity Associated with Binge Eating and/or Night Eating.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2014-03-01

    Specific personality traits, as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have been identified in individuals with obesity, but their association with binge and/or night eating has scarcely been reported. Indeed, our systematic search of Medline (1987 to 2013) yielded only five studies on the issue. Taken together, they suggest that personality traits do not have any significant role in determining body mass index, and therefore obesity class. However, obese individuals, in comparison with normal weight individuals, do seem to have a distinctive personality profile, characterized by low self-directedness and cooperativeness, and obese individuals with binge eating show lower self-directedness than those without. Moreover obese individuals with binge eating and/or night eating share a temperament profile characterized by high novelty-seeking and harm-avoidance, two traits also observed in other eating disorder categories and in clinical depression. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the role of personality traits in the onset of binge eating and night eating in obese individuals, and to clarify their influence, if any, on treatment outcomes. Such information will enable us to determine whether the evaluation of personality traits should be included in the comprehensive assessment of obese individuals.

  4. Is the Aggression Questionnaire Bias Free? A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.

    2007-01-01

    Buss and Perry (1992) developed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) to assess aggressiveness as a personality trait in high school and college samples. The AQ has been used by researchers in United States, Italy, Germany, Netherland, Japan, Canada, and Greece. The present study is reported on an Arabic adapted version of the AQ among a sample of 510…

  5. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  6. Personality traits and behavioral syndromes in differently urbanized populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes.

  7. The role of parental personality traits in differential parenting.

    PubMed

    Browne, Dillon T; Meunier, Jean Christophe; O'Connor, Thomas G; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Significant relationships have been demonstrated between parental personality and parenting toward individual children, but there is little research exploring the relationship between parental personality and differential parenting (DP). The present study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and differential positivity and negativity in parenting (observed and self-report measures). The analyses are based on a sample of 867 children nested within 381 families. Using multilevel modeling and controlling for child age, gender, birth order, behavior, and family socioeconomic status analyses revealed that maternal and paternal agreeableness were inversely related to reports of differential positivity. Agreeableness predicted observed differential negativity, and the relationship was curvilinear (at both high and low levels of agreeableness, differential negativity was higher). Finally, mothers with the most openness to experience exhibited the highest levels of reported differential negativity. The findings suggest that parental personality is a modest yet important influence to consider when conceptualizing the sources of DP.

  8. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002) residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002) residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains) in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  9. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and personality traits among Jordanian university students

    PubMed Central

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Shammout, Nizar A; Alkhazaleh, Ziad M; Al-Alwan, Ahmed F; Abu-Eita, Jawhara D

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the level of spiritual intelligence and its correlation with personality traits among a group of Jordanian undergraduate students. A purposive sample of 716 male and female students was chosen from different faculties at the Hashemite University. Two questionnaires on spiritual intelligence and personality traits were distributed to members of the sample during the academic year 2013–2014. Results illustrated a medium level of spiritual intelligence in students, and indicated a positive and statistically significant relationship between spiritual intelligence dimensions (critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion) and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), but no significant correlation between personal meaning production and transcendental awareness dimensions and neuroticism personality traits. Finally, regression analysis results indicate that critical existential thinking is the first predictor dimension of spiritual intelligence in terms of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In the light of the results of this study, many recommendations were written by the researchers. PMID:25834470

  10. The association between the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, G; Bellani, M; Altamura, A C; Brambilla, P

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from previous studies has reported that complex traits, including psychiatric disorders, are moderately to highly heritable. Moreover, it has also been shown that specific personality traits may increase the risk to develop mental illnesses. Therefore the focus of the research shifted towards the identification of the biological mechanisms underpinning these traits by exploring the effects of a constellation of genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects. Indeed, studying the effect of genetic variants in normal personality provides a unique means for identifying candidate genes which may increase the risk for psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss the impact of two of the most frequently studied genetic polymorphisms on personality in healthy subjects, the 5-HTT polymorphism of the serotonin transporter and the DRD2/DRD4 polymorphisms of the D2/D4 dopamine's receptors. The main aims are: (a) to highlight that the study of candidate genes provides a fruitful ground for the identification of the biological underpinnings of personality without, though, reaching a general consensus about the strength of this relationship; and (b) to outline that the research in personality genetics should be expanded to provide a clearer picture of the heritability of personality traits. PMID:26750396

  11. Pathological personality traits among patients with absent, current, and remitted substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Grilo, Carlos M; Ansell, Emily B; McGlashan, Thomas H; Markowitz, John C; Pinto, Anthony; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Gunderson, John G; Zanarini, Mary C; Stout, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Personality traits may provide underlying risk factors for and/or sequelae to substance use disorders (SUDs). In this study Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits were compared in a clinical sample (N=704, age 18-45) with current, past, or no historical alcohol or non-alcohol substance use disorders (AUD and NASUD) as assessed by DSM-IV semi-structured interview. Results corroborated previous research in showing associations of negative temperament and disinhibition to SUD, highlighting the importance of these traits for indicating substance use proclivity or the chronic effects of substance use. Certain traits (manipulativeness, self-harm, disinhibition, and impulsivity for AUD, and disinhibition and exhibitionism for NASUD) were higher among individuals with current relative to past diagnoses, perhaps indicating concurrent effects of substance abuse on personality. The positive temperament characteristics detachment and entitlement distinguished AUDs and NASUDs, respectively, perhaps clarifying why this higher order trait tends to show limited relations to SUD generally. These findings suggest the importance of systematically integrating pathological and normative traits in reference to substance-related diagnosis.

  12. Correlates of psychopathic personality traits in everyday life: results from a large community survey

    PubMed Central

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Latzman, Robert D.; Watts, Ashley L.; Smith, Sarah F.; Dutton, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N = 3388), we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research. PMID:25101019

  13. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: the role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (EWB) in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Meaningful Life Measure, the Authenticity Scale were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and EWB, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention.

  14. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: the role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (EWB) in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Meaningful Life Measure, the Authenticity Scale were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and EWB, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention. PMID:26441743

  15. A longitudinal study of the relationships between the Big Five personality traits and body size perception.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal development of body size perception in relation to different personality traits. A sample of Swiss adults (N=2905, 47% men), randomly selected from the telephone book, completed a questionnaire on two consecutive years (2012, 2013). Body size perception was assessed with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale and personality traits were assessed with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Longitudinal analysis of change indicated that men and women scoring higher on conscientiousness perceived themselves as thinner one year later. In contrast, women scoring higher on neuroticism perceived their body size as larger one year later. No significant effect was observed for men scoring higher on neuroticism. These results were independent of weight changes, body mass index, age, and education. Our findings suggest that personality traits contribute to body size perception among adults.

  16. Personality traits, motivation and bone health in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Jasminka; Cvijetić, Selma; Barić, Irena Colić; Satalić, Zvonimir

    2012-09-01

    Vegetarian diets attract more and more attention due to growing concerns about health, ecology and/or animal welfare in general population. The main purpose of this paper was to examine whether vegetarianism could be associated with some specific personality characteristics, with the emphasis on the main motivational factors which determined acquiring the diet. Since the nutrition is also an important determinant of bone health we additionally analyzed the association between personal characteristics and bone density. On a sample of 109 adult vegetarians of both sexes we applied Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (including Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Lie scale), bone densitometry and questionnaire on dominant motives for dietary choices. The results on overall personality characteristics, bone density and basic anthropometric measures were within expected values for age. Vegetarian men had significantly more fractures during lifetime and lower neuroticism scores than women. Dominant motivational factors for acquiring vegetarianism were moral values. In addition "moral vegetarians" showed more pronounced introversion compared to "health vegetarians", lending further support to the argument that personality plays an important role in the structure of motivation.

  17. Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed. PMID:23469475

  18. A genetic analysis of avian personality traits: correlated, response to artificial selection.

    PubMed

    van Oers, Kees; de Jong, Gerdien; Drent, Piet J; van Noordwijk, Arie J

    2004-11-01

    Individuals in a range of species consistently differ in their behavior towards mild challenges, over age and time. Differences have been found for several personality traits in a range of species. In great tits these traits have a genetic basis and are phenotypically correlated. Estimates of genetic correlations are, however, fundamental to understanding the evolution of consistent individual differences in behavior. This study analyzed two selection experiments on two avian personality traits, early exploratory behavior and risk-taking behavior. The selection lines used were both started using wild great tits (Parus major) from two natural populations. Genetic correlations were calculated using the response and the correlated response to artificial selection. We found genetic correlations ranging from 0.51 to 0.66, based on individual values, and from 0.84 to 1.00 based on nest means. Genetic correlations can be due to pleiotropic effects or to linkage disequilibrium. The different behavioral traits might therefore have a common genetic basis, possibly constraining independent evolution of personality traits in natural populations. These results are discussed in relation to domain generality and domain specificity of personalities.

  19. Moderating the interaction between procedural justice and decision frame: the counterbalancing effect of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the framing effect of decision making in contexts in which the issue of social justice matters as well as the moderating effects of personality traits on the relationship between justice and framing effects. The authors manipulated procedural justice and outcome valence of the decision frame within two vignettes and measured two personality traits (self-efficacy and anxiety) of participants. The results from 363 participants showed that the moderating effects of personality traits counterbalanced the interaction between justice and framing, such that for individuals with high self-efficacy/low trait anxiety, justice effects were larger in negative framing than in positive framing; those with the opposite disposition exhibited the opposite pattern. These effects were interpreted in terms of an attribution process as the information processing strategy. The aforementioned findings suggest that the justice and decision theories can be developed to account for the moderating effects of personality traits. Some limitations of this study and the direction of future research are also discussed.

  20. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  1. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation. PMID:26776299

  2. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation.

  3. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in high-risk gamblers.

    PubMed

    Carlotta, Davide; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Frera, Fernanda; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is an addictive disorder resulting in significant impairment in occupational and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of GD risk to adaptive and maladaptive personality dimensions in a sample of nonreferred Italian gamblers. The authors found the risk for GD to show significant associations with the Openness and Conscientiousness scales of the Big Five Inventory (BFI); however, these effects were not significant after controlling for alcohol and drug use. GD risk showed significant associations with the Detachment and Antagonism domains of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), as well as with the PID-5 facet scales of Hostility, Callousness, Deceitfulness, Manipulativeness, Irresponsibility, and (low) Rigid Perfectionism, even when controlling for alcohol and drug use. Maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for pathological gambling, even beyond their impact on frequently concomitant problems with alcohol and other drugs.

  4. Implicit attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression: differences between male community and offender adolescents, and associations with psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; de Ridder, Jill; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Stephan, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Research suggests that implicit attitudes play a key role in the occurrence of antisocial behaviours. This study assessed implicit attitudes and self-concepts related to aggression and transgression in community and offender adolescents, using a new set of Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and examined their association with of psychopathic traits. Thirty-six offenders and 66 community adolescents performed 4 IATs assessing 1) implicit attitudes about a) aggression and b) transgression as good, and 2) implicit self-concepts about a) aggression and b) transgression as self-descriptive. They filled in self-report questionnaires: the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, and explicit measures of their attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression. Results showed few differences between community and offender adolescents on implicit attitudes and self-concepts, and unexpected negative associations between some implicit attitudes and psychopathic traits, while the association was positive for the corresponding explicit attitudes. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  5. [Cognitive functions and personality traits in patients with brain tumors: the role of lesion localization].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M; Perfil'ev, A M; Stupak, V V

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits and cognitive functions were studied depending on a tumor localization in the brain in 21 neurosurgical patients and the results were compared with a control group. In patients with brain damage, mostly affected were personality traits associated with emotion regulation and social interaction (neuroticism, psychoticism and social conformity). Increases in psychoticism and decreases in neuroticism were more expressed in patients with a left-hemisphere localization of tumors. The tumor-induced decrease in cognitive abilities was more presented in performing figurative tasks and less in verbal ones. Verbal functions were more decreased in the group with frontal localization of tumor compared to that with parietal localization.

  6. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity.

  7. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity. PMID:25867836

  8. Anterior cingulate cortex gray matter volume mediates an association between 2D:4D ratio and trait aggression in women but not men.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Adam X; Norman, Rachel E; Radtke, Spenser R; Carré, Justin M; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-01

    Previous research demonstrates that prenatal testosterone exposure increases aggression, possibly through its effects on the structure and function of neural circuits supporting threat detection and emotion regulation. Here we examined associations between regional gray matter volume, trait aggression, and the ratio of the second and fourth digit of the hand (2D:4D ratio) as a putative index of prenatal testosterone exposure in 464 healthy young adult volunteers. Our analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D ratio and gray matter volume of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a brain region supporting emotion regulation, conflict monitoring, and behavioral inhibition. Subsequent analyses demonstrated that reduced (i.e., masculinized) gray matter volume in the dACC mediated the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and aggression in women, but not men. Expanding on this gender-specific mediation, additional analyses demonstrated that the shared variance between 2D:4D ratio, dACC gray matter volume, and aggression in women reflected the tendency to engage in cognitive reappraisal of emotionally provocative stimuli. Our results provide novel evidence that 2D:4D ratio is associated with masculinization of dACC gray matter volume, and that this neural phenotype mediates, in part, the expression of trait aggression in women.

  9. Predictive Role of Personality Traits on Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Serkan; Atak, Hasan; Basal, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to develop a model seeking to investigate the direct effects of personality types on internet addiction, this study was set and tested on tertiary level students receiving education within two learning modes: face to face and distance education. The participants of the study, selected through maximum variety method within purposive…

  10. The Features of Female Managers' Personality Traits in Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabdreeva, Guzel Sh.; Khalfieva, Alisa R.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the "female" management features study is driven by the active penetration of women to management in various fields and the emergence of a new social category "Business-women". The article contains the results of a study aimed to identify the features of personal properties and structure of low-level,…

  11. A Five-Factor Measure of Schizotypal Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Maryanne; Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Gore, Whitney L.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of schizotypy from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Nine schizotypy scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Aberrant Ideas as a maladaptive variant of…

  12. Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder: Predicting Prospective Patient Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…

  13. The big five personality traits: psychological entities or statistical constructs?

    PubMed

    Franić, Sanja; Borsboom, Denny; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-11-01

    The present study employed multivariate genetic item-level analyses to examine the ontology and the genetic and environmental etiology of the Big Five personality dimensions, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992; Hoekstra et al., NEO personality questionnaires NEO-PI-R, NEO-FFI: manual, 1996]. Common and independent pathway model comparison was used to test whether the five personality dimensions fully mediate the genetic and environmental effects on the items, as would be expected under the realist interpretation of the Big Five. In addition, the dimensionalities of the latent genetic and environmental structures were examined. Item scores of a population-based sample of 7,900 adult twins (including 2,805 complete twin pairs; 1,528 MZ and 1,277 DZ) on the Dutch version of the NEO-FFI were analyzed. Although both the genetic and the environmental covariance components display a 5-factor structure, applications of common and independent pathway modeling showed that they do not comply with the collinearity constraints entailed in the common pathway model. Implications for the substantive interpretation of the Big Five are discussed.

  14. Case Study of Early Personality Traits of 10 Adolescent Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Jane A.; Siehl, Peterann M.

    Present research on adolescent suicide prevention is based on the possibility that there is a continuum of self-destructive behaviors which develops throughout life. Through personal interviews and written questionnaires, this case study examines family perceptions of the suicidal child's behavior at different ages. Subjects were randomly chosen…

  15. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PMID:24016019

  16. Personality traits in the differentiation of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder during a depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Jaciana Marlova Gonçalves; dos Passos, Miguel Bezerra; Molina, Mariane Lopez; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in personality traits between individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) during a depressive episode, when it can be hard to differentiate them. Data on personality traits (NEO-FFI), mental disorders (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus) and socioeconomic variables were collected from 245 respondents who were in a depressive episode. Individuals with MDD (183) and BD (62) diagnosis were compared concerning personality traits, clinical aspects and socioeconomic variables through bivariate analyses (chi-square and ANOVA) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). There were no differences in the prevalence of the disorders between socioeconomic and clinical variables. As for the personality traits, only the difference in Agreeableness was statistically significant. Considering the control of suicide risk, gender and anxiety comorbidity in the multivariate analysis, the only variable that remained associated was Agreeableness, with an increase in MDD cases. The brief version of the NEO inventories (NEO-FFI) does not allow for the analysis of personality facets. During a depressive episode, high levels of Agreeableness can indicate that MDD is a more likely diagnosis than BD.

  17. Long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Martin, Mike

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated long-term correlated change between personality traits and perceived social support in middle adulthood. Two measurement occasions with an 8-year time interval from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development (ILSE) were used. The sample consisted of 346 middle-aged adults (46-50 years at T1). Four different types of perceived social support were assessed. Personality traits were assessed with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Longitudinal measurement invariance (MI) was established for both measures. The mean rank-order stabilities were .79 and .62 for personality traits and for perceived social support, respectively. The results demonstrated a mean-level increase for neuroticism and a decrease for extraversion and significant change variances for all constructs. The results of latent change models showed significant initial level correlations and correlated changes between personality traits and social support, implying that changes in these constructs show commonality. The results can expand our current thinking about correlated change in personality.

  18. Relationship between PTSD and pathological personality traits in context of disasters.

    PubMed

    Reis, Ana Maria; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-07-30

    One of the recurrent outcomes after a stressor event as a disaster is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which appears to be mediated, in part, by emotional, behavioral, and psychological responses, arising from the belief system associated with the traumatic experience. Studies suggest that personality traits are related to how individuals face or adapt in the event of disaster phenomena. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD, posttraumatic beliefs and personality traits in people who experienced disasters. 113 individuals participated in the survey, of both sexes (58.4% women) with ages ranging between 19 and 63 years (M=37.5; SD=12.1). We used the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP), the Brazilian version of the Davidson Trauma Scale, and the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. Among the findings, pathological personality characteristics relate positively with PTSD symptomatology, individuals who experienced disaster events presented more pathological personality traits when compared to those who did not experience these events, and negative beliefs were positively related with pathological characteristics of personality. We highlight the need for research on the relationships between personality characteristics and post-traumatic beliefs in order to promote more adequate interventions given the possible disease chronicity. PMID:27156030

  19. Integrating oddity traits in a dimensional model for personality pathology precursors.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Lize; De Clercq, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Current dimensional measures of early personality pathology (e.g., the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool, DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006) describe personality difficulties within a 4-dimensional framework. The present study corroborates recent evidence on the relevance of including a 5th Oddity-related domain for a more comprehensive description of personality pathology, and presents the construction of an empirically based taxonomy of early Oddity features. Psychometric and factor analytic procedures were conducted on self- and maternal ratings of adolescents (N = 434), resulting in 4 internally consistent facets that empirically collapse in 1 higher-order "Oddity" factor. From a structural perspective, this Oddity factor emerged as a clear 5th factor beyond the earlier proposed 4-dimensional structure of child and adolescent personality pathology. Significant associations of Oddity with both general and maladaptive trait equivalents support the construct validity of this 5th factor, and challenge current hypotheses on the applicability of the continuity hypothesis on general and maladaptive trait variance within the openness field. The results further suggest that Oddity traits are meaningfully associated with general psychopathology at a young age. These findings are discussed in terms of the importance of including a 5th Oddity-related factor in dimensional models of developmental personality pathology in order to acquire a more comprehensive description of the building blocks that underlie early personality difficulties. PMID:24933279

  20. Mediation of the Relationship Between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Proactive Aggression by Amygdala Response to Fear Among Children With Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lozier, Leah M.; Cardinale, Elise M.; VanMeter, John W.; Marsh, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Among youths with conduct problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits are known to be an important determinant of symptom severity, prognosis, and treatment responsiveness. But positive correlations between conduct problems and CU traits result in suppressor effects that may mask important neurobiological distinctions among subgroups of children with conduct problems. Objective To assess the unique neurobiological covariates of CU traits and externalizing behaviors in youths with conduct problems and determine whether neural dysfunction linked to CU traits mediates the link between callousness and proactive aggression. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional case-control study involved behavioral testing and neuroimaging that were conducted at a university research institution. Neuroimaging was conducted using a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance imaging scanner. It included 46 community-recruited male and female juveniles aged 10 to 17 years, including 16 healthy control participants and 30 youths with conduct problems with both low and high levels of CU traits. Main Outcomes and Measures Blood oxygenation level–dependent signal as measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging during an implicit face-emotion processing task and analyzed using whole-brain and region of interest–based analysis of variance and multiple-regression analyses. Results Analysis of variance revealed no group differences in the amygdala. By contrast, consistent with the existence of suppressor effects, multiple-regression analysis found amygdala responses to fearful expressions to be negatively associated with CU traits (x = 26, y = 0, z = −12; k = 1) and positively associated with externalizing behavior (x = 24, y = 0, z = −14; k = 8) when both variables were modeled simultaneously. Reduced amygdala responses mediated the relationship between CU traits and proactive aggression. Conclusions and Relevance The results linked proactive aggression in youths with

  1. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  2. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health

    PubMed Central

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work. PMID:21643471

  3. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  4. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  5. The genetic links between the big five personality traits and general interest domains.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M

    2011-12-01

    This is the first genetically informative study in which multiple informants were used to quantify the genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in general interests as well as the phenotypic and genetic links between general interests and Big Five personality traits. Self-reports and two peer ratings from 844 individuals, including 225 monozygotic and 113 dizygotic complete twin pairs, were collected. Multiple-rater scores (composites) revealed that the averaged levels of genetic and environmental effects on seven broad interest domains were similar to those on personality traits. Multivariate analyses showed that about 35% of the genetic and 9% of the environmental variance in interests were explained by personality domains, in particular by Openness. The findings suggest that interests cannot easily be considered as a byproduct of the interactions between personality genotypes and the environmental influences but rather as an internal regulation of behavior with an own genetic basis.

  6. Personality traits, national character stereotypes, and climate-economic conditions.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; Chan, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    Cross-cultural personality research suggests that individuals from wealthier countries tend to be more open-minded. This openness to values may support more democratic governments and the expansion of fundamental freedoms. The link between wealth and freedom is evident in cold-to-temperate climates, but not across wealthy nations in hot climates. Furthermore, temperature and economic conditions shape perceptions of national character stereotypes.

  7. Personality trait interactions in parents of patients with borderline personality disorder: a controlled study using the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    PubMed

    Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo

    2009-01-30

    Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.

  8. Clinicians' Judgments of the Clinical Utility of Personality Disorder Trait Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Crego, Cristina; Sleep, Chelsea E; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) was a five-domain, 25-dimensional trait model that would have constituted a significant part of the diagnostic criteria for each personality disorder. A primary concern with respect to the proposal was that clinicians might find such an approach to be unacceptable. This study provides results from three independent data collections that compared clinicians' clinical utility ratings for each iteration of the DSM-5 dimensional trait assignments, along with an alternative list of traits derived from the Five Factor Form (FFF). The clinicians considered the final trait assignments that were posted for the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizoid personality disorders to be significantly less acceptable than the original assignments. They also considered the FFF trait assignments to be preferable to the DSM-5 final postings with respect to the avoidant, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent, and histrionic personality disorders. The implications of these results for future editions of the diagnostic manual are discussed.

  9. Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Dlugos, Andrea M.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect. This study aimed to investigate associations between MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and personality traits of positive and negative emotionality in healthy volunteers, to elucidate mechanisms underlying personality and the risk for depression. Healthy Caucasian volunteers (N = 150) completed the Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes independent superfactors of Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality. Participants were genotyped for 8 MAOA and 12 MAOB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analyses for both SNPs and haplotypes were performed using the permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Negative Emotionality was significantly associated with the two highly linked MAOB polymorphisms rs10521432 and rs6651806 (p < 0.002). Findings were extended in haplotype analyses. For MAOB the 4-SNP haplotype GACG formed from rs1799836, rs10521432, rs6651806 and rs590551 was significantly related to lower Negative Emotionality scores (p < 0.002). MAOA was not related to personality in this study. Our finding provides the first evidence that MAOB polymorphisms influence levels of negative emotionality in healthy human volunteers. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of personality traits and inter-individual susceptibility developing psychiatric disorders such as major depression. PMID:19657584

  10. Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Andrea M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect. This study aimed to investigate associations between MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms and personality traits of positive and negative emotionality in healthy volunteers, to elucidate mechanisms underlying personality and the risk for depression. Healthy Caucasian volunteers (N = 150) completed the Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), which includes independent superfactors of Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality. Participants were genotyped for 8 MAOA and 12 MAOB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analyses for both SNPs and haplotypes were performed using the permutation approach implemented in PLINK. Negative Emotionality was significantly associated with the two highly linked MAOB polymorphisms rs10521432 and rs6651806 (p < 0.002). Findings were extended in haplotype analyses. For MAOB the 4-SNP haplotype GACG formed from rs1799836, rs10521432, rs6651806 and rs590551 was significantly related to lower Negative Emotionality scores (p < 0.002). MAOA was not related to personality in this study. Our finding provides the first evidence that MAOB polymorphisms influence levels of negative emotionality in healthy human volunteers. If confirmed, these results could lead to a better understanding of personality traits and inter-individual susceptibility developing psychiatric disorders such as major depression.

  11. [Studies of psychiatric symptoms and personality traits in the 90+ years population].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Miyazaki, A; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, R; Takemiya, T; Kobayashi, M; Hotori, A

    1997-11-01

    Depressive symptoms and personality traits 90+ years population were examined. Data were obtained from 33 aged people (mean 93 +/- 3.2 years old; range 90-105 years old) using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and a questionnaire for the evaluation of type A personality trait (devised by Dr. Maeda). Scores of > 11 in the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression were considered indicative of depression. This score was found in 39% of cases. There are four types of depressive symptoms among the 90+ years population: sleep disturbance and somatic complain type; depressive mood type; hypochodrical type; reference of ideas and obsessive-compulsive type. The usual distributions of symptoms is 43, 29, 21 and 7% respectively. According to the questionnaire for type A personality trait among the 33 cases, there were more people with type A personality (n = 18; 56%) than there were those with type B (n = 15; 44%). Of the total number of cases studied, there was a tendency high scores to be achieved items characteristic of type A personality, such as a thorough native, self-confidence and precision. On the other hand, there are also tendencies for flexibilities and "going-my-way" traints in the 90+ year population. There is a significant correlation between scores in Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and scores in the type A personality questionnaire.

  12. Unique roles of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits in distress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W

    2011-11-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.

  13. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoretically linked. These findings have significant implications for generating improved treatments and interventions aimed at preventing the development of addictive disorders. PMID:24772382

  14. Longer you play, the more hostile you feel: examination of first person shooter video games and aggression during video game play.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Harris, Richard J; Baldassaro, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of video game play on aggression. Using the General Aggression Model, as applied to video games by Anderson and Bushman, [2002] this study measured physiological arousal, state hostility, and how aggressively participants would respond to three hypothetical scenarios. In addition, this study measured each of these variables multiple times to gauge how aggression would change with increased video game play. Results showed a significant increase from baseline in hostility and aggression (based on two of the three story stems), which is consistent with the General Aggression Model. This study adds to the existing literature on video games and aggression by showing that increased play of a violent first person shooter video game can significantly increase aggression from baseline.

  15. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population. PMID:24553172

  16. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  17. Personality Traits and Gender-Specific Income Expectations in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…

  18. Exploring the Relationship among Learning Patterns, Personality Traits, and Academic Performance in Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela-Ranilla, Jose Maria; Gisbert, Merce; de Oliveira, Janaina Minelli

    2011-01-01

    Providing information about how 1st-year students learn may help colleges plan actions aimed at increasing students' persistence in higher education programs. This research aims to assess 1st-year students' academic performance, using a path analysis to establish inter-correlations among students' personality traits, learning patterns, high school…

  19. The Relationship between Optimism-Pessimism and Personality Traits among Students in the Hashemite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.; Al-Zoubi, Zohair H.; Batayeneh, Omar T.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlation between optimism-pessimism and personality traits (extraversion, introversion, emotional stability and neuroticism), also aimed to identify the prevalence of optimism and pessimism in the study sample according to the variable sex, academic specialization, level of study, and grade point average. The…

  20. Personality Trait and Professional Choice among Preservice Teachers in Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel; Stockburger, Muriel

    A preliminary study was conducted to examine indicators which tend to reflect relationships between personality traits and professional choice among elementary education students enrolled in the teacher education program in Eastern Kentucky University. Education students in elementary education (N=122) completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.…

  1. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Shin; Park, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete questionnaire sheet assessing the extent of histrionic personality traits, extraversion-introversion, and current psychological status. The present authors also collected basic sociodemographic data including alcohol use history. Results. A total of 32 irritable patients and 32 stable patients were analyzed. The histrionic personality trait score of the irritable group was higher than that of the stable group (9.5 ± 3.1 versus 6.9 ± 2.9; P = 0.001), as was the anxiety score (52.8 ± 8.6 versus 46.1 ± 9.6; P = 0.004). Heavy alcohol use was more frequently observed in the irritable group (65.6% versus 28.1%; P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, all these three factors were independently correlated with irritability during CSE. Conclusion. This study revealed that histrionic personality traits, anxiety, and heavy alcohol use can affect irritability during CSE. PMID:25954307

  2. Examination of Narcissistic Personality Traits' Predicting Level of Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying through Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eksi, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to find out to what extent do narcissistic personality traits predict internet addiction and cyber bullying in vocational high school students. For this study five hundred and eight vocational high school students (331 male students--66,2%, 169 female students 33,8% and 8 unstated [x-bar] 16,24) from Anatolian side of…

  3. The Mediating Roles of Generative Cognition and Organizational Culture between Personality Traits and Student Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi-Lin; Liang, Chaoyun

    2014-01-01

    Using science majors as an example, we analyzed how generative cognition, organizational culture, and personality traits affect student imagination, and examined the mediating effects of generative cognition and organizational culture. A total of 473 undergraduates enrolled in physical, chemical, mathematical, and biological science programs…

  4. Primary School Teacher Interpersonal Behavior through the Lens of Students' Eysenckian Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Charalambous, Kyriakos; Davazoglou, Aggeliki

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the association between students' Eysenckian personality traits and their perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior. A sample of 273 Cypriot public primary school fifth and sixth graders, as well as their teachers participated in the study. Students completed a three-part self-report questionnaire of: (a) a…

  5. The Impact of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Personality Traits on Computer Literacy Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saparniene, Diana; Merkys, Gediminas; Saparnis, Gintaras

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper deals with the study of students' computer literacy one of the purposes being demonstration the impact of the cognitive and non-cognitive personality traits (attention, verbal and non-verbal intelligence, emotional-motivational relationship with computer, learning strategies, etc.) on the quality of computer literacy.…

  6. The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaburu, Dan S.; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M.; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that…

  7. Randomness of resting-state brain oscillations encodes Gray's personality trait.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Pyka, Martin; Dieler, Alica C; Saathoff, Claudia; Jakob, Peter M; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2012-01-16

    Randomness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) resting-state time-series has recently been used as a biomarker for numerous disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as autism. To date, however, it remains unknown whether and to what degree personality traits are associated with the randomness of resting-state temporal dynamics. To investigate this question, we estimated the Hurst exponent - a measure of the randomness of a time-series - during resting-state fMRI in brain areas previously associated with trait Impulsivity as defined in Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality in 15 healthy individuals. The Hurst exponent in the ventral striatum as well as in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was significantly associated with the measure of Gray's trait Impulsivity. Specifically, more random resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to higher Impulsivity scores both in the ventral striatum (r(15)=-.71; p=.003) and the OFC (r(15)=-.81; p<.001). In summary, we provide evidence for an association between individual differences in Gray's Impulsivity and randomness in key areas of the reward system which have previously been associated with this personality trait. Based on evidence from fMRI and electroencephalographical studies, we suggest that this association might arise from resting-state fluctuations constraining task-related neural responsiveness. Thereby, we outline a potential mechanism linking randomness of resting-state dynamics and personality.

  8. Online Learning in Management Education: An Empirical Study of the Role of Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Otmar E.; Cater, John James, III; Michel, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we seek to better understand the outcomes of online education by observing the role of learners' personality traits. Under the premise that the behaviors that maximize learning are contingent on the delivery method, we compared learning outcomes of students participating in four sections of an undergraduate principles of management…

  9. Career Indecision versus Indecisiveness: Associations with Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa; Gati, Itamar

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the distinctions between career indecision and indecisiveness. The different patterns of the associations between career indecision and indecisiveness, on one hand, and personality traits, career decision-making self-efficacy, perceived social support, and emotional intelligence, on the other, were…

  10. Do Personality Traits Moderate the Impact of Care Receipt on End-of-Life Care Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines (a) the association between being a care recipient and end-of-life care planning (EOLCP) and (b) the extent to which personality traits moderate the relationship between care receipt and EOLCP. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a survey of Wisconsin high school…

  11. The five-factor model of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G

    2011-11-01

    Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect have incremental validity for citizenship over and above Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, 2 well-established FFM predictors of citizenship. In addition, FFM personality traits predict citizenship over and above job satisfaction. Finally, we compared the effect sizes obtained in the current meta-analysis with the comparable effect sizes predicting task performance from previous meta-analyses. As a result, we found that Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion have similar magnitudes of relationships with citizenship and task performance, whereas Openness and Agreeableness have stronger relationships with citizenship than with task performance. This lends some support to the idea that personality traits are (slightly) more important determinants of citizenship than of task performance. We conclude with proposed directions for future research on the relationships between FFM personality traits and specific forms of citizenship, based on the current findings. PMID:21688883

  12. The Role of Language Proficiency in Self-Related Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…

  13. The five-factor model of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G

    2011-11-01

    Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect have incremental validity for citizenship over and above Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, 2 well-established FFM predictors of citizenship. In addition, FFM personality traits predict citizenship over and above job satisfaction. Finally, we compared the effect sizes obtained in the current meta-analysis with the comparable effect sizes predicting task performance from previous meta-analyses. As a result, we found that Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Extraversion have similar magnitudes of relationships with citizenship and task performance, whereas Openness and Agreeableness have stronger relationships with citizenship than with task performance. This lends some support to the idea that personality traits are (slightly) more important determinants of citizenship than of task performance. We conclude with proposed directions for future research on the relationships between FFM personality traits and specific forms of citizenship, based on the current findings.

  14. Predicting the Creativity of Design Majors Based on the Interaction of Diverse Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Peng, Li-Pei; Lin, Ju-Sen; Liang, Chaoyun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, design majors were analysed to examine how diverse personality traits interact and influence student creativity. The study participants comprised 476 design majors. The results indicated that openness predicted the originality of creativity, whereas openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness predicted the usefulness of…

  15. Association of existing and new candidate genes for anxiety, depression and personality traits in older people.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Michelle; Houlihan, Lorna M; Harris, Sarah E; Gow, Alan J; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2010-07-01

    Genetic variants that have previously been associated with personality traits and/or psychological distress, or inflammatory marker levels were investigated for their relationship to self-rated personality traits, anxiety, and depression in two elderly Scottish cohorts. Ten genes (29 SNPs) were investigated in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (approximately 70 years, N = 1,091). Four of these genes and seven others (35 SNPs) were tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 who were measured on the same traits and states on two occasions (approximately 80 years, N = 550; 87 years, N = 229). For previously investigated candidate genes, some support (at a nominal significance level of 0.05/0.01) was found for association between NOS1 and personality traits (especially extraversion), PSEN1 and depression/neuroticism, and GRIK3 and depression. Of the inflammatory marker candidate genes, TF showed some association with psychological distress. No SNPs withstood the correction to significance level for multiple testing. Nevertheless, the results will be of importance to future meta-analyses of these candidate genes in relation to psychological distress and personality. PMID:20052609

  16. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  17. Predicting Academic Success: General Intelligence, "Big Five" Personality Traits, and Work Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgell, Susan D.; Lounsbury, John W.

    2004-01-01

    General intelligence, Big Five personality traits, and the construct Work Drive were studied in relation to two measures of collegiate academic performance: a single course grade received by undergraduate students in an introductory psychology course, and self-reported GPA. General intelligence and Work Drive were found to be significantly…

  18. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  19. Social Appraisal of Adult ADHD: Stigma and Influences of the Beholder's Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Newman, Matthew L.; Morrow, Tara L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates social stigma associated with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and whether Big Five personality traits predict appraisals of affected individuals. Method: A sample of 257 undergraduates rate the desirability of targets with ADHD, minor medical problems, and with no appreciable weakness, across several social…

  20. An Investigation of Big Five Personality Traits and Career Decidedness among Early and Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Hutchens, Teresa; Loveland, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Big Five personality traits were analyzed in relation to career decidedness among adolescents in middle and high school. Participants were 248 7th-grade, 321 10th-grade, and 282 12th-grade students. As hypothesized, Conscientiousness was positively and significantly correlated with career decidedness in all three grades. Openness and Agreeableness…