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Sample records for aggressive pituitary tumours

  1. Dural invasion by pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Shaffi, O M; Wrightson, P

    1975-04-23

    In 12 cases of pituitary tumour the dura mater of the sella turcica or diaphragma sellae in contact with the tumour was examined histologically. In nine cases tumour cells were found lying deep in the substance of the dura. Dura from the sella of seven subjects without pituitary disease, obtianed at autopsy, showed no inclusions of pituitary tissue. Four of the cases studied were known before death to suffer from an invasive pituitary adenoma. Of eight surviving cases operated upon in the last two years, five showed dural invasion by tumour. The present report suggests that the condition may be more frequent than expected and that with more study it may provide an index of prognosis. It also defines a requirement for the surgeon aiming to prevent recurrence of tumour after operation or to achieve a complete endocrine ablation.

  2. Pituitary tumours: acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie; Kamenicky, Peter; Cazabat, Laure; Young, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Excessive production of the growth hormone (GH) is responsible for acromegaly. It is related to a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma in most cases. Prevalence is estimated 40-130 per million inhabitants. It is characterised by slowly progressive acquired somatic disfigurement (mainly involving the face and extremities) and systemic manifestations. The rheumatologic, cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic consequences determine its prognosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by an increased serum GH concentration, unsuppressible by an oral glucose load and by detection of increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Treatment is aimed at correcting (or preventing) tumour compression by excising the disease-causing lesion, and at reducing GH and IGF-I levels to normal values. When surgery, the usual first-line treatment, fails to correct GH/IGF-I hypersecretion, medical treatment with somatostatin analogues and/or radiotherapy can be used. The GH-receptor antagonist (pegvisomant) is helpful in patients who are resistant to somatostatin analogues. Thanks to this multistep therapeutic strategy, adequate hormonal disease control is achieved in most cases, allowing a normal life expectancy. PMID:19945023

  3. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, A; Powell, M; Williams, R; Hindmarsh, P; Brook, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 29 January 1997
 OBJECTIVES—Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for the excision of pituitary microadenomas in adults. This study was carried out to establish the long term efficacy and safety of TSS in children.
STUDY DESIGN—A 14 year retrospective analysis was carried out on 23 children (16 boys and seven girls), all less than 18 years of age, who had undergone TSS at our centre.
RESULTS—Twenty nine transsphenoidal surgical procedures were carried out. The most common diagnosis was an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma (14 (61%) patients). The median length of follow up was 8.0 years (range 0.3-14.0 years). Eighteen (78%) patients were cured after the first procedure. No death was related to the operation. The most common postoperative complication was diabetes insipidus, which was transient in most patients. Other complications were headaches in two patients and cerebrospinal fluid leaks in two patients. De novo endocrine deficiencies after TSS in children were as follows: three (14%) patients developed panhypopituitarism, eight (73%) developed growth hormone insufficiency, three (14%) developed secondary hypothyroidism, and four (21%) developed gonadotrophin deficiency. Permanent ACTH deficiency occurred in five (24%) patients, though all patients received postoperative glucocorticoid treatment until dynamic pituitary tests were performed three months after TSS.
CONCLUSIONS—TSS in children is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours, provided it is performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise. Surgical complications are minimal. Postoperative endocrine deficit is considerable, but is only permanent in a small proportion of patients.

 • Transsphenoidal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours in children • Transsphenoidal surgery should be performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise • Surgical complications of

  4. Surgery for locally aggressive bone tumours.

    PubMed

    Devitt, A; O'Sullivan, T; Kavanagh, M; Hurson, B J

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of 16 patients with aggressive benign bone tumours and one patient with a low grade malignancy with a combined regimen of cryosurgery, phenolization and acrylic cementation is reported. Patients were aged between 9 and 51 years and were treated by this method between the years 1986 and 1993. Minimal follow up was 13 months. The commonest histological diagnosis was giant cell tumour (7), followed by aneurysmal bone cyst (6), chondromyxoidfibroma (3) and low grade chondrosarcoma (1). Patients were assessed for functional outcome and local recurrence. On average 86 per cent of premorbid function was restored at follow up and there was one local recurrence (6.29 per cent). We conclude that this is a satisfactory method of gaining local control of these tumours. PMID:8990655

  5. Management of large aggressive nonfunctional pituitary tumors: experimental medical options when surgery and radiation fail.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brandon A; Rutledge, W Caleb; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Oyesiku, Nelson M

    2012-10-01

    Pituitary adenomas are generally considered benign tumors; however, a subset of these tumors displays aggressive behavior and are not easily cured. The protocol for nonsurgical treatment of aggressive pituitary lesions is less standardized than that of other central nervous system tumors. Aggressive surgical treatment, radiation, dopamine agonists, antiangiogenic drugs, and other chemotherapeutics all have roles in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. More studies are needed to improve outcomes for patients with aggressive pituitary tumors.

  6. The chronic syndromes after previous treatment of pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-09-01

    Ultimately, almost all patients who are appropriately treated for pituitary tumours enter a chronic phase with control or cure of hormonal excess, adequate treatment of pituitary insufficiency and relief of mass effects. This phase is associated with improvement of initial signs and symptoms, but also with the persistent consequences of the initial disease and associated treatments. Pituitary insufficiency is a common denominator in many of these patients, and is associated with a reduction in quality of life, despite adequate endocrine substitution. Hypothalamic dysfunction can be present in patients previously treated for visual impairments caused by large suprasellar adenomas, or craniopharyngiomas. In addition to hypopituitarism, these patients can have multisystem morbidities caused by altered hypothalamic function, including weight gain and disturbed regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Mortality can also be affected. Patients cured of Cushing disease or acromegaly have chronic multisystem morbidities (in the case of Cushing disease, also affecting mortality) caused by irreversible effects of the previous excesses of cortisol in Cushing disease and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in acromegaly. In addition to early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumours, research should focus on the amenability of these chronic post-treatment syndromes to therapeutic intervention, to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:27259177

  7. Pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 expression in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Pierconti, F; Milardi, D; Martini, M; Grande, G; Cenci, T; Gulino, G; Larocca, L M; Rindi, G; Pontecorvi, A; De Marinis, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic instability is a feature of germ cell tumours. The pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 (PTTG1) is the major effector of chromosome segregation during mitosis, protecting the cell from aneuploidy. The protein expression of this gene has been evaluated in testicular tumours by immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of testicular tissues from 83 patients undergoing therapeutic orchidectomy for seminomas (n = 53), embryonal carcinoma (n = 10), yolk sac tumour (n = 10) and teratoma (n = 10) were examined. Seminoma was associated with in situ carcinoma (CIS) in 23 samples. PTTG1 immunostaining was performed using rabbit anti-PTTG1 as a primary antibody. In CIS, only isolated cells showed nuclear staining for PTTG1. In the peripheral area of seminoma, PTTG1 was mostly detected as localised in the nucleus; in the central area of seminoma, PTTG1 staining was more intense in cytoplasm. PTTG1-positive cells were also present in the areas of seminoma infiltration. On the other hand, in embryonal carcinoma, cells had a diffuse positive immunostaining, mainly cytoplasmatic, while we did not observe an expression of PTTG1 in yolk sac tumour and mature teratoma. We firstly identified the PTTG1 expression pattern in normal testis, CIS and testicular cancer. Further investigation is needed to clarify the functional activity of PTTG1 in testicular oncogenesis. PMID:24754453

  8. Review of Presentation, Diagnosis and Management of Pituitary Tumours in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kimberley; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Although pituitary tumours are relatively uncommon, their association with menstrual irregularity and infertility brings them into the domain of obstetrics and gynaecology. This review addresses the range of pituitary tumours with particular regard to diagnosis, growth and behaviour and management during pregnancy.

  9. Uncommon perineal tumours: caution with aggressive surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Duchalais, Emilie; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Regenet, Nicolas; Meurette, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    An asymptomatic 66-year-old woman showed a large perineal mass extending close to pelvic organs on MRI. CT-guided needle biopsies revealed a desmoid tumour (DT). The patient refused radical surgery. Four years later, the tumour had marginally increased in size and was still asymptomatic. The revision of earlier biopsies then revealed typical aspects of aggressive angiomyxoma (AA). AA and DT are rare mesenchymal tumours of low-grade malignancy, usually of large size, that occurs in female pelvi-perineal region. Radical resection with wide margins is classically advocated in such tumours in order to prevent the high risk of recurrences. However, due to a slow growth, rare infiltration of adjacent organs and a very low metastatic potential, a watchful waiting policy can be proposed when high postoperative morbidity is expected. In order to propose the accurate treatment, frontline biopsies of the tumour are essential. PMID:24243505

  10. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, J V; Jackson, I M

    1995-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently encountered, benign intracranial tumours. Clinically classified according to their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, pituitary tumours are diagnosed from the clinical manifestations and biochemical findings of specific pituitary hormone overproduction or of impaired pituitary function due to pressure on normal pituitary cells, the pituitary stalk or the hypothalamus. Additionally, the tumour may result in neurological manifestations due to its effect as an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Pituitary adenomas may present acutely with pituitary apoplexy after intrapituitary haemorrhage or infarction. The subsequent hypofunction of the pituitary with concomitant neurological sequelae of an expanding intracranial mass are often associated with excruciating headache, diplopia and visual field defects. Gradually developing neurological deficits or secondary endocrine failure over several years may precede the recognition of non-secretory tumours (30-40% of pituitary adenomas) as well as some of the hormone-producing adenomas, especially when they expand beyond the confines of the sella turcica. Asymptomatic masses occur in the pituitary in 5-27% of unselected autopsy series. About 10-20% of pituitaries imaged as part of a brain study contain lesions 'consistent with a pituitary adenoma', with about half being pituitary adenomas ('incidentalomas'). Many advocate screening such cases for a wide spectrum of pituitary function abnormalities. Clinical judgement should be utilized to determine the extent of the work-up and the frequency of follow-up. Acromegaly, a clinical syndrome caused by excess growth hormone secretion, accounts for one-sixth of resected pituitary tumours. This disorder leads to chronic progressive disability and a shortened life span, with approximately 50% of untreated acromegalic patients experiencing premature death. The prevalence of acromegaly has been estimated to range from 50 to 70 per million, with the

  11. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, J V; Jackson, I M

    1995-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently encountered, benign intracranial tumours. Clinically classified according to their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, pituitary tumours are diagnosed from the clinical manifestations and biochemical findings of specific pituitary hormone overproduction or of impaired pituitary function due to pressure on normal pituitary cells, the pituitary stalk or the hypothalamus. Additionally, the tumour may result in neurological manifestations due to its effect as an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Pituitary adenomas may present acutely with pituitary apoplexy after intrapituitary haemorrhage or infarction. The subsequent hypofunction of the pituitary with concomitant neurological sequelae of an expanding intracranial mass are often associated with excruciating headache, diplopia and visual field defects. Gradually developing neurological deficits or secondary endocrine failure over several years may precede the recognition of non-secretory tumours (30-40% of pituitary adenomas) as well as some of the hormone-producing adenomas, especially when they expand beyond the confines of the sella turcica. Asymptomatic masses occur in the pituitary in 5-27% of unselected autopsy series. About 10-20% of pituitaries imaged as part of a brain study contain lesions 'consistent with a pituitary adenoma', with about half being pituitary adenomas ('incidentalomas'). Many advocate screening such cases for a wide spectrum of pituitary function abnormalities. Clinical judgement should be utilized to determine the extent of the work-up and the frequency of follow-up. Acromegaly, a clinical syndrome caused by excess growth hormone secretion, accounts for one-sixth of resected pituitary tumours. This disorder leads to chronic progressive disability and a shortened life span, with approximately 50% of untreated acromegalic patients experiencing premature death. The prevalence of acromegaly has been estimated to range from 50 to 70 per million, with the

  12. Protein western array analysis in human pituitary tumours: insights and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Franchi, Giulia; Kola, Blerina; Dalino, Paolo; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Salahuddin, Nabila; Musat, Madalina; Góth, Miklós I; Czirják, Sándor; Hanzély, Zoltán; da Silva, Deivid Augusto; Paulino, Eduardo; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2008-12-01

    The molecular analysis of pituitary tumours has received a great deal of attention, although the majority of studies have concentrated on the genome and the transcriptome. We aimed to study the proteome of human pituitary adenomas. A protein array using 1005 monoclonal antibodies was used to study GH-, corticotrophin- and prolactin-secreting as well as non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual protein expression levels in the tumours were compared with the expression profile of normal pituitary tissue. Out of 316 proteins that were detected in the pituitary tissue samples, 116 proteins had not previously been described in human pituitary tissue. Four prominent differentially expressed proteins with potential importance to tumorigenesis were chosen for validation by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In the protein array analysis heat shock protein 110 (HSP110), a chaperone associated with protein folding, and B2 bradykinin receptor, a potential regulator of prolactin secretion, were significantly overexpressed in all adenoma subtypes, while C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), an inhibitor of proto-oncogenic enzymes, and annexin II, a calcium-dependent binding protein, were significantly underexpressed in all adenoma subtypes. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the overexpression of HSP110 and B2 bradykinin receptor and underexpression of CSK and annexin II in pituitary adenoma cells when compared with their corresponding normal pituitary cells. Western blotting only partially confirmed the proteomics data: HSP110 was significantly overexpressed in prolactinomas and NFPAs, the B2 bradykinin receptor was significantly overexpressed in prolactinomas, annexin II was significantly underexpressed in somatotrophinomas, while CSK did not show significant underexpression in any tumour. Protein expression analysis of pituitary samples disclosed both novel proteins and putative protein candidates for pituitary tumorigenesis, though validation using

  13. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of the treatment of pituitary gland tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sowiński, Jerzy; Piątek, Katarzyna; Zybek, Ariadna; Ruchała, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays physicians are under economic pressure; therefore therapeutic decisions based on safety, efficacy, and the effectiveness of the medication also require economic analysis. The aim of this review is to discuss data concerning the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy in patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas, namely growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, prolactinoma and pituitary incidentaloma. In acromegalic patients using lanreotide is cheaper for health care payers and more convenient for physicians and patients because of the opportunity for self/partner injections, lower clogging risk and possibility of longer intervals between injections, while the efficacy is comparable with octreotide. Patients with prolactinomas should be treated with novel dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline or quinagolide, however, bromocriptine still remains a cheaper and almost as effective alternative. There are no easy methods or algorithms, but in general, extracting the maximum value from the investment in treatment is essential. PMID:23788980

  14. Delay in treatment of primary malignant and aggressive musculoskeletal tumours.

    PubMed

    Pan, K L; Zolqarnain, A; Chia, Y Y

    2006-02-01

    Patients with aggressive musculoskeletal tumours often arrive at specialised treatment centres late. Such a delay could mean disfavour for potentially curable or long-term disease-free outcome of limb preserving surgery. This study was undertaken to identify the underlying problem-related delay with a view to propose solution for solving it. We reviewed 30 patients to determine the periods of delay between onset of the first symptom and the definitive treatment. The delays were categorized as 'patient' delay, 'referral' delay and 'treatment' delay. There was 'patient' delay in 57% of patients (n=17), ranging from 1 to 18 months; 'referral' delay in 67% of patients (n=20) ranging from 1 to 19 months and 23% of patients (n=7) had treatment delay (average 23 days) at the treatment centre. The causes of late arrival are not solely patient-related but are multifactorial. Measures to minimize such delays include enhancing awareness only with high index of suspicion among primary care practitioners, creating a special lane specialized imaging studies and establishing a dedicated musculoskeletal tumour unit. PMID:17042231

  15. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to endocrine function and tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Paul M; Thiryayi, Waziq A; Joshi, Abhijit; du Plessis, Daniel; Kearney, Tara; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

    2009-01-01

    The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is a marker of malignancies. Recent studies have also reported its expression in pituitary adenomas, although its significance is unclear. In this retrospective study, the authors quantitatively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of beta-hCG in 123 patients undergoing surgery for pituitary adenomas and explored its relationship to the rest of the endocrine function, tumour recurrence and Ki-67 nuclear labelling. Based on the endocrine profile and immunohistochemistry, the pituitary adenomas were grouped into non-functioning (NFPA; N = 78) and functioning pituitary adenomas (N = 45). The latter included, 20 growth hormone (GH), 12 prolactin (PRL), 8 adreno-corticotrophin hormone (ACTH) and 5 mixed GH-PRL-producing adenomas. Ninety-three (76%) tumours were classified as primary and 30 (24%) tumours classified as recurrent adenomas. Immunohistochemically, 107 (87%) of pituitary adenomas expressed beta-hCG, which was more common in NFPA (91%) than functioning pituitary adenomas (80%). beta-hCG expression was not different between primary (86%) and recurrent pituitary adenomas (90%) and it was also not related to raised Ki-67 labelling. But, Ki-67 labelling was raised in recurrent pituitary adenomas (33%), compared to primary pituitary adenomas (11%). Although, beta-hCG is expressed in the majority of pituitary adenomas, more especially in NFPA, it is un-related to the risk of tumour recurrence or cellular proliferation as measured by Ki-67 nuclear labelling. The high incidence of beta-hCG expression in pituitary adenomas may provide a target for specific beta-hCG-directed tumour therapies in the future. PMID:19005764

  16. Deregulation of miR-183 and KIAA0101 in Aggressive and Malignant Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Magali; Wierinckx, Anne; Croze, Séverine; Rey, Catherine; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Fusco, Alfredo; Raverot, Gérald; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Lachuer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in many types of cancer suggest that they may be involved in crucial steps during tumor progression. Indeed, miRNAs deregulation has been described in pituitary tumorigenesis, but few studies have described their role in pituitary tumor progression toward aggressiveness and malignancy. To assess the role of miRNAs within the hierarchical cascade of events in prolactin (PRL) tumors during progression, we used an integrative genomic approach to associate clinical–pathological features, global miRNA expression, and transcriptomic profiles of the same human tumors. We describe the specific down-regulation of one principal miRNA, miR-183, in the 8 aggressive (A, grade 2b) compared to the 18 non-aggressive (NA, grades 1a, 2a) PRL tumors. We demonstrate that it acts as an anti-proliferative gene by directly targeting KIAA0101, which is involved in cell cycle activation and inhibition of p53–p21-mediated cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we show that miR-183 and KIAA0101 expression significantly correlate with the main markers of pituitary tumors aggressiveness, Ki-67 and p53. These results confirm the activation of proliferation in aggressive and malignant PRL tumors compared to non-aggressive ones. Importantly, these data also demonstrate the ability of such an integrative genomic strategy, applied in the same human tumors, to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumoral progression even from a small cohort of patients. PMID:26322309

  17. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  18. Temozolomide (Temodar®) and capecitabine (Xeloda®) treatment of an aggressive corticotroph pituitary tumor

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Isaacson, Steven R.; Lee, Yoomi

    2010-01-01

    Only rarely do corticotroph pituitary tumors become invasive leading to symptoms caused by compression of cranial nerves and other local structures. When aggressive pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do develop, conventional treatment options are of limited success. A 50-year-old man developed a giant invasive corticotroph pituitary tumor 2 years after initial presentation. His tumor and symptoms failed to respond to maximal surgical, radio-surgical, radiation and medical therapy and a bilateral adrenalectomy was done. He subsequently developed rapid growth of his tumor leading to multiple cranial nerve deficits. He was administered salvage chemotherapy with capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM), a novel oral chemotherapy regimen developed at our institution for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. After two cycles of CAPTEM, his tumor markedly decreased in size and ACTH levels fell by almost 90%. Despite further decreases in ACTH levels, his tumor recurred after 5 months with increased avidity on PET scan suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive phenotype. Temozolomide had been reported to be effective against other pituitary tumors and this case adds to this literature demonstrating its use along with capecitabine (CAPTEM) against a corticotroph tumor. Further evaluation of the CAPTEM regimen in patients with pituitary neuroendocrine tumors which fail to respond to classic treatments is warranted. PMID:19960369

  19. Visual failure from pituitary and parasellar tumours occurring with favourable outcome in pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, M A; Stafford-Bell, M A

    1975-01-01

    Very few cases have been reported of a successful outcome after relief by operation of severe visual failure from a pituitary or other parasellar tumour during the late stages of pregnancy. Two such cases are recorded here together with the obstetric features and follow-up studies of more than three years. Usually the deterioration of vi sion occurs in the latter half of the pregnancy and recovers rapidly after delivery, whether the onset of labour has occurred spontaneously or after induction. In subsequent pregnancies vision deteriorates at an earlier stage and becomes even more marked. Some cases are now occurring even in pregnancies induced by modern fertility drugs. The treatment of choice whenever vision is seriously threatened at any stage of pregnancy is a surgical attack on the pituitary, followed by suitable replacement therapy to ensure that the pregnancy continues. Images PMID:1185230

  20. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  1. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

  2. Temozolomide Therapy for Aggressive Pituitary Tumors: Results in a Small Series of Patients from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Oscar D.; Juárez-Allen, Lea; Christiansen, Silvia B.; Manavela, Marcos; Danilowicz, Karina; Vigovich, Carlos; Gómez, Reynaldo M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated results of temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in six patients, aged 34–78 years, presenting aggressive pituitary tumors. In all the patients tested O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) immunoexpression in surgical specimens was absent. Patients received temozolomide 140–320 mg/day for 5 days monthly for at least 3 months. In two patients minimum time for evaluation could not be reached because of death in a 76-year-old man with a malignant prolactinoma and of severe neutro-thrombopenia in a 47-year-old woman with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. In two patients (a 34-year-old acromegalic woman and a 39-year-old woman with Nelson's syndrome) no response was observed after 4 and 6 months, respectively, and the treatment was stopped. Conversely, two 52- and 42-year-old women with Cushing's disease had long-term total clinical and radiological remissions which persisted after stopping temozolomide. We conclude that TMZ therapy may be of variable efficacy depending on—until now—incompletely understood factors. Cooperative work on a greater number of cases of aggressive pituitary tumors should be crucial to establish the indications, doses, and duration of temozolomide administration. PMID:26106414

  3. Management of locally aggressive mandibular tumours using a gas combination cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, José Thiers; Falcão, Aline Semblano Carreira; da Silva Tabosa, Ana Karla; Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; de Menezes, Lucas Machado

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the results of curettage followed by cryosurgery using a combination of propane, butane, and isobutane gas for several benign but locally aggressive bone tumours on the mandible. Twenty-nine patients (16 men and 13 women) participated in the study. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 87 years (mean, 23.72 years). Before enucleation and cryosurgery, some patients received prior treatment consisting of marsupialisation to decrease tumour size. Twenty-seven of the 29 patients (93.10%) showed no evidence of clinical or radiographic recurrence after treatment through enucleation and cryosurgery. Wound dehiscence, which was observed in all cases, healed by second intention. The average follow-up period was 70.55 months (range, 53-120 months). These results suggest that enucleation followed by cryosurgery is an effective therapy for managing locally aggressive mandible tumours. In addition, this treatment is a less expensive intervention than more radical procedures. PMID:23835572

  4. Surgical treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumours (aggressive fibromatoses).

    PubMed

    Higaki, S; Tateishi, A; Ohno, T; Abe, S; Ogawa, K; Iijima, T; Kojima, T

    1995-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumours (EADT) are benign lesions but difficult to cure because of their infiltrative nature and tendency to recur. Among many treatments recommended in the past, wide excision has been successful, even in difficult cases. We have analyzed retrospectively 41 cases of histologically confirmed EADTs. A total of 98 operations were performed on these patients: 29 wide excisions on 22 patients, 52 intra-lesional excisions with wide margins on 16 patients, and 17 incomplete excisions on 3 patients. One patient, with intra-pelvic lesions, died of a massive haemorrhage 3 days after surgery. Forty patients were followed from between 3 and 29 years. One, who had a multicentric EADT for 21 years, died from the disease. The significant factors concerning local recurrence after wide procedures were an unsatisfactory initial wide local excision, disease affecting 4 or more muscles and the invasive nature of the recurrences. We recommend wide local excision of these tumours in all anatomical areas that allow this procedure. When major nerves and vessels are involved, we recommend an intralesional excision with wide margins in order to preserve limb function. Radiation therapy should be confined to cases in which wide local procedures are not feasible. Overall, 37 of our patients (90%) were cured of the disease, 2 had their disease controlled, and 2 died.

  5. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  6. The in vitro role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Russell, S H; Small, C J; Stanley, S A; Franks, S; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    2001-03-01

    The adipocyte derived hormone leptin has been implicated as an important nutritional signal to the reproductive system, but the role of other adipocyte related cytokines is not clear. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 are present in adipose tissue and released into the circulation where plasma levels correlate positively with body mass index and body fat mass. These cytokines could play a role in signalling nutritional status to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We investigated the effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on basal and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) stimulated luteineizing hormone (LH) release from cultured anterior pituitary cells, harvested from either proestrus female or male Wistar rats. We examined the effects of TNF-alpha and IL-6 on LHRH release from hypothalamic explants harvested from proestrus female and male rats in vitro. IL-6 significantly suppressed LHRH stimulated LH release from male dispersed pituitaries throughout the dose range, but did not influence basal LH release. IL-6 had no effect on basal or LHRH stimulated LH release in dispersed pituitaries from proestrus females. By contrast, TNF-alpha significantly suppressed LHRH stimulated LH release in dispersed pituitaries from proestrus female rats in a dose responsive manner, but did not influence basal LH release. TNF-alpha had no effect on basal or LHRH stimulated LH release in dispersed pituitaries from male rats. TNF-alpha and IL-6 had no effect on LHRH release from male hypothalamic explants in vitro. TNF-alpha and IL-6 had no effect on LHRH release from proestrus female hypothalamic explants in vitro. TNF-alpha and IL-6 have differential effects in dispersed pituitaries harvested from males and proestrus female rats. TNF-alpha and IL-6 may be important in mediating some of the nutritional effects on the reproductive axis by acting at the level of the anterior pituitary rather than the hypothalamus.

  7. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in Evaluating Locally Aggressive and Malignant Bone Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ramavathu, Kumar Venu Madhav; Garga, U.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in preoperative evaluation of locally aggressive and malignant bone tumours in correlation with histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients suspected of malignant bone tumours on the basis of their clinical profile were selected. Following a plain radiograph evaluation, all of them were subjected to CT scan examination. Multi Planar Reconstruction (MPR) was done in sagittal and coronal planes and also three-dimensional Volume Rendering (VR) and Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) images were obtained. Results: Of the 20 patients, 18 underwent surgery, and their histopathological findings were compared and correlated with MDCT findings. MDCT was 92.8% sensitive and 100% specific in determining the vascularity of the tumour and also can detect displacement/ encasement/ involvement of adjacent vessels. It has a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in determining cortical break, calcification and periosteal reaction. However, it is less sensitive in detecting joint involvement. Post contrast enhancement gives details of the extent of the soft tissue component. Conclusion: Although MRI is a preferred modality in preoperative evaluation of bone tumours, CT may be used an alternative in case of non-availability of MRI, which has faster acquisition time and better resolution. Using three dimensional MPR imaging, the location and extent of the tumour can be studied. It is also useful in determining cortical discontinuity, periosteal reaction, and calcification. By virtue of MIP and VR imaging, vascularity of the tumour and its relationship with the adjacent vasculature can be established. However, it is inferior to MRI in soft tissue characterization and has poor sensitivity in detecting marrow and joint involvement. PMID:26023618

  8. Aggressive osseous commitment result by keratocyst odontogenic tumour: case report, radiographic and clinical standpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gerusa O.M.; Matta-Neto, Edgard; El Achkar, Vivian N. R.; Niccoli-Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) previously known as odontogenic keratocyst was recently classified as a benign lesion characterized by an infiltrating pattern, local aggressiveness with the propensity to recurrence. It is thought to arise from the dental lamina. Pain is usually not associated with KCOT until swelling occurs, and it commonly affects the posterior mandible. Multiple KCOT are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This study reports an aggressive case of KCOT with destruction of the osseous tissue of the mandible, accentuated face asymmetry, dysphagia and dysphonia. It was managed with a defined protocol which entailed diagnosis, treatment with enucleation along with peripheral ostectomy and rehabilitation. A long-term follow-up schedule was provided to the patient to observe the recurrence behaviour of this cyst. In postoperative phase, no complication was noticed regarding wound healing and recurrence. PMID:24964453

  9. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2015-03-04

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas compared with normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24-72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca(2+) and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors.

  10. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D.; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D.; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas comparedwith normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24–72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca2+ and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors. PMID:25737012

  11. Lack of MHC class I antigens and tumour aggressiveness of the squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, F.; Concha, A.; Delgado, M.; Pérez-Ayala, M.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 60 primary laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours, 24 lymph node metastases and normal tissue were evaluated in frozen sections for the expression of MHC class I antigens, using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP technique. We found 13 tumours presenting total HLA-ABC loss, five with selective loss of HLA-A antigens and one with absence of HLA-B antigens. These losses were statistically associated with clinical and pathological parameters, such as T stage, degree of differentiation, scores according to the Jakobsson and Glanz grading systems and degree of leukocytic infiltration. Our results lead us to the following conclusions: (a) HLA class I losses were found in a group of tumours showing greater aggressiveness and worse prognosis; (b) these alterations in expression were not associated with an increased metastatic potential. Thus, the absence of HLA molecules in laryngeal tumours is related to greater local aggressiveness, and the loss of class I antigens seems to constitute an adaptive tumour mechanism to avoid the different anatomical and immunological barriers within the larynx. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2257212

  12. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  13. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  14. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De la Marche, Wouter; Prinsen, Karin; Boot, Annemieke M; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children. PMID:16202122

  15. Pre and postoperative median nerve conduction in patients with pituitary tumour.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Mahapatra, A K

    1994-07-01

    A study of median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist was performed in 34 patients with pituitary adenomas prior to and following surgery. In 31 patients this was done bilaterally. They included 11 patients with acromegalic features, 3 of whom had features of carpal tunnel syndrome. Six out of 11 (55%) acromegalics had abnormal latencies and conduction velocities pre-operatively. Among the remaining patients only 3 had conduction delay pre-operatively. Postoperative improvement in conduction velocity and latency was recorded in 24 patients although significant improvement was observed in only 13 patients. All 3 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome had significant improvement in conduction velocities and latencies following the surgery. There was no definite relationship between conduction velocity and the pre-operative hormonal profile.

  16. Decreased FOXJ1 expression and its ciliogenesis programme in aggressive ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours.

    PubMed

    Abedalthagafi, Malak S; Wu, Michael P; Merrill, Parker H; Du, Ziming; Woo, Terri; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hurwitz, Shelley; Ligon, Keith L; Santagata, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    Well-differentiated human cancers share transcriptional programmes with the normal tissue counterparts from which they arise. These programmes broadly influence cell behaviour and function and are integral modulators of malignancy. Here, we show that the master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, FOXJ1, is highly expressed in cells along the ventricular surface of the human brain. Strong expression is present in cells of the ependyma and the choroid plexus as well as in a subset of cells residing in the subventricular zone. Expression of FOXJ1 and its transcriptional programme is maintained in many well-differentiated human tumours that arise along the ventricle, including low-grade ependymal tumours and choroid plexus papillomas. Anaplastic ependymomas as well as choroid plexus carcinomas show decreased FOXJ1 expression and its associated ciliogenesis programme genes. In ependymomas and choroid plexus tumours, reduced expression of FOXJ1 and its ciliogenesis programme are markers of poor outcome and are therefore useful biomarkers for assessing these tumours. Transitions in ciliogenesis define distinct differentiation states in ependymal and choroid plexus tumours with important implications for patient care. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26690880

  17. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B sensitises anterior pituitary cells to tumour necrosis factor-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Eijo, G; Zárate, S; Jaita, G; Ferraris, J; Magri, M L; Zaldivar, V; Radl, D; Boti, V; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an important pro-inflammatory factor, is a crucial regulator of cell survival. Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α activate NF-κB signalling. Oestrogens were shown to suppress NF-κB activation. Oestrogens exert a sensitising action to pro-apoptotic stimuli such as LPS and TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells. In the present study, we show by western blotting that 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) decreases TNF-α-induced NF-κB/p65 and p50 nuclear translocation in primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Also, the in vivo administration of E(2) decreases LPS-induced NF-κB/p65 and p50 nuclear translocation. To investigate whether the inhibition of NF-κB pathway sensitises anterior pituitary cells to pro-apoptotic stimuli, we used an inhibitor of NF-κB activity, BAY 11-7082 (BAY). BAY, at a concentration that fails to induce apoptosis, has permissive action on TNF-α-induced apoptosis of lactotrophs and somatotrophs from OVX rats, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB signalling enhances E(2)-sensitising effect to TNF-α-induced apoptosis in lactotrophs but not in somatotrophs. In vivo administration of BAY allowed LPS-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells from OVX rats (determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting). Furthermore, LPS-induced expression of Bcl-xL in pituitaries of OVX rats is decreased by E(2) administration. Our results show that inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway sensitises anterior pituitary cells to the pro-apoptotic action of LPS and TNF-α. Because E(2) inhibits LPS- and TNF-α-activated NF-κB nuclear translocation, the present study suggests that E(2) sensitises anterior pituitary cells to TNF-α- and LPS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting NF-κB activity.

  18. Familial pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Vandeva, S; Vasilev, V; Vroonen, L; Naves, L; Jaffrain-Rea, M-L; Daly, A F; Zacharieva, S; Beckers, A

    2010-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures. Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4. While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes. Mutations in MEN1 and PRKAR1A genes are found in the majority of MEN1 and CNC patients, respectively. About 15% of FIPA kindreds present with mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip)¹ were identified in MEN4 cases. Familial tumours appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts not only in genetic basis but also in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas. PMID:20961530

  19. Overexpression of the growth-hormone-releasing hormone gene in acromegaly-associated pituitary tumors. An event associated with neoplastic progression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, K.; Kovacs, K.; Stefaneanu, L.; Scheithauer, B.; Killinger, D. W.; Lioyd, R. V.; Smyth, H. S.; Barr, A.; Thorner, M. O.; Gaylinn, B.; Laws, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical behavior of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors is known to vary greatly; however, the events underlying this variability remain poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that tumor overexpression of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene is one prognostically informative event associated with the clinical aggressiveness of somatotroph pituitary tumors. Accumulation of GHRH mRNA transcripts was demonstrated in 91 of a consecutive series of 100 somatotroph tumors by in situ hybridization; these findings were corroborated by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein translation was confirmed by Western blotting. By comparison, transcript accumulation was absent or negligibly low in 30 normal pituitary glands. GHRH transcripts were found to preferentially accumulate among clinically aggressive tumors. Specifically, GHRH mRNA signal intensity was 1) linearly correlated with Ki-67 tumor growth fractions (r = 0.71; P < 0.001), 2) linearly correlated with preoperative serum GH levels (r = 0.56; p = 0.01), 3) higher among invasive tumors (P < 0.001), and 4) highest in those tumors in which post-operative remission was not achieved (P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression, a model of postoperative remission likelihood was derived wherein remission was defined by the single criterion of suppressibility of GH levels to less than 2 ng/ml during an oral glucose tolerance test. In this outcome model, GHRH mRNA signal intensity proved to be the most important explanatory variable overall, eclipsing any and all conventional clinicopathological predictors as the single most significant predictor of postoperative remission; increases in GHRH mRNA signal were associated with marked declines in remission likelihood. The generalizability of this outcome model was further validated by the model's significant performance in predicting postoperative remission in a random sample of 30 somatotroph tumors treated at

  20. Low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in aggressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YOUTU; BAI, JIWEI; HONG, LINCHUAN; LIU, CHUNHUI; YU, SHENGYUAN; YU, GUOQIANG; ZHANG, YAZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a specific molecular marker for aggressiveness of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is urgently required in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFPAs. In the present study, low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in NFPAs was demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The results confirmed an abnormal accumulation of free β-catenin in the nuclei of NFPAs, which is the core step for the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Furthermore, cyclin D1 and c-Myc, the downstream proteins of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway, were overexpressed in aggressive NFPAs. These findings demonstrated the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway in aggressive NFPAs. In addition, sFRP2 expression was observed to be inversely correlated to the aggressiveness of NFPAs. Therefore, sFRP2 may act as a tumor suppressor through modulation of the cellular cytosolic pool of β-catenin in NFPAs. Furthermore, the expression of sFRP2 may serve as a biomarker for NFPAs aggressiveness and prognosis. PMID:27347125

  1. Identification of a novel BET bromodomain inhibitor-sensitive, gene regulatory circuit that controls Rituximab response and tumour growth in aggressive lymphoid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Emadali, Anouk; Rousseaux, Sophie; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Rome, Claire; Duley, Samuel; Hamaidia, Sieme; Betton, Patricia; Debernardi, Alexandra; Leroux, Dominique; Bernay, Benoit; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Combes, Florence; Ferri, Elena; McKenna, Charles E; Petosa, Carlo; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Ferro, Myriam; Gressin, Rémy; Callanan, Mary B; Khochbin, Saadi

    2013-01-01

    Immuno-chemotherapy elicit high response rates in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma but heterogeneity in response duration is observed, with some patients achieving cure and others showing refractory disease or relapse. Using a transcriptome-powered targeted proteomics screen, we discovered a gene regulatory circuit involving the nuclear factor CYCLON which characterizes aggressive disease and resistance to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab, in high-risk B-cell lymphoma. CYCLON knockdown was found to inhibit the aggressivity of MYC-overexpressing tumours in mice and to modulate gene expression programs of biological relevance to lymphoma. Furthermore, CYCLON knockdown increased the sensitivity of human lymphoma B cells to Rituximab in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, this effect could be mimicked by in vitro treatment of lymphoma B cells with a small molecule inhibitor for BET bromodomain proteins (JQ1). In summary, this work has identified CYCLON as a new MYC cooperating factor that autonomously drives aggressive tumour growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism is amenable to next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition, thereby providing a new combination therapy rationale for high-risk lymphoma. The nuclear factor CYCLON is a new MYC cooperating factor that drives tumor growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism can be targeted by next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition downstream of MYC. PMID:23828858

  2. Corticosterone in ovo modifies aggressive behaviors and reproductive performances through alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ma, Wenqiang; Ni, Yingdong; Wang, Song; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development affects offspring reproduction and suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in mammals. However, whether corticosterone (CORT) causes similar effects in the chicken remains unclear. In the present study, we injected low (0.2μg) and high (1μg) doses of CORT in ovo before incubation and detected changes in aggressive behavior, tonic immobility (TI), reproductive performances, and HPG axis gene expression in posthatch chickens of different ages. High dose of CORT suppressed growth rate from 3 weeks of age, increased the frequency of aggressive behaviors, which was associated with elevated plasma CORT concentration. High-dose CORT significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated arginine vasotocin (AVT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), while significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD) mRNA levels were not affected by CORT treatment. High-dose CORT significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg production and egg quality, which was associated with decreased ovary and oviduct weight. Moreover, CORT exposure significantly decreased (P<0.05) luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor mRNA abundance in theca cells of ovarian follicles 1 (F1), F2 and F3. In addition, yolk CORT concentration was significantly higher in eggs laid by hens prenatally exposed to high-dose CORT. Our findings suggest that in ovo administration of CORT programs the aggressive behaviors and reproductive functions in the chicken through alterations of HPG axis.

  3. Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies aggressive behavior through alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the serotonergic system in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ma, Wenqiang; Ni, Yingdong; Zhou, Qin; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to excess glucocorticoids (GCs) during embryonic development influences offspring phenotypes and behaviors and induces epigenetic modifications of the genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in the serotonergic system in mammals. Whether prenatal corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes similar effects in avian species is less clear. In this study, we injected low (0.2μg) and high (1μg) doses of CORT into developing embryos on day 11 of incubation (E11) and tested the changes in aggressive behavior and hypothalamic gene expression on posthatch chickens of different ages. In ovo administration of high dose CORT significantly suppressed the growth rate from 3weeks of age and increased the frequency of aggressive behaviors, and the dosage was associated with elevated plasma CORT concentrations and significantly downregulated hypothalamic expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The hypothalamic content of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein was significantly decreased in the high dose group (p<0.05), whereas no changes were observed for GR mRNA. High dose CORT exposure significantly increased platelet serotonin (5-HT) uptake, decreased whole blood 5-HT concentration (p<0.05), downregulated hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) mRNA and upregulated 5-HT receptor 1A (5-HTR1A) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) mRNA, but not monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). High dose CORT also significantly increased DNA methylation of the hypothalamic GR and CRH gene promoters (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that embryonic exposure to CORT programs aggressive behavior in the chicken through alterations of the HPA axis and the serotonergic system, which may involve modifications in DNA methylation.

  4. Pituitary incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Orija, Israel B; Weil, Robert J; Hamrahian, Amir H

    2012-02-01

    Pituitary incidentalomas (PIs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice. While most are microincidentalomas (<1 cm) and not functional, in some cases their identification may lead to discovery of unrecognized abnormalities such as pituitary hormonal deficiencies, excess hormone secretion or visual field defects. Although the majority are pituitary adenomas, the potential list of differential diagnosis is extensive. A limited biochemical work up for asymptomatic patients with microincidentalomas, to include measurement of prolactin and IGF-1, is reasonable, with further studies to be tailored based on the clinical picture. All patients with macroincidentalomas (≥1 cm) should be evaluated for hypopituitarism and undergo visual field testing if the sellar mass abuts or compresses the optic chiasm. Most PIs can be followed, closely without surgery over time, but some may require surgical removal, especially if they are found to be macroincidentalomas at presentation, encroaching on or abutting the optic chiasm, or are found to be functional, excluding prolactinomas. Recovery of pituitary function may be seen in some patients with mass effect following resection of a sellar mass. The association of headache and pituitary incidentalomas remains a diagnostic challenge. There are no randomized controlled studies to guide the follow up approach when surgery is not indicated; most of the follow up algorithms in the literature are based on personal experience. Most retrospective series on natural history indicate that microincidentalomas tend not to grow; without a need for long-term follow up unless the patient becomes symptomatic. Macroincidentalomas, on the other hand, have a propensity to grow and need a more aggressive follow up approach to minimize morbidity. PMID:22305452

  5. Mortality and pituitary disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paul M; Sherlock, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Outcome data from large series confirm increased mortality of patients with pituitary tumours, predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (together with cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the normalisation of mortality rates in patients with Cushing's disease and acromegaly, respectively, though some excess mortality may persist even in "cured" patients.

  6. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal route to pituitary tumours in paediatric patients >10 years of age: 5 years of experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xu, Guangming; Wiebe, Timothy M; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for the management of pituitary adenomas in paediatric patients >10 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 56 paediatric patients between 10 and 18 years of age who underwent an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the resection of a pituitary adenoma during the last 5 years. The age, sex, symptoms, tumour size, extent of tumour resection, clinical outcome and surgical complications of patients were reviewed. Results Total resection was achieved in 49 (87.5%) cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 7 (12.5%) cases and no patient had a partial or insufficient resection. Of the 35 patients who experienced preoperative deterioration of vision, 33 (94.2%) achieved visual remission with rates of 34.2% and 60% for normalisation and improvement, respectively. Endocrinological normalisation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of 41 patients who had preoperative hyperhormonal levels; hormone levels decreased in 25 (61.0%) patients, and 3 (7.3%) patients had no change in hormone level. Two (3.5%) patients incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. Four (7.1%) patients developed hypopituitarism, which required hormone therapy. Post-surgery, five (8.9%) patients incurred transient diabetes insipidus (DI), of which one (1.7%) patient developed persistent DI and was administered Minirin. Meningitis occurred in one (1.7%) patient who was cured by the administration of a third-generation antibiotic. There were no cases of intracranial haematoma, reoperation or death. Conclusions EETA allows neurosurgeons to safely and effectively remove paediatric pituitary adenomas with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:26006173

  7. Advances in understanding pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Ulrich; Karl Stalla, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common in the general population. Since neuroimaging techniques have improved, pituitary tumors are more often diagnosed incidentally. About 16.7% of the general population show changes in the pituitary gland. Predominantly, pituitary tumors are benign pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinomas or aggressive pituitary tumors are extremely rare. They might develop from benign adenomas. New genetic and epigenetic abnormalities help us to understand pituitary tumorigenesis and might lead to therapeutical targeting drugs in the future. Macroadenomas (>1 cm) can lead to visual field disturbances, compression of cranial nerves, hypopituitarism, and infiltration of the cavernous sinuses. The functional status of the pituitary tumor is important. About half to one third of all pituitary tumors are non-functioning pituitary adenomas. The other pituitary tumors show a specific pattern of hormone secretion. About 25% to 41% of all pituitary tumors are prolactinomas, acromegaly with production of growth hormone represents 10% to 15% of adenomas, Cushing's disease with production of adrenocorticotropic hormone accounts for 10%, and other hormonal characteristics are less common. Transsphenoidal resection and total adenomectomy are desirable. Radiosurgery has enriched the surgical treatment options. Surgical treatment is the intervention of choice except for prolactinomas, where pharmaceutical treatment is recommended. Pharmaceutical treatment consists of dopamine agonists such as cabergoline and somatostatin analogues that include octreotide and pasireotide; retinoic acid is of theoretical interest while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-ligands are not clinically useful. In acromegaly, pegvisomant is a further treatment option. Temozolomide should be considered in aggressive pituitary tumors. In general, pharmaceutical options developed recently have extended the repertoire of treatment possibilities of pituitary tumors. PMID:24592317

  8. Decrease in drug accumulation and in tumour aggressiveness marker expression in a fenretinide-induced resistant ovarianumour cell line

    PubMed Central

    Appierto, V; Cavadini, E; Pergolizzi, R; Cleris, L; Lotan, R; Canevari, S; Formelli, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether the efficacy of fenretinide (HPR) against ovarian tumours may be limited by induction of resistance. The human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780, which is sensitive to a pharmacologically achievable HPR concentration (IC 50= 1 μM), became 10-fold more resistant after exposure to increasing HPR concentrations. The cells (A2780/HPR) did not show cross-resistance to the synthetic retinoid 6-[3-adamantyl-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) and were not sensitive, similarly to the parent line, to all- trans -retinoic acid, 13- cis -retinoic acid or N-(4-methoxyphenyl)retinamide. A2780/HPR cells showed, compared to parental cells, a 3-fold reduction in colony-forming ability in agar. The development of HPR resistance was associated with a marked increase in retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) mRNA and protein levels, which decreased, together with drug resistance, after drug removal. The expression of cell surface molecules associated with tumour progression including HER-2, laminin receptor and β1 integrin was markedly reduced. The increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species is not involved in HPR-resistance because it was similar in parental and resistant cells. Conversely differences in pharmacokinetics may account for resistance because, in A2780/HPR cells, intracellular peak drug levels were 2 times lower than in A2780 cells and an as yet unidentified polar metabolite was present. These data suggest that acquired resistance to HPR is associated with changes in marker expression, suggestive of a more differentiated status and may be explained, at least in part, by reduced drug accumulation and increased metabolism. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384104

  9. Familial pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Alband, Neda; Korbonits, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern due to hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects. The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically; however, familial cases are increasingly being recognized, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Familial pituitary tumors appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts both in their genetic basis and in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, tumors are more aggressive and affect patients at a younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis, while in Carney complex pituitary hyperplasia is common. The genetic alterations responsible for the formation of familial pituitary syndromes include the MEN1 gene, responsible for about 80% of MEN1 cases, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A, responsible for about 70% of Carney complex cases, and AIP, the gene coding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein, responsible for about 20% of FIPA cases. Rarely other genes have also been found responsible for familial pituitary adenoma cases. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) also has a genetic origin due to mosaic mutations in the G protein-coupled α subunit coded by the GNAS1 gene. In this chapter, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary syndromes and MAS. PMID:25248598

  10. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Located above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by ... messages. In response to hormonal messages from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH ( ...

  11. Transcriptomic analysis identified up-regulation of a solute carrier transporter and UDP glucuronosyltransferases in dogs with aggressive cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Giantin, Mery; Baratto, Chiara; Marconato, Laura; Vascellari, Marta; Mutinelli, Franco; Dacasto, Mauro; Granato, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression analyses have been recently used in cancer research to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis and potential prognostic markers or therapeutic targets. In the present study, the transcriptome of dogs that had died because of mast cell tumours (MCTs) was characterised to identify a fingerprint having significant influence on prognosis determination and treatment selection. A dataset (GSE50433) obtained using a commercial canine DNA microarray platform was used. The transcriptome of seven biopsies obtained from dogs with histologically confirmed, surgically removed MCTs, treated with chemotherapy, and dead for MCT-related causes, was compared with the transcriptional portrait of 40 samples obtained from dogs with histologically confirmed, surgically removed MCTs and that were still alive at the end of the follow-up period. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), eight transcripts were validated by quantitative real time PCR and their mRNA levels were measured in a cohort of 22 additional MCTs. Statistical analysis identified 375 DEGs (fold change 2, false discovery rate 5%). The functional annotation analysis indicated that the DEGs were associated with drug metabolism and cell cycle pathways. Particularly, members of solute carrier transporter (SLC) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene families were identified as dysregulated. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 22 additional MCTs identified the separate cluster dogs dead for MCT-related causes. SLCs and UGTs have been recently recognised in human cancer as important key factors in tumour progression and chemo-resistance. An in-depth analysis of their roles in aggressive canine MCT is warranted in future studies. PMID:27256023

  12. Pituitary Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. With pituitary disorders, you often have too much or too little of one of your hormones. Injuries can cause pituitary disorders, but the most common cause is a pituitary tumor.

  13. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs. PMID

  14. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  15. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  16. [Aggressive fibromatoses].

    PubMed

    Döhler, J R; Hamelmann, H; Lasson, U

    1984-03-01

    Benign by nature, aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid fibromas) may represent as difficult therapeutic problems as malignant tumours. When subtotally resected they tend to recur. But spontaneous regression is possible. Expense and limits of their surgical treatment are discussed with reference to seven patients. In five cases primary affliction of bone was evident. There are three reports given in detail: In the first, malignant transformation may be due to radiation therapy and hemipelvectomy could not prevent recurrence. In the second, spontaneous regression of untreated pelvic affection may have occurred. In the third, several resections and amputation of the leg failed to cure congenital infantile fibromatosis.

  17. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, G; Tan, S Y; Chiang, G; Poh, W T

    1998-01-01

    An unusual case of metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung presented as a pituitary tumour in a young adult Chinese female, who subsequently died after having undergone trans-sphenoidal resection. Metastatic cancers of the pituitary are uncommon even in necropsy series and rarely give rise to clinical symptoms. This case draws attention to the fact that, although uncommon, pituitary metastases have been noted with increasing frequency and their distinction from primary pituitary tumours is often difficult. A metastatic pituitary tumour may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignancy, wherein the metastatic deposits may also be limited to the pituitary gland. Clinicians and pathologists alike should consider a metastatic lesion in the differential diagnosis of a non-functioning pituitary tumour. Images PMID:10070337

  18. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... or milk production), sex hormones (control the menstrual cycle and other sexual functions), thyroid gland hormones (control the thyroid gland), adrenal gland hormones, and vasopressin (a hormone involved in water and electrolyte balance). Symptoms of pituitary adenoma and ...

  19. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  20. [Clinical and genetic characterization of FIPA (familial isolated pituitary adenomas)].

    PubMed

    Beckers, A; Apetrii, P; Daly, A; Tichomirova, M; Vanbellingen, J F; Georges, M; Bours, V

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common brain tumours at autopsy and radiological series of unselected population. Historically, few epidemiologic data regarding the prevalence of clinically apparent pituitary adenomas have been available. Recently, a cross-sectional study conducted in Liège, Belgium, noted that clinically-apparent pituitary adenomas occurred with a prevalence of 1:1064 inhabitants, which is 3.5-5 times the previously reported prevalence. Pituitary adenomas occur predominantly as sporadic tumors, but also in a familial setting or associated to some familial/isolated tumoral syndromes. The recent characterization of the novel clinical entity FIPA (Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas) increased the prevalence of familial pituitary adenomas which account now for about 5% of pituitary tumors. Distinct genetic mechanisms are continuously identified and increase our understanding of the complex clinical presentation and sometimes unpredictable evolution of pituitary adenomas.

  1. A history of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2014-03-01

    The history of pituitary pathology is a long one that dates back to biblical times, but the last 25 years have represented an era of "coming of age." The role of the pituitary in health and disease was the subject of many studies over the last century. With the development of electron microscopy, immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry, the functional alterations associated with pituitary disease have been clarified. The additional information provided by molecular genetic studies has allowed progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered. For example, pathologists cannot morphologically distinguish locally aggressive adenomas from carcinomas when tumor is confined to the sella. Sadly, basal cell carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of skin, usually causes less morbidity than pituitary adenomas, which occur in almost 20 % of the general population, can cause significant illness and even death, and yet are still classified as benign. The opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of these common lesions on quality of life is the current challenge for physicians and patients. We anticipate that ongoing multidisciplinary approaches to pituitary disease research will offer new insights into diseases arising from this fascinating organ.

  2. Pituitary Apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Briet, Claire; Salenave, Sylvie; Bonneville, Jean-François; Laws, Edward R; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary apoplexy, a rare clinical syndrome secondary to abrupt hemorrhage or infarction, complicates 2%-12% of pituitary adenomas, especially nonfunctioning tumors. Headache of sudden and severe onset is the main symptom, sometimes associated with visual disturbances or ocular palsy. Signs of meningeal irritation or altered consciousness may complicate the diagnosis. Precipitating factors (increase in intracranial pressure, arterial hypertension, major surgery, anticoagulant therapy or dynamic testing, etc) may be identified. Corticotropic deficiency with adrenal insufficiency may be life threatening if left untreated. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging confirms the diagnosis by revealing a pituitary tumor with hemorrhagic and/or necrotic components. Formerly considered a neurosurgical emergency, pituitary apoplexy always used to be treated surgically. Nowadays, conservative management is increasingly used in selected patients (those without important visual acuity or field defects and with normal consciousness), because successive publications give converging evidence that a wait-and-see approach may also provide excellent outcomes in terms of oculomotor palsy, pituitary function and subsequent tumor growth. However, it must be kept in mind that studies comparing surgical approach and conservative management were retrospective and not controlled. PMID:26414232

  3. Pituitary tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual field loss, drooping eyelids or changes in color vision Headache Lack of energy Nasal drainage of clear fluid Nausea and vomiting Problems with the sense of smell In rare cases, these symptoms occur suddenly and can be severe ( pituitary apoplexy ).

  4. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  5. Fibrosarcoma complicating irradiated pituitary adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Farrell, M.A.; Kaufmann, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    Eight years after radiation therapy (5000 rads of 60Co) for a pituitary adenoma, a patient developed a sellar fibrosarcoma. The tumor had an aggressive growth pattern: it infiltrated the optic nerve, sphenoidal air sinus, hypothalamus, and both cavernous sinuses, where compression of the left internal carotid artery resulted in a massive hemispheric infarction. Surgery was ineffective in arresting rapid growth of the lesion; death occurring 5 months after onset of symptoms.

  6. Early hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery: cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Pumar, A; Soto, A; Pomares, M A; Palma, S; Mangas, M A; Leal, A; Villamil, F

    2007-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common complication in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It can be caused either by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or by the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS). CSWS frequently occurs in patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage and brain injury, but it is rare after pituitary tumour surgery. However, this diagnostic possibility should be considered as these disorders require specific treatment and have different prognoses. In this article, we present a case of acute and early hyponatraemia caused by CSWS after pituitary tumour surgery. We also revise the aetiology, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery.

  7. Androgen receptors, sex behavior, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2012-01-01

    Androgens are intricately involved in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, but the role of the androgen receptor in mediating these behaviors is less defined. Further, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can influence each other at the level of the androgen receptor. Knowledge of the mechanisms for androgens' effects on behaviors through the androgen receptor will guide future studies in elucidating male reproductive and aggressive behavior repertoires.

  8. Pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Daughaday, W H

    1992-09-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare condition whose association with McCune-Albright syndrome suggests that mutations in alpha-subunit of a Gs protein are an important cause of this condition. In addition to somatotroph adenoma, it is now recognized that somatotroph hyperplasia can also result from increased levels of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Transgenic rats with hypersomatotrophism are prone to renal and hepatic pathology. PMID:1521516

  9. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999–2012)*

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, A.; Skorupski, K.; Frazier, S.; Vanhaezebrouck, I.; Rebhun, R. B.; Reilly, C. M.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188–2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149–2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188–2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300–2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months. PMID:23721492

  10. The treatment of sublingual gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Sun, G; Yang, X; Tang, E; Wen, J; Lu, M; Hu, Q

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the clinical and histological features and therapeutic efficacy of 25 cases of sublingual gland tumours from 1998 to 2008. There were 17 female patients and 8 male, the ratio of females to males was 2.1:1. The mean age was 48.6 years. 4 cases were benign tumours (16%). 21 cases were malignant sublingual gland tumours (84%) and of these, 18 were adenoid cystic carcinoma (86%). Adenoid cystic carcinoma was mainly of the histological type, and the other histological classifications included mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, oncocytoma and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Sublingual gland tumours are rare and most are malignant. For malignant sublingual gland tumours, early diagnosis and aggressive surgical treatment, especially for tumours with nerve involvement, is the key to improving prognosis. Free radial forearm flap or pectoralis major myocutaneous flap are appropriate methods for mouth floor reconstruction. For benign sublingual gland tumours, the resection of tumour and sublingual gland is the preferred treatment.

  11. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fergus; Navin, Patrick; Brett, Francesca; Dennedy, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour. Learning points While non-functioning gonadotropinomas represent the most common form of pituitary macroadenoma, functioning gonadotropinomas are exceedingly rare. Acute tumour enlargement, with potential pituitary apoplexy, is a rare but important adverse effect arising from GNRH agonist therapy in the presence of both functioning and non-functioning pituitary gonadotropinomas. GNRH antagonist therapy represents an alternative treatment option for patients with hormonal therapy-requiring prostate cancer, who also have diagnosed with a pituitary gonadotropinoma. PMID:27284452

  13. Investigation of hypothalamic-pituitary disease.

    PubMed

    Lamberton, R P; Jackson, I M

    1983-11-01

    It can be readily appreciated from the preceding discussion that many endocrine and non-endocrine tests are available for the evaluation of patients with suspected hypothalamic-pituitary disease. The endocrine evaluation of these subjects should be tailored according to the type and extent of pathology suspected (see Tables 2 and 3). For patients with pituitary adenomas and clinical features of hyperpituitarism, such as hyperprolactinaemia, Cushing's disease or acromegaly, the initial tests should be directed at the hormone whose excess is suspected. For example, a glucose suppression test for acromegaly or dexamethasone suppression test for Cushing's disease should be performed early in the evaluation. The possibility of deficiencies of the other pituitary hormones should then be addressed in patients with secretory tumours, but initially in those with apparent non-functioning adenomas. In patients with large macroadenomas pituitary hormone deficiencies are almost invariable with GH and FSH/LH being the most commonly affected, followed by TSH and ACTH in that order (Snyder et al, 1979a; Valenta et al, 1982). Basal thyroid function tests, serum oestradiol or testosterone, and basal gonodotrophins should be routinely obtained in patients with macroadenomas. Additionally, the integrity of the pituitary-adrenal axis should be determined and an overnight water deprivation test for assessment of neurohypophyseal function is also recommended. GH stimulation testing is valuable as a test of pituitary function in patients with suspected pituitary tumours since GH reserve is lost very early in the development of hypopituitarism. Evaluation of the pituitary-thyroid axis with TRH or the pituitary gonadal axis with LHRH generally provides limited additional information of diagnostic value in individual patients with macroadenomas. However, the 'paradoxical' responses to TRH and LHRH may be useful as a biological marker following therapy in patients with GH- or ACTH

  14. The genetics of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Vandeva, Silvia; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Daly, Adrian F; Tichomirowa, Maria; Zacharieva, Sabina; Beckers, Albert

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors with a prevalence of clinically-apparent tumors close to 1:1000 of the general population. They are clinically significant because of hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects in addition to the need for neurosurgery, medical therapies and radiotherapy. The majority of pituitary adenomas have a sporadic origin with recognized genetic mutations seldom being found; somatotropinomas are an exception, presenting frequent somatic GNAS mutations. In this and other phenotypes, tumorigenesis could possibly be explained by altered function of genes implicated in cell cycle regulation, growth factors or their receptors, cell-signaling pathways, specific hormonal factors or other molecules with still unclear mechanisms of action. Genetic changes, such as allelic loss or gene amplification, and epigenetic changes, usually by promoter methylation, have been implicated in abnormal gene expression, but alternative mechanisms may be present. Familial cases of pituitary adenomas represent 5% of all pituitary tumors. MEN1 mutations cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), while the Carney complex (CNC) is characterized by mutations in the protein kinase A regulatory subunit-1alpha (PRKAR1A) gene or changes in a locus at 2p16. Recently, a MEN1-like condition, MEN4, was found to be related to mutations in the CDKN1B gene. The clinical entity of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) is characterized by genetic defects in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in about 15% of all kindreds and 50% of homogenous somatotropinoma families. Identification of familial cases of pituitary adenomas is important as these tumors may be more aggressive than their sporadic counterparts. PMID:20833337

  15. Pituitary gigantism causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Alvi, N S; Kirk, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although growth hormone excess (acromegaly) in association with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus is well documented in adult medicine, it is much less common in the paediatric age group. We report the case of a 13 year-old boy who presented with tall stature secondary to a large growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland. Random growth hormone was 630 mIU/l and did not suppress during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following debulking of the tumour, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin treatment, but after further surgery glucose handling returned to normal. He has been started on testosterone to arrest further increase in height. PMID:10614552

  16. Factors Influencing Disconnection Hyperprolactinemia and Reversal of Serum Prolactin after Pituitary Surgery in a Non-Functioning Pituitary Macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumran, Thinesh; Haspani, Saffari; Malin Abdullah, Jafri; Alias, Azmi; Ven, Fan Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate factors influencing disconnection hyperprolactinemia, including tumour volume, degree of pituitary stalk displacement and extent of tumour growth based on a modified Wilson-Hardy classification in a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma and to confirm reductions in serum prolactin levels after endoscopic transphenoidal surgery. Methods This prospective, descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital Kuala Lumpur from Jan 1, 2011 to Jan 1, 2013. Forty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. All patients underwent endoscopic transphenoidal resection of non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary stalk angle, tumour volume and extent of tumour growth were measured from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) pre- and post-operatively. These variables were compared to serum prolactin levels measured pre and post operatively. SPSS 21 was used to perform statistical analyses. Results In 40 patients, the mean tumour volumes were 10.58 cm3 (SD 7.81) pre-operatively and 3.1 cm3 (SD 3.45) post-operatively. There was a 70% reduction in tumour volume post-operatively (P < 0.01). The mean serum prolactin was 457 mIU/L (SD 66.93) pre-operatively and 297 mIU/L (SD 6.73) post-operatively. There was a 65% reduction in prolactin serum levels after surgery (P < 0.01). The mean pituitary stalk angles were 93.45 ± 3.89 degrees pre-operatively and 51.45 ± 1.46 degrees post-operatively (P = 0.01). The mean pituitary stalk angle in the control group was 50.4 ± 8.80 degrees. Hence, there was a 98% reduction in pituitary stalk angle after surgery (P < 0.01). This study showed a linear correlation between the pre-operative and post-operative tumour volumes and serum prolactin levels (P = 0.01 pre-and post-operative) and between serum prolactin levels and pituitary stalk angle (P = 0.20 pre-operative; P = 0.01 post-operative). Conclusion Tumour volume and pituitary stalk angle displacement have positive

  17. Pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Slabu, Hannah; Arnason, Terra

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small vessel vasculitis that can affect several organs, most commonly the respiratory tract and kidneys. Pituitary involvement is exceptionally rare. Most case reports of GPA of the pituitary gland have been described in middle-aged women who have concomitant ears, nose and throat involvement. The most frequent manifestation is diabetes insipidus due to a preponderance of posterior pituitary infiltration. The majority of cases sustain permanent damage to the pituitary gland even with remission of the underlying granulomatous disease. Here, the authors describe a case of pituitary GPA involving both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands with permanent residual pituitary insufficiency. PMID:23645699

  18. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common and mostly benign neoplasia which cause excess or deficiency of pituitary hormones and compressive damage to adjacent organs. Oncogene activation [e.g. PTTG (pituitary tumor-transforming gene) and HMGA2], tumor suppressor gene inactivation (e.g. MEN1 and PRKAR1A), epigenetic changes (e.g. methylation) and humoral factors (e.g. ectopic production of stimulating hormones) are all possible pituitary tumor initiators; the micro-environment of pituitary tumors including steroid milieu, angiogenesis and abnormal cell adhesion further promote tumor growth. Senescence, a cellular defence mechanism against malignant transformation, may explain the benign nature of at least some pituitary tumors. We suggest that future research on pituitary tumor pathogenesis should incorporate systems approaches, and address regulatory mechanisms for pituitary cell proliferation, development of new animal models of pituitary tumor and isolation of functional human pituitary tumor cell lines. PMID:20541667

  19. Neonatal tumours.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal or perinatal tumours frequently relate to prenatal or developmental events and have a short exposure window which provides an opportunity to study tumours in a selective sensitive period of development. As a result, they display a number of host-specific features which include occasional spontaneous maturational changes with cells still responding to developmental influences. Neonatal tumours (NNT) are studied for a number of important reasons. Firstly, many of the benign tumours arising from soft tissue appear to result from disturbances in growth and development and some are associated with other congenital anomalies. Study of these aspects may open the door for investigation of genetic and epigenetic changes in genes controlling foetal development as well as environmental and drug effects during pregnancy. Secondly, the clinical behaviour of NNT differs from that of similar tumours occurring later in childhood. In addition, certain apparently malignant NNT can 'change course' in infancy leading to the maturation of apparently highly malignant tumours. Thirdly, NNT underline the genetic associations of most tumours but appear to differ in the effects of proto-oncogenes and other oncogenic factors. In this context, there are also connections between the foetal and neonatal period and some "adult" cancers. Fourthly, they appear to arise in a period in which minimal environmental interference has occurred, thus providing a unique potential window of opportunity to study the pathogenesis of tumour behaviour. This study will seek to review what is currently known in each of these areas of study as they apply to NNT. Further study of the provocative differences in tumour behaviour in neonates provides insights into the natural history of cancer in humans and promotes novel cancer therapies.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone: technique and application to plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and pituitary extracts

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Frances J.; Lloyd, H. M.; Thomas, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human growth hormone using activated charcoal is described and its precision, accuracy, and sensitivity are defined. Results are presented for growth hormone measurements in plasma obtained during hypoglycaemia induced with insulin in patients of short stature and during glucose tolerance tests in patients with acromegaly. The method was used to measure growth hormone concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and in extracts of pituitary tumours. No growth hormone was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients without acromegaly. In patients with acromegaly, the concentration of growth hormone in cerebrospinal fluid was measurable and was considerably elevated in one patient with extrasellar extension of a pituitary tumour. Extracts of chromophobe pituitary tumours contained very small concentrations of growth hormone. In extracts of pituitary tumours removed from acromegalic patients, concentrations fell either below or within the normal range. PMID:5086220

  1. [Familial pituitary tumors].

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1995-11-01

    Familial pituitary tumors are relatively rare. Most commonly, they occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). However, familial pituitary adenomas unrelated MEN 1 (familial pituitary adenomas) are extremely rare. In review of MEN 1 in Japan, 60% of the patients with MEN 1 had pituitary tumors. Only 45 cases of familial pituitary adenomas have been reported from 20 families. In our review of familial pituitary adenomas, 30 (67%) of 45 reported cases are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than 28% in MEN 1 patients with pituitary tumors. Allelic deletions at 11q13 were identified in MEN 1 associated pituitary adenomas and familial pituitary adenomas in two gigantism brothers. PMID:8538028

  2. Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

  3. Subclinical hyperfunctioning pituitary adenomas: The silent tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are classified by function as defined by clinical symptoms and signs of hormone hypersecretion with subsequent confirmation on immunohistochemical staining. However, positive immunostaining for pituitary cell types has been shown for clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, and this entity is classified as silent functioning adenoma. Most common in these subtypes include silent gonadotroph adenomas, silent corticotroph adenomas and silent somatotroph adenomas. Less commonly, silent prolactinomas and thyrotrophinomas are encountered. Appropriate classification of these adenomas may affect follow-up care after surgical resection. Some silent adenomas such as silent corticotroph adenomas follow a more aggressive course, necessitating closer surveillance. Furthermore, knowledge of the immunostaining characteristics of silent adenomas may determine postoperative medical therapy. This article reviews the incidence, clinical behavior, and pathologic features of clinically silent pituitary adenomas. PMID:22863387

  4. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition. PMID:26977888

  5. Neurology of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Shanika; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Mazhari, Alaleh

    2014-01-01

    The anterior pituitary hormones are essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, stress response, and adaptation to changes in the external environment. Each pituitary hormone is secreted in a distinctive pulsatile manner reflecting its regulation by the central nervous system through a complex interaction between hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways, feedback effects from peripheral target gland hormones, and intrapituitary mechanisms. While the most common cause of a pituitary mass is an adenoma, the differential diagnosis is broad and includes pituitary hyperplasia, lymphocytic hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma among others. Patients with pituitary adenomas can be asymptomatic or present with symptoms due to mass effect, pituitary hormone dysfunction, or both. Prolactinomas represent 40% of pituitary adenomas, the majority of which are microadenomas. Hyperfunction of growth hormone and ACTH are far less common, while TSH-producing tumors are exceedingly rare. Hypopituitarism in patients with pituitary adenomas can be partial or complete. The clinical picture will depend on the type, degree, and rapidity of onset of pituitary hormone deficiency. An MRI specifically focused on the sellar region is the imaging modality of choice to detect pituitary pathology. Management of pituitary tumors ranges from observation of nonfunctioning microadenomas through medical, surgical, and radiotherapeutic approaches dependent on tumor type, function, size, and invasiveness.

  6. Pituitary metastases from the oncocytic variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a case report and diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Matyja, Ewa; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Witek, Przemysław; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Maksymowicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland and sella turcica are uncommon. The distinction between primary and secondary metastatic pituitary tumours is challenging as carcinomas from distant sites might closely resemble, both clinically and histopathologically, non-functional adenomas or primary pituitary carcinomas. Among metastases to pituitary gland ones from thyroid carcinoma are extremely rare. We present a unique case of a 53-year-old male patient with a past history of thyroid carcinoma who underwent repeated surgeries over a period of 7 years for a sellar-parasellar mass with paranasal sinus involvement. Morphologically, the tumour was composed of solid sheaths of monomorphic cells exhibiting oncocytic features. In electron microscope images, the cytoplasm of tumour cells was filled with numerous mitochondria. The tumour was negative for pituitary hormones but exhibited immunoreactivity for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1). Based on the clinical data and immunophenotypic profile, the tumour was finally diagnosed as an oncocytic variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is probably the first report of such peculiar histopathological variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to the pituitary gland. The diagnostic dilemmas considering oncocytic features of the presented case are discussed. PMID:24114644

  7. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    PubMed

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients. PMID:17561883

  9. Multihormonal pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Heitz, P U

    1979-01-01

    66 pituitary tumors detected at autopsy were investigated for the presence of corticotropin, beta-lipotrophin, growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin and gonadotropins by immunocytochemistry. 56 tumors contained hormone-producing cells; 45 were found to contain 2 or more hormones. This finding confirms and extends previous morphologic and clinical observations. The majority of pituitary tumors are mixed and they probably arise from impaired regulation at the hypothalamic and/or pituitary level.

  10. Pituitary diseases and bone.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Chiavistelli, Silvia; Giustina, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary hormones have direct and indirect effects on bone remodeling, and skeletal fragility is a frequent complication of pituitary diseases. Fragility fractures may occur in many patients with prolactinomas, acromegaly, Cushing disease, and hypopituitarism. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity, and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these settings. Treatment of excess and defective pituitary hormone generally improves skeletal health, although some patients remain at high risk for fractures, necessitating treatment with bone-active drugs.

  11. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  13. Gastric calcifying fibrous tumour

    PubMed Central

    Attila, Tan; Chen, Dean; Gardiner, Geoffrey W; Ptak, Theadore W; Marcon, Norman E

    2006-01-01

    Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours); however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases. PMID:16858502

  14. [Anterior pituitary hypersecretion syndromes].

    PubMed

    Gómez, F; Steinhäuslin, F; Crottaz, B; Temler, E

    1987-01-17

    Anterior pituitary hypersecretion can be due to abnormal hypothalamic regulation, decreased peripheral hormone feedback or pituitary tumor. In some cases hypersecretion gives rise to a typical clinical syndrome involving acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, and excess corticotropin (ACTH). The etiology of acromegaly is a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumor in the vast majority of cases. Hyperprolactinemia and excess cortisol, however, may be due to many causes among which prolactin (PRL)- and ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors are not frequent. Glycoprotein-secreting pituitary tumors, especially gonadotropin (LH and FSH) and free subunits usually do not cause a typical excess hormone syndrome. Perhaps for this reason they are seldom recognized clinically, although histopathological studies are increasingly disclosing the gonadotrope nature of many pituitary tumors. Mixed hormonal secretions are common. When pituitary hormone secretion can be selectively suppressed by medical therapy, a significant reduction of tumor size is by no means rare. In other cases, pituitary irradiation or surgery, or even treatment aimed at a peripheral target gland, may be necessary. PMID:3029861

  15. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  16. Pituitary adenomas: immunohistology and ultrastructural analysis of 118 tumors.

    PubMed

    Esiri, M M; Adams, C B; Burke, C; Underdown, R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the immunohistological and ultrastructural features in a series of 118 surgically removed pituitary adenomas all of which were studied immunohistologically using antisera to growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) ACTH, beta FSH, beta LH and beta TSH, and 75 of which were studied ultrastructurally. Results were analysed according to the mode of presentation of patients. Forty-one (35%) of the tumours were from patients with acromegaly or gigantism, ten (9%) from patients with Cushing's syndrome or Nelson's syndrome, 19 (16%) from patients with clinical features associated with hyperprolactinaemia and 48 (40%) from patients with space occupying lesions which appeared clinically to be overtly endocrinologically functionless. By light microscopy, using the immunoperoxidase (PAP) technique, immunoreactive GH was demonstrated in all the tumours from patients with acromegaly or gigantism, immunoreactive ACTH in all tumours from patients with Cushing's syndrome or Nelson's syndrome and immunoreactive PRL in 95% of tumours associated with effects of hyperprolactinaemia. Forty-five percent of the tumours from acromegalic patients contained some PRL-positive cells as well as GH-positive cells. Among the tumours which appeared clinically to be endocrinologically functionless were three tumours (from males) uniformly stained for immunoreactive PRL. Of the remainder, 60% were negative for immunoreactive hormones and 40% contained small numbers of cells which were positive for a variety of immunoreactive hormones. ACTH-cell and PRL-cell tumours had ultrastructural features as described in previous studies. Fifty percent of GH-cell tumours examined at the EM level contained fibrous bodies, while in the remainder these structures were not identified. Tumours with fibrous bodies were more likely to contain PRL as well as GH with immunoperoxidase. All tumours that were endocrinologically functionless and which were examined at the EM level contained

  17. High prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma: is it associated with the age-related decline of the sex hormones levels?

    PubMed

    Kastelan, Darko; Korsic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Incidental pituitary adenoma is the common finding during brain imaging. According to multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis genetic alterations provide the initiating event that transforms cells while hormones play a role in promoting cell proliferation. Development of pituitary adenoma in a case of excessive hypophysiotrophic hormones production or reduced feedback suppression by target gland hormones emphasizes the importance of hormonal stimulation in pituitary tumourigenesis. Pituitary hyperplasia has been reported in pregnancy, hypothyroidism and conditions such as CRH or GHRH hypersecretion. Moreover, recent study reported one case of gonadotroph macroadenoma and two cases of gonadotroph cells hyperplasia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome probably due to protracted stimulation of gonadotroph cells because of lack of androgen feedback. Significant changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurred with aging. In females, after menopause, estradiol level decreases by 35-fold and estrone level by 20-fold that results in increased gonadotropins levels. Similarly, FSH, but not LH, level is increased with advancing age in men, too, although the age-related difference in the level is less in comparison with women. Regarding these data, we hypothesised that high prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma in the elderly is associated with age-related decline in sex hormones levels and subsequent lack of feedback suppression leading to permanent gonadotrophs stimulation which is the crucial step in the pituitary tumour development. According to previously mentioned multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis, incidentaloma will develop only in persons with already present intrinsic pituitary cell defects. However, further studies have to answer the questions of whether the incidence of pituitary tumours is more frequent in elderly, whether women with late onset menopause or those taking long-term hormone replacement therapy have lower rate of

  18. Imaging of testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Owens, E J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis, pathology and imaging of testicular tumours, predominantly germ cell tumours. It will discuss the imaging techniques used in their diagnosis, staging and surveillance.

  19. Malignant Extra Renal Rhabdoid Tumour Presenting as Central Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours are one of the most aggressive childhood neoplasms associated with high mortality. The commonest age group affected is children less than five years of age. Rhabdoid tumour presenting as an endoluminal tracheal mass leading to central airway obstruction has not been previously reported. We describe the case of a 17-year-old male patient where malignant rhabdoid tumour masqueraded as bronchial asthma leading to a delayed diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by tracheal growth. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour. PMID:25243090

  20. Metallothionein isoform 3 gene is differentially expressed in corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, R R; Correa-Giannella, M L C; Casarini, A P M; Machado, M C; Bronstein, M D; Cescato, V A; Giannella-Neto, D

    2005-01-01

    In order to search for candidate genes related to pituitary adenoma aggressiveness, the present investigation was intended to compare the mRNA expression profile from a pool of four nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPA) with a spinal cord metastasis of a nonfunctional pituitary carcinoma (MNFPC). The metallothionein isoform 3 (MT3) gene was differentially expressed in nonfunctional adenomas in comparison to the metastasis of nonfunctional carcinoma. A microarray dataset comprising 19,881 probes was employed for comparing expression profiles of a spinal cord metastasis of a nonfunctional pituitary carcinoma with a pool of four nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. RT-qPCR confirmed the microarray findings and was used to investigate MT3 mRNA gene expression in tumor samples of a series of 52 different pituitary adenoma subtypes comprising 10 corticotropin (ACTH)-producing, 18 growth hormone (GH)-producing, 8 prolactin (PRL)-producing, and 16 nonfunctional adenomas. Microarray data analysis by GeneSifter program unveiled Gene Ontology terms related to zinc ion-binding activity closely related to MT3 function. MT3 mRNA expression was statistically significantly higher in ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas and in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas in comparison to the other pituitary adenoma subtypes. The more abundant expression of this gene in ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas suggests that MT3 could be related to distinct pituitary cell lineage regulating the activity of some transcription factor of importance in hormone production and/or secretion. PMID:16601360

  1. Genetic mutations in sporadic pituitary adenomas--what to screen for?

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Kamenický, Peter; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that can result in morbidity owing to local invasion and/or excessive or deficient hormone production. The prevalence of symptomatic pituitary adenomas is approximately 1:1,000 in the general population. The vast majority of these tumours occur sporadically and are not part of syndromic disorders. However, germline mutations in genes known to predispose individuals to familial pituitary adenomas are found in a few patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas. Mutations in AIP (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein) are the most frequently observed germline mutations. The prevalence of these mutations in patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas is ∼4%, but can increase to 8-20% in young adults with macroadenomas or gigantism, and also in children. Germline mutations in MEN1 (encoding menin) result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and are found in very young patients with isolated sporadic pituitary adenomas, which highlights the importance of the chromosome 11q13 locus in pituitary tumorigenesis. In this Review, we describe the clinical features of patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas that are associated with AIP or MEN1 mutations, and discuss the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in pituitary adenoma tumorigenesis. We also discuss genetic screening of patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas and investigations of relatives of these patients who also have the same genetic mutations. PMID:25350067

  2. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: benefits of pre-operative octreotide

    PubMed Central

    Healy, E; Cooke, R S; Ellis, P K; Harper, R; Hunter, S J

    2015-01-01

    Summary TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and the optimal investigation and management is uncertain. We describe a case of a 43 year-old woman with a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, highlighting diagnostic testing and our use, pre-operatively of somatostatin analogue therapy, which induced biochemical euthyroidism and a reduction in tumour size. Learning points The differential diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate TSH secretion is non-thyroidal illness, medications, assay interference due to heterophilic antibodies, thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.TRH stimulation test and triiodothyronine suppression test assist in differentiating thyroid hormone resistance and TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.Somatostatin analogue therapy can induce biochemical euthyroidism and reduce tumour size. PMID:26113979

  3. SAH pituitary adrenal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P

    2011-09-01

    Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in hypopituitarism. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify articles with English-language abstracts published between 1980 and March 2011 that addressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis insufficiency and hormone replacement. A total of 18 observational and prospective, randomized studies were selected for this review. Limited data are available evaluating pituitary effects during the acute stage after subarachnoid hemorrhage, with inconsistent results reported. Overall, acutely after subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortisol levels may initially be supranormal, decreasing toward normal levels over time. During the months to years after subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary deficiency may occur in up to one in three patients. Limited data suggest modest outcome benefits with fludrocortisone and no benefit or harm from corticosteroids. PMID:21800209

  4. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress. Growth hormone helps control body growth and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do ...

  5. Management of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Post, K D; Muraszko, K

    1986-11-01

    Pituitary adenomas represent the only true adenomas of the cranial cavity. In 1000 asymptomatic pituitary glands examined at autopsy, there was a 22.4 per cent incidence of undetected microadenomas. Advances in diagnostic endocrinology, in radiologic imaging, and in surgical and medical treatments have brought many more patients to the attention of the authors. Over the last 10 years, their treatment approaches have evolved to those presented in this article.

  6. A case of granulomatous hypophysitis with hypopituitarism and minimal pituitary enlargement.

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, P; Anayssi, E; Salti, I

    1985-01-01

    A case of hypopituitarism and minimal sellar enlargement was found at hypophysectomy to have a giant cell granuloma of the pituitary. The clinical and histopathological features of this rare entity are reviewed. It is proposed that hypopituitarism which is out of proportion to minimal sellar enlargement may be a suggestive clue to the preoperative diagnosis of giant cell granulous which normally simulates a pituitary tumour. Images PMID:4045491

  7. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Thusyanth; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs), are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools. PMID:26064134

  8. Analysis of regulatory networks constructed based on gene coexpression in pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie; Diao, Bo; Yao, Guo Jie; Liu, Ying; Xu, Guo Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Gene coexpression patterns can reveal gene collections with functional consistency. This study systematically constructs regulatory networks for pituitary tumours by integrating gene coexpression, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Through network analysis, we elaborate the incidence mechanism of pituitary adenoma. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was utilized to calculate the level of gene coexpression. By comparing pituitary adenoma samples with normal samples, pituitary adenoma-specific gene coexpression patterns were identified. For pituitary adenoma-specific coexpressed genes, we integrated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulation to construct a complex regulatory network from the transcriptional and posttranscriptional perspectives. Network module analysis identified the synergistic regulation of genes by miRNAs and TFs in pituitary adenoma. We identified 142 pituitary adenoma-specific active genes, including 43 TFs and 99 target genes of TFs. Functional enrichment of these 142 genes revealed that the occurrence of pituitary adenoma induced abnormalities in intracellular metabolism and angiogenesis process. These 142 genes were also significantly enriched in adenoma pathway. Module analysis of the systematic regulatory network found that three modules contained elements that were closely related to pituitary adenoma, such as FGF2 and SP1, as well as transcription factors and miRNAs involved in the tumourigenesis. These results show that in the occurrence of pituitary adenoma, miRNA, TF and genes interact with each other. Based on gene expression, the proposed method integrates interaction information from different levels and systematically explains the occurrence of pituitary tumours. It facilitates the tracing of the origin of the disease and can provide basis for early diagnosis of complex diseases or cancer without obvious symptoms.

  9. Proliferating tricholemmal tumour: clinicopathological aspects of a case.

    PubMed

    Khoja, A A; Yan, B; Lee, S J; Cheong, E C; Tan, K B

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with an enlarging mass over his occipital scalp. The clinical impression was either a squamous cell carcinoma or an unusual adnexal tumour. A wide excision was performed with skin grafting. Gross examination revealed a large exophytic tumour mass measuring 10 cm. Histopathological examination showed a circumscribed, well-differentiated squamoproliferative lesion with a lobulated architecture. Clear cell features, pilar-type keratinisation, microcalcifications and the presence of mucinous degeneration were noted. A diagnosis of proliferating tricholemmal tumour was made. This entity incorporates a spectrum of lesions, ranging from the mostly benign proliferating tricholemmal cyst to tumours having more atypical cellular and invasive features, the latter features correlating with an increased capacity for aggressive behaviour. Management-wise, such tumours require complete excision with follow-up. As the tumours are often large in size at presentation, reconstruction is required. PMID:22159947

  10. Tumour biology: Senescence in premalignant tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, Manuel; Gil, Jesús; Efeyan, Alejo; Guerra, Carmen; Schuhmacher, Alberto J.; Barradas, Marta; Benguría, Alberto; Zaballos, Angel; Flores, Juana M.; Barbacid, Mariano; Beach, David; Serrano, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence is a cellular response that may be crucial for protection against cancer development, but its investigation has so far been restricted to cultured cells that have been manipulated to overexpress an oncogene. Here we analyse tumours initiated by an endogenous oncogene, ras, and show that senescent cells exist in premalignant tumours but not in malignant ones. Senescence is therefore a defining feature of premalignant tumours that could prove valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

  11. Understanding Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, J. P.

    Research in many fields of the social and biological sciences indicates that there are ecological, cultural, social, psychological, physiological, and genetic causes of aggression. The agonistic behavior system, which adapts to situations of social conflict, includes several patterns of conduct ranging from overt fighting to complete passivity. In…

  12. Neuroendocrine disorders: pituitary imaging.

    PubMed

    Faje, Alexander; Tritos, Nicholas A; Swearingen, Brooke; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Significant advances in pituitary imaging have taken place in the past several decades, including the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This imaging modality has vastly improved our ability to detect and characterize sellar masses and more accurately characterize the extent and spread of lesions in and around the sella. Intraoperative MRI may help improve the completeness of resection of sellar masses. Other imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography (CT), and CT angiography, have an important role in specific cases. Interventional methods, including bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, may establish the pituitary origin of corticotropin (ACTH) excess in patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary imaging should be obtained in patients with pituitary hormone excess, hypopituitarism, or mass effect in the sella. Despite rapid advances in pituitary imaging, there are several diagnostic challenges remaining. Future research may help improve the radiographic detection of small sellar lesions, such as ACTH-secreting adenomas causing Cushing's disease, accurately characterize the type and extent of sellar pathologies, and provide prognostic information regarding their growth potential. PMID:27430447

  13. Predictive and prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Van de Wiele, Christophe; Kruse, Vibeke; Smeets, Peter; Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Data available in patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, lung carcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma and gynaecological malignancies suggest that metabolic tumour volume and to a lesser extent total lesion glycolysis have the potential to become valuable in the imaging of human solid tumours as prognostic biomarkers for short- to intermediate-term survival outcomes, adding value to clinical staging, for assessment of response to treatment with neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy, and for treatment optimization; for example, based on early treatment response assessment using changes in metabolic tumour volume over time, it might be possible to select patients who require a more aggressive treatment to improve their outcome. Prospective studies enrolling consecutive patients, adopting standardized protocols for FDG PET acquisition and processing, adjusting for potential confounders in the analysis (tumour size and origin) and determining the optimal methodology for determination of these novel markers are mandatory.

  14. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luize G; Monteiro, Robson Q

    2013-09-04

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies.

  15. Activation of blood coagulation in cancer: implications for tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested a role for blood coagulation proteins in tumour progression. Herein, we discuss (1) the activation of the blood clotting cascade in the tumour microenvironment and its impact on primary tumour growth; (2) the intravascular activation of blood coagulation and its impact on tumour metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis; and (3) antitumour therapies that target blood-coagulation-associated proteins. Expression levels of the clotting initiator protein TF (tissue factor) have been correlated with tumour cell aggressiveness. Simultaneous TF expression and PS (phosphatidylserine) exposure by tumour cells promote the extravascular activation of blood coagulation. The generation of blood coagulation enzymes in the tumour microenvironment may trigger the activation of PARs (protease-activated receptors). In particular, PAR1 and PAR2 have been associated with many aspects of tumour biology. The procoagulant activity of circulating tumour cells favours metastasis, whereas the release of TF-bearing MVs (microvesicles) into the circulation has been correlated with cancer-associated thrombosis. Given the role of coagulation proteins in tumour progression, it has been proposed that they could be targets for the development of new antitumour therapies. PMID:23889169

  16. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain, including the sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). ... sphenoid bone (a butterfly-shaped bone at the base of the skull ) to reach the pituitary gland . ...

  17. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  18. Ultrastructural study of mixed growth hormone & prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, C; Dinda, A K; Roy, S; Kochupillai, N; Kharbanda, K; Tandon, P N

    1992-08-01

    An ultrastructural study was done on 15 mixed growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas surgically removed from acromegalic patients with hyper-prolactinaemia, in order to see whether the 2 hormones were present in the same cell or in different cells. Double labelling immunogold technique was used for simultaneous ultrastructural localization of GH and PRL. It was found that each neoplastic cell in these 15 tumours (30 to 50 cells were studied in each case) contained 4 populations of granules viz., (i) granules positive for only GH; (ii) granules positive for only PRL; (iii) granules positive for both GH and PRL; and (iv) granules negative for both GH and PRL (unlabelled). Though the relative percentage of these 4 types of granules varied from cell to cell even within the same tumour, the major population (49.9 to 96%) was constituted by the mixed granules showing labelling for both GH and PRL. Almost all the cells examined from each tumour appeared to be mammosomatotrophs. Thus, the study indicated that mammosomatotroph adenomas are perhaps more common among mixed GH and PRL--secreting pituitary adenomas than previously believed. It could be important to recognize these tumours from the therapeutic point of view.

  19. Evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in pituitary macroadenomas without optic chiasmal compression

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, G; Auriemma, R S; Cardone, D; Grasso, L F S; Velotti, N; Simeoli, C; Di Somma, C; Pivonello, R; Colao, A; de Crecchio, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this prospective study was to measure the thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a cohort of consecutive de novo patients with pituitary macroadenomas without chiasmal compression. Patients and methods Twenty-two consecutive patients with pituitary macroadenoma without chiasmal compression (16 men, 6 women, aged 45.2±14.6 years, 43 eyes) entered the study between September 2011 and June 2013. Among them, 31.8% harboured a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a corticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and 13.6% a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Eighteen subjects (nine females, nine males, mean age 36.47±6.37 years; 33 eyes) without pituitary adenoma, with normal ophthalmic examination, served as controls. In both patients and controls, cpRNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT. Results Patients were significantly older (P=0.02) than controls. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, colour fundus photography, and automatic perimetry test were within the normal range in patients and controls. Conversely, cpRNFL (P=0.009) and GCC (P<0.0001) were significantly thinner in patients than in controls. The average GCC (r=0.306, P=0.046) significantly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. OCT parameters did not differ significantly between patients with a tumour volume above the median and those with a tumour volume below the median. Conclusion Pituitary macroadenomas, even in the absence of chiasmal compression, may induce GCC and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning. SD-OCT may have a role in the early diagnosis and management of patients with pituitary tumours. PMID:25853400

  20. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  1. Pituitary cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-08-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity (μG) experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually > 50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible μG ``sensing systems'' within the pituitary cell.

  2. Pituitary cells in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually >50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible microgravity 'sensing systems' within the pituitary cell.

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary abscess

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    A case of hypothalamic-pituitary abscess is described, and previous case reports discussed. The clinical picture is one of hypopituitarism, a fluctuating clinical course with attacks of meningism, and a background of sphenoid sinusitis. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:1187501

  4. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.

    PubMed

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  5. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Cristina, Carolina; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives. PMID:25505910

  6. Chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica mimicking a pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Arthur W; Bhuta, Sunita; Salamon, Noriko; Martin, Neil; Wang, Marilene B

    2015-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica that mimicked the clinical and radiologic presentation of the more common pituitary adenoma. A 50-year-old man presented with bitemporal visual field deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a sellar mass that was suggestive of a pituitary adenoma. However, the intraoperative appearance of the mass was not consistent with an adenoma, and frozen-section pathology was obtained. Pathology identified the mass as a malignant lesion. Based on this finding, the mass was treated more aggressively. Chondroid chordomas are rare and slowly growing but locally aggressive tumors. The prognosis depends on the ability to totally resect the mass, so differentiating this tumor from a benign lesion is critical. An intrasellar chordoma can be confused clinically and radiologically with a pituitary adenoma. These two lesions are nearly identical on MRI, although T2-weighted imaging sometimes demonstrates higher intensity with a chondroid chordoma. Computed tomography may be helpful in demonstrating bony destruction by these lesions, as can the presence of intralesional calcifications. Intraoperative findings of bony invasion or a purple-red color may also lead the surgeon to suspect a diagnosis other than pituitary adenoma.

  7. Bronchial mucous gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Spencer, H

    1979-07-27

    Tumours arising in the bronchial mucous glands closely resemble tumours arising in the mixed salivary glands. Bronchial mucous gland tumours account for less than 0.5 per cent of all lung tumours. Twenty six tumours are reviewed and they have been divided into five types, (a) adenoidcystic carcinomas, (b) muco-epidermoid tumors, (c) mixed (pleomorphic) tumors, (d) cystadenomas and (f) oxyphilic adenoma. The clinical features, and postoperative course of the patients are reviewed. Adenocystic carcinomas, arising in the bronchus frequently involve the neighbouring trachea and spread mainly by direct infiltration. Most muco-epidermoid bronchial tumours were confined to young persons, and the only malignant muco-epidermoid tumour occurred in an elderly person. The prognosis in young persons is good provided the tumours are completely excised. The two mixed bronchial tumours resembled their salivary counterparts and one subsequently behaved as a carcinoma and metastasised. Bronchial cystadenomas all proved to be benign tumours but in two cases were associated with surface papillary proliferation. The only example of an oxyphil cell adenoma was discovered at post mortem examination. The histogenesis of the tumours is considered.

  8. 'Open-and-close' pituitary surgery in an acromegalic man presenting with excessive sweatiness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kitty Kit Ting; Chow, Francis Chun Chung; Lo, Anthony Wing Ip

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic-acromegaly is rare. Diagnosing ectopic-acromegaly is challenging given that the clinical and biochemical manifestations can be almost indistinguishable from those of patients with growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. This case report highlights the importance of clinical vigilance in differentiating between the two conditions. A 41-year-old Caucasian man presented with typical features of acromegaly with an enlarged pituitary and a lung lesion. Although excision of the lung mass showed a carcinoid tumour, normalisation of growth hormone factors did not occur soon enough. This led to a presumed diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. However, no pituitary tumour was identified during trans-sphenoidal surgery. Postoperatively, the patient improved clinically and biochemically. Retrospective histological examination of the excised lung lesion showed a small proportion of tumour cells containing growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), suggesting ectopic-GHRH production from the lung neuroendocrine tumour. An open-and-close trans-sphenoidal surgery could have been avoided in this patient with ectopic-GHRH acromegaly. PMID:27284097

  9. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  10. A rare case of pituitary chromophobe carcinoma in a dog: clinical, tomographic and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Longo, M.; Binanti, D.; Zagarella, P.G.; Iocca, F.; Zani, D. De; Ravasio, G.; Giancamillo, M. Di; Zani, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    A 9 year old male mixed-breed dog was presented for progressive aggressiveness towards the owner. The neurological evaluation was consistent with a forebrain syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed enlargement of the third ventricle and presence of a large spheroidal neoplasm in the sellar/parasellar region suggestive of a pituitary macroadenoma. On the owner request, the dog was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, pituitary carcinomas have been rarely described in dogs, especially the chromophobe subtype. PMID:27800300

  11. [Aggressive fibromatosis of the frontal sinus].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Søren Gade; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2009-01-26

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a benign tumour with expansive and locally invasive growth. It is very rarely seen in the head and neck area. We present a 52-year-old female patient with AF localized to the left frontal sinus. The condition was initially mistaken for chronic sinusitis however computed tomography indicated tumour. A biopsy showed AF and the patient received surgical treatment. Symptoms, signs and treatment are discussed. It is concluded that AF in the sino-nasal tract is a rare, but potentially life threatening condition which might be mistaken for a simple sinusitis. PMID:19176167

  12. Growth and hormonal status of children treated for brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Shalet, S M

    1982-01-01

    The adult survivors of the treatment of brain tumours in childhood are often short. Several adverse factors contribute to the impaired growth of these children including growth hormone (GH) deficiency, impaired spinal growth following spinal irradiation, chemotherapy, poor nutritional intake and recurrent tumour. The GH deficiency is due to radiation-induced damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. GH is always the first pituitary hormone to be affected by such radiation damage but panhypopituitarism may occur if the radiation dose is sufficiently great. Preliminary results suggest that GH therapy will improve the growth rate of children with radiation-induced GH deficiency. Additional endocrine complications, which may occur following spinal irradiation, include thyroid dysfunction and ovarian failure due to direct radiation damage to the thyroid and the ovary.

  13. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  14. Circulating tumour cells: insights into tumour heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D F; Paoletti, C

    2013-08-01

    Tumour heterogeneity is a major barrier to cure breast cancer. It can exist between patients with different intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer or within an individual patient with breast cancer. In the latter case, heterogeneity has been observed between different metastatic sites, between metastatic sites and the original primary tumour, and even within a single tumour at either a metastatic or a primary site. Tumour heterogeneity is a function of two separate, although linked, processes. First, genetic instability is a hallmark of malignancy, and results in 'fixed' genetic changes that are almost certainly carried forward through progression of the cancer over time, with increasingly complex additional genetic changes in new metastases as they arise. The second type of heterogeneity is due to differential but 'plastic' expression of various genes important in the biology and response to various therapies. Together, these processes result in highly variable cancers with differential response, and resistance, to both targeted (e.g. endocrine or anti-human epithelial growth receptor type 2 (HER2) agents) and nontargeted therapies (e.g. chemotherapy). Ideally, tumour heterogeneity would be monitored over time, especially in relation to therapeutic strategies. However, biopsies of metastases require invasive and costly procedures, and biopsies of multiple metastases, or serially over time, are impractical. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) represent a potential surrogate for tissue-based cancer and therefore might provide the opportunity to monitor serial changes in tumour biology. Recent advances have enabled accurate and reliable quantification and molecular characterization of CTCs with regard to a number of important biomarkers including oestrogen receptor alpha and HER2. Preliminary data have demonstrated that expression of these markers between CTCs in individual patients with metastatic breast cancer reflects the heterogeneity of the underlying tumours. Future

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pituitary Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Nieto, Leandro Eduardo; Fuertes, Mariana; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, progress has been made on the identification of mechanisms involved in anterior pituitary cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic changes, and microRNAs deregulation contribute to the initiation of pituitary tumors. Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas, they are mostly benign, indicating that intrinsic mechanisms may regulate pituitary cell expansion. Senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and represents an important protective mechanism against malignancy. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene involved in early stages of pituitary tumor development, and also triggers a senescence response by activating DNA-damage signaling pathway. Cytokines, as well as many other factors, play an important role in pituitary physiology, affecting not only cell proliferation but also hormone secretion. Special interest is focused on interleukin-6 (IL-6) because its dual function of stimulating pituitary tumor cell growth but inhibiting normal pituitary cells proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IL-6 has a key role in promoting and maintenance of the senescence program in tumors. Senescence, triggered by PTTG activation and mediated by IL-6, may be a mechanism for explaining the benign nature of pituitary tumors.

  16. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible.

  17. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND TUMOURS OF DIFFERENT AGE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Lykholat, T; Lykholat, O; Antonyuk, S

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemical and biochemical study of infiltrative ductal breast carcinoma and tissue adjacent to the tumour revealed a particular molecular profile and characteristics of the oxidant-antioxidant status neoplasms depending on the age of the patients and the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes. Some causes of high aggressiveness and low hormone sensitivity of tumours in premenopausal women, as well as stability and high metastatic potential of tumours in postmenopausal women have been found. PMID:27266184

  18. Dense calcification in a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Kalhan, Atul; Lammie, Alistair; Kotonya, Christine; Nannapanenni, Ravindra; Rees, Aled

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 30-year-old female presented with a history of secondary amenorrhoea, acromegalic features and progressive visual deterioration. She had elevated serum IGF1 levels and unsuppressed GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhancing space-occupying lesion with atypical extensive calcification within the sellar and suprasellar areas. Owing to the extent of calcification, the tumour was a surgical challenge. Postoperatively, there was clinical, radiological and biochemical evidence of residual disease, which required treatment with a somatostatin analogue and radiotherapy. Mutational analysis of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene was negative. This case confirms the relatively rare occurrence of calcification within a pituitary macroadenoma and its associated management problems. The presentation, biochemical, radiological and pathological findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature. Learning points Calcification of pituitary tumours is relatively rare.Recognising calcification in pituitary adenomas on preoperative imaging is important in surgical decision-making.Gross total resection can be difficult to achieve in the presence of extensive calcification and dictates further management and follow-up to achieve disease control. PMID:24683483

  19. Imaging of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques play a vital role in the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment monitoring of patients with pituitary disease. For its high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides detailed information about the localization and extent of a lesion. It is thus, to date, the most important imaging technique for documenting or ruling out structural lesions. It is usually the first and only imaging procedure to be employed in pituitary pathology. While large pituitary adenomas are reliably depicted in standard T1-weighted sequences, small microadenomas, such as in Cushing's disease, may only become visible if repeat studies, sophisticated techniques and high-field scanners are employed. For monitoring treatment effects after surgical procedures, drug applications, or irradiation, follow-up studies with identical parameters should be employed, preferably at the same investigation site. Some space is devoted to intraoperative imaging, which not only allows assessment of how radical tumor resection needs to be during pituitary tumor surgery, but also provides extremely accurate structural data for neuronavigation. Less frequent lesions, such as craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germ cell tumors, gliomas, skull base tumors, hypothalamic hamartomas, vascular malformations, inflammatory and developmental lesions and other, even less frequent pathologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The particular strength of computed tomography (CT) is the direct depiction of calcification, a weakness of MRI, and the high resolution of bone structures at the skull base. This chapter presents the characteristics of both frequent and less commonly encountered tumoral lesions, with an emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25248586

  20. The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Brandes, A A; Pasetto, L M; Monfardini, S

    2000-08-01

    Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) include many subtypes whose response to treatment varies, even though the symptoms and radiological appearances are similar. Five-year survival rates are 96% for germinomas, 100% for mature teratomas, 67% for immature teratomas and 69% for immature teratomas mixed with germinomas; for beta-HCG secreting germinomas the rate is only 38%. Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates. Although a wider resection is associated with a higher rate of survival for patients with non-germinomatous germ cell (NGGC) tumours, to date an aggressive surgical approach has been advocated only for pineal region tumours, but not for hypothalamic/neurohypophyseal tumours. Beside the delayed injury induced by radiotherapy, the late injury induced by chemotherapy is becoming increasingly evident. Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms. Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease. In cases of recurrence, which should be uncommon, patients may be rescued with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In NGGC tumours, the prognosis is more unfavourable and there is often dissemination to the spine at diagnosis; however, the tumour's high chemosensitivity suggests neoadjuvant treatment chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for three cycles followed by consolidation radiotherapy with

  1. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  2. Maintained aggressive behavior in gonadectomized male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Weiss, C S; Coughlin, J P

    1979-07-01

    Adult male Betta splendens were gonadectomized and tested twice for aggressive behavior two weeks later. In a mutual viewing test environment, it was found that gonadectomized animals maintained their aggressive behavior on all six indices of aggression at a level equal to controls. Animals that showed some testis regeneration and sham operated fish were also equal to controls. The results are interpreted to mean that adult aggressive behavior in male B. splendens may not be under the control of gonadal hormones. Pituitary gonadotropins, interrenal gland, and critical period hypotheses are given as possible explanations of the maintained aggressiveness following castration.

  3. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  4. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  5. Analysis of IMP3 expression in normal and neoplastic human pituitary tissues.

    PubMed

    Righi, Alberto; Zhang, Shuya; Jin, Long; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Kovacs, Kalman; Kovacs, Gabor; Goth, Miklos I; Korbonits, Marta; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2010-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein highly expressed in fetal tissue and malignant tumors but rarely found in adult benign tissues. In various tumors, IMP3 expression is correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and reduced overall survival. To our knowledge, IMP3 expression has not been investigated in pituitary tumors. We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in five normal pituitary tissues and 75 pituitary tumors (64 adenomas and 11 carcinomas) to determine if specific tumor types expressed IMP3 and if there were differences in IMP3 expression between adenomas and carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that IMP3 was positive in four (80%) normal pituitaries with focal stain in a subset of normal anterior pituitary cells. IMP3 was expressed in 31% (20/64) of adenomas and in 36% (4/11) of carcinomas. A slightly higher level of IMP3 expression was observed in PRL-GH-TSH adenomas compared to the other types of pituitary adenomas. Expression of IMP3 was not significantly higher in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.737). RT-PCR and Western Blotting supported the heterogeneous expression of IMP3. These results indicate that IMP3 is expressed both in normal and in neoplastic pituitary gland tissues without significant differences in expression levels in pituitary carcinomas. PMID:19898970

  6. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  7. Carcinoid tumour of appendix in a child: a rare case at an uncommon site.

    PubMed

    Vani, B R; Thejaswini, M U; Kumar, B Deepak; Murthy, V Srinivasa; Geethamala, K

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours of the appendix are uncommon incidentally detected tumours during histopathological examination following appendicectomy for acute appendicitis. Even though considered rare in children, they are the most frequently encountered tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, carcinoid tumour of appendix in childhood has not yet been reported from Indian Subcontinent. The clinical presentation is similar to acute appendicitis and the signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome have not been reported in children. The prognosis of carcinoid tumour of appendix is excellent in children as the tumour is generally small in size and less aggressive with no metastasis. Simple appendicectomy is curative in most of the patients and long term follow up is debatable. We present here a case of carcinoid tumour of the body of appendix, which is an uncommon location in a 6-year-old child.

  8. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression. PMID:21521500

  9. Precocious puberty due to a lipid-cell tumour of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Dengg, K; Fink, F M; Heitger, A; Tabarelli, M; Kreczy, A; Glatzl, J; Berger, H

    1993-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl with a lipid cell tumour of the ovary showed isosexual precocious pseudopuberty. The endocrine activity of the tumour led to elevated plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, oestradiol, testosterone and androstenedione. After tumour resection the clinical signs of abnormal hormonal stimulation disappeared within 10 months. The girl developed precocious puberty again 2 years later without any sign of relapse. Therapy with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist was effective although premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis could not clearly be demonstrated by hormonal investigations.

  10. Tuberculosis simulating brain tumour.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, U R; Farooq, M; Rauf, F; Bhatti, S K

    2011-06-30

    The purpose of the study is to highlight the varied presentation of tuberculosis (TB) simulating a brain tumour. Headache and seizures are becoming frequent presenting complaints without any history of tuberculosis. The study comprises 1200 patients of both sexes with ages ranging from ten to sixty years. CT scan and MRI brain control with and without contrast medium were the investigations performed in these cases. In some patients Electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral angiography (DSA) and spectroscopy were also performed. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made on the basis of craniotomy, stereotactic and burr hole biopsies with histopathology in most of the cases. Forty per cent of the patients were followed up for eight months. They were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment with symptomatic and anti-epileptic drugs. The incidence was 544 and 757 per 100,000 in Africa and Indo Pakistan respectively. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Tuberculosis, especially with CNS involvement, is not only common in immunosuppressed patients in our setting, but TB has been and remains an important public health problem. TB may involve the CNS either as meningitis or as parenchymal granulomas or abscesses. Patients with brain TB usually present with fever, multiple cranial nerve involvement and occasional behavioural changes. CSF findings remain non specific in most cases. The most common sites are the cerebral hemisphere and basal ganglion in adults and the cerebellum in children. Tuberculosis has unique findings on brain CT and MRI. Cortical and subcortical locations are typical whereas the brain stem is a less common site. Tuberculosis lesions are usually solitary but multiple in 10% to 35% of cases. In spite of all these facts some cases of brain TB still need aggressive neurointervention to reach the final diagnosis of brain TB. Tuberculosis in the CNS may manifest in many different ways. So one should always include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in the

  11. Intrasellar pituitary mucocele: diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ing Ping; Chai, Chun Kian; Kumar, Gnana; Prepageran, Narayanan; Waran, Vicknes

    2014-06-01

    Isolated intrasellar pituitary mucocele following transsphenoidal sinus surgery is extremely rare. The clinical features resemble a pituitary tumor, therefore careful radiological interpretation is crucial to reach the correct diagnosis. We report a case of intrasellar mucocele who had transsphenoidal sinus surgery performed 15 years prior.

  12. Acromegaloidism Associated with Pituitary Incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Narendra, B S; Dharmalingam, M; Kalra, P

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaloidism with pituitary microadenoma has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 28-year old male with typical features of acromegaly for 11 years.with a pituitary tumor. He had characteristic acromegaloid facial features, clubbing of hands and feet, enlargement of fingers and toes. The natural history of the disease is reviewed and the differential diagnosis is discussed. PMID:26710410

  13. Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis. PMID:23087850

  14. Pituitary autoimmunity: 30 years later

    PubMed Central

    Caturegli, Patrizio; Lupi, Isabella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa; Kimura, Hiroaki; Rose, Noel R.

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary autoimmunity encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from histologically proven forms of lymphocytic hypophysitis to the presence of pituitary antibodies in apparently healthy subjects. Hypophysitis is a rare but increasingly recognized disorder that typically presents as a mass in the sella turcica. It mimics clinically and radiologically other non-secreting sellar masses, such as the more common pituitary adenoma. Hypophysitis shows a striking temporal association with pregnancy, and it has been recently described during immunotherapies that block CTLA-4. Several candidate pituitary autoantigens have been described in the last decade, although none has proven useful as a diagnostic tool. This review summarizes the advances made in the field since the publication of the first review on pituitary autoimmunity, and the challenges that await clarification. PMID:18774118

  15. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Extraosseal Spread: Evaluation of the Effect Carnoy's Solution.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Machoň, Vladimír; Grill, Pavel; Hirjak, Dušan; Foltán, René

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour is relatively rare benign tumour. It is characterized by its fast aggressive growth and high risk of recurrence. Treatment is always surgical: conservative (enucleation, marsupialization) or aggressive (enucleation followed by application of Carnoy's solution, cryotherapy; peripheral ostectomy or en block resection of the jaw). Authors analysed retrospectively 22 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria, i.e. had odontogenic keratocystic tumour of mandible, wherein antero-posterior dimension was at least 30 mm, and the tumour penetrated into the surrounding soft tissues. All patients underwent tumour enucleation, in 11 patients Carnoy's solution was given into the bone cavity after enucleation. The recurrence rate in the evaluation at least 36 months after surgery was both patient groups the same: 45.4%. PMID:26654803

  16. The Pituitary in Gigantism.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kovacs, Kalman T.; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Horvath, Eva; Kane, Laurie A.; Young, William F.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Randall, Raymond V.; Davis, Dudley H.

    1995-01-01

    To compare the pituitary pathology of gigantism to that of acromegaly, 19 surgically resected lesions were studied from 10 males and 9 females, ages 13-49 (mean, 19 yr) with excessive height (>/=95th percentile), onset of disease prior to puberty, elevated growth hormone (GH) levels despite glucose suppression, and a pathologically confirmed GH-producing pituitary mass. One patient had MEN-I. The lesions included 18 adenomas and 1 case of pure hyperplasia. The median, mean, and range of serum GH and prolactin (PRL) levels were 64, 235, 5-1000 ng/mL and 47, 146, 29-770 ng/mL, respectively. Of the 8 adenoma specimens accompanied by nontumoral pituitary (i.e., tissue wherein the presence of hyperplasia was assessable), 3 (37%) demonstrated both. Of the 18 tumors, 78% were macroadenomas and 22% were grossly invasive; their immunophenotypes included GH (5%), GH and PRL (19%), and GHPRL and a glycoprotein hormone, usually TSH and/or a-subunit (76%). Of the 10 adenoma-containing lesions subject to electron microscopy (EM), 2 consisted of GH cells alone; 2 of mammosomatotroph (MS) cells alone; 1 of GH and MS cells; 1 of GH and PRL cells; 2 of GH, PRL, and MS cells; 1 of GH, PRL, and glycoprotein cells; and 1 was a subtype 3 adenoma. Ultrastructurally, GH cells and/or MS cells predominated in these lesions. Immuno-EM of one CH and PRL cell and of one GH-PR-MS tumor showed GH and PRL to be present not only in single cells but within the same granules. Nine of 12 adenoma-associated lesions subject to combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining showed double labeling for PRL (or GH) mRNA and for GH (or PRL), respectively, features indicating MS differentiation. In the 4 lesions exhibiting hyperplasia, either alone (1) or in association with adenoma (3), EM showed MS cells in 3, and immuno-EM as well as combined immunohistochemistry and ISH showed double labeling for GH and PRL in both of the 2 cases studied. In summary, although in terms of their tinctorial

  17. Uveal tumour resection

    PubMed Central

    Char, D.; Miller, T.; Crawford, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumours managed with eye wall resection techniques.
METHODS—This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive local uveal tumour resections performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data were performed.
RESULTS—138 eyes were scheduled for eye wall resection surgery. The mean age was 52 years (range 11-86 years). Tumours involved predominantly the iris in 14 cases, iris-ciliary body in 57, ciliary body alone in 18 patients, and in 49 cases the choroid was involved (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid). 125 eyes harboured melanomas; posterior tumours were more likely to have epithelioid cells (p<0.05). The mean follow up was 6 years. The mean clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumours was 3.5. In tumours that involved the choroid the mean largest diameter was 12.9 mm and the mean thickness 8.5 mm. 105 of 138 (76%) eyes were retained. Histological assessment of surgical margins did not correlate evidence of tumour in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of more anterior tumours were more likely to be clear on histological evaluation (p<0.05). Approximately 53% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of ⩾20/40; visual results were significantly better in more anteriorly located tumours (p<0.05). All retained iris tumour cases had ⩾20/40 final visual acuity. In tumours that involved the choroid nine of 31 retained eyes kept that level of visual acuity. Eight patients developed metastases; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumours that involved the choroid, and seven of eight were mixed cell melanomas.
CONCLUSIONS—76% of eyes were retained and 53% of these had a final visual acuity of ⩾20/40. Only 7% of uveal melanoma patients developed metastatic disease with a mean follow up of 6 years. Survival did not

  18. Aggressive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beaver, B V

    1986-12-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the cause of aggression in horses is essential to determining the appropriate course of action. The affective forms of aggression include fear-induced, pain-induced, intermale, dominance, protective, maternal, learned, and redirected aggressions. Non-affective aggression includes play and sex-related forms. Irritable aggression and hypertestosteronism in mares are medical problems, whereas genetic factors, brain dysfunction, and self-mutilation are also concerns. PMID:3492250

  19. An Evolutionary Hybrid Cellular Automaton Model of Solid Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, P.; Anderson, A.R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a cellular automaton model of solid tumour growth, in which each cell is equipped with a micro-environment response network. This network is modelled using a feed-forward artificial neural network, that takes environmental variables as an input and from these determines the cellular behaviour as the output. The response of the network is determined by connection weights and thresholds in the network, which are subject to mutations when the cells divide. As both available space and nutrients are limited resources for the tumour this gives rise to clonal evolution where only the fittest cells survive. Using this approach we have investigated the impact of the tissue oxygen concentration on the growth and evolutionary dynamics of the tumour. The results show that the oxygen concentration affects the selection pressure, cell population diversity and morphology of the tumour. A low oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a fingered morphology that contains aggressive phenotypes with a small apoptotic potential, while a high oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a round morphology containing less evolved phenotypes. The tissue oxygen concentration thus affects the tumour at both the morphological level and on the phenotype level. PMID:17374383

  20. Monomorphous Plurihormonal Pituitary Adenoma of Pit-1 Lineage in a Giant Adolescent with Central Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bernardo Dias; Raimundo, Luísa; Mete, Ozgur; Oliveira, Ana; Portugal, Jorge; Asa, Sylvia L

    2016-03-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are exceedingly rare at the pediatric age and no cases of co-secretion with other pituitary hormones in these tumors have been described in this age range. We present a case of a monomorphous plurihormonal pituitary adenoma that co-secreted TSH and GH in a pediatric patient. A 13-year-old male presented with increasing height velocity (17.75 cm/year, 9.55SD), weight loss, and visual impairment. Initial biochemical evaluations revealed secondary hyperthyroidism. A giant pituitary tumor compressing the surrounding structures was detected by magnetic resonance, and a transsphenoidal surgery was initially performed. Pathological examinations revealed an atypical, monomorphous plurihormonal Pit-1 lineage tumor with mixed features of silent subtype 3 adenoma and acidophil stem cell adenoma. In the postoperative period, secondary hyperthyroidism recurred with high levels of both GH and IGF1. In addition, due to tumor re-growth, a multimodality treatment plan was undertaken including surgery, somatostatin analogs, and radiotherapy. We report the first pediatric case of a plurihormonal TSH- and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, further expanding the clinical manifestations of pediatric pituitary tumors. Comprehensive pathological evaluation and close follow-up surveillance are crucial to the prompt delivery of the best therapeutic options in the context of this particularly aggressive pituitary tumor. PMID:26330191

  1. Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Korbonits, Márta; Carlsen, Eivind

    2009-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency. One of the most common forms of pituitary lesion is the clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which is often diagnosed incidentally. The vast majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but familial adenomas can occur in the multiple pituitary adenoma type 1 syndrome, in Carney complex or in familial isolated pituitary adenoma. Distinguishing NFPA from prolactinomas can occasionally cause a differential diagnostic problem due to the 'stalk effect'. NFPA often show hormone synthesis on tissue immunostaining without causing clinical symptoms. Most often these are silent gonadotroph adenomas, with silent corticotroph or somatotroph adenomas occurring less frequently. It is unclear why these silent adenomas do not release hormones at a clinically recognizable level, although it is probable that there is a continuum between fully functional and completely silent adenomas. Another intriguing feature of NFPAs is the lack of clinical response to somatostatin analogues, despite the presence of somatostatin receptors and an often good response in the in vitro setting. Temozolomide has been successfully used for the treatment of a few aggressive pituitary adenomas, and the response to this drug could be influenced by the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase. The early diagnosis, prediction of long-term outcome and treatment of NFPAs remain a challenge for endocrinologists. PMID:19407508

  2. Heart in pituitary diseases.

    PubMed

    Hradec, J; Marek, J; Král, J; Simper, D; Spácil, J

    1992-01-01

    Of hormones secreted by the pituitary, a direct effect on cardiac metabolism and function is exerted only by growth hormone (GH). Its chronic overproduction in adulthood leads to acromegaly. The main cardiovascular manifestations of acromegaly are hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. The paper summarizes the results of clinical research into the "acromegalic heart" in an internationally unique group of 78 patients with acromegaly on long-term follow-up. Both clinical findings and experimental data available in the literature indicate that cardiac hypertrophy is due to a direct effect of GH on the myocardium. Hypertension occurs in 50% of patients, has the nature of volume hypertension and exerts only an additive effect on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Once GH overproduction has been eliminated, cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension can be reversed to a certain stage, a finding highlighting the necessity of instituting treatment of acromegaly as early and as vigorous as possible. PMID:1304450

  3. Effect of anti-glycolytic agents on tumour cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A metabolic change is one of the tumour hallmarks, which has recently attracted a great amount of attention. One of the main metabolic characteristics of tumour cells is a high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in a glycolysis pathway than that in a tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Warburg effect constitutes a fundamental adaptation of tumour cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumour glycolysis may become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we research the effect of potential anticancer agents on tumour cells in vitro. In our study, we found a high sensitivity of tumour cells to anti-glycolityc drugs. In addition, tumour cells are more resistant to the agents studied in comparison with normal cells. We also observed an atypical cooperative interaction of tumour cells in the median lethal dose of drugs. They formed the specific morphological structure of the surviving cells. This behavior is not natural for the culture of tumour cells. Perhaps this is one of the mechanisms of cells' adaptation to the aggressive environment.

  4. Cushing syndrome associated with an adrenal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Helena; Brain, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by an adrenal tumour or a pituitary corticotrophin-secreting adenoma. The management is challenging and requires an individualised approach and multidisciplinary care. We present the case of a 23-month-old female child with a history of excessive weight gain, growth failure, hirsutism, acne and behavioural difficulties. Investigations revealed elevated serum midnight cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol. Overnight dexamethasone suppression testing showed no suppression of cortisol levels. Abdominal imaging revealed a right-sided suprarenal mass. She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology showed an adrenal cortical carcinoma. There was clinical improvement with catch-up growth and weight normalisation. Despite being rare in clinical practice, in a child with weight gain, hirsuitism and growth failure the diagnosis must be considered. The overall prognosis of CS in childhood is good, but challenges remain to ensure normal growth and body composition. PMID:22927284

  5. Neuroendocrine aspects of pediatric aggression: Can hormone measures be clinically useful?

    PubMed

    Barzman, Drew H; Patel, Avni; Sonnier, Loretta; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric aggression is common in human societies, mainly presenting as impulsive aggression or predatory aggression. Numerous psychiatric disorders can contain aggression as a symptom, leading to difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses on the biological systems that affect pediatric aggression. We review the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and the mechanisms by which these axes influence the body and mind of aggressive children and adolescents. Although this review focuses on the HPA and HPG axes, it is important to note that other biological systems have relationships with these two axes. Based on the results of the studies reviewed, elevated cortisol concentrations were associated with impulsive aggression, whereas, low levels of cortisol were associated with callous-unemotional traits similar to predatory aggression. Higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone were correlated with higher levels of aggression as were higher levels of testosterone. However, there have been discrepancies in the results between various studies, indicating the need for more research on hormonal levels and pediatric aggression. In the future, hormonal levels may be useful in determining what treatments will work best for certain pediatric patients.

  6. Oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, kidney, and thyroid: nuclear DNA patterns studied by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, L M; Farrow, G M; Hay, I D; Lieber, M M

    1986-06-01

    Nuclear DNA ploidy studies were performed by flow cytometry on extracted nuclei from 12 oncocytic tumours of the salivary gland, 65 oncocytic tumours of the kidney, and 37 oncocytic tumours of the thyroid gland from the pathology archives of the Mayo Clinic. In order to provide an interesting clinical spectrum, three different classes of well-differentiated oncocytic tumours were selected for examination. Salivary gland oncocytic tumours were chosen for their generally benign behaviour. Oncocytic thyroid cancers exhibiting malignant potential because of local invasion, were thought to represent the opposite extreme of aggressiveness. Renal oncocytic tumours were known to demonstrate an intermediate degree of malignancy. All of the oncocytic salivary gland tumours showed a 'normal' DNA histogram and had a benign clinical course. For the oncocytic tumours of the kidney, 45% of DNA histograms were normal, 40% exhibited a significant increase in the DNA tetraploid/polyploid (4C) peak, and 15% showed a DNA aneuploid peak. Three patients with a DNA tetraploid pattern developed tumour metastasis and two have died from metastatic renal cancer. Among the oncocytic thyroid cancers, 27% were normal, 22% exhibited an increased DNA tetraploid peak, and 51% had a distinct DNA aneuploid peak. None of the thyroid tumour patients with a normal DNA pattern or with an increased DNA tetraploid peak died as a result of thyroid malignancy. In contrast, 58% of patients whose thyroid tumours showed a DNA aneuploid peak subsequently died from thyroid cancer.

  7. Pituitary: Non-Secretory Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... categories—tumor mass effects and hyposecretion effects. Tumor mass effects Visual field disturbances, most commonly loss of ... surgery. The goal is to completely remove the mass or cyst and preserve normal pituitary, brain, and ...

  8. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  9. Tumours of the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, T. Holmes; Thackray, A. C.; Thomson, A. D.

    1967-01-01

    Eighty-eight cases of thymoma are discussed with the object of trying to co-ordinate the histological and clinical features. The pathological specimens were in all cases obtained at operation. The pathology classification introduced by Thomson and Thackray in 1957 has been found to correspond adequately with the clinical pattern. The most common groups of tumours are basically epithelial and can be separated into five or six subdivisions, each of which has a separate pattern of behaviour. Lymphoid and teratomatous tumours also occur, but there were only two examples in this series. Clinically, separation of patients who suffered from myasthenia (38) and those who did not (50) affords the first main grouping. The majority of patients who had myasthenia gravis had tumours classified as epidermoid (19) and lymphoepithelial (14), the former with a more malignant appearance and behaviour than the latter. Removal of the tumour with or without radiation gave considerable and sometimes complete relief from myasthenic symptoms. Non-myasthenic thymoma (50) was usually discovered as a result of pressure signs or in the course of routine radiography. Spindle or oval celled tumours followed a benign pattern whereas undifferentiated thymoma was in every sense malignant, as also were teratomatous growths. Granulomatous or Hodgkin-like thymomas were of special interest and had an unpredictable course, some patients surviving many years after what was regarded as inadequate treatment. The place of radiotherapy as a pre- or post-operative agent complementary to surgery is discussed. Images PMID:6033387

  10. Salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, P M; Barrett, A W

    2002-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Although most clinicians and pathologists will have encountered the more common benign neoplasms, few have experience of the full range of salivary cancers, which are best managed in specialist centres. This review considers some current areas of difficulty and controversy in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms. The classification of these lesions is complex, encompassing nearly 40 different entities, but precise classification and terminology is essential for an accurate diagnosis and for the allocation of tumours to prognostic groups. For many salivary tumours diagnosis is straightforward but the wide range of morphological diversity between and within tumour types means that a diagnosis may not be possible on small incisional biopsies and careful consideration of the clinical and pathological features together is essential. Although tumour grading is important and helpful, it is not an independent prognostic indicator and must be considered in the context of stage. Large malignancies tend to have a poor prognosis regardless of grade and even high-grade neoplasms may do well when they are small. A helpful guide to management of salivary cancers is the '4 cm rule'.

  11. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.L.; Goldman, J.M.; Rehnberg, G.L.

    1986-12-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, the authors evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. They also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants.

  12. Imaging of the pituitary and parasellar region.

    PubMed

    Zee, Chi S; Go, John L; Kim, Paul E; Mitchell, David; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2003-01-01

    The pituitary is part of a chain of enormous biologic amplification, which is regulated by a small amount of releasing factors in the portal blood from the hypothalamus. The pituitary is a master gland that regulates a number of hormones. A subtle abnormality in the pituitary can cause significant changes in body metabolism. Because the pituitary glands are small structures, high-resolution imaging techniques are required to satisfactorily evaluate the gland. It is imperative for the radiologist to be familiar with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the pituitary gland, which provides a solid foundation for accurate interpretation of the imaging studies of the pituitary gland. PMID:12690979

  13. Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen; Zender, Lars; Miething, Cornelius; Dickins, Ross A.; Hernando, Eva; Krizhanovsky, Valery; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer arises from a combination of mutations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, the extent to which tumour suppressor gene loss is required for maintaining established tumours is poorly understood. p53 is an important tumour suppressor that acts to restrict proliferation in response to DNA damage or deregulation of mitogenic oncogenes, by leading to the induction of various cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis or cellular senescence1,2. Consequently, p53 mutations increase cell proliferation and survival, and in some settings promote genomic instability and resistance to certain chemotherapies3. To determine the consequences of reactivating the p53 pathway in tumours, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to conditionally regulate endogenous p53 expression in a mosaic mouse model of liver carcinoma4,5. We show that even brief reactivation of endogenous p53 in p53-deficient tumours can produce complete tumour regressions. The primary response to p53 was not apoptosis, but instead involved the induction of a cellular senescence program that was associated with differentiation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. This program, although producing only cell cycle arrest in vitro, also triggered an innate immune response that targeted the tumour cells in vivo, thereby contributing to tumour clearance. Our study indicates that p53 loss can be required for the maintenance of aggressive carcinomas, and illustrates how the cellular senescence program can act together with the innate immune system to potently limit tumour growth. PMID:17251933

  14. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  15. An unusual case of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the ileum with peritoneal carcinomatosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celotti, Andrea; Pulcini, Giuseppe; Schieppati, Mattia; Ministrini, Silvia; Berruti, Alfredo; Ronconi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a family of neoplasms that come from neuroendocrine cells and express neural markers, such as synaptophysin or chromogranin A.The current classifications of these tumours are presented by the WHO 2000 classification, based on histological parameters, and the WHO 2010 classification, based on the proliferative index, that divides the NETs into a neuroendocrine tumour of a low grade, neuroendocrine tumour of a intermediate grade and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of a high grade.We are reporting a very rare case of a G1 low-grade neuroendocrine tumour (NET) of the ileum with a peritoneal carcinomatosis.This case is challenging because the tumour expresses low proliferative index as G1 tumours, but it has an aggressive clinical behaviour such as node metastasis and peritoneal carcinomatosis.The peritoneal carcinomatosis is not actually considered by the current classifications of NETs, so it is difficult to predict the prognosis of this patient.

  16. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome.

  17. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  18. Delayed sequelae of pituitary irradiation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, K H; Lyman, J T; Lawrence, J H; Tobias, C A; Born, J L; Fabrikant, J I

    1984-01-01

    Since 1958, 781 patients at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have received helium-particle stereotactic radiosurgery to the adenohypophysis. Autopsy findings in 15 of these patients are reported. Ten patients received pituitary radiation (average dose, 116 Gy in six fractions) for progressive neovascularization retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus. Evidence of a time-dependent course of progressive fibrosis in their pituitary glands was found. Five patients were treated for eosinophilic adenomas. Although they had lower average doses of radiation (56 Gy in six fractions), their pituitary glands showed cystic cavitation of the adenomas. The adenomas thus appeared more radiosensitive than the normal pars anterior, which, in turn, was more radiosensitive than the adjacent neurohypophysis. No significant radiation changes were found in the surrounding brain or cranial nerves. The endocrine organs under pituitary control showed varying degrees of atrophy, and clinical tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal radiation lesion confined to the pituitary gland but did not cause injury to the critical structures of the surrounding central nervous system.

  19. [Familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome].

    PubMed

    Dénes, Judit; Korbonits, Márta; Hubina, Erika; Kovács, Gábor László; Kovács, László; Görömbey, Zoltán; Czirják, Sándor; Góth, Miklós

    2011-05-01

    Familial pituitary adenomas occur in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, as well as in familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Pituitary adenomas occur in familial setting but without any other specific tumors. In 20-40% of families with this syndrome, mutations have been identified in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene while in the rest of the families the causative gene or genes have not been identified. Families carrying aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutations have a distinct phenotype with younger age at diagnosis and a predominance of somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene can be occasionally identified in usually young-onset seemingly sporadic cases. Genetic and clinical testing of relatives of patients with aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutations can lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment at an earlier stage of the pituitary tumor. PMID:21498161

  20. Delayed sequelae of pituitary irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, K.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1958, 781 patients at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have received helium-particle stereotactic radiosurgery to the adenohypophysis. Autopsy findings in 15 of these patients are reported. Ten patients received pituitary radiation (average dose, 116 Gy in six fractions) for progressive neovascularization retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus. Evidence of a time-dependent course of progressive fibrosis in their pituitary glands was found. Five patients were treated for eosinophilic adenomas. Although they had lower average doses of radiation (56 Gy in six fractions), their pituitary glands showed cystic cavitation of the adenomas. The adenomas thus appeared more radiosensitive than the normal pars anterior, which, in turn, was more radiosensitive than the adjacent neurohypophysis. No significant radiation changes were found in the surrounding brain or cranial nerves. The endocrine organs under pituitary control showed varying degrees of atrophy, and clinical tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal ral tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal radiation lesion confined to the pituitary gland but did not cause injury to the critical structures of the surrounding central nervous system.

  1. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.

  2. Primary retroperitoneal tumours and cysts.

    PubMed

    Bors, G; Polyák, L; Frang, D

    1986-01-01

    The authors give a summarizing report on retroperitoneal tumours and cysts. They review the origin and classification of tumours and cysts, their diagnostic and differential diagnostic possibilities as well as the therapeutic measures. Finally, their own 3 cases are reported.

  3. Genetics of neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Leotlela, P D; Jauch, A; Holtgreve-Grez, H; Thakker, R V

    2003-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) originate in tissues that contain cells derived from the embryonic neural crest, neuroectoderm and endoderm. Thus, NETs occur at many sites in the body, although the majority occur within the gastro-entero-pancreatic axis and can be subdivided into those of foregut, midgut and hindgut origin. Amongst these, only those of midgut origin are generally argentaffin positive and secrete serotonin, and hence only these should be referred to as carcinoid tumours. NETs may occur as part of complex familial endocrine cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), although the majority occur as non-familial (i.e. sporadic) isolated tumours. Molecular genetic studies have revealed that the development of NETs may involve different genes, each of which may be associated with several different abnormalities that include point mutations, gene deletions, DNA methylation, chromosomal losses and chromosomal gains. Indeed, the foregut, midgut and hindgut NETs develop via different molecular pathways. For example, foregut NETs have frequent deletions and mutations of the MEN1 gene, whereas midgut NETs have losses of chromosome 18, 11q and 16q and hindgut NETs express transforming growth factor-alpha and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, in lung NETs, a loss of chromosome 3p is the most frequent change and p53 mutations and chromosomal loss of 5q21 are associated with more aggressive tumours and poor survival. In addition, methylation frequencies of retinoic acid receptor-beta, E-cadherin and RAS-associated domain family genes increase with the severity of lung NETs. Thus the development and progression of NETs is associated with specific genetic abnormalities that indicate the likely involvement of different molecular pathways.

  4. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour in a young woman with widespread metastasis and peritoneal caking.

    PubMed

    Monappa, Vidya; Bhat, Sudha S; Valiathan, Manna

    2013-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive, mesenchymal tumour that arises from the peritoneal cavity. It is commonly seen in adolescent and young adult males and its occurrence in females is uncommon. We are reporting here a rare case of DSRCT in a young woman, which clinically masqueraded as an ovarian malignancy, with metastasis to liver, lung, spleen and peritoneum. The cytologic findings, Histomorphological and immunohistochemical features have been discussed, with a brief review of literature.

  5. An incidental solitary fibrous tumour in the retroperitoneum, coexisting with ipsilateral atrophic kidney.

    PubMed

    Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Ozgonul, Abdullah; Sogut, Ozgur; Guldur, Muhammet E

    2011-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a relatively uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most commonly arises in the pleura, but which may also arise from other serosal surfaces outside the pleura. However, SFT is now known to affect various serosal surfaces including pericardium, peritoneum, retroperitoneum nasal and paranasal sinuses, thyroid, cavernous sinus or pituitary fossa. The histologic features of this lesion may create diagnostic confusion with a variety of other spindle-cell tumours. To the best our knowledge, no cases with SFT have been previously noted in the retroperitoneum coexisting with atrophic kidney. Herein, we report the unique association of a solitary fibrous tumour in the retroperitoneum coexisting with ipsilateral atrophic kidney in a 60-year-old man and define histopatological findings of this tumour.

  6. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  7. Elastosis in malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, C; Greeff, H; Murray, J F; Posen, J; Schmaman, A

    1985-07-01

    Elastosis is common in infiltrating ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast, occurring in approximately 90% of cases. It is also well described in some benign lesions of the breast and tumours of the salivary gland. Reports of venous elastosis in association with large-bowel carcinomas are rare. We describe elastosis in single cases of prostatic, gastric, bronchiolar-alveolar and cervical carcinoma.

  8. EGFR and microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Guimarães, Maria João; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2013-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor which has been shown to have an important role in human breast cancer. Its role appears to be associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. In order to clarify its role in canine mammary tumours (CMT), 61 malignant neoplasms were studied by using immunohistochemistry, comparing expression of EGFR, microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 immunolabelling and characteristics of tumour aggressiveness. High EGFR immunoexpression was statistically significantly associated with tumour size, tumour necrosis, mitotic grade, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. High CD31 immunoreactivity was statistically significantly associated with tubule formation, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. A positive correlation between EGFR and CD31 immunoexpression (r = 0.843; P < 0.001) was also observed. Results suggest that an over-expression of EGFR may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant CMT, presenting the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors in the context of metastatic disease treatment. PMID:24091029

  9. Differential social regulation of two pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Au, Teresa M; Greenwood, Anna K; Fernald, Russell D

    2006-06-30

    In many vertebrates, social interactions regulate reproductive capacity by altering the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To better understand the mechanisms underlying social regulation of reproduction, we investigated the relationship between social status and one main component of the HPG axis: expression levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R). Social interactions dictate reproductive capacity in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni. Reproductively active territory holders suppress the HPG axis of non-territorial males through repeated aggressive encounters. To determine whether the expression of GnRH-R is socially regulated, we quantified mRNA levels of two GnRH-R variants in the pituitaries and brains of territorial (T) and non-territorial (NT) A. burtoni males. We found that T males had significantly higher levels of pituitary GnRH-R1 mRNA than NT males. In contrast, GnRH-R2 mRNA levels in the pituitary did not vary with social status. Pituitaries from both T and NT males expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of GnRH-R1 than GnRH-R2. GnRH mRNA levels in the brain correlated positively with GnRH-R1 mRNA levels in the pituitary but did not correlate with pituitary GnRH-R2. Measurements of GnRH-R1 and GnRH-R2 mRNA levels across the whole brain revealed no social status differences. These results show that, in addition to the known effects of social status on other levels of the HPG axis, GnRH receptor in the pituitary is also a target of social regulation.

  10. Pituitary function and morphology in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luigi; Tortora, Fabio; Modica, Roberta; Ramundo, Valeria; Riccio, Eleonora; Daniele, Aurora; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Pisani, Antonio; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2015-11-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are known to affect patients with Fabry disease (FD). Pituitary gland theoretically represents an ideal target for FD because of high vascularization and low proliferation rate. We explored pituitary morphology and function in a cohort of FD patients through a prospectic, monocentric study at an Academic Tertiary Center. The study population included 28 FD patients and 42 sex and age-matched normal subjects. The protocol included a contrast enhancement pituitary MRI, the assessment of pituitary hormones, anti-pituitary, and anti-hypothalamus antibodies. At pituitary MRI, an empty sella was found in 11 (39%) FD patients, and in 2 (5%) controls (p < 0.001). Pituitary volume was significantly smaller in FD than in controls (p < 0.001). Determinants of pituitary volume were age and alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity. Both parameters resulted independently correlated at multivariate analysis. Pituitary function was substantially preserved in FD patients. Empty sella is a common finding in patients with FD. The major prevalence in the elderly supports the hypothesis of a progressive pituitary shrinkage overtime. Pituitary function seems not to be impaired in FD. An endocrine workup with pituitary hormone assessment should be periodically performed in FD patients, who are already at risk of cardiovascular complications.

  11. Prevention of spontaneous tumours in female rats by fadrozole hydrochloride, an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Gunson, D. E.; Steele, R. E.; Chau, R. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Mammary tumours are oestrogen dependent in female Sprague-Dawley rats and in a significant proportion of women, so pharmacological treatment to inhibit oestrogen production is a valuable therapeutic measure to prevent or slow the progression of disease. Here we show that a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, which competitively inhibits the conversion of androstenedione to oestrone, prevents the development of both benign and malignant spontaneous mammary neoplasms in female Sprague-Dawley ats. It also slows the spontaneous development of pituitary pars distalis adenomas in female rats, and reduces the incidence of spontaneous hepatocellular tumours in male and female rats. PMID:7639848

  12. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  13. Leukaemia cell of origin identified by chromatin landscape of bulk tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    George, Joshy; Uyar, Asli; Young, Kira; Kuffler, Lauren; Waldron-Francis, Kaiden; Marquez, Eladio; Ucar, Duygu; Trowbridge, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The precise identity of a tumour's cell of origin can influence disease prognosis and outcome. Methods to reliably define tumour cell of origin from primary, bulk tumour cell samples has been a challenge. Here we use a well-defined model of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to demonstrate that transforming haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors results in more aggressive AML than transforming committed progenitor cells. Transcriptome profiling reveals a gene expression signature broadly distinguishing stem cell-derived versus progenitor cell-derived AML, including genes involved in immune escape, extravasation and small GTPase signal transduction. However, whole-genome profiling of open chromatin reveals precise and robust biomarkers reflecting each cell of origin tested, from bulk AML tumour cell sampling. We find that bulk AML tumour cells exhibit distinct open chromatin loci that reflect the transformed cell of origin and suggest that open chromatin patterns may be leveraged as prognostic signatures in human AML. PMID:27397025

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of a rare sinonasal neuroendocrine tumour: adding to the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Aashrai; Dean, Ryan; Liu, Yuxin; Dhamoon, Amit S

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, aggressive neoplasms with a high recurrence potential. There are no robust protocols for the management of these tumours. An 81-year-old man presented with an incidental sinonasal mass visualised on CT scan of head. Over the next few weeks he developed new onset, progressively worsening headache, right eye ptosis and restricted extraocular movements. Imaging confirmed a rapidly enlarging tumour involving the right nasal cavity and the orbit. Biopsy showed a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right ethmoidal sinus. The patient was treated with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation. Repeat imaging showed decrease in tumour volume. The patient continues to do well and follows up regularly with our oncology service. Current protocols comprising chemotherapy after radiation are based on limited studies. A regimen involving concurrent chemoradiation also appears to aid in tumour volume reduction. Additional studies are required to formulate robust clinical protocols for management of sinonasal NETs. PMID:27624450

  15. Current trends in the management of extra-abdominal desmoid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Papaparaskeva, Kleo Th; Galanis, Evanthia C; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2006-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumours are slow-growing, histologically benign tumours of fibroblastic origin with variable biologic behaviour. They are locally aggressive and invasive to surrounding anatomic structures. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for the diagnosis and the evaluation of the tumours. Current management of desmoids involves a multidisciplinary approach. Wide margin surgical resection remains the main treatment modality for local control of the tumour. Amputation should not be the initial treatment, and function-preserving procedures should be the primary treatment goal. Adjuvant radiation therapy is recommended both for primary and recurrent lesions. Chemotherapy may be used for recurrent or unresectable disease. Overall local recurrence rates vary and depend on patient's age, tumour location and margins at resection. PMID:16584569

  16. Oxytocin mechanisms of stress response and aggression in a territorial finch.

    PubMed

    Goodson, James L; Schrock, Sara E; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2015-03-15

    All jawed vertebrates produce a form of oxytocin (OT), and in birds, mammals and fish, OT is strongly associated with affiliation. However, remarkably few data are available on the roles of OT and OT receptors (OTRs) in aggression. Because OT and OTRs exert anxiolytic effects in mammals (although context-specific) and modulate stress coping, we hypothesized that OTR activation is at least permissive for territorial aggression. Indeed, we find that peripheral injections of an OTR antagonist significantly reduce male-male and female-female aggression in a highly territorial finch. This finding suggests the hypothesis that aggression is accompanied by an increase in transcriptional (Fos) activity of OT neurons, but contrary to this hypothesis, we find that dominant male residents do not elevate OT-Fos colocalization following an aggressive encounter and that OT-Fos colocalization in the preoptic area and hypothalamus correlates negatively with aggression. Furthermore, OT-Fos colocalization increases dramatically in males that were aggressively subjugated or pursued by a human hand, likely reflecting OT modulation of stress response. Because OT inhibits the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the antagonist effects may reflect the fact that aggressive birds and mammals tend to be hyporesponsive to stress. If this is correct, then 1) the observed effects of OTR antagonism may reflect alterations in corticosterone feedback to the brain rather than centrally mediated OTR effects, and 2) the negative correlation between OT-Fos colocalization and aggression may reflect the fact that more aggressive, stress hyporesponsive males require less inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis than do less aggressive males, despite the requirement of that inhibition for the normal display of aggression.

  17. Punishment of elicited aggression.

    PubMed

    Azrin, N H

    1970-07-01

    Aversive shocks are known to produce aggression when the shocks are not dependent on behavior and to suppress behavior when the shocks are arranged as a dependent punisher. These two processes were studied by presenting non-dependent shock to monkeys at regular intervals, thereby producing biting attacks on a pneumatic tube. Immediate shock punishment was stimultaneously delivered for each biting attack. The attacks were found to decrease as a function of increasing punishment intensity. These results show that aggression is eliminated by direct punishment of the aggression even when the stimulus that is used as a punisher otherwise causes the aggression. PMID:4988590

  18. Vaccination with epigenetically treated mesothelioma cells induces immunisation and blocks tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Flora; Boutin, Benoît; Blanquart, Christophe; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Robard, Myriam; Grégoire, Marc; Pouliquen, Daniel

    2011-07-26

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumour associated with poor outcome in patients. Current treatments for MM are of limited efficacy. Our recent findings suggest that epigenetic drugs may induce both cytotoxicity and an immune response against MM cells. Thus, we used a mouse model of MM (AK7) to analyse how epigenetic drugs could modulate MM development in vivo. The treatment of tumour-bearing mice with an epigenetic drug already tested in clinical MM treatments (SAHA/Vorinostat) reduced the tumour mass and induced a moderate lymphocytic infiltration. However, the treatment did not stop tumour development. In order to show the potential effect of this epigenetic drug on tumour immunogenicity, in addition to cell cytotoxicity, we immunised mice either with AK7 cells pre-treated with SAHA, or with one of two cytotoxic drugs (curcumin or selenite), prior to transplantation of live AK7 cells. A specific immune response was observed only in mice immunised with AK7 cells pre-treated with the epigenetic drug (SAHA) and the tumour growth was arrested. An increase in the proportion of CD3+ CD8+ lymphocytes occurred in the peritoneal cavity. We also observed large conglomerates of immune cells in the omentum with clusters of CD8+ T cells, together with lymphocytes directed against residual AK7 cells in the interlobular connective tissue of the pancreas. Our data demonstrate that epigenetic drugs, such as SAHA, can stimulate tumour immunogenicity and improve the recognition of aggressive MM cells by the immune system in vivo. PMID:21619908

  19. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary-tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus, making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field. PMID:25136513

  20. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  1. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  2. Laryngeal solitary fibrous tumour.

    PubMed

    Stomeo, Francesco; Padovani, Davide; Bozzo, Corrado; Pastore, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are rare neoplasms, with an uncommon laryngeal involvement. Only five cases of laryngeal localization have been described in literature. The following is a case of a 75-year-old man with a supraglottic neoplasm of the larynx; after the biopsy immunohistochemical study demonstrated a strong positivity for vimentin, CD34 and Bcl-2. The neoplasm was consequently classified as a SFT. CO(2) laser surgery of the supraglottic larynx, with a wide excision of the neoplasm, was performed. Twenty-four months on, the patient is alive, well and free of disease. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for laryngeal SFT, but tumour-free resection margins must be achieved to prevent the possibility of local recurrence. Endoscopic resection by means of the CO(2) laser must be accurately planned with MRI or CT imaging to confirm of this kind of surgery.

  3. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, NATALIE; WALACH, HARALD

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.0001), indicating that more progressed and aggressive tumours may require a higher level of aerobic glycolysis. In palliative patients, a clear trend was observed in patients who adhered strictly to a ketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials. PMID:26870251

  4. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Galland, Françoise; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Cazabat, Laure; Boulin, Anne; Cotton, François; Bonneville, Jean-François; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vidal-Trécan, Gwénaelle; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma is variable: between 1.4% and 27% at autopsy, and between 3.7% and 37% on imaging. Pituitary microincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma <1cm in diameter) may increase in size, but only 5% exceed 10mm. Pituitary macroincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma>1cm in diameter) show increased size in 20-24% and 34-40% of cases at respectively 4 and 8years' follow-up. Radiologic differential diagnosis requires MRI centered on the pituitary gland. Initial assessment of nonfunctioning (NF) microincidentaloma is firstly clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hypersecretion (signs of hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome), followed up by systematic prolactin and IGF-1 assay. Initial assessment of NF macroincidentaloma is clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, followed up by hormonal assay to screen for hypersecretion or hormonal deficiency and by ophthalmologic assessment (visual acuity and visual field) if and only if the lesion is near the optic chiasm (OC). NF microincidentaloma of less than 5mm requires no surveillance; those of≥5mm are not operated on but rather monitored on MRI at 6months and then 2years. Macroincidentaloma remote from the OC is monitored on MRI at 1year, with hormonal exploration (for anterior pituitary deficiency), then every 2years. When macroincidentaloma located near the OC is managed by surveillance rather than surgery, MRI is recommended at 6months, with hormonal and visual exploration, then annual MRI and hormonal and visual assessment every 6months. Surgery is indicated in the following cases: evolutive NF microincidentaloma, NF macroincidentaloma associated with hypopituitarism or showing progression, incidentaloma compressing the OC, possible malignancy, non-compliant patient, pregnancy desired in the short-term, or context at risk of apoplexy.

  5. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Electrochemotherapy of Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sersa, Gregor; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy is a combined use of certain chemotherapeutic drugs and electric pulses applied to the treated tumour nodule. Local application of electric pulses to the tumour increases drug delivery into cells, specifically at the site of electric pulse application. Drug uptake by delivery of electric pulses is increased for only those chemotherapeutic drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical use. Clinical data collected within a number of clinical studies indicate that approximately 80% of the treated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour nodules of different malignancies are in an objective response, from these, approximately 70% in complete response after a single application of electrochemotherapy. Usually only one treatment is needed, however, electrochemotherapy can be repeated several times every few weeks with equal effectiveness each time. The treatment results in an effective eradication of the treated nodules, with a good cosmetic effect without tissue scarring. PMID:19229171

  7. Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Suzanne; Diamond, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Scientific advances are revealing the complexity of pituitary development, which is controlled by multiple transcription factors and signaling molecules. Unregulated pituitary cell growth, resulting in pituitary adenoma, is usually sporadic and results from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. However, some adenomas develop as part of a genetic syndrome. Prolactinoma is the most common hormonally active pituitary adenoma in children. The non-functioning (non-secreting) pituitary adenoma is the second most common and often stains positive for GH, PRL, and/or TSH. While Cushing disease, resulting from an ACTH-secreting adenoma, commonly manifests as weight gain with growth deceleration in children, GH excess causes gigantism with rapid, accelerated growth inappropriate for the height of the family. TSH secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, and biochemical analysis will show an elevated thyroxine level with a non-suppressed or high TSH. Though the natural history of pituitary incidentalomas in children is unknown, adult practice guidelines are established. PMID:23957196

  8. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia and hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ando, Yasuyo

    2015-04-09

    Pituitary apoplexy, a syndrome caused by haemorrhage into the pituitary gland, typically manifests as sudden severe headache, visual symptoms and hypopituitarism, including adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia following temporal headache and diagnosed through evaluation for hyponatraemia. MRI focusing on the pituitary gland helped to confirm the diagnosis. Our experience serves as a useful reminder of this atypical presentation of pituitary apoplexy, also known as 'subclinical pituitary apoplexy,' and underscores the importance of careful evaluation for hyponatraemia using serial urine osmolality, which is useful to distinguish hypovolaemic hyponatraemia from euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Clinicians should consider pituitary apoplexy as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia, loss of energy or hyponatraemia, following headache even when the patient is lacking classical symptoms such as severe headache or visual symptoms.

  9. Fibroblasts contribute to melanoma tumour growth and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Edward H.; Rebecca, Vito W.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Smalley, Keiran S. M.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of tumour-stromal interactions in progression is generally well accepted but their role in initiation or treatment is less well understood. It is now generally agreed that rather than consisting solely of malignant cells, tumours consist of a complex dynamic mixture of cancer cells, host fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells that interact with each other and micro-environmental factors to drive tumour progression. We are particularly interested in stromal cells (for example fibroblasts) and stromal factors (for example fibronectin) as important players in tumour progression since they have also been implicated in drug resistance. Here we develop an integrated approach to understand the role of such stromal cells and factors in the growth and maintenance of tumours as well as their potential impact on treatment resistance, specifically in application to melanoma. Using a suite of experimental assays we show that melanoma cells can stimulate the recruitment of fibroblasts and activate them, resulting in melanoma cell growth by providing both structural (extra-cellular matrix proteins) and chemical support (growth factors). Motivated by these experimental results we construct a compartment model and use it to investigate the roles of both stromal activation and tumour aggressiveness in melanoma growth and progression. We utilise this model to investigate the role fibroblasts might play in melanoma treatment resistance and the clinically observed flare phenomena that is seen when a patient, who appears resistant to a targeted drug, is removed from that treatment. Our model makes the unexpected prediction that targeted therapies may actually hasten tumour progression once resistance has occurred. If confirmed experimentally, this provocative prediction may bring important new insights into how drug resistance could be managed clinically. PMID:22067046

  10. Limited neuropeptide Y precursor processing in unfavourable metastatic neuroblastoma tumours.

    PubMed

    Bjellerup, P; Theodorsson, E; Jörnvall, H; Kogner, P

    2000-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found at high concentrations in neural crest-derived tumours and has been implicated as a regulatory peptide in tumour growth and differentiation. Neuroblastomas, ganglioneuromas and phaeochromocytomas with significant concentrations of NPY-like immunoreactivity were investigated for different molecular forms of NPY and for significance of proNPY processing. Gel-permeation chromatography identified intact NPY (1-36) in all tumours, whereas proNPY (69 amino acids) was detected only in control adrenal tissue and malignant neuroblastomas. Purification of NPY-like immunoreactivity in tumour extracts and structural characterization revealed that both NPY (1-36) and the truncated form NPY (3-36) was present. The degree of processing of proNPY to NPY in tumour tissue was lower in advanced neuroblastomas with regional or metastatic spread (stage 3 and 4) (n = 6), (41%, 12-100%, median, range), compared to the less aggressive stage 1, 2 and 4S tumours (n = 12), (93%; 69-100%), (P= 0.012). ProNPY processing of less than 50% was correlated with poor clinical outcome (P = 0.004). MYCN oncogene amplification was also correlated to a low degree of proNPY processing (P = 0.025). In summary, a low degree of proNPY processing was correlated to clinical advanced stage and poor outcome in neuroblastomas. ProNPY/NPY processing generated molecular forms of NPY with known differences in NPY-receptor selectivity, implicating a potential for in vivo modulation of NPY-like effects in tumour tissue.

  11. A cellular automaton model examining the effects of oxygen, hydrogen ions and lactate on early tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Al-Husari, Maymona; Murdoch, Craig; Webb, Steven D

    2014-10-01

    Some tumours are known to exhibit an extracellular pH that is more acidic than the intracellular, creating a 'reversed pH gradient' across the cell membrane and this has been shown to affect their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumour hypoxia also plays an important role in tumour development and has been directly linked to both tumour morphology and aggressiveness. In this paper, we present a hybrid mathematical model of intracellular pH regulation that examines the effect of oxygen and pH on tumour growth and morphology. In particular, we investigate the impact of pH regulatory mechanisms on the cellular pH gradient and tumour morphology. Analysis of the model shows that: low activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger or a high rate of anaerobic glycolysis can give rise to a "fingering" tumour morphology; and a high activity of the lactate/H+ symporter can result in a reversed transmembrane pH gradient across a large portion of the tumour mass. Also, the reversed pH gradient is spatially heterogeneous within the tumour, with a normal pH gradient observed within an intermediate growth layer within the spheroid. We also include a fractal dimension analysis of the simulated tumour contours, in which we compare the fractal dimensions of the simulated tumour surfaces with those found experimentally via photomicrographs.

  12. A Strategic Approach to Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses two issues raised by Underwood et al.: the distinction between indirect and relational forms of aggression, and implications of indirect aggression for definitions of aggression; and the normative view of aggression that indicates that aggressive individuals may be socially skilled. Suggests that both issues lead to the conclusion that…

  13. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  14. Cytokines and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-endometrial axis.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, S

    1994-05-01

    Recently, the demarcating boundaries that allowed separation of the fields of reproductive biology, endocrinology, immunology and neurobiology have faded. The missing link that now ties these disciplines together is the understanding that the language by which cells communicate within these diverse systems is unanimous. This language is the network of products collectively called cytokines. The effect of these factors spans from the hypothalamus to the endometrium and is undoubtedly involved in the maintenance of the delicate balance within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-endometrial axis. Orchestrated networks of these cytokines also seem to be linked to the steroid hormone signals, an essential feature for maintenance of normal menstrual cycles. Evidence in favour of these emerging concepts is discussed. Major emphasis is placed on interferons, interleukins, tumour necrosis factor, transforming growth factors and colony-stimulating factors.

  15. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  16. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  17. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  18. Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer Tumours from Patients Treated with Doxorubicin and Docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is known that four main molecular breast cancer subtypes have different prognoses and different responses to therapy. Luminal A tumours have a better prognosis and they tend to be sensitive to anti-estrogen drugs. Luminal B tumours have incomplete sensitivity to endocrine therapy. Her2 tumours, which have an aggressive natural history, are sensitive to trastuzumab. Finally, basal-like tumours might be eligible for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemosensitivity to docetaxel and doxorubicin of breast cancer subtypes. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were randomized to receive 4 cycles of full dose doxorubicin (75 mg/m2) or docetaxel (100 mg/m2). After the fourth cycle, patients were submitted to surgery to ascertain pathological response. Treatment response was assessed according to Symmans classification. Among 130 samples analysed most ER positive tumours were luminal subtype. 41% of Her2 positive tumours assessed by immunohistochemistry and FISH were Her2 according to the gene expression profile. Luminal A and normal-like tumours have low expression of proliferation genes as well as ki67, whereas Her2 and basal-like tumours are highly proliferative. Both treatments have the same efficiency (20% of responses). However, basal tumours have the poorest outcome in the doxorubicin branch (0% of responses) while they are the most sensitive to docetaxel (50% of responses). Luminal and normal-like tumours have the poorest responses to both treatments. Finally, Her2 tumours had similar outcome in both branches (20% of responses). Genomic classification may assist the physician to choose a specific treatment based on the sub-type of tumour. This study provides the basis for building individualized neoadjuvant therapies for breast cancer.

  19. Expression of the pituitary stem/progenitor marker GFRα2 in human pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Sundaresh, Ram; Larsen, Alexandra; Ruff, William; Schiller, Jennifer; Cázares, Hugo Guerrero; Burger, Peter; Salvatori, Roberto; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies suggest that adult pituitary stem cells may play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. We sought to explore whether the Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 2 (GFRα2), a recently described pituitary stem/progenitor marker, might be differentially expressed in pituitary adenomas versus normal pituitary. Methods The expression of GFRα2 and other members of the GFR receptor family (GFRα1, α3, α4) were analyzed using RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry in 39 pituitary adenomas, 14 normal pituitary glands obtained at autopsy, and cDNA from 3 normal pituitaries obtained commercially. Results GFRα2 mRNA was ~2.6 fold under-expressed in functioning adenomas (P <0.01) and ~3.5 fold over-expressed in non-functioning adenomas (NFAs) (P <0.05) compared to normal pituitary. Among NFAs, GFRα2 was significantly over-expressed (~5-fold) in the gonadotropinoma subtype only (P<0.05). GFRα2 protein expression appeared to be higher in most NFAs, although there was heterogeneity in protein expression in this group. GFRα2 protein expression appeared consistently lower in functioning adenomas by IHC and western blot. In normal pituitary, GFRα2 was localized in Rathke’s remnant, the putative pituitary stem cell niche, and in corticotropes. Conclusion Our results suggest that the pituitary stem cell marker GFRα2 is under-expressed in functioning adenomas and over-expressed in NFAs, specifically gonadotropinomas. Further studies are required to elucidate whether over-expression of GFRα2 in gonadotropinomas might play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. PMID:24402129

  20. Modelling and Detecting Tumour Oxygenation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Skeldon, Anne C.; Chaffey, Gary; Lloyd, David J. B.; Mohan, Vineet; Bradley, David A.; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Tumours that are low in oxygen (hypoxic) tend to be more aggressive and respond less well to treatment. Knowing the spatial distribution of oxygen within a tumour could therefore play an important role in treatment planning, enabling treatment to be targeted in such a way that higher doses of radiation are given to the more radioresistant tissue. Mapping the spatial distribution of oxygen in vivo is difficult. Radioactive tracers that are sensitive to different levels of oxygen are under development and in the early stages of clinical use. The concentration of these tracer chemicals can be detected via positron emission tomography resulting in a time dependent concentration profile known as a tissue activity curve (TAC). Pharmaco-kinetic models have then been used to deduce oxygen concentration from TACs. Some such models have included the fact that the spatial distribution of oxygen is often highly inhomogeneous and some have not. We show that the oxygen distribution has little impact on the form of a TAC; it is only the mean oxygen concentration that matters. This has significant consequences both in terms of the computational power needed, and in the amount of information that can be deduced from TACs. PMID:22761687

  1. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  2. Analysis of tumour cell composition in tumours composed of paired mixtures of mammary tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, F. R.; Wilburn, D. J.; Heppner, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to quantitate the effects of tumour subpopulation interactions, we have devised a method to determine the subpopulation composition of tumours by using paired tumour cell lines able to grow in different selective media. Line 4T07 forms colonies in thioguanine but not in HAT and line 168 forms colonies in HAT but not in thioguanine. An independent technique of determining tumour cell content was used to validate this method: line 168 and 4T07 cells are distinguishable by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide for DNA content. Mixtures of cell suspensions prepared from each unmixed tumour, as well as from tumours arising from mixtures of these lines, were analysed by both the colony formation assay and by the DNA content assay. The colony formation assay yielded values in good agreement with the DNA content assay, but was considerably more sensitive in that it was able to quantitate minority subpopulations that constituted less than 10% of the tumour. Both methods revealed that in tumours arising from mixtures, the tumour cells were almost entirely line 4T07, even when the inoculum had contained a high proportion of 168 cells. Since line 168 cells are very tumorigenic per se, these results suggest that line 4T07 cells are capable of interfering with 168 proliferation in mixed tumours, either directly or through a host-mediated mechanism. PMID:3426919

  3. Size reduction of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in Nelson's syndrome by sodium valproate: effect of withdrawal and re-institution of treatment.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Berselli, M E; Vignati, F; De Grandi, C; Tagliaferri, M

    1988-11-01

    We describe herein the reduction in the size of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in a patient with Nelson's syndrome during chronic administration of sodium valproate, and the changes in tumour volume after withdrawal and re-institution of treatment. The patient had elevated plasma ACTH levels (1123-1255 pmol/l), which increased markedly after CRH stimulation. A first 4-month course of sodium valproate administration (600 mg/day, orally) was started. Plasma ACTH fell to 550-726 pmol/l with persistence of responsiveness to CRH; brain computed tomography showed a clearcut reduction of tumour size. One month after drug withdrawal, the tumour volume appeared unchanged and plasma ACTH values ranged between 374 and 440 pmol/l. One and a half year after drug withdrawal, a brain computed tomography showed re-expansion of the pituitary adenoma with evidence of suprasellar extension, which had never been seen previously. Plasma ACTH ranged between 113 and 199 pmol/l. A second course of sodium valproate was started; after three months, a brain computed tomography documented clearcut reduction of tumour volume from a suprasellar extension to a partially empty pituitary fossa. Plasma ACTH ranged from 396 to 542 pmol/l with persistence of responsiveness to CRH. The present report documents for the first time the reduction of tumour size in a patient with an ACTH-secreting macroadenoma by chronic administration of sodium valproate.

  4. Postoperative radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Valentino, V

    1991-01-01

    From 1984-1990, 52 patients with pituitary adenomas had postoperative radiosurgery for incomplete surgical removal or regrowth of the tumor. The atraumatic Greitz-Bergström fixation head device was adopted for the stereotactic procedure and irradiation was performed with a linear accelerator. Because of the variability of the tumor response, a 10-20 Gy single dose was directed at 1-2 targets and radiosurgery repeated if the result was unsatisfactory. The median radiation dose was 30 Gy. No adverse effects occurred. Regression of pretreatment symptoms caused by tumor mass was observed in 67% of patients. GH and PRL activity decreased in 20 patients, was stable in 11 and increased in 2 prolactinomas. CT studies showed disappearance of the tumor in 4 patients and shrinkage in 36. Postoperative radiosurgery is a valuable method of treatment whenever pituitary surgery has been incomplete.

  5. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  6. Miscellaneous tumour-like lesions of the ovary: cross-sectional imaging review

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, N; Patel, S; Ha, K Y; Shanbhogue, A K; Nagar, A M; Chintapalli, K N; Prasad, S R

    2012-01-01

    Miscellaneous tumour-like ovarian lesions are histobiologically diverse, and are often mistaken for the more common ovarian cancers, leading to aggressive management. Knowledge of characteristic clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of these select non-neoplastic ovarian entities allows correct diagnoses and permits optimal management. PMID:22253351

  7. VEGF targets the tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-12-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

  8. Brain Tumours Simulating Psychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, G. E.

    1963-01-01

    Brain tumours may present with symptoms indistinguishable from psychiatric disease. The impression of most psychiatrists is that individuals suffering from brain tumour rarely appear among their patients. A priori reasoning based on evidence from neurological, neurosurgical and pathological sources suggests the contrary. The present study is a frequency analysis of cases of previously undiagnosed brain tumours admitted to either an open psychoneurotic ward or a mental hospital over a period of 15 years. The results support the impression held by psychiatrists that brain tumours are uncommon among psychiatric patients. PMID:13954870

  9. Promoter CpG methylation of multiple genes in pituitary adenomas: frequent involvement of caspase-8.

    PubMed

    Bello, M Josefa; De Campos, Jose M; Isla, Alberto; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rey, Juan A

    2006-02-01

    The epigenetic changes in pituitary adenomas were identified by evaluating the methylation status of nine genes (RB1, p14(ARF), p16(INK4a), p73, TIMP-3, MGMT, DAPK, THBS1 and caspase-8) in a series of 35 tumours using methylation-specific PCR analysis plus sequencing. The series included non-functional adenomas (n=23), prolactinomas (n=6), prolactinoma plus thyroid-stimulating hormone adenoma (n=1), growth hormone adenomas (n=4), and adrenocorticotropic adenoma (n=1). All of the tumours had methylation of at least one of these genes and 40% of samples (14 of 35) displayed concurrent methylation of at least three genes. The frequencies of aberrant methylation were: 20% for RB1, 17% for p14(ARF), 34% for p16(INK4a), 29% for p73, 11% for TIMP-3, 23% for MGMT, 6% for DAPK, 43% for THBS1 and 54% for caspase-8. No aberrant methylation was observed in two non-malignant pituitary samples from healthy controls. Although some differences in the frequency of gene methylation between functional and non-functional adenomas were detected, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Our results suggest that promoter methylation is a frequent event in pituitary adenoma tumourigenesis, a process in which inactivation of apoptosis-related genes (DAPK, caspase-8) might play a key role.

  10. Malignant testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Pierre Del; Tawil, Elie; Béland, Gilles

    1974-01-01

    A series of 71 patients with malignant testicular tumours treated primarily by orchiectomy and irradiation is reviewed with respect to pathological and clinical features and modes of treatment. The three-year crude survival rate in 36 patients with seminoma was 86% and in 24 patients with carcinoma it was 41.7%. There were no survivors among patients with choriocarcinoma. Our results are comparable with those of other series. A prospective study is proposed of the value of irradiation and subsequent limited lymph node dissection following orchiectomy in cases of carcinoma of the testis. PMID:4855670

  11. Ghrelin and anterior pituitary function.

    PubMed

    Lanfranco, Fabio; Motta, Giovanna; Baldi, Matteo; Gasco, Valentina; Grottoli, Silvia; Benso, Andrea; Broglio, Fabio; Ghigo, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid octanoylated peptide predominantly produced by the stomach, was discovered to be the natural ligand of the type 1a GH secretagogue receptor. Thus, it was considered as a natural GH secretagogue (GHS) additional to GHRH, although later on ghrelin has mostly been considered a major orexigenic factor. The GH-releasing action of ghrelin takes place both directly on pituitary cells and through modulation of GHRH from the hypothalamus; some functional anti-somatostatin action has also been shown. However, even at the neuroendocrine level, ghrelin is much more than a natural GHS. In fact, it significantly stimulates prolactin secretion in humans, independent of both gender and age and probably involving a direct action on somatomammotroph cells. Above all, ghrelin and synthetic GHS possess an acute stimulatory effect on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans, which is, at least, similar to that of the opioid antagonist naloxone, arginine vasopressin and even corticotropin-releasing hormone. Also, ghrelin plays a relevant role in the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function, with a predominantly CNS-mediated inhibitory effect upon the gonadotropin pulsatility both in animals and in humans.

  12. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  13. Coexisting rathke cleft cyst and pituitary adenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Florian; Coon, Valerie C; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2011-11-01

    The authors report two cases of coexisting Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) and pituitary macroadenoma. Both patients presented at the university hospital with pituitary apoplexy symptoms of sudden-onset headache while undergoing treatment with Coumadin (warfarin). Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a pituitary adenoma in one case and RCC in the other. Intraoperative findings and pathological work-up identified RCC along with adenomatous tissue displaying hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma in one and hemorrhagic RCC in the other. Clinical symptoms of pituitary apoplexy were present in both cases, making pituitary and RCC apoplexy clinically indistinguishable. RCC and concomitant pituitary adenoma are a rare intraoperative finding that must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms of pituitary adenoma apoplexy.

  14. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Rehnberg, G L

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, we evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. We also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:3830104

  15. Primary osseous tumours of the elbow: 60 years of registry experience

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Mansur; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, David; Rymaszewski, Lech; Mahendra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background We present the largest series of surgically treated primary bone tumours of the elbow in the English literature (75 cases). We sought to identify characteristics specific to these lesions and recommend an investigatory protocol. Methods The national registry and case notes were reviewed between 1954-2014. Tumours were classified according to Enneking's spectrum. Results There were no benign latent cases in this series as these were managed locally. All patients presented with persistent rest pain, with or without swelling. The distal humerus, in contrast to the proximal radius and ulna, was responsible for the majority and the more aggressive cases. Misdiagnosis was evident in 13% of cases; most of which were attributed to simple bone cysts. All patients that were referred required surgical intervention to either establish the diagnosis or for treatment. Benign tumours had a 19% recurrence rate, with giant cell tumour the most aggressive. Malignant tumours carried 39% local recurrence rate and a 5-year mortality of 61%. Conclusions The suspicion of a tumour should be raised in the patient with unremitting, unexplained, non-mechanical bony elbow pain. These echo the NICE recommendations and we recommend prompt specialist referral. With high rates of local recurrence, we recommend close postoperative monitoring. PMID:27582988

  16. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  17. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. PMID:26738269

  18. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  19. Pituitary adenoma-neuronal choristoma is a pituitary adenoma with ganglionic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela T; Lavi, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    The presence of ganglion cells within an endocrine pituitary tumor has been named hamartoma, choristoma, gangliocytoma, or most recently pituitary adenoma-neuronal choristoma (PANCH). The presence of neuronal differentiation in regular pituitary adenomas has been previously suggested, however, its origin, the extent of its presence, and the relationship between the neuronal elements and the pituitary adenoma remain uncertain. Thus, to further explore the neuronal potential of pituitary tumors, we used immunohistochemistry on pituitary tumors of different grades, with a neuronal antigen protein (NeuN) antibody as a specific marker for mature neuronal differentiation. We found NeuN expression in 26.47% (9/34) cases of pituitary tumors without ganglionic differentiation (7 adenomas, 1 atypical adenoma and 1 pituitary carcinoma), in addition to NeuN expression in pituitary adenomas with ganglionic cells (2/2). Thus, neuronal expression is an innate property of pituitary adenomas. We propose that the rare presence of ganglionic cells in pituitary adenomas is not the result of a separate lesion or "collision sellar tumors", as previously suggested, but a ganglionic neuronal differentiation in an endocrine neoplasm. The ganglionic cells may be arising from uncommitted stem/progenitor cells that contain both neuronal and endocrine properties. A label of "pituitary adenoma with ganglionic differentiation" would better reflect the dual differentiation in a neuroendocrine tumor than the current label "PANCH".

  20. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  1. Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristovão M; Biancur, Douglas E; Wang, Xiaoxu; Halbrook, Christopher J; Sherman, Mara H; Zhang, Li; Kremer, Daniel; Hwang, Rosa F; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Evans, Ronald M; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2016-08-25

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a highly hypoxic, nutrient-poor environment. As such, these tumours must alter how they capture and use nutrients to support their metabolic needs. Here we show that stroma-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical for PDAC metabolism through the secretion of non-essential amino acids (NEAA). Specifically, we uncover a previously undescribed role for alanine, which outcompetes glucose and glutamine-derived carbon in PDAC to fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus NEAA and lipid biosynthesis. This shift in fuel source decreases the tumour’s dependence on glucose and serum-derived nutrients, which are limited in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we demonstrate that alanine secretion by PSCs is dependent on PSC autophagy, a process that is stimulated by cancer cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel metabolic interaction between PSCs and cancer cells, in which PSC-derived alanine acts as an alternative carbon source. This finding highlights a previously unappreciated metabolic network within pancreatic tumours in which diverse fuel sources are used to promote growth in an austere tumour microenvironment. PMID:27509858

  2. Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristovão M; Biancur, Douglas E; Wang, Xiaoxu; Halbrook, Christopher J; Sherman, Mara H; Zhang, Li; Kremer, Daniel; Hwang, Rosa F; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Evans, Ronald M; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2016-08-25

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a highly hypoxic, nutrient-poor environment. As such, these tumours must alter how they capture and use nutrients to support their metabolic needs. Here we show that stroma-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical for PDAC metabolism through the secretion of non-essential amino acids (NEAA). Specifically, we uncover a previously undescribed role for alanine, which outcompetes glucose and glutamine-derived carbon in PDAC to fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus NEAA and lipid biosynthesis. This shift in fuel source decreases the tumour’s dependence on glucose and serum-derived nutrients, which are limited in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we demonstrate that alanine secretion by PSCs is dependent on PSC autophagy, a process that is stimulated by cancer cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel metabolic interaction between PSCs and cancer cells, in which PSC-derived alanine acts as an alternative carbon source. This finding highlights a previously unappreciated metabolic network within pancreatic tumours in which diverse fuel sources are used to promote growth in an austere tumour microenvironment.

  3. Primary pulmonary solitary fibrous tumour with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Yokoi, Kohei

    2014-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm of subendothelial origin that can be found in all anatomical locations, but rarely in the lungs. A 71-year old female was referred to our hospital because of the increase in size of a solitary pulmonary mass. Chest contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed lobulated mass measuring 3.1×1.6 cm in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe of the lung. Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) demonstrated that the mass had high FDG uptake. A right upper lobectomy of the lung and mediastinal lymphadenectomy were performed. The tumour was pathologically diagnosed as an SFT. Seven months later, the patient was found to have brain metastases of the tumour, which led to dizziness. A craniotomy and successive radiosurgery with a gamma knife were performed for the metastatic tumours. She is still alive without evidence of disease 12 months after the treatment of the metastases. Pulmonary SFT seldom behaves aggressively, and only two previous cases of primary pulmonary SFT with brain metastases have been reported. Local therapy including surgery and radiotherapy against metastases from SFT could help improve the survival of such patients.

  4. Malignant hemangiopericytoma of pituitary fossa.

    PubMed

    Das, Prasenjit; Haresh, Kunhi P; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Sarkar, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemangiopericytomas are rare tumors with aggressive behavior. Other than the meninges, this lesion has rarely been reported in periventricular and sellar region. We report a case of malignant hemangiopericytoma in sellar region in a 47-year-old male who presented with history of sudden onset of bilateral visual disturbances. To best of our knowledge, this is the second case report of malignant hemangiopericytoma in this location. As this intracranial lesion shows aggressive behavior, in the form of recurrence or extracranial metastasis in comparison to its extracranial counterparts, diagnosis should be made cautiously. PMID:20090235

  5. Social regulation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Francis, R C; Soma, K; Fernald, R D

    1993-08-15

    Reproduction in vertebrates is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via neural and hormonal feedback. This axis is also subject to exogenous influences, particularly social signals. In the African cichlid fish Haplochromis burtoni, gonadal development in males is socially regulated. A small fraction of the males, which are brightly colored, maintain territories and aggressively dominate inconspicuously colored nonterritorial males. Here we show through manipulation of the social and endocrine environment that changes in social status and gonadal state are accompanied by soma size changes in a population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the ventral forebrain. In territorial males, these cells are significantly larger than in nonterritorial males. When an animal switches from being territorial to nonterritorial through a change in social situation, these cells shrink; in animals that change from nonterritorial to territorial status, the cells enlarge. These gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing cells project to the pituitary and are ultimately responsible for regulating gonadal growth. This mechanism of socially induced cell size change provides the potential for relatively quick adaptive changes in the neuron-endocrine system without nerve cell addition or death. Since the structure of this regulatory axis is conserved among all vertebrates, other species with socially modulated reproductive physiology may exhibit a similar form of physiological regulation.

  6. Heavy ion tumour therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, M.

    2000-03-01

    Ion beams represent a promising radiotherapy modality for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Compared to conventional photon beams, in particular beams of heavier ions like e.g. carbon show several advantages which are related to their different physical and radiobiological properties: The dose increases with penetration depth and shows a sharp distal fall off at the end of the particle range, i.e., the depth dose profile is inverted compared to photon beams. They exhibit an increased biological effectiveness in particular at the end of their range and thus in the target volume. The spatial distribution of stopping particles can be monitored by means of PET-techniques making use of the small amount of radioactive projectile fragments. Ion beams were first used for medical applications in 1954 in Berkeley. Since then, several treatment facilities for tumour therapy have been established worldwide, and approximately 25 000 patients have been treated with protons and 3000 patients with heavier ions successfully. As an example, the specific advantages of the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI Darmstadt established in cooperation with the Radiological Clinics and DKFZ Heidelberg and FZ Rossendorf will be described. In contrast to most existing facilities, it is based on an active beam delivery system, using magnetic deflection of a pencil beam (raster scan) and accelerator energy variation to adjust the penetration depth. Thus, an optimal conformation of the dose to the target volume is achieved. PET-measurements allow for a quasi on-line monitoring of the 3D distribution of stopping particles and in particular of the position of the distal edge of the dose distribution. Furthermore, in the treatment planning procedure the radiobiological properties of ion beams are taken into account in great detail. In December 1997, patient treatments started at GSI, and up to now 42 patients were treated with carbon ions alone or in a mixed carbon/photon beam regime.

  7. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Selvan, Chitra; Chakraborty, Partha P.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Biswas, Dibakar; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory. Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg, body mass index (BMI)28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GH)values of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH), follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were normal. Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment. PMID:23565401

  8. Non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chanson, P; Brochier, S

    2005-01-01

    The vast majority (>80%) of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are gonadotroph-cell adenomas, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. However, they are rarely associated with increased levels of dimeric LH or FSH. Increased levels of uncombined subunits (free alpha-subunit mainly, LH-beta subunit more rarely) are more frequently encountered, but are generally modest. The main problems raised by NFPA are mass effects problems, responsible for optic chiasm compression or deficient hormone secretion resulting from compression of normal anterior pituitary cells. The therapeutic management of NFPA may require combination of different options. The strategy of observation only for patients with incidentally discovered pituitary adenomas may be appropriate, provided that the tumor is well-delimited, small, has no extension with risk of neurological or visual chiasm compression, and that a meticulous hormonal work-up has ruled out the possibility of a minimal hormonal hypersecretion. Transsphenoidal surgery allows improvement in visual disturbances due to chiasmal syndrome in most patients, and sometimes, in pituitary function. After surgery alone, nearly 30% (between 10 and 69%, according to the series) of patients relapse within 5 to 10 yr. Radiotherapy is proposed either as a systematic adjunct or only if a significant remnant persists. Systematic radiation therapy is supported by the low relapse rate (mean, 11%; range, 6-21%) observed when radiation therapy is systematically associated with surgery. However, irradiation is almost always followed by hypopituitarism which might be associated with a reduction in life expectancy, despite appropriate replacement therapy. Results of medical treatment are disappointing. Dopamine agonist bromocriptine decreases gonadotropin and alpha-subunit in vitro and in vivo, but, in clinical studies, was poorly effective in reducing supranormal gonadotropins and free subunits levels, and rarely produced a minimal tumoral

  9. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma.

  10. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. PMID:26614827

  11. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Mahendra, Lodd; Rangarajan, Sumanth; Madasamy, Ramasamy; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland's role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis. PMID:26199763

  12. Reversible suprasellar pituitary mass secondary to hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, J.A.; Lee, P.A.; Albright, A.L. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA )

    1989-12-08

    Sellar enlargement and suprasellar extension of a pituitary mass, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic scanning in three children with primary hypothyroidism, resolved after treatment with levothyroxine sodium. This condition, a logical consequence of the pathogenesis of primary hypothyroidism, must be considered in patients with pituitary and suprasellar masses.

  13. A comparative study by age and gender of the pituitary adenoma and ACTH and alpha-MSH secretion in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, M F; Cabrera Blatter, M F; Castillo, V

    2010-02-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is frequent in dogs. Little is known about its presentation in different age groups and its characteristics. Dividing the population under study (n=107) into three age groups we observed that 11.2% were young, 51.4% adults and 37.4% aged. Using magnetic resonance, pituitary tumours were intra-sellar (IS) in 30.8% and extra-sellar (ES) in 62.6% and the pars intermedia (PI) was affected in 6.5%. ES are predominant in females and IS in males (p<0.0001). In the adult-aged population, the ES and PI are predominant, while in the young, the IS predominate (p<0.0001). ACTH concentration was greater in the ES vs. IS (p<0.05). alpha-MSH did not present significant differences according to tumour size, showing a negative correlation (r=-0.47; p<0.01) vs. ACTH. Differences in adenoma size according to gender and their age-related frequency of apparition could be because of different origins of the corticotrophinoma.

  14. Aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Edward A; Fernandez, Maria de la Paz

    2015-10-01

    Aggression is used by essentially all species of animals to gain access to desired resources, including territory, food, and potential mates: Fruit flies are no exception. In Drosophila, both males and females compete in same sex fights for resources, but only males establish hierarchical relationships. Many investigators now study aggression using the fruit fly model, mainly because (a) aggression in fruit flies is a quantifiable well-defined and easily evoked behavior; (b) powerful genetic methods allow investigators to manipulate genes of interest at any place or time during embryonic, larval, pupal or adult life, and while flies are behaving; (c) the growth of the relatively new field of optogenetics makes physiological studies possible at single neuron levels despite the small sizes of neurons and other types of cells in fly brains; and (d) the rearing of fly stocks with their short generation times and limited growth space requirements can easily be performed at relatively low cost in most laboratories. This review begins with an examination of the behavior, both from a historical perspective and then from the birth of the "modern" era of studies of aggression in fruit flies including its quantitative analysis. The review continues with examinations of the roles of genes, neurotransmitters and neurohormones, peptides, nutritional and metabolic status, and surface cuticular hydrocarbons in the initiation and maintenance of aggression. It concludes with suggestions for future studies with this important model system.

  15. The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Keyzer, Y; Lenne, F; Auzan, C; Jégou, S; René, P; Vaudry, H; Kuhn, J M; Luton, J P; Clauser, E; Bertagna, X

    1996-03-01

    Ectopic ACTH secretion occurs in highly differentiated and rather indolent tumors like bronchial carcinoids or, in contrast, in various types of aggressive and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. We explored this phenomenon using the recently cloned human pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor as an alternate molecular marker of the corticotroph phenotype. Expression of V3 receptor, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes was examined in tumors of pituitary and nonpituitary origin. A comparative RT-PCR approach revealed signals for both V3 receptor and CHR receptor mRNAs in 17 of 18 ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, and 6 of 6 normal pituitaries; in six growth hormone- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, a very faint V3 receptor signal was observed in three cases, and CRH receptor signal was undetected in all. Six of eight bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome had both POMC and V3 receptor signals as high as those in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas; in contrast, no POMC signal and only a very faint V3 receptor signal were detected in six of eight nonsecreting bronchial carcinoids. Northern blot analysis showed V3 receptor mRNA of identical size in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids and pituitary tumors. Other types of nonpituitary tumors responsible for ectopic ACTH syndrome presented much lower levels of both POMC and V3 receptor gene expression than those found in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. In contrast with the V3 receptor, CRH receptor mRNA was detected in the majority of neuroendocrine tumors irrespective of their POMC status. These results show that expression of the V3 receptor gene participates in the corticotroph phenotype. Its striking association with ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids defines a subset of nonpituitary tumors in which ectopic POMC gene expression is but one aspect of a wider process of corticotroph cell differentiation, and opens new possibilities of

  16. The assessment of cabergoline efficacy and tolerability in patients with pituitary prolactinoma type.

    PubMed

    Bolko, Paweł; Jaskuła, Magdalena; Waśko, Ryszard; Wołuń, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2003-05-01

    Prolactinoma is the most frequent type of secreting pituitary tumours. In the treatment, pharmacotherapy with dopamine agonists is considered the first-line option. For many years bromocriptine, a D1 and D2 dopamine receptor agonist, has been the standard medicine for hyperprolactinemic patients. However, the treatment is frequently associated with intolerance or resistance. Recently cabergoline, a long acting, ergoline-derived, selective D2 agonist has become available and has been promoted as the initial treatment. Therefore the object of four studies was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of cabergoline in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. 17 patients, 13 women at the age of 21-55 years (average 37.1) and 4 men at the age of 29-45 years (average 36.3), with pathological hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary tumours were involved in the study. In all patients the increased pretreatment concentration of PRL was observed, ranging from 1047 to 1678 mlU/ml (mean 1369 mlU/ml). MRI scans revealed microprolactinomas in 11 (64.7%) cases and macroadenomas in 6 (35.3%) cases. None of the patients had previously undergone pituitary surgery and all of them were newly diagnosed, previously untreated. The patients were treated with cabergoline for 6 months. Cabergoline therapy was started at a dose of 0.5 mg twice a week for the first two months, then the dose was decreased to a 0.25 mg twice a week and finally maintained at 0.25 mg a week. After 6 months of the therapy, the normalization of serum PRL concentrations (from mean 1358 mlU/ml to mean 420 mlU/ml; p < 0.001) was achieved in 13 (76.5%) patients (8 with microprolactinoma and 5 with macroprolactinoma). In the remaining 4 patients PRL levels remained elevated but were decreased from mean 1403 mIU/ml to mean 812 mIU/ml. There were no differences, regarding CAB efficacy in lowering PRL levels, between patients with micro- and macroadenomas (p > 0.05). About 90% women resumed menstrual cycles in our

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasopharyngeal mucosal space with locally aggressive appearance (2010: 11b).

    PubMed

    Downer, Jonathan; Fryer, Eve; Capper, John; Woo, Eric K

    2011-02-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma arising from submucosal minor salivary gland tissue in the head and neck is well described in the published literature. Where associated bone changes are present, benign-appearing bone remodelling is the rule, reflecting the slow growth of this benign tumour. Aggressive-appearing bone destruction was observed in this case. This atypical appearance has not been widely described.

  18. Pituitary Involvement in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    De Parisot, Audrey; Puéchal, Xavier; Langrand, Corinne; Raverot, Gerald; Gil, Helder; Perard, Laurent; Le Guenno, Guillaume; Berthier, Sabine; Tschirret, Olivier; Eschard, Jean Paul; Vinzio, Stephane; Guillevin, Loïc; Sève, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pituitary dysfunction is a rare manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener). The main aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of pituitary manifestations in patients with GPA included in the French Vasculitis Study Group database. Among the 819 GPA patients included in the database, 9 (1.1%) had pituitary involvement. The median age at diagnosis of GPA and pituitary involvement was 46 and 50.8 years, respectively. Pituitary involvement was present at onset of GPA in 1 case and occurred later in 8 patients after a median follow up of 58.5 months. When pituitary dysfunction occurred, 8 patients had active disease at other sites including ENT (n = 6), eye (n = 4), or central nervous system (n = 3) involvement. The most common hormonal dysfunctions were diabetes insipidus (n = 7) and hypogonadism (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging was abnormal in 7 patients. The most common lesions were an enlargement of the pituitary gland, thickening of the pituitary stalk, and loss of posterior hypersignal on T1-weighed images. All patients were treated with corticosteroid therapy and 8 patients received immunosuppressive agents for the pituitary involvement, including cyclophosphamide (n = 3), rituximab (n = 2), and methotrexate (n = 3). After a median follow-up of 9.2 years, GPA was in complete remission in 7 patients, but 8 patients were still under hormone replacement therapy. Among the 5 patients who had a subsequent MRI, 2 had complete resolution of pituitary lesions.By combining our study and the literature review, the frequency of hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, among the patients with pituitary dysfunction, can be estimated at 78% and 71% respectively. Despite a high rate of systemic disease remission on maintenance therapy, 86% of the patients had persistent pituitary dysfunction. The patients who recovered from pituitary dysfunction had all been

  19. A case of pituitary abscess presenting without a source of infection or prior pituitary pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a relatively uncommon cause of pituitary hormone deficiencies and/or a suprasellar mass. Risk factors for pituitary abscess include prior surgery, irradiation and/or pathology of the suprasellar region as well as underlying infections. We present the case of a 22-year-old female presenting with a spontaneous pituitary abscess in the absence of risk factors described previously. Her initial presentation included headache, bitemporal hemianopia, polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her pituitary showed a suprasellar mass. As the patient did not have any risk factors for pituitary abscess or symptoms of infection, the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively. She underwent transsphenoidal resection and purulent material was seen intraoperatively. Culture of the surgical specimen showed two species of alpha hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus capitis and Prevotella melaninogenica. Urine and blood cultures, dental radiographs and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to show any source of infection that could have caused the pituitary abscess. The patient was treated with 6weeks of oral metronidazole and intravenous vancomycin. After 6weeks of transsphenoidal resection and just after completion of antibiotic therapy, her headache and bitemporal hemianopsia resolved. However, nocturia and polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus and amenorrhoea from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism persisted. Learning points Pituitary abscesses typically develop in patients who have other sources of infection or disruption of the normal suprasellar anatomy by either surgery, irradiation or pre-existing pathology; however, they can develop in the absence of known risk factors. Patients with pituitary abscesses typically complain of headache, visual changes and symptoms of pituitary hormone deficiencies. As other pituitary neoplasms present with similar clinical findings, the diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often not

  20. Somatotroph pituitary tumors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2012-05-01

    A series of 11 pituitary tumors in budgerigars were classified on the basis of their clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Affected birds were young to middle-aged. Clinically, neurologic signs--including difficulties flying, ataxia, and blindness--were most commonly reported. Additional clinical signs included weight loss, abnormal feathers or molting, increased respiratory efforts, and exophthalmos. Nine birds were diagnosed with chromophobic pituitary adenomas, and 2 birds had chromophobic pituitary carcinomas. Only 1 tumor was delimited to the pituitary gland; the other 10 variably invaded the brain, skull, and retrobulbar space. Distant metastases were identified in 2 birds. All tumors were immunohistochemically strongly positive for growth hormone, consistent with the diagnosis of somatotroph tumors. The common occurrence and early onset may suggest a genetic predisposition of budgerigars to develop somatotroph pituitary tumors with a high incidence of local invasion and with metastatic potential. PMID:21900544

  1. Benign cardiac tumours, malignant arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kimberley A; Wong, Kenny K; Tipple, Marion; Sanatani, Shubhayan

    2010-01-01

    Four cases of pediatric cardiac tumours (PCTs) associated with ventricular arrhythmias are reported. Sudden cardiac death attributable to the tumour occurred in two children. A third child received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and the fourth had persistent ventricular arrhythmia despite medical therapy. Most PCTs are considered benign; however, the development of malignant arrhythmias may complicate the management of these tumours in some patients. The literature regarding the arrhythmogenic potential of PCTs and the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in these patients is reviewed. The series highlights the deficiency of prognostic information for this cohort. PMID:20151061

  2. Malignant tumours of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Ryska, M; Hrabal, P

    2015-12-01

    No comprehensive knowledge of duodenal tumours exists in the current literature; individual types of malignant tumours may be described within malignancies of the small bowel, sets of case reports, or individual cases. Ampullary carcinomas are the exception and they are detailed in the current WHO histological classification of tumours of digestive system. Neither national nor international literature sources provide a comprehensive review of their therapy. The situation is similar when searching for surgical procedures. Resection procedures on the duodenum should thus be performed in specialized centres with sufficient experience with hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. PMID:26767899

  3. The occurrence of intracranial rhabdoid tumours in mice depends on temporal control of Smarcb1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Richer, Wilfrid; Fréneaux, Paul; Chauvin, Céline; Lucchesi, Carlo; Guillemot, Delphine; Grison, Camille; Lequin, Delphine; Pierron, Gaelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Nicolas, André; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stéphanie; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Ayrault, Olivier; Surdez, Didier; Delattre, Olivier; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are highly aggressive tumours of infancy, frequently localized in the central nervous system (CNS) where they are termed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and characterized by bi-allelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumour suppressor gene. In this study, by temporal control of tamoxifen injection in Smarcb1flox/flox;Rosa26-CreERT2 mice, we explore the phenotypes associated with Smarcb1 inactivation at different developmental stages. Injection before E6, at birth or at 2 months of age recapitulates previously described phenotypes including embryonic lethality, hepatic toxicity or development of T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Injection between E6 and E10 leads to high penetrance tumours, mainly intra-cranial, with short delays (median: 3 months). These tumours demonstrate anatomical, morphological and gene expression profiles consistent with those of human AT/RTs. Moreover, intra- and inter-species comparisons of tumours reveal that human and mouse RTs can be split into different entities that may underline the variety of RT cells of origin. PMID:26818002

  4. Intra-tumoural microvessel density in human solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, J; Byers, R; Jayson, G C

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade assessment of angiogenesis has emerged as a potentially useful biological prognostic and predictive factor in human solid tumours. With the development of highly specific endothelial markers that can be assessed in histological archival specimens, several quantitative studies have been performed in various solid tumours. The majority of published studies have shown a positive correlation between intra-tumoural microvessel density, a measure of tumour angiogenesis, and prognosis in solid tumours. A minority of studies have not demonstrated an association and this may be attributed to significant differences in the methodologies employed for sample selection, immunostaining techniques, vessel counting and statistical analysis, although a number of biological differences may account for the discrepancy. In this review we evaluate the quantification of angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, the relationship between tumour vascularity and metastasis, and the clinicopathological studies correlating intra-tumoral microvessel density with prognosis and response to anti-cancer therapy. In view of the extensive nature of this retrospective body of data, comparative studies are needed to identify the optimum technique and endothelial antigens (activated or pan-endothelial antigens) but subsequently prospective studies that allocate treatment on the basis of microvessel density are required. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1566–1577. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600315 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085206

  5. Rewiring macrophages for anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunqin; Biswas, Subhra K

    2016-06-28

    Tumour-associated macrophages facilitate cancer progression, but whether they can be reprogrammed to elicit an anti-tumour response remains unclear. Deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is now shown to rewire macrophages to an anti-tumour mode, leading to an enhanced response to immunotherapy and inhibition of tumour progression. PMID:27350442

  6. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  7. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  8. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  9. Tumour of the juxtaoral organ.

    PubMed

    Bénateau, H; Rigau, V; Comoz, F; Benchemam, Y; Galateau, F; Compère, J F

    2003-02-01

    The juxtaoral organ is a normal and constant structure of the oral cavity. It consists of benign epithelial nests. We describe an intraoral tumour of the juxtaoral organ in a child. The tumour was not diagnosed after clinical and radiological examinations because it is extremely rare. A histological examination revealed a tumour of the juxtaoral organ, presumed to be neuroid hamartoma. This is only the second time that a tumour of the juxtaoral organ has been described in a child. We also describe the location, the embryology, the histology and the function of this organ. This is important because this structure can be confused with carcinomas of the oral cavity when examining frozen sections.

  10. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  11. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2013-12-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located in the pituitary fossa. In the postnatal individual, the hypothalamus-pituitary axis plays a central role in maintaining homeostatic functions, like control of metabolism, reproduction, and growth. Stem cells are suggested to play a role in the homeostatic adaptations of the adult pituitary gland, such as the rapid specific cell-type expansion in response to pregnancy or lactation. Several cell populations have been suggested as pituitary stem cells, such as Side Population cells and cells expressing Sox2 or Nestin. These cell populations are discussed in this review. Also, stem and progenitor cells are thought to play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis, such as the development of pituitary adenomas in dogs. There are limited reports on the role of stem cells in pituitary adenomas, especially in dogs. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize this cell population and to develop specific cell targeting therapeutic strategies as a new way of treating canine CD.

  12. Imaging of skull base tumours.

    PubMed

    Thust, Stefanie Catherine; Yousry, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    The skull base is a highly complex and difficult to access anatomical region, which constitutes a relatively common site for neoplasms. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the differential diagnosis, to determine the anatomic tumour spread and for operative planning. All skull base imaging should be performed using thin-section multiplanar imaging, whereby CT and MRI can be considered complimentary. An interdisciplinary team approach is central to improve the outcome of these challenging tumours.

  13. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Wang, C C; Wang, J

    1999-03-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary mid-brain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases.

  14. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presented with primary hypothyroidism and likely had thyrotroph hyperplasia given prompt resolution with thyroxine. The second and third women were diagnosed with pathological gonadotroph hyperplasia due to primary gonadal insufficiency, with histopathological confirmation including gonadal-deficiency cells in the third case where surgery could have been avoided. The fourth woman likely had idiopathic PH, though she had concomitant polycystic ovary syndrome which is a debated cause of PH. Patients suspected of PH should undergo comprehensive hormonal, radiological and sometimes ophthalmological evaluation. This is best conducted by a specialised multidisciplinary team with preference for treatment of underlying conditions and close monitoring over surgical intervention. Learning points Normal pituitary dimensions are influenced by age and gender with the greatest pituitary heights seen in young adults and perimenopausal women.Pituitary enlargement may be seen in the settings of pregnancy, end-organ insufficiency with loss of negative feedback, and excess trophic hormone from the hypothalamus or neuroendocrine tumours.PH may be caused or exacerbated by medications including oestrogen, GNRH analogues and antipsychotics.Management involves identification of cases of idiopathic PH suitable for simple surveillance and reversal of pathological or iatrogenic causes where they exist.Surgery should be avoided in PH as it rarely progresses. PMID:26124954

  15. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  16. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  17. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  18. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  19. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  20. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  1. Aggression, impulsivity, plasma sex hormones, and biogenic amine turnover in a forensic population of rapists.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Markianos, Manolis; Vaidakis, Nikos; Christodoulou, George N

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess androgen plasma levels and biogenic amine metabolites in a sex-offender group as well as to investigate the relationship between the biological findings and the impulsive, aggressive, and suicidal profile of the offenders. Fifty-seven males convicted for rape and 25 normal males comprised the study sample. We found that although both testosterone levels and aggression-impulsivity scores were higher in the group of rapists, testosterone levels were not associated with the aggression and impulsivity scores. Nevertheless, aggression-impulsivity scores were clearly associated with luteinizing hormone levels. This association may indicate a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, possibly the result of a reduced serotonergic activity.

  2. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  3. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  4. Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2011-01-01

    Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development. PMID:21976722

  5. Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Mary C.; Schriock, Eldon D.; Jaffe, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma is a common cause of gynecologic problems that include oligomenorrhea, infertility, amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Diagnosis requires a combination of endocrine testing and radiologic evaluation. The diagnosis of macroadenomas is usually straightforward and these large tumors may be associated with mass effects such as severe headache, nerve palsies or visual changes. Microadenomas may be more subtle in presentation, and the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia without radiologic evidence of a tumor frequently is problematic. The management of prolactin-secreting adenoma remains controversial, with no clear consensus or indication for surgical versus medical treatment. Surgical intervention is a realistic option for those patients who have access to an experienced neurosurgeon and who have tumor characteristics that offer a reasonable hope for cure. Many questions remain to be answered, including the cause, natural history of development and the optimum treatment for individual cases. Images PMID:6659490

  6. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of kidney co-existing with renal calculi: a rare tumour.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nidhi; Yadav, Gulabdhar; Dhawan, Nishi; Kumar, Awanish

    2011-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of urinary tract is a very rare tumour known to be associated with chronic renal calculi and infection. This tumour is highly aggressive and often detected at advanced stage with poor outcome. The authors describe a case report of a 62-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with right nephrolithiasis with non-functioning kidney. Histopathology revealed an unexpected co-existing SCC in renal pelvis. The present case highlights the careful search and use of newer imaging modalities in cases of long-standing renal calculi as they may have co-existing hidden malignancy which may change the treatment plan and prognosis.

  8. [Denosumab may be a supplement to the surgical treatment of giant cell tumours of bone].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Anna Lynge; Hansen, Rehne Lessmann; Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg

    2016-09-01

    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive bone tumour causing bone destruction. GCTB requires surgical treatment, and severe cases have a high risk of functional morbidity. GCTB consists of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-positive osteoclast-like giant cells. The formation and activity of these cells are mediated by the interaction with RANK ligand (RANKL) released from neoplastic stromal cells. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody which inhibits RANKL and impairs the growth of the GCTB. Several studies have described the ability of denosumab to downgrade the extent of surgical treatment and improve the functional outcome. PMID:27593237

  9. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis.

    PubMed

    Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Chiamolera, Maria I; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Wondisford, Fredic E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis. Reduction of circulating TH levels due to primary thyroid failure results in increased TRH and TSH production, whereas the opposite occurs when circulating THs are in excess. Other neural, humoral, and local factors modulate the HPT axis and, in specific situations, determine alterations in the physiological function of the axis. The roles of THs are vital to nervous system development, linear growth, energetic metabolism, and thermogenesis. THs also regulate the hepatic metabolism of nutrients, fluid balance and the cardiovascular system. In cells, TH actions are mediated mainly by nuclear TH receptors (210), which modify gene expression. T3 is the preferred ligand of THR, whereas T4, the serum concentration of which is 100-fold higher than that of T3, undergoes extra-thyroidal conversion to T3. This conversion is catalyzed by 5'-deiodinases (D1 and D2), which are TH-activating enzymes. T4 can also be inactivated by conversion to reverse T3, which has very low affinity for THR, by 5-deiodinase (D3). The regulation of deiodinases, particularly D2, and TH transporters at the cell membrane control T3 availability, which is fundamental for TH action. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1387-1428, 2016. PMID:27347897

  10. Neonatal haemochromatosis with reversible pituitary involvement.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Bèrczes, Rita; Pelliccioli, Isabella; Bosisio, Michela; Agostinis, Cristina; Resti, Massimo; Zambelli, Marco; Lucianetti, Alessandro; Colledan, Michele; D'Antiga, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal haemochromatosis is a rare alloimmune gestational disease with a high mortality. The hallmark of neonatal haemochromatosis is severe neonatal liver failure associated with extrahepatic siderosis. Thus far, no pituitary dysfunction has been reported to result from the tissue damage associated with extrahepatic siderosis. The present report describes a neonate with neonatal haemochromatosis and secondary hypothyroidism associated with pituitary iron deposition. Both the conditions were successfully treated by ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. Pituitary gland dysfunction is another possible extrahepatic manifestation of neonatal haemochromatosis, and it is reversible after liver transplantation.

  11. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  12. The Molecular Pathogenesis of Pituitary Adenomas: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary tumors represent the most common intracranial neoplasms accompanying serious morbidity through mass effects and inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones. Understanding the etiology of pituitary tumorigenesis will facilitate the development of satisfactory treatment for pituitary adenomas. Although the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas is largely unknown, considerable evidence indicates that the pituitary tumorigenesis is a complex process involving multiple factors, including genetic and epigenetic changes. This review summarized the recent progress in the study of pituitary tumorigenesis, focusing on the role of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes and microRNAs. PMID:24396688

  13. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  14. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site.

  15. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  16. Institutional experience of paediatric high-grade central nervous system tumours: an analysis of 74 patients and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Aynur; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Okur, Arzu; Sarac, Avni; Baykaner, Kemali; Bora, Huseyin; Poyraz, Aylar

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Although the survival for children with certain central nervous system (CNS) tumour types has improved through current surgical and adjuvant treatment modalities, the prognosis of many high-grade tumours remains poor despite aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to analyse patients with high-grade brain tumours in our institution to determine the histopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival. Material and methods A total of 74 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade brain tumour were analysed. There were a total of 31 patients with embryonal tumours, 27 patients with high-grade glial tumours, 12 patients with brain stem gliomas and 4 patients with other high-grade brain tumours. Results There were 48 (65%) boys and 26 (35%) girls (ratio: 1.85) with a median age of 99.7 months (range = 2-204 months). The median follow-up period was 19 months (range = 1-204 months). Tumour recurrence was observed in 38 patients (51.4%). The overall survival rate and event-free survival rate of our patients were 27% and 19.5%, respectively. Conclusions Pediatric high-grade CNS tumours have a very aggressive behaviour and a significant number of children eventually succumb to disease despite multimodal treatment. There is a need of more effective therapeutic approaches for these tumours with poor prognosis. The future improvement in childhood high-grade brain tumour management depends on a better understanding of the molecular genetics and biology of brain tumours. PMID:23788851

  17. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  18. Hypothalamic and pituitary function in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Paulson, D F; Wiebe, H R; Hammond, C B

    1975-09-01

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been identified as a cause of partial or complete failure of puberty, may be familial and may have other associated abnormalities of hyposmia, intellectual retardation, perceptive deafness, color blindness, skeletal deformities, and gynecomastia. Pituitary function is usually normal with the primary defect believed to be hypothalamic. A twenty-year-old white male with a clinical diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia under-went complete endocrine evaluation with evaluation of the pituitary response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) release after luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone did occur, but the response was less than that seen in normal controls. Evaluation demonstrated that the pituitary-gonadal axis was intact with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis being defective. Therapy with the synthetic decapeptide (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) is correct theoretically and may be superior to therapy with exogenous gonadotropins.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and ...

  20. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Elaine Lu; Qian, Zhi Rong

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers. PMID:25548562

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial isolated pituitary adenoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1,000 people. FIPA, though, is quite rare, accounting for approximately 2 percent of pituitary adenomas. More ... be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of ...

  2. Primary immune thrombocytopenia accompanied by pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takahiro; Mochinaga, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a severe headache and purpura. She had previously been diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and achieved complete remission with steroid therapy. Steroid therapy had been completed one week prior to the current admission. The recurrence of severe thrombocytopenia (<1.0×10(4) platelets/μl) was detected and a CT scan revealed pituitary hemorrhage without pituitary adenoma. She received steroid therapy combined with intravenous immunoglobulin, which resulted in the amelioration of ITP and improvements in the pituitary hemorrhage. Intracranial hemorrhage, which is the most serious bleeding manifestation in ITP, is relatively uncommon. Pituitary apoplexy in ITP is extremely rare. PMID:27498733

  3. Tenascin in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Pääkkö, P; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.

  4. Pituitary apoplexy causing spontaneous remission of acromegaly following long-acting octreotide therapy: a rare drug side effect or just a coincidence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Shruti

    2016-04-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by abrupt onset of haemorrhage or non-haemorrhagic infarction of a pituitary adenoma. The clinical features include acute onset severe headache, visual field defects, meningeal irritation, ophthalmoplegia and hypopituitarism. The pituitary apoplexy may be clinically silent in ∼25% of patients. We report a case of acromegaly due to pituitary macroadenoma. The patient was started on long-acting octreotide therapy. On 3-month follow-up, the patient showed clinical and biochemical remission and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed subclinical haemorrhage and resolution of tumour. The octreotide therapy was stopped. On 6-month follow-up, the patient was still in remission and the MRI of brain revealed non-enhancing mixed intensities haemorrhagic and cystic areas of the pituitary gland. In our patient, whether spontaneous remission of acromegaly due to subclinical pituitary haemorrhage was coincidental or due to long-acting octreotide therapy is still a dilemma. We report this case because of rarity and clinical importance of this unusual occurrence. PMID:27123308

  5. Pituitary apoplexy causing spontaneous remission of acromegaly following long-acting octreotide therapy: a rare drug side effect or just a coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by abrupt onset of haemorrhage or non-haemorrhagic infarction of a pituitary adenoma. The clinical features include acute onset severe headache, visual field defects, meningeal irritation, ophthalmoplegia and hypopituitarism. The pituitary apoplexy may be clinically silent in ∼25% of patients. We report a case of acromegaly due to pituitary macroadenoma. The patient was started on long-acting octreotide therapy. On 3-month follow-up, the patient showed clinical and biochemical remission and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed subclinical haemorrhage and resolution of tumour. The octreotide therapy was stopped. On 6-month follow-up, the patient was still in remission and the MRI of brain revealed non-enhancing mixed intensities haemorrhagic and cystic areas of the pituitary gland. In our patient, whether spontaneous remission of acromegaly due to subclinical pituitary haemorrhage was coincidental or due to long-acting octreotide therapy is still a dilemma. We report this case because of rarity and clinical importance of this unusual occurrence. PMID:27123308

  6. Aggressive drowsy cache cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, H. A.; El-Dib, D. A.; Abid, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An aggressive drowsy cache block management, where the cache block is forced into drowsy mode all the time except during write and read operations, is proposed. The word line (WL) is used to enable the normal supply voltage (V DD_high) to the cache line only when it is accessed for read or write whereas the drowsy supply voltage (V DD_low) is enabled to the cache cell otherwise. The proposed block management neither needs extra cycles nor extra control signals to wake the drowsy cache cell, thereby reducing the performance penalty associated with traditional drowsy caches. In fact, the proposed aggressive drowsy mode can reduce the total power consumption of the traditional drowsy mode by 13% or even more, depending on the cache access rate, access frequency and the CMOS technology used.

  7. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S

    1999-05-01

    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation.

  8. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S

    1999-05-01

    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation. PMID:11081204

  9. [Aggressive fibromatoses in orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Adler, C P; Stock, D

    1986-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatoses which may develop either in soft tissue or in the bone present considerable problems for the pathologist trying to establish a diagnosis as well as for the radiologist and surgeon. In radiographs, a destruction of the soft and osseous tissue is seen which suggests a malignant tumor. Histologically a monomorphic connective tissue prevails in the biopsy showing no essential signs of malignancy. Under pathoanatomical aspects often a benign proliferation of the connective tissue is assumed. Surgically the tumor may either be removed in a too radical and mutilating way, or the excision may remain incomplete. Two cases of desmoplastic bone fibroma (aggressive fibromatosis in the ulna and in the sacrum) are described in which the complete tumor removal led to healing, whereas the incomplete excision of the tumor resulted in recurrences. Aggressive fibromatosis represents a semimalignant tumor which has a locally destructive and invasive growth tendency but does not metastasize. The various fibromatoses are defined with regard to their biological growth tendency and the therapeutic consequences are discussed.

  10. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  11. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  12. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Ora, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

  13. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  14. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  15. Radiation and hypothalamic-pituitary function.

    PubMed

    Littley, M D; Shalet, S M; Beardwell, C G

    1990-03-01

    In adults, hypopituitarism is a common consequence of external radiotherapy. The clinical manifestations may be subtle and develop insidiously many years after radiotherapy. Anterior pituitary deficiencies can therefore only be detected by regular testing, including dynamic tests of GH and ACTH reserve. Although the deficiencies most commonly develop in the order GH, gonadotrophins, ACTH then TSH, this sequence may not be predictable in an individual patient and comprehensive testing is therefore required. The tests should ideally be performed annually for at least 10 years after treatment or until deficiency has been detected and treated. It is not only the patients with pituitary disease who are at risk of developing hypopituitarism after radiotherapy. Any patient who receives a total dose of irradiation of 20 Gy or more to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is at risk of hypopituitarism, although the threshold dose may be lower than this. This is particularly important in the long-term survivors of malignant disease in whom endocrine morbidity may be relatively common and in whom this can be easily treated, with consequent improvement in quality of life. Whilst patients who receive a high total dose of irradiation are at increased risk of developing multiple deficiencies, a higher fraction size also increases the risk of anterior pituitary failure. There is good evidence that the earliest damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis after external radiotherapy is at the level of the hypothalamus. However, patients who undergo pituitary ablation with interstitial radiotherapy or heavy particle beams are likely to sustain direct damage to the pituitary. In these patients, the sequence in which individual pituitary hormone deficiencies develop is generally the same as that observed with the hypothalamic damage after conventional external radiotherapy. The increasing use of radiotherapy as a means of treatment for malignant disease means that new groups of patients with

  16. Phyllodes tumour in pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Way, Jeffrey C.; Culham, Beverley A.

    1998-01-01

    Phyllodes tumour (cystosarcoma phyllodes) is a rare breast tumour that grows rapidly and to a relatively large size, especially during pregnancy. These tumours may be classified as benign, borderline or malignant. They have a high incidence of local recurrence but little tendency to metastasize to distant organs. The question of whether the tumour is hormone dependent remains unresolved. This report describes the case of a patient who had a phyllodes tumour that first became apparent in her 31st week of pregnancy. After enucleation and subsequent wide excision she remained tumour free through a second pregnancy. Although the follow-up period is short, it appears that subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrent or new disease for patients who have had their initial tumour completely excised. The goal for the management of these tumours is complete surgical excision. PMID:9793511

  17. Multiple cilia suppress tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Primary cilia are cellular structures that have important functions in development and disease. The suppression of multiciliate differentiation of choroid plexus precursors, and maintenance of a single primary cilium by Notch1, is now shown to be involved in choroid plexus tumour formation. PMID:27027488

  18. Mixed tumour of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Endo, Y; Ishikawa, E; Ushigome, S

    1996-05-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman presented with a polypoid 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.9 cm mass located in the posterior wall of the lower vagina. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of benign epithelial and stromal-type elements. Predominant epithelial elements were mucinous glands with squamous metaplasia and islands of mature squamous epithelium. The stromal-type cells showed reticular or short fascicular patterns with a transition to the epithelial elements. There was no dual epithelial-myoepithelial combination in the glands as seen in so-called mixed tumours (pleomorphic adenomas) of the salivary gland. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial elements were strongly positive for cytokeratin, PKK1 and epithelial membrane antigen, while the stromal-type cells co-expressed PKK1 and vimentin. Staining for S-100 protein, muscle actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and CD34 was uniformly negative in the tumour cells. The DNA pattern was diploid. The patient is alive and well without recurrence for 50 months after excision. These results indicate that an epithelial cell proliferation, probably of the remnant vestibular gland, plays a major role in the development of mixed tumours of the vagina.

  19. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  20. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis: clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the anatomy of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the somatotrophic axis, and neurohypophysis.

  1. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  2. [The aggressive child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harbauer, H

    1978-08-01

    In children a "normal" aggressiveness should be distinguished from "hostile" and "inhibited" aggression; the latter usually become apparent as heteroaggressive or autoaggressive behaviour. Autoaggression is more common with younger children. Different hypotheses about the origin of aggressiveness are discussed. In the younger child nail biting, trichotillomania, rocking, an intensified phase of contrariness and enkopresis may have components of aggressiveness. In older children and adolescents dissocial forms of development, drug taking, attempted suicid, and anorexia nervosa may be parts of aggressive behaviour. Minimal brain dysfunction, autism, and postencephalitic syndromes predominate amongst organic alterations of the brain as causes for aggressive behaviour. Particularly the Lesch-Nyhan-syndrome, but equally the Cornelia de Lange-syndrome show autoaggressive tendencies.

  3. Paediatric pituitary adenomas: a decade of change.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Storr, Helen L; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Savage, Martin O

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas, although rare in the paediatric age range and mostly benign, represent very challenging disorders for diagnosis and management. The recent identification of genetic alterations in young individuals with pituitary adenomas has broadened the scope of molecular investigations and contributed to the understanding of mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Recent identification of causative mutations of genes such as GNAS, PRKAR1A, MEN1 and AIP has introduced the concept of molecular screening of young apparently healthy family members. Population-based studies have reported a significantly higher number of affected subjects and genetic variations than expected. Radiological techniques have advanced, yet many microadenomas remain undetectable on scanning. However, experience with transsphenoidal and endoscopic pituitary surgery has led to higher rates of cure. Prolactinomas, corticotroph and somatotroph adenomas remain the most prevalent, with each diagnosis presenting its own challenges. As paediatric pituitary adenomas occur very infrequently within the paediatric age range, paediatric endocrine units cannot provide expert management in isolation. Consequently, close co-operation with adult endocrinology colleagues with experience of pituitary disease is strongly recommended. PMID:24525527

  4. Cytokines and hypothalamic-pituitary function.

    PubMed

    Jones, T H; Kennedy, R L

    1993-11-01

    Several cytokines are now known to affect the release of anterior pituitary hormones by an action on the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland. The major cytokines involved are IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha and interferon-tau. Their predominant effects are to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and gonadal axes, and growth hormone release. The relative importance of systemically and locally produced cytokines in achieving these responses and their precise sites of action have not been fully established. There are indeed conflicting reports on the individual effects of each cytokine which need to be clarified. There is now cumulating evidence that there are important interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems which may explain in part, some of the effects on growth, thyroid, adrenal and reproductive functions which occur in acute and chronic disease. This article reviews the current knowledge of the effects of some cytokines on hypothalamic-pituitary function.

  5. Stellate Cell Networks in the Teleost Pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Matan; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    The folliculostellate cells of the mammalian pituitary are non-endocrine cells that are implicated in long-distance communication and paracrine signaling, but to date, these cells have yet to be characterized in teleosts. We found that the stellate cells of the teleost pituitary share many common attributes with mammalian folliculostellate cells. By labeling of stellate cells in live preparations of tilapia pituitaries we investigated their distribution, association with other endocrine cells and their anatomical and functional coupling. In the pars intermedia, stellate cells were arranged around neuronal bundles and their processes extended into the pars distalis. Within the pars distalis, stellate cells formed close associations with FSH cells and, to a lesser degree, with GH and LH cells, suggesting differential paracrine regulation of the two gonadotrope populations. The production of follistatin by stellate cells further corroborates the notion of a paracrine role on FSH release. We also found stellate cells to form gap junctions that enabled dye transfer to neighboring stellate cells, implicating that these cells form a large-scale network that connects distant parts of the pituitary. Our findings represent the first wide-scale study of stellate cells in teleosts and provide valuable information regarding their functional roles in pituitary function. PMID:27086978

  6. Idiopathic Granulomatous Hypophysitis Mimicking Pituitary Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Renzhi; Yang, Yi; Wu, Huanwen; Su, Changbao; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Lian, Wei; Xu, Zhiqin; Yao, Yong; Ren, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis (IGH) is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary that commonly presents with enlargement of the pituitary gland. Clinically and radiologically, IGH is a rare sellar entity easily to be misdiagnosed as a pituitary adenoma. Through such a case, we aim to present this rarity and emphasize the importance to correctly diagnose confusing pituitary lesions comprehensively by clinical presentations, radiological signs, and biopsy. We present an uncommon case of IGH in a 19-year-old man. The patient was admitted to the hospital with severe headache, vomiting, and vision's sharp decline. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar lesion with obvious cystic change and ring enhancement. The disease course including diagnosis and treatment was presented and analyzed in detail. The pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity. The patient underwent surgical exploration and partial resection via the transsphenoidal approach. The pathologic findings suggested IGH giving no significant evidences of systemic granulomatous disease and venereal disease. Large dose methylprednisolone was then used. The pituitary function recovered, but there was no apparent improvement of his vision. IGH is a rarely occurred inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is difficult to diagnose preoperatively and is often misdiagnosed. Although rare, IGH should be kept in mind in terms of differential diagnosis of sellar region lesions. PMID:26181544

  7. Pituitary function in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Uitz, P M; Hartleb, S; Schaefer, S; Al-Fakhri, N; Kann, P H

    2013-01-01

    Haemochromatosis may impair the function of endocrine organs, amongst others the pituitary gland. It was the aim of this study to determine pituitary function in adult patients with genetically defined hereditary haemochromatosis in a prospective diagnostic study using a standardised stimulation test. Therefore, 22 patients (7 females, 15 males; age at diagnosis of haemochromatosis 48.1 ± 7.9 years; age at study inclusion 50.7 ± 7.7 years) with genetically defined hereditary haemochromatosis were investigated by a combined pituitary stimulation test (CRH, GHRH/arginine, GnRH, TRH). In 11 patients (50% of the study population; 2 females, 9 males), pituitary insufficiencies were detected [isolated corticotrophic insufficiency (peak cortisol < 181.25 μg/l/500 nmol/l) n=10 (2 females, 8 males); combined corticotrophic and borderline gonadotrophic insufficiency (basal testosterone 2.4-3.0 μg/l without basal LH-elevation) in 1 male]. Somatotrophic pituitary insufficiencies were not found. IFG-1 concentrations below -2 standard deviations in 7 patients (32%) may be attributed to impaired hepatic IGF-1 synthesis. Hypopituitarism, particularly corticotrophic insufficiency, seems to be prevalent in a considerable number of middle-aged patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Despite normal somatotrophic function, low IGF-1 serum concentrations may be found in a subgroup of haemochromatosis patients.

  8. Stellate Cell Networks in the Teleost Pituitary.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    The folliculostellate cells of the mammalian pituitary are non-endocrine cells that are implicated in long-distance communication and paracrine signaling, but to date, these cells have yet to be characterized in teleosts. We found that the stellate cells of the teleost pituitary share many common attributes with mammalian folliculostellate cells. By labeling of stellate cells in live preparations of tilapia pituitaries we investigated their distribution, association with other endocrine cells and their anatomical and functional coupling. In the pars intermedia, stellate cells were arranged around neuronal bundles and their processes extended into the pars distalis. Within the pars distalis, stellate cells formed close associations with FSH cells and, to a lesser degree, with GH and LH cells, suggesting differential paracrine regulation of the two gonadotrope populations. The production of follistatin by stellate cells further corroborates the notion of a paracrine role on FSH release. We also found stellate cells to form gap junctions that enabled dye transfer to neighboring stellate cells, implicating that these cells form a large-scale network that connects distant parts of the pituitary. Our findings represent the first wide-scale study of stellate cells in teleosts and provide valuable information regarding their functional roles in pituitary function. PMID:27086978

  9. Aggressive fibromatosis of anterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Ahuja, Puneet; Sikka, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a comparitively rare tumor with unpredictable growth and varying local recurrence rates. It does not develop distant metastases but locally it shows an aggressive and infiltrative behavior. Clinically, aggressive fibromatosis manifests as a painless, firm, often rapidly enlarging mass, fixed to underlying bone or soft tissue. It is never encapsulated. Histologically, it is rich in collagen and fibroblastic cells that are devoid of hyperchromatic or atypical nuclei, but with more variable cellularity in different tumor sections. PMID:21731285

  10. Challenges and controversies in management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours in patients with MEN1.

    PubMed

    Yates, Christopher J; Newey, Paul J; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2015-11-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterised by the occurrence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NETs) in association with parathyroid and pituitary tumours. P-NETs, which include gastrinomas, insulinomas, and non-functioning tumours, occur in more than 80% of MEN1 patients and account for 50% of disease-specific deaths. However, there is no consensus about the optimal methods for detecting and treating P-NETs in MEN1 patients, and extrapolations from approaches used in patients with non-familial (sporadic) P-NETs require caution because of differences, such as the younger age of onset, multi-focality of P-NETs, and concomitant presence of other tumours in MEN1 patients. Thus, the early detection of P-NETs by circulating biomarkers and imaging modalities, and their appropriate treatments by surgical approaches and/or radionuclide therapy, chemotherapy, and biotherapy pose challenges and controversies. These challenges and controversies will be reviewed and possible approaches proposed. PMID:26165399

  11. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  12. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    PubMed Central

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27738402

  13. Breast cancer nodal metastasis correlates with tumour and lymph node methylation profiles of Caveolin-1 and CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Alevizos, Leonidas; Kataki, Agapi; Derventzi, Anastasia; Gomatos, Ilias; Loutraris, Christos; Gloustianou, Georgia; Manouras, Andreas; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Zografos, George

    2014-06-01

    DNA methylation is the best characterised epigenetic change so far. However, its role in breast cancer metastasis has not as yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between the methylation profiles characterising primary tumours and their corresponding positive or negative for metastasis lymph nodes (LN) and correlate these with tumour metastatic potential. Methylation signatures of Caveolin-1, CXCR4, RAR-β, Cyclin D2 and Twist gene promoters were studied in 30 breast cancer primary lesions and their corresponding metastasis-free and tumour-infiltrated LN with Methylation-Specific PCR. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 expression was further studied by immunohistochemistry. Tumours were typified by methylation of RAR-β and hypermethylation of Cyclin-D2 and Twist gene promoters. Tumour patterns were highly conserved in tumour-infiltrated LN. CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 promoter methylation patterns differentiated between node-negative and metastatic tumours. Nodal metastasis was associated with tumour and lymph node profiles of extended methylation of Caveolin-1 and lack of CXCR4 hypermethylation. Immunodetection studies verified CXCR4 and Caveolin-1 hypermethylation as gene silencing mechanism. Absence of Caveolin-1 expression in stromal cells associated with tumour aggressiveness while strong Caveolin-1 expression in tumour cells correlated with decreased 7-year disease-free survival. Methylation-mediated activation of CXCR4 and inactivation of Caveolin-1 was linked with nodal metastasis while intratumoral Caveolin-1 expression heterogeneity correlated with disease progression. This evidence contributes to the better understanding and, thereby, therapeutic management of breast cancer metastasis process.

  14. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  15. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  16. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  17. Incidental Superior Hypophygeal Artery Aneurysm Embedded within Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Kim, Min-Su; Jung, Young-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Intra-cranial aneurysm can be incidental findings in patients with pituitary adenomas, and are usually located outside the pituitary region. However, the coexistence of intrasellar (not intracranial) aneurysms with pituitary adenomas is extremely rare. We report a patient with an incidental superior hypophygeal aneurysm embedded within a non-functional pituitary adenoma which was treated by transsphenoidal surgery after endovascular coil embolization. PMID:24278658

  18. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  19. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  20. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mahler, C; Parizel, G

    1982-01-01

    Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis was investigated in seven patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). HGH and ACTH secretion were normal. TSH response to TRH was impaired in about half the cases, without concomitant thyroid dysfunction. LH and FSH levels were often elevated, with inconsistent response to LH-RH stimulation, Gonadotrophin disturbances in MD have previously been attributed to a primary gonadal lesion, characteristically seen in this disease. High prolactin levels in six of our seven patients however suggest that gonadal failure may be also be due to hyperprolactinemia through the direct anti-gonadal effect of prolactin and its interference with hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of gonadotrophin secretion.

  2. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  3. Activation of RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in pituitary adenomas and their effects on downstream effectors.

    PubMed

    Dworakowska, D; Wlodek, E; Leontiou, C A; Igreja, S; Cakir, M; Teng, M; Prodromou, N; Góth, M I; Grozinsky-Glasberg, S; Gueorguiev, M; Kola, B; Korbonits, M; Grossman, A B

    2009-12-01

    Raf/MEK/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascades are key signalling pathways interacting with each other to regulate cell growth and tumourigenesis. We have previously shown B-Raf and Akt overexpression and/or overactivation in pituitary adenomas. The aim of this study is to assess the expression of their downstream components (MEK1/2, ERK1/2, mTOR, TSC2, p70S6K) and effectors (c-MYC and CYCLIN D1). We studied tissue from 16 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), six GH-omas, six prolactinomas and six ACTH-omas, all collected at transsphenoidal surgery; 16 normal autopsy pituitaries were used as controls. The expression of phospho and total protein was assessed with western immunoblotting, and the mRNA expression with quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of pSer217/221 MEK1/2 and pThr183 ERK1/2 (but not total MEK1/2 or ERK1/2) was significantly higher in all tumour subtypes in comparison to normal pituitaries. There was no difference in the expression of phosphorylated/total mTOR, TSC2 or p70S6K between pituitary adenomas and controls. Neither c-MYC phosphorylation at Ser 62 nor total c-MYC was changed in the tumours. However, c-MYC phosphorylation at Thr58/Ser62 (a response target for Akt) was decreased in all tumour types. CYCLIN D1 expression was higher only in NFPAs. The mRNA expression of MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, ERK2, c-MYC and CCND1 was similar in all groups. Our data indicate that in pituitary adenomas both the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are upregulated in their initial cascade, implicating a pro-proliferative signal derangement upstream to their point of convergence. However, we speculate that other processes, such as senescence, attenuate the changes downstream in these benign tumours. PMID:19620247

  4. THE IMPACT OF AGGRESSION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, ELTON B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN…

  5. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  6. Endogenous pacemaker activity of rat tumour somatotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Renata; Robert, Christophe; Cannon, Robert; Vigues, Stephan; Arnoux, Annie; Kordon, Claude; Hammond, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Cells derived from a rat pituitary tumour (GC cell line) that continuously release growth hormone behave as endogenous pacemakers. In simultaneous patch clamp recordings and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) imaging, they displayed rhythmic action potentials (44.7 ± 2.7 mV, 178 ± 40 ms, 0.30 ± 0.04 Hz) and concomitant [Ca2+]i transients (374 ± 57 nM, 1.0 ± 0.2 s, 0.27 ± 0.03 Hz). Action potentials and [Ca2+]i transients were reversibly blocked by removal of external Ca2+, addition of nifedipine (1 μM) or Ni2+ (40 μM), but were insensitive to TTX (1 μM). An L-type Ca2+ current activated at -33.6 ± 0.4 mV (holding potential (Vh), −40 mV), peaked at -1.8 ± 1.3 mV, was reduced by nifedipine and enhanced by S-(+)-SDZ 202 791. A T/R-type Ca2+ current activated at -41.7 ± 2.7 mV (Vh, -80 or -60 mV), peaked at -9.2 ± 3.0 mV, was reduced by low concentrations of Ni2+ (40 μM) or Cd2+ (10 μM) and was toxin resistant. Parallel experiments revealed the expression of the class E calcium channel α1-subunit mRNA. The K+ channel blockers TEA (25 mM) and charybdotoxin (10–100 nM) enhanced spike amplitude and/or duration. Apamin (100 nM) also strongly reduced the after-spike hyperpolarization. The outward K+ tail current evoked by a depolarizing step that mimicked an action potential reversed at −69.8 ± 0.3 mV, presented two components, lasted 2–3 s and was totally blocked by Cd2+ (400 μM). The slow pacemaker depolarization (3.5 ± 0.4 s) that separated consecutive spikes corresponded to a 2- to 3-fold increase in membrane resistance, was strongly Na+ sensitive but TTX insensitive. Computer simulations showed that pacemaker activity can be reproduced by a minimum of six currents: an L-type Ca2+ current underlies the rising phase of action potentials that are repolarized by a delayed rectifier and Ca2+-activated K+ currents. In between spikes, the decay of Ca2+-activated K+ currents and a persistent inward cationic current depolarize the membrane

  7. Silent GH pituitary tumor: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Chinezu, Laura; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Raverot, Gérald

    2013-12-01

    Silent GH pituitary tumors are characterized by the absence of clinical features of acromegaly, normal to slightly elevated GH and/or IGF-1 levels, as well as immunohistochemical expression of GH. The diagnostic and the therapeutic challenges of these "silent" GH tumors are illustrated in this case report, supported by a literature review. A 20-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances related to an invasive macroadenoma but without clinical and biological signs of GH hypersecretion. After two surgeries, a residual tumor remained in the right cavernous sinus. According to the recent classifications, the histopathological diagnosis was a sparsely GH-PRL atypical adenoma or invasive and proliferative (Ki-67 index: 4%) and p53 positive (1%) grade 2b tumor, with high expression (>75% of the cells) of somatostatin receptors type 2A and 5. From this case and the review of the literature, an invasive macroadenoma in young women requires: the preoperative determination of plasma GH and IGF-1, the immunohistochemical detection in the tumor of GH, PRL, somatostatin receptor expression and the evaluation of the proliferation (mitoses count, Ki-67 and p53 indexes). The suspicion of an aggressive behavior needs a particular follow-up. In the case of tumor remnant, a postoperative treatment such as radiotherapy and/or somatostatin analogs must be considered.

  8. Post-surgical management of non-functioning pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Cortet-Rudelli, Christine; Bonneville, Jean-François; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Clavier, Lorraine; Coche Dequéant, Bernard; Desailloud, Rachel; Maiter, Dominique; Rohmer, Vincent; Sadoul, Jean Louis; Sonnet, Emmanuel; Toussaint, Patrick; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Post-surgical surveillance of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 or 6 months then 1 year. When there is no adenomatous residue, annual surveillance is recommended for 5 years and then at 7, 10 and 15 years. In case of residue or doubtful MRI, prolonged annual surveillance monitors any progression. Reintervention is indicated if complete residue resection is feasible, or for symptomatic optic pathway compression, to create a safety margin between the tumor and the optic pathways ahead of complementary radiation therapy (RT), or in case of post-RT progression. In case of residue, unless the tumor displays elevated growth potential, it is usually recommended to postpone RT until progression is manifest, as efficacy is comparable whether treatment is immediate or postponed. The efficacy of the various RT techniques in terms of tumor volume control is likewise comparable. RT-induced hypopituitarism is frequent, whatever the technique. The choice thus depends basically on residue characteristics: size, delineation, and proximity to neighboring radiation-sensitive structures. Reduced rates of vascular complications and secondary brain tumor can be hoped for with one-dose or hypofractionated stereotactic RT, but there has been insufficient follow-up to provide evidence. Somatostatin analogs and dopaminergic agonists have yet to demonstrate sufficient efficacy. Temozolomide is an option in aggressive NFPA resistant to surgery and RT. PMID:26116412

  9. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Apostolos K A; Dimitropoulou, Fotini; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Lyra, Stavroula; Seretis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively. Learning points Pituitary abscess is a rare disease and the reported clinical features vary mimicking other pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often very difficult to make and rarely included in the differential. The histological findings of acute inflammatory infiltration confirm the diagnosis of pituitary abscess. Medical and surgical treatment is usually recommended upon diagnosis of a pituitary abscess. PMID:27274845

  10. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  14. GIANT PITUITARY ADENOMA WITH NORMAL VISION AND MISLEADING RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Muhammad; Raina, Umer Farooq; uz Zaman, Khaleeq; Tahir, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas are rare and present with visual loss. Giant pituitary adenoma has rarely been reported presenting with normal vision. We report Giant pituitary adenoma with Normal vision in a 35 years old patient presenting with adult onset epilepsy and headache. PMID:26721053

  15. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.

  16. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  17. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  18. Germinoma recurrence in the conus medullaris 12 years after remission of primary intracranial lesion in the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Vinothan; Zebian, Bassel; Thakur, Bhaskar; Saran, Frank; Chandler, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial germinomas are rare primary central nervous system tumours that are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recurrences are infrequent, with the majority occurring within 5 years. Although multidisciplinary treatments have resulted in good event-free survival, long-term outcomes, over decades, are relatively poorly reported. We present a rare case of a recurrence in the conus medullaris 12 years after complete remission of the primary pituitary germinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of a significantly delayed spinal recurrence, occurring at a very distant and uncommon site, from the primary tumour. This case highlights the importance of long-term follow-up, even after complete remission, in order to identify and limit disability from late spinal recurrences in a relatively young patient population. We consider the literature regarding identifying high risk patients, and the role of craniospinal irradiation in limiting late spinal recurrences.

  19. The invasive front of carcinomas. The most important area for tumour prognosis?

    PubMed

    Bryne, M; Boysen, M; Alfsen, C G; Abeler, V M; Sudbø, J; Nesland, J M; Kristensen, G B; Piffko, J; Bankfalvi, A

    1998-01-01

    Various molecular events of importance in tumour spread, like the gain and loss of adhesion molecules, secretion of proteolytic enzymes, increased cell proliferation, and the initiation of angiogenesis occur at the tumour-host interface (invasive front). We have hypothesised that molecular or morphological characteristics at the invasive front area of various carcinomas may reflect tumour prognosis better than other parts of the tumour. Consequently, we recently developed a simple malignancy grading system restricted to the deep invasive front area of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. This grading system proved to have additional prognostic value over the established prognostic factors. All similar studies performed so far have confirmed the high prognostic significance of the invasive front grading in squamous cell carcinomas at different locations. In this review paper we describe the system and the hypothesis on which it has been developed. The reproducibility of the grading is acceptable for further extended studies. Interestingly, observations of similar invasive front alterations in different adenocarcinomas suggest that the invasive tumour front may underlie the biological aggressiveness of carcinomas of glandular origin, as well. PMID:9891553

  20. Diagnosing a rare case of desmoplastic small round cell tumour on liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cheo, F F; Leow, W Q

    2016-08-01

    A 50-year-old male of Indian descent presented with jaundice and right hypochondrium pain. Following a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen, a segment 7 liver lesion was visualized, accompanied by extensive peritoneal tumour deposits. An ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and histology showed loose nests and sheets of tumour cells with a small blue round cell morphology. The tumour cells showed patchy strong immunopositivity for cytokeratins (AE1/3, CK7, CK19) and synaptophysin, while showing diffuse strong perinuclear positivity for desmin. Interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) study using EWSR1 breakapart probe was positive for EWSR1 gene rearrangement. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare but aggressive intra-abdominal mesenchymal tumour. While the primary sites of involvement are usually the peritoneum and omentum, visceral involvement can occur. We wish to highlight the importance of considering this entity when evaluating a liver biopsy especially in a less than classical clinical context. PMID:27568672

  1. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  2. Cell lines from MYCN transgenic murine tumours reflect the molecular and biological characteristics of human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy J; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Ford, Jette; Smith, Janice; Murray, Jayne E; Flemming, Claudia; Lastowska, Maria; Jackson, Michael S; Hackett, Christopher S; Weiss, William A; Marshall, Glenn M; Kees, Ursula R; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    Overexpression of the human MYCN oncogene driven by a tyrosine hydroxylase promoter causes tumours in transgenic mice that recapitulate the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. To establish an in vitro model to study this process, a series of isogenic cell lines were developed from these MYCN-driven murine tumours. Lines were established from tumours arising in homozygous and hemizygous MYCN transgenic mice. Hemizygous tumours gave rise to cell lines growing only in suspension. Homozygous tumours gave rise to similar suspension lines as well as morphologically distinct substrate-adherent lines characteristic of human S-type neuroblastoma cells. FISH analysis demonstrated selective MYCN transgene amplification in cell lines derived from hemizygous mice. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis confirmed a range of neuroblastoma-associated genetic changes in the various lines, in particular, gain of regions syntenic with human 17q. These isogenic lines together with the transgenic mice thus represent valuable models for investigating the biological characteristics of aggressive neuroblastoma.

  3. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G.; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M.; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L.; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  4. A preliminary investigation of the role of the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ of the Hippo signalling pathway in canine and feline mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, G; Sacchetto, R; Cavicchioli, L; Sammarco, A; Mainenti, M; Ferro, S; Trez, D; Zulpo, M; Michieletto, S; Cecchinato, A; Goldschmidt, M; Zappulli, V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Cancer metastases are responsible for the high mortality rate. A small but distinct subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), have the capacity to self-renew, initiate tumour formation, and develop metastases. The CSC content in human breast cancer correlates with the Hippo tumour suppressor signalling pathway. Specifically, the activity of YAP/TAZ, transcription co-activators of the Hippo pathway, sustains the self-renewal and tumour-initiation capacities of CSCs. Little is known about YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours, which are very common tumours. The preliminary aim of the study was to investigate the expression of YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of YAP/TAZ was observed in all carcinomas compared to normal tissues, indicating neoplastic deregulation of the Hippo pathway. Nuclear expression significantly increased in grade III (high grade carcinomas) compared to grade I (low grade carcinomas) tumours, suggesting that YAP/TAZ play a role in the increased aggressiveness of these tumours. Moreover, different scoring systems for immunohistochemical analyses were compared and the H index and the Allred scores were the most significant. In conclusion, YAP/TAZ are expressed in aggressive canine and feline mammary tumours as reported in some human cancers. Further studies might better elucidate the role of the Hippo pathway in prognosis and as a target for new therapies. In addition, tumours in dogs and cats may be a useful model to study this pathway. PMID:26626094

  5. Tumours of Oddi: Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, B.; El-Khoury, W.; Hannoun, L.; Frileux, P.; Huguet, C.; Malafosse, M.; Parc, R.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective review of 56 patients operated upon for tumours of Oddi was performed in order to determine optimal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Common presenting symptoms were jaundice (86%) and anemia (21%). Mean size of the tumour was 2.3 cm. Five tumours were benign and 51 were malignant. According to the classification of Martin, five were grade I: 10 grade II; 18 grade III; and 18 grade IV. Forty-seven patients underwent resection of the tumour: three local excisions for small benign tumors, six ampullectomies (followed in three by a Whipples’ procedure for recurrence) and 41 Whipples’ procedures. The hospital mortality was 5.3%, minor complications appeared in 21%. The overall five years survival was 41%. It was 75% in grade I, 50% in grade II, 40% in grade III and 10% in grade IV. The patients who received ampullectomies were alive with a follow-up of one, two and three years. All patients operated upon for a benign tumour were alive except one who died of cardiac failure. Ultrasonography and duodenoscopy are the most useful tests for the diagnosis of tumours of Oddi. Prognosis depends on the degree of infiltration of the duodenal wall and the presence of positive lymph nodes. Whipples’ procedure is best but ampullectomy can be used in elderly or poor risk patients. Malignant tumours of the ampullary region are infrequent and reported to constitute betwee 0.02 and five percent of all cancers of the digestive tract. With wider application of endoscopic techniques, there has been an increasing interest in this group of tumours during recent years. In the literature tumours of Oddi are usually reported in the group of periampullary tumours, including tumours of the ampulla itself, duodenal wall surrounding the ampulla, the distal part of the common bile duct and head of the pancreas. We have wanted to distinguish specifically the tumours of the ampulla of Vater and have adopted the term tumour of Oddi introduced by Marchal and Hureau

  6. Pott's puffy tumour: still not an eradicated entity.

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Brell, M; Cardona, E; Claramunt, E; Costa, J M

    2001-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumour is an infrequent entity characterised by one or more subperiosteal abscesses associated with frontal bone osteomyelitis. Although cases in patients of all ages have been reported, teenagers are the most frequently affected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential because of the high risk of severe neurological complications, such as epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and secondary septic thrombosis of the dural sinuses. This paper describes the case of a patient with a subperiosteal abscess resulting from sinusitis, with orbital and intracranial extension, and subsequent neurological complications. Despite modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, 13 new cases have been published in the last 5 years; in at least 3 (23%) of these cases there were serious neurological complications. Upper respiratory infections and sinusitis are leading causes of visits to the emergency department in the paediatric age group; however, no risk factors for poor outcome have so far been identified in any of these patients.

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of liver masquerading as hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Subash, R; Arunkumar, ML; Iyoob, VA; Bonny, N

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide variety of inflammatory and benign neoplastic disorders of the biliary system that mimic cholangiocarcinoma in terms of clinical manifestations and imaging findings. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the bilary tract is one such condition, which is extremely rare but benign. Like cholangiocarcinoma this condition presents as painless progressive obstructive jaundice and it is often difficult to differentiate between the two prior to laparotomy, with the usual investigative modalities. Diagnosis is usually established by the characteristic histopathology findings in biopsy specimen. Newer diagnostic modalities directed at obtaining preoperative biopsy of the lesion appear promising in differentiating benign from malignant biliary lesions, but their routine use is yet to become standardised. Until then, awareness of doctors about the existence of such benign entities might prompt a less aggressive treatment approach while dealing with atypical hilar lesions of liver. PMID:24950398

  8. Pituitary tuberculoma: A consideration in the differential diagnosis in a patient manifesting with pituitary apoplexy-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Srisukh, Sasima; Tanpaibule, Tananun; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Boongird, Atthaporn; Wattanatranon, Duangkamon; Panyaping, Theerapol; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary tuberculoma is extremely rare, even in endemic regions of tuberculosis and much less frequently as a presentation of pituitary apoplexy. We describe a 25-year-old female presented with sudden onset of headache and vision loss of left eye which mimicking symptoms of pituitary apoplexy. MRI of the pituitary gland showed a rim-enhancing lesion at the intrasellar region extending into the suprasellar area, but absence of posterior bright spot with enhancement of the pituitary stalk. Pituitary hormonal evaluation revealed panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. An urgent transphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland was undertaken for which the histopathology showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with infarcted adjacent pituitary tissue. Despite negative fungal and AFB staining, pituitary tuberculoma was presumptively diagnosed based on imaging, pathology and the high incidence of tuberculosis in the country. After the course of anti-tuberculosis therapy, the clinical findings were dramatically improved, supporting the diagnosis. Pituitary tuberculoma is extremely rare in particular with an apoplexy-like presentation but should be one of the differential diagnosis list of intrasellar lesions in the patient presenting with sudden onset of headache and visual loss. The presence of diabetes insipidus and thickened with enhancement of pituitary stalk on MRI were very helpful in diagnosing pituitary tuberculosis. PMID:27516966

  9. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  10. Growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE: case report.

    PubMed

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Liebert, Włodzimierz; Gryczyńska, Maria; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Blanco-Gangoo, Al Ricardo; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary tumors causing acromegaly are usually macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and they can grow aggressively, infiltrating surrounding tissues. Difficulty in achieving complete tumor removal at surgery can lead toward a strong tendency for recurrence, making it necessary to consider a means of treatment other than those currently used such as somatostatin analogs (SSAs), growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, surgical removal, and radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient diagnosed with an aggressive, giant GH-secreting tumor refractory to medical therapy but ultimately treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE. A 26-year-old male with an invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland (5.6 × 2.5 × 3.6 cm) and biochemically confirmed acromegaly underwent 2 partial tumor resections: the first used the transsphenoidal approach and the second used the transcranial method. The patient received SSAs pre- and postoperatively. Because of the progression in pituitary tumor size, he underwent classic irradiation of the tumor (50 Gy). One and a half years later, the patient presented with clinically and biochemically active disease, and the tumor size was still 52 mm in diameter (height). Two neurosurgeons disqualified him from further surgical procedures. After confirming the presence of somatostatin receptors in the pituitary tumor by using (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, we treated the patient 4 times with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE. After this treatment, the patient attained partial biochemical remission and a reduction in the tumor mass for the first time. Treatment with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE may be a promising option for some aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas when other methods have failed. PMID:26636388

  11. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  12. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nicole E; Bumpus, Matthew F; Rock, Daquarii

    2010-06-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were themselves targets of Internet aggression. Offline relational aggression and beliefs supportive of relational and physical aggression also predicted concurrent involvement in Internet aggression. We used longitudinal data (N = 150; 51% female) to distinguish between youth who were aggressive in traditional contexts only (i.e., school) from those who were aggressive both online and offline. These results indicated that youth who were aggressive both online and offline were older at the initial assessment, were targets of Internet aggression, and held beliefs more supportive of relational aggression than youth who were aggressive offline only. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In these, defining the presence or absence of invasion is a particularly important task. This review describes and illustrates the radiological diagnosis of the different tumors of the sellar region, from the common prolactinomas, nonfunctioning adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, to the less frequent and more difficult to detect corticotroph pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease, and other neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities. Finally, some hints are given to facilitate the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:27003878

  14. Hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction in obese males.

    PubMed

    Amatruda, J M; Hochstein, M; Hsu, T H; Lockwood, D H

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated dysfunction of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis in obesity. We have studied 12 obese males to further characterize the extent of this dysfunction. The hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis is normal as determined by the testicular response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the pituitary response to 200 micrograms gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular response to clomiphene. Although L-dopa suppresses prolactin normally, the ability of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) to stimulate the release of prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is blunted. These latter responses are inversely related to the degree of obesity. The response to chlorpromazine, a hypothalamic stimulus for prolactin secretion, is also blunted, and to a greater extent than the prolactin response to TRH. These data indicate that exogenous obesity in males is associated with more extensive hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction than previously realized. The abnormalities with regard to prolactin and TSH release become progressively worse when body weight exceeds 200 percent of ideal. In addition, when evaluating pituitary function with regard to gonadotropin release, obese males may have an abnormal response to 100 micrograms GnRH but respond normally to 200 micrograms.

  15. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Robert A.; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed. PMID:26239686

  16. Spinal metastases from pituitary hemangiopericytic meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Skultety, F.M.; Masih, A.S.; McComb, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    A rare, previously irradiated, recurrent malignant angioblastic meningioma of the pituitary, hemangiopericytic type, was locally controlled by a new endocurietherapy technique that allows delivery of very high (10,000 cGy), sharply localized irradiation. Rather than succumbing to the local tumor recurrence, as would otherwise be expected, the patient developed distant spinal metastases several years later.

  17. A rare case of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dieh, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of an aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in a young primigravid woman with recurrent urinary tract infections and microscopic haematuria. An emergency caesarean section was performed at 37 weeks gestation for suspected placental abruption; however, she was found to have frank haematuria. Postnatally, an advanced bladder tumour was diagnosed. She required renal dialysis, a radical cystectomy and radiotherapy but sadly died seven months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the importance of thorough investigation of haematuria in pregnancy. Cystoscopy and even tumour resection can be safely performed in pregnancy. Although squamous cell carcinomas account for only 2% of bladder tumours in developed countries, they tend to be large and deeply invasive, requiring radical surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Management should be multidisciplinary and treatment individualized due to the significant clinical and emotional challenges which arise when a woman develops a malignancy in pregnancy or the puerperium.

  18. Health-related quality of life in pituitary diseases.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Iris; Valassi, Elena; Santos, Alicia; Webb, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    In the last 15 years, worse health-related quality of life (QoL) has been reported in patients with pituitary diseases compared with healthy individuals. Different QoL questionnaires have shown incomplete physical and psychological recovery after therapy. Residual impairments often affect QoL even long-term after successful treatment of pituitary adenomas. In this article, knowledge of factors that affect QoL in pituitary diseases is reviewed. The focus is on 5 pituitary diseases: Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, and hypopituitarism.

  19. Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Safer-Tabi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification. Case Presentation: The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass. Conclusions: Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on. PMID:26401144

  20. Increased serum interleukin-22 levels in patients with PRL-secreting and non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, S; Ferrau, F; Cotta, O R; Saitta, S; Barresi, V; Cristani, M T; Saija, A; Ruggeri, R M; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2014-02-01

    Cytokines' involvement in tumorigenesis has been hypothesized. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is implicated in proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways via its receptor IL-22R. Its role in pituitary adenomas has never been investigated. Twenty-seven patients with pituitary macroadenomas (PA, 21 males, mean age 53.8 ± 14.4 years) and 30 healthy controls (19 males, mean age 50.4 ± 8.4 years) were enrolled. Out of 27 PA patients, 17 had a non-functioning tumour (NFPA) and 10 a PRL-secreting adenoma (PRL-oma). Serum IL-22 levels were measured in both patients and controls. Immunohistochemical (IHC) tumoral IL-22R expression was evaluated in 10 patients with NFPA and 4 with PRL-oma. IL-22 levels were significantly higher in PA patients than in controls [32.47 (11.29-70.12) vs. 5.58 (0.19-21.46) pg/mL, p < 0.0001] but did not correlate with tumor maximum diameter and were not associated to pituitary function impairment. PRL-oma patients had significantly higher IL-22 levels than NFPA patients [37.18 (14.82-70.12) vs. 21.29 (11.29-56) pg/mL, p = 0.039]. IHC revealed a strong IL-22R staining in 100 % of PRL-omas and 60 % of NFPAs. We provide the first evidence of increased serum IL-22 levels in patients with pituitary macroadenoma, especially in PRL-omas, regardless of tumor size and/or degree of pituitary function impairment. We also demonstrated the expression of IL22R in all PRL-omas and in 60 % of NFPAs. PMID:23512698

  1. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  2. Benign tumours of the bone: A review☆

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, David N.; Pelly, Theo; Kulendran, Myutan; Caris, Jochem A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign tumours of the bone are not cancerous and would not metastasise to other regions of the body. However, they can occur in any part of the skeleton, and can still be dangerous as they may grow and compress healthy bone tissue. There are several types of benign tumours that can be classified by the type of matrix that the tumour cells produce; such as bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue, fat or blood vessel. Overall, 8 different types can be distinguished: osteochondroma, osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia and enchondroma. The incidence of benign bone tumours varies depending on the type. However, they most commonly arise in people less than 30 years old, often triggered by the hormones that stimulate normal growth. The most common type is osteochondroma. This review discusses the different types of common benign tumours of the bone based on information accumulated from published literature. PMID:26579486

  3. Solitary fibrous tumour: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Shet, Tanuja M; Chinoy, R F; Kane, S V

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising at pleural and extrapleural sites. Five cases of SFT diagnosed at our institution over a five year period were reviewed. Haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections, immuno-histochemical markers including CD34 and electron microscopy were the different methods used to study these tumours. Three histological features were consistently observed in all the tumours: the tumours were composed of short spindle cells separated by dense collagen bands and arranged in alternate hypocellular and hypercellular areas. CD34 positivity was seen in all the cases. SFT's have been reported to behave in an unpredictable fashion and hence prolonged follow up is essential. Histology, CD34 positivity and electron microscopy are useful tools in diagnosing SFT. While the pleural tumours can be diagnosed based on histology, this must be substantiated by ancillary techniques in case of extrapleural tumours.

  4. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  5. [Solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney].

    PubMed

    Gres, Pascal; Avances, Christophe; Ben Naoum, Kamel; Chapuis, Héliette; Costa, Pierre

    2004-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are mesenchymal tumours that usually arise from the pleura. Renal SFT are exceptional (9 cases reported in the literature). The authors report a new case discovered during assessment of HT and treated by radical right nephrectomy. The histological appearance is characteristic: a tumour with a fibrous centre, composed of a monomorphic proliferation of spindle cells, with positive CD 34, CD 99, and bcl 2 labelling. The prognosis after complete resection is generally favourable.

  6. Solitary fibrous tumour of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C

    1998-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a neoplasm most often localised in the pleura and peritoneum. The tumour is composed of spindled fibroblastic cells arranged in a haphazard way. Recently SFT has been described in many locations. Only one case of oral SFT has been described in the cheek: this is the second case of an oral SFT located in the tongue. The differential diagnosis must be made from many soft tissue tumours. SFTs stain strongly, in almost all cases, for CD34.

  7. [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].

    PubMed

    Bandier, Philippe Claus; Hansen, Alastair; Thorelius, Lars

    2009-01-26

    An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman. Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally. A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific. Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours. In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.

  8. [A case of pituitary adenoma progressing to pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography].

    PubMed

    Suga, T; Kagawa, S; Goto, H; Yoshioka, K; Hosoya, T

    1996-05-01

    A case of pituitary adenoma which had progressed from subclinical pituitary apoplexy to subacute pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography is reported. A 29-year-old man, complaining of bitemporal hemianopsia, was admitted to our department. Plain skull X-p revealed enlargement and double floor of the sella turcica. No abnormal calcification was revealed. CT demonstrated an isodensity mass with a diameter of 4 x 4 cm, and with ring enhancement in the suprasellar region. The mass extended from the intrasellar region to the suprasellar region and had a signal of high intensity on T1-weighted images. Endocrinological examination revealed hyperprolactinemia with a serum level of 422 ng/ml and normal reaction of anterior pituitary hormones. On 3rd March, digital subtraction angiography with 5F catheter was performed with the patient under sedation. The contrast medium was ioxaglic acid (Hexabrix 320). A volume of 6 ml with a speed of 4 ml per second was injected for the internal carotid angiogram. A total volume of 60 ml was used. Serum saline with 10 unit per ml of heparin sodium was also used for flushing. During angiography, the patient's blood pressure was 125/60-115/60mm Hg. DSA revealed upward displacement of the proximal portion of the anterior cerebral artery, pocket formation, and staining of the tumor capsule. Six hours later, he complained of retroorbital headache. Next morning, he noticed complete lack of left visual acuity. On 7th March, right visual acuity degenerated to blindness. CT revealed that the mass had increased its density. With bifrontal osteoplastic craniotomy, the tumor with marked intratumoral hemorrhage was resected. Its histology was chromophobe adenoma. The patient's right visual acuity improved rapidly. On the occasion of cerebral angiography, we could observe that subclinical pituitary apoplexy deteriorated to subacute pituitary apoplexy. Rosenbaum postulated that injection of contrast media increased intravascular

  9. Value of visual evoked potential monitoring during trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Chacko, A G; Babu, K S; Chandy, M J

    1996-06-01

    The visual outcome of 22 patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal excision of pituitary macroadenomas with intraoperative flash visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring (Group A), was compared with a non-randomized group of 14 patients who had undergone similar operations without VEP monitoring (Group B). Tumour size, preoperative visual acuity, peripheral fields, and latencies and amplitudes of P1 and P2 were analysed to ascertain the best predictor of postoperative visual function. It was found that patients in Group A had a significantly greater improvement in field defects than those in Group B. There was no difference in postoperative improvement in visual acuity between the two groups. None of the variables analysed were good predictors of visual outcome.

  10. Transient pituitary hypothyroidism in a patient with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J; Urgell, E; Montesinos, J; Domingo, P; Webb, S M

    2000-05-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with hypercortisolism secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion and severe non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) due to metastatic small cell lung carcinoma associated with severe infections. The patient initially showed hormonal profiles of pituitary hypothyroidism and gonadal hypofunction. After decrease in cortisol production following treatment with chemotherapy and metyrapone, serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations normalized. Study of the relative contributions of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) to the overall variability in thyroid function tests disclosed a significant and independent effect of serum cortisol on serum TSH concentrations; the variability in free thyroid hormone concentration was explained only by changes in TSH concentration. These observations indicate that cortisol could be the major determinant of changes in serum TSH concentrations in clinical conditions accompanied by hypercortisolism, as occurs in NTIS.

  11. Gastric stromal tumours: a practical approach.

    PubMed Central

    Mihssin, N.; Moorthy, K.; Sengupta, A.; Houghton, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent findings on the pathological diversity of gastric stromal tumours and their unpredictable behaviour prompted us to review our series of 16 patients who had undergone surgery for these tumours from 1991 to 1998. There were 13 benign and 3 malignant lesions. The majority of patients presented with either upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia alone (12 of 16). Endoscopy was an extremely useful diagnostic tool, revealing the lesion as an intraluminal protuberant tumour with or without ulcer in 10 cases and as an ulcer alone in 4 cases, and in 1 case features suggesting an extrinsic mass. All the patients in the series underwent surgery. We used staplers (AutosutureR TA 55) to excise the tumours in 7 cases, all of which on histological examination were benign with clear resection margins. Gastric resections were performed in 5 cases for either large tumours or those situated at the fundus or antrum and local excision of the remaining 4. The mean follow-up of these patients was 24 months. Two patients with malignant lesions died of irresectable recurrences, one 2 months and one 18 months after surgery. There have been no recurrences in the tumours diagnosed as benign on histology. Tumour size, position and the ability to apply the stapler leaving adequate margin below the tumour should be the determinants of extent and type of excision. Reliable determinants of behaviour are tumour size, grade and mitotic index. Images Figure 1 PMID:11103152

  12. Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Sikri, V; Chawla, R

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the pleura is a rare, usually benign primary tumour of the pleura. Spectrum of presentation can vary from an incidental finding on chest radiograph done for some other purpose, features of compression of surrounding structures to symptoms resulting from the tumour per se. We report a case of a female who presented with complaints of cough and chest pain in whom a diagnosis of SFT was confirmed on tru-cut biopsy and immunohistochemistry studies. The patient underwent thoracotomy and successful removal of the tumour.

  13. Oncogenic osteomalacia: strange tumours in strange places.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, D.; Bar, R. S.; Weidner, N.; Wener, M.; Lee, F.

    1985-01-01

    Two patients presented with hypophosphataemic osteomalacia and were subsequently found to have small tumours unusual histopathology and location causing the osteomalacia. Each tumour was found after an intensive search for occult masses. Studies of vitamin D metabolism and renal tubular function before and after surgery yielded further insight into the pathophysiology of oncogenic osteomalacia. These cases demonstrate that microscopic quantities of tumour are capable of causing the syndrome and further illustrate the high index of suspicion often necessary to locate causative tumours in patients with hypophosphataemic osteomalacia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:4022870

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Radikova, Z; Macho, L; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess basal function and responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during dynamic testing. Methods: Insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, as intravenous bolus) was induced in 17 patients and 11 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined in plasma. Results: Comparable basal cortisol levels were found in the two groups, with a trend to be lower in ankylosing spondylitis. In the ankylosing spondylitis group, there were higher concentrations of IL-6 (mean (SEM): 16.6 (2.8) pg/ml v 1.41 (0.66) pg/ml in controls; p<0.001) and TNFα (8.5 (1.74) pg/ml v 4.08 (0.42) pg/ml in controls; p<0.01). Glucose, insulin, ACTH, DHEAS, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ significantly from control. The IIH test was carried out successfully in 11 of the 17 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and the ACTH and cortisol responses were comparable with control. General linear modelling showed a different course of glycaemia (p = 0.041) in the ankylosing spondylitis patients who met the criteria for a successful IIH test compared with the controls. Conclusions: The results suggest there is no difference in basal HPA axis activity and completely preserved responsiveness of the HPA axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The interpretation of the different course of glycaemia during IIH in ankylosing spondylitis requires further investigation. PMID:15140773

  15. Gender differences in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Steingard, Ronald J; Anderson, Jennifer J; Melloni, Richard H

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in males and females. Results reveal high rates of aggression in both males and females in the sample. Self reported drug use, expressed hostility, and experiences of maladaptive parenting were correlated with proactive aggression for both genders. Hyperactive/impulsive behaviors were correlated with male reactive aggression. An early age of traumatic stress and a low verbal IQ were correlated with female proactive aggression. Gender differences in correlates of proactive and reactive aggression may provide possible targets for research, prevention, and treatment efforts focused on reducing maladaptive aggression in clinically referred youth. PMID:12723901

  16. [Pancreatic tumour in a child].

    PubMed

    Schouenborg Schultz, Thea; Thyssen Vestergaard, Esben

    2014-07-28

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in children and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) has a prevalence of 8.4% in childhood. In 90-95% of RAPs no organic disease is identified. Thus, it is important that the few of somatic origin are diagnosed. We describe a case concerning a 12-year-old girl, diagnosed with a solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The symptoms were RAP and postprandial vomiting. The purpose of this article is to increase the knowledge of "alarm findings" indicating an organic disease in children with RAP. PMID:25292323

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours

    PubMed Central

    Goh, PYT

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established local therapy for hepatic malignancies. It is rapidly emerging as an effective treatment modality for small lesions elsewhere in the body, in particular, the kidney and the lung. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive treatment for small lung malignancies, both primary and secondary. In particular, it is the preferred form of treatment for non-surgical candidates. This paper describes the technique employed for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours, as well as the protocol established, at the Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore. PMID:21614247

  18. A review of bovine urothelial tumours and tumour-like lesions of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Roperto, S; Borzacchiello, G; Brun, R; Leonardi, L; Maiolino, P; Martano, M; Paciello, O; Papparella, S; Restucci, B; Russo, V; Salvatore, G; Urraro, C; Roperto, F

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred bovine urothelial tumours and tumour-like lesions were classified in accordance with the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) morphological classification for human urothelial tumours. The spectrum of neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder of cattle is becoming wider and bovine urothelial tumours share striking morphological features with their human counterparts. A classification system based on the WHO scheme would also be appropriate for the classification of bovine bladder tumours. Bovine urothelial tumours are most often multiple. Four distinct growth patterns of bovine urothelial tumours and tumour-like lesions are recognized: flat, exophytic or papillary, endophytic and invasive. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the most common flat urothelial lesion, accounting for approximately 4% of urothelial tumours. CIS is detected adjacent to papillary and invasive tumours in 80-90% of cases. Approximately 3% of papillary lesions are papillomas and approximately 5% are 'papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential' (PUNLMP). Low-grade carcinoma is the most common urothelial tumour of cattle. High-grade carcinomas, and low and high-grade invasive tumours, are less commonly seen. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) infection and ingestion of bracken fern both play a central role in carcinogenesis of these lesions.

  19. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  20. Early manifestation of communicating hydrocephalus after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for aggressive giant atypical prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Iwama, Toru; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Aggressive giant invasive pituitary adenomas refractory to standard surgical or medical treatment remain a genuine challenge. In addition, communicating hydrocephalus (CH) attributed to malabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) developing after radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas has not been previously reported. Herein, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male presenting with a giant atypical prolactinoma refractory to previous therapies, including pharmacotherapy and repetitive surgery. He underwent image-guided fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in 28 fractions, resulting in early manifestation of CH associated with undisputed, both radiological and hormonal response. He recovered well after a shunt placement, with otherwise favorable consequences such as sustained tumor regression, decreasing prolactin level, and retained visual function for a 22-month follow-up. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy would provide a viable treatment alternative for these refractory cases, while caution should be exercised regarding the possibility of iatrogenic CH.

  1. Activation of tumour cell ECM degradation by thrombin-activated platelet membranes: potentially a P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Pang, J H; Coupland, L A; Freeman, C; Chong, B H; Parish, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    The promotion of tumour metastasis by platelets may occur through several mechanisms including the induction of a more metastatic phenotype in tumour cells and assisted extravasation of circulating tumour cells. Whilst the mechanisms underlying platelet-assisted extravasation have been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying platelet promotion of an aggressive phenotype within a tumour cell population. Herein, we demonstrate in vitro that MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells incubated with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes adopt a Matrigel-degrading phenotype in a dose- and contact time-dependent manner. The same phenotypic change was observed with three other human tumour cell lines of diverse anatomical origin. Moreover, tumour cell lines that had been cultured with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes had a greater metastatic capacity when injected into mice. This in vivo effect was reliant upon a co-incubation period of >2 h implying a mechanism involving more than platelet membrane binding that occurred within 5 min. Upon further investigation it was found that simultaneous blocking of the platelet-membrane proteins P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa prevented interactions between platelet membranes and MDA-MB-231 cells but also significantly reduced the ability of tumour cells to degrade Matrigel. These results confirm that platelets induce a more aggressive phenotype in tumour cells but also identify the platelet proteins involved in this effect. P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa also play a role in assisting tumour cell extravasation and, thus, are ideal targets for the therapeutic intervention of both stages of platelet-assisted metastasis.

  2. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  3. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important. PMID:23641762

  4. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  6. Effectiveness of computer-assisted perimetry in the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Cannavó, S; De Natale, R; Princi, P; Li Calzi, L; Aragona, A; Trimarchi, F

    1989-12-01

    Computer-assisted perimetry (CP) is a new method which quantifies the differential light sensitivity threshold and allows the statistical analysis of the data. It offers advantages as compared with manual methods. This study has been carried out in 27 patients with pituitary adenomas (four males and 23 females; 13 with prolactinomas; six with acromegaly, four with Cushing's disease and four with non-secreting adenomas). A skull X-ray and a computed tomodensitometry (CT), a manual Goldman perimeter and a computer assisted visual field examination were performed in all cases. The presence of a pituitary tumour was suggested by the X-ray and by the CT in 12 and 23 patients respectively out of the 27: the CT scan revealed a suprasellar extension in seven cases. Visual field defects were detected by means of the Goldman perimeter in six patients and by means of the computer-assisted technique in 25/27. The effectiveness of this new technique was proved by the concordance with the CT scan results in 21 cases and by the histological examination of the four adenomas which were not apparent at CT scan. A significant difference was found for both eyes (right eye, chi squared = 258, P less than 0.001; left eye, chi squared = 295.0, P less than 0.001) between patients and controls. No correlation existed between visual defects and the pituitary size apparent at CT scan. Six patients were evaluated with the CT and CP after 1 year of bromocriptine treatment; a slight reduction of size was documented with the CT in four cases, whereas a significant positive change in visual acuity was observed in five patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Update: brain and pituitary hormones of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Sower, S A; Kawauchi, H

    2001-06-01

    Lampreys and hagfish of the class Agnatha are of particular importance in understanding endocrinological relationships since they represent the oldest lineages of extant vertebrates which evolved over 550 million years ago. This review briefly summarizes the latest findings on the reproductive endocrinology of the sea lampreys. Since the First International Symposium of Fish Endocrinology in 1988, when virtually little was known of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, substantial new biochemical, molecular, physiological and immunological evidence has now clearly shown that lamprey reproduction is controlled by the neuroendocrine axis. In addition, five brain and six pituitary hormones of lampreys have been identified mainly by Sower and Kawauchi and colleagues between 1986 and 2000. We now hypothesize that lamprey reproduction is a highly synchronized process that is initiated or mediated by a coordination of complex integration of environmental cues and hormonal mechanisms which is broadly similar to that exhibited by gnathostome vertebrates.

  8. Melatonin and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Li, N; Bo, L; Xu, Z

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine), a principal product of the pineal gland, is produced mainly during the dark phase of the circadian cycle. This hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of circadian and seasonal changes in various aspects of physiology and neuroendocrine functions. In mammals, melatonin can influence sexual maturation and reproductive functions via activation of its receptors and binding sites in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This review summarizes current knowledge of melatonin on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads. We also review recent progress in clinical applications of melatonin or potentials of using melatonin, as a reducer of oxidative stress, to improve reproductive functions for the diseases such as women infertility.

  9. Cushing's disease: management by transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Bigos, S T; Somma, M; Rasio, E; Eastman, R C; Lanthier, A; Johnston, H H; Hardy, J

    1980-02-01

    Over 15 yr, 24 patients underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease with a median follow-up of 12 months. Cures included 7 patients with normal sella turcicas (6 microadenomas), 6 patients with focal depressions (6 microadenomas) of the sella (grade I), and 3 patients (3 adenomas) with enlarged sellas (grade II). Three patients with sella destruction (grades III and IV), 2 with normal sellas, and 1 with focal sella depression (grade I) were not cured. Two apparent cures (microadenomas) recurred. Tumor histology revealed 19 basophilic adenomas; electron microscopy (14 tumors) and immunochemical studies (10 tumors) revealed only ACTH cells. Circadian rhythm returned in 6 cured patients. Impotence (in 2), amenorrhea (in 7), and galactorrhea (in 3) resolved in affected cured patients. The major surgical complication was hemorrhage at the operative site (3 patients). Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is a valuable method for managing Cushing's disease in many patients.

  10. Preoperative volume determination for pituitary adenoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukic, Dženan; Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H. A.; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma, and sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Manual slice-by-slice segmentation takes quite some time that can be reduced by using the appropriate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm that we have applied recently to segmenting glioblastoma multiforme. A modification of this scheme is used for adenoma segmentation that is much harder to perform, due to lack of contrast-enhanced boundaries. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of ten magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. The segmentations were compared to the segmentation results of the proposed method using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The average DSC for all datasets was 75.92%+/-7.24%. A manual segmentation took about four minutes and our algorithm required about one second.

  11. Early life stress, the development of aggression and neuroendocrine and neurobiological correlates: what can we learn from animal models?

    PubMed

    Veenema, Alexa H

    2009-10-01

    Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA), vasopressin and serotonin systems and their relevance for the regulation of aggression are discussed. Data suggest that social deprivation-induced inappropriate forms of aggression are associated with high or low HPA axis (re)activity and a generally lower functioning of the serotonin system in adulthood. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic modifications in HPA and serotonin systems influence the outcome of early life stress and may even moderate adverse effects of early social deprivation on aggression. A more comprehensive study of aggression, neuroendocrine, neurobiological and (epi)genetic correlates of early life stress using animal models is necessary to provide a better understanding of the invasive aggressive deficits observed in humans exposed to child maltreatment. PMID:19341763

  12. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  13. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  14. Colorectal cancer manifesting with metastasis to prolactinoma: report of a case involving symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Sunthornyothin, Sarat

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary metastasis is an uncommon first presentation of systemic malignancy. The most common presenting symptom of pituitary metastasis is diabetes insipidus reflecting involvement of the stalk and/or posterior pituitary. We herein present a unique case of the coexistence of both a functioning pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) and pituitary metastasis of advanced colorectal cancer with pituitary apoplexy as the first manifestation of underlying malignancy. The present case emphasizes the need to consider pituitary metastasis as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with pituitary lesions and be aware that tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur unexpectedly in those with pituitary metastases.

  15. THE INTRACELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF PITUITARY THYROTROPIC HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Francis S.; Hargadine, Judy R.

    1965-01-01

    The intracellular localization of a bovine anterior pituitary preparation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was studied in guinea pigs and dogs. The preparation was administered intravascularly or applied directly to tissue sections. TSH was detected by an indirect technique utilizing bovine TSH antiserum and fluorescein-labeled anti-rabbit globulin; the presence of TSH in the tissue was indicated by fluorescence when the tissue was examined under the microscope with an ultraviolet light source. After either intravascular administration or direct application of the TSH preparation, striking fluorescence was found in the nuclei of the thyroid cells and to a lesser degree in the nuclei of retro-orbital fat tissue and kidney tubules in both species studied. A little fluorescence was also seen in spleen tissue. No fluorescence was noted in comparable tissues removed from control animals injected with bovine albumin or globulin or when the tissues were treated with the fluorescein-labeled globulin alone. Fluorescence was also noted in the nuclei of adrenal cells treated with unabsorbed antiserum, but this was greatly diminished when antiserum absorbed with crystalline ACTH was used. The positive reactions were all markedly decreased when the tissues were treated with antisera absorbed with the original TSH preparation. Fluorescence was noted in the cytoplasm of pituitary tissue from both treated and control animals, suggesting a cross-reaction between the bovine pituitary antisera and guinea pig or dog hypophysis. The indirect technique seems to be highly satisfactory for demonstration of the pitiutary hormone within the cell. In addition, the demonstration of immunologically active anterior pituitary TSH bound to cell nuclei offers a clue to the site of action of this hormone. PMID:5323607

  16. Advances in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Solari, D; Cavallo, L M; De Angelis, M; Villa, A; Somma, T; Esposito, F; Del Basso De Caro, M; Cappabianca, P

    2012-12-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, requiring precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. Actually, it could be considered the result of a close cooperation between different specialists, i.e. the ophthalmologist, the neuroradiologist, the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, the pathologist, etc. In this teamwork environment each member plays his own role, offering his contribute to the final result; every effort is performed to provide patients with the best possible procedure, individually measured. The endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by means of a transsphenoidal approach perfectly fits this scenario, being though advocated as the result of an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary one. The "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery - consisting of a whole procedure performed with the endoscope alone and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor - offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy, very important at the tumor/gland interface and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate are similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series but patient compliance is by far better.

  17. Pituitary tumors: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Arafah, B M; Nasrallah, M P

    2001-12-01

    Pituitary tumors are frequently encountered intracranial neoplasms. They present with a variety of clinical manifestations that include symptoms and signs of excessive hormone secretion by the tumor, signs of hormone deficits by the normal pituitary gland and others related to expansion of the tumor mass and the resulting compression of surrounding structures such as the optic chiasm and cranial nerves. Advances in molecular biology, immunocytochemical staining and imaging, and the introduction of new treatment options have improved our understanding of the natural history of these adenomas and their management. Available treatments include surgical, medical and radiation therapy. Although the primary treatment for each tumor type may vary, it is important to consider all available options and select the most applicable for that patient. The interaction of all members of management team, including the primary care provider, the endocrinologist and the neurosurgeon in selecting the treatment course can only improve therapeutic outcome. Regardless of the initial choice of treatment,follow-up of all patients should be maintained indefinitely. The managing physician should be familiar with the natural history and long-term complications of pituitary adenomas, and with the side effects of treatments given over the years. PMID:11733226

  18. Fractionated proton beam irradiation of pituitary adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ronson, Brian B.; Schulte, Reinhard W.; Han, Khanh P.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D. . E-mail: jdslater@dominion.llumc.edu

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: Various radiation techniques and modalities have been used to treat pituitary adenomas. This report details our experience with proton treatment of these tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pituitary adenomas treated with protons, who had at least 6 months of follow-up, were included in this analysis. Forty-two patients underwent a prior surgical resection; 5 were treated with primary radiation. Approximately half the tumors were functional. The median dose was 54 cobalt-gray equivalent. Results: Tumor stabilization occurred in all 41 patients available for follow-up imaging; 10 patients had no residual tumor, and 3 had greater than 50% reduction in tumor size. Seventeen patients with functional adenomas had normalized or decreased hormone levels; progression occurred in 3 patients. Six patients have died; 2 deaths were attributed to functional progression. Complications included temporal lobe necrosis in 1 patient, new significant visual deficits in 3 patients, and incident hypopituitarism in 11 patients. Conclusion: Fractionated conformal proton-beam irradiation achieved effective radiologic, endocrinological, and symptomatic control of pituitary adenomas. Significant morbidity was uncommon, with the exception of postradiation hypopituitarism, which we attribute in part to concomitant risk factors for hypopituitarism present in our patient population.

  19. Pituitary Adenoma Volumetry with 3D Slicer

    PubMed Central

    Nimsky, Christopher; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present pituitary adenoma volumetry using the free and open source medical image computing platform for biomedical research: (3D) Slicer. Volumetric changes in cerebral pathologies like pituitary adenomas are a critical factor in treatment decisions by physicians and in general the volume is acquired manually. Therefore, manual slice-by-slice segmentations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which have been obtained at regular intervals, are performed. In contrast to this manual time consuming slice-by-slice segmentation process Slicer is an alternative which can be significantly faster and less user intensive. In this contribution, we compare pure manual segmentations of ten pituitary adenomas with semi-automatic segmentations under Slicer. Thus, physicians drew the boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis and performed a Slicer-enhanced segmentation using the competitive region-growing based module of Slicer named GrowCut. Results showed that the time and user effort required for GrowCut-based segmentations were on average about thirty percent less than the pure manual segmentations. Furthermore, we calculated the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) between the manual and the Slicer-based segmentations to proof that the two are comparable yielding an average DSC of 81.97±3.39%. PMID:23240062

  20. The status of epidermal growth factor receptor in borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Showeil, Rania; Romano, Claudia; Valganon, Mikel; Lambros, Maryou; Trivedi, Pritesh; Van Noorden, Susan; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; El-Kaffash, Dalal; El-Etreby, Nour; Natrajan, Rachael; Foroni, Letizia; Osborne, Richard; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-03-01

    The majority of borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) behave in a benign fashion, but some may show aggressive behavior. The reason behind this has not been elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to contribute to cell survival signals as well as metastatic potential of some tumours. EGFR expression and gene status have not been thoroughly investigated in BOTs as it has in ovarian carcinomas. In this study we explore protein expression as well as gene mutations and amplifications of EGFR in BOTs in comparison to a subset of other epithelial ovarian tumours. We studied 85 tumours, including 61 BOTs, 10 low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs), 9 high grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and 5 benign epithelial tumours. EGFR protein expression was studied using immunohistochemistry. Mutations were investigated by Sanger sequencing exons 18-21 of the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR. Cases with comparatively higher protein expression were examined for gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization. We also studied the tumours for KRAS and BRAF mutations. Immunohistochemistry results revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear EGFR expression with variable degrees between tumours. The level of nuclear localization was relatively higher in BOTs and LGSCs as compared to HGSCs or benign tumours. The degree of nuclear expression of BOTs showed no significant difference from that in LGSCs (mean ranks 36.48, 33.05, respectively, p=0.625), but was significantly higher than in HGSCs (mean ranks: 38.88, 12.61 respectively, p< 0.001) and benign tumours (mean ranks: 35.18, 13.00 respectively, p= 0.010). Cytoplasmic expression level was higher in LGSCs. No EGFR gene mutations or amplification were identified, yet different polymorphisms were detected. Five different types of point mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E BRAF mutation were detected exclusively in BOTs and LGSCs. Our study reports for the first time nuclear localization of EGFR in BOTs. The nuclear

  1. In vivo electrical conductivity of hepatic tumours.

    PubMed

    Haemmerich, Dieter; Staelin, S T; Tsai, J Z; Tungjitkusolmun, S; Mahvi, D M; Webster, J G

    2003-05-01

    Knowledge of electrical tissue conductivity is necessary to determine deposition of electromagnetic energy and can further be used to diagnostically differentiate between normal and neoplastic tissue. We measured 17 rats with a total of 24 tumours of the K12/TRb rat colon cancer cell line. In each animal we measured in vivo hepatic tumour and normal tissue conductivity at seven frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz, at different tumour stages between 6 and 12 weeks after induction. Conductivity of normal liver tissue was 1.26 +/- 0.15 mS cm(-1) at 10 Hz, and 4.61 +/- 0.42 mS cm(-1) at 1 MHz. Conductivity of tumour was 2.69 +/- 0.91 mS cm(-1) at 10 Hz, and 5.23 +/- 0.82 mS cm(-1) at 1 MHz. Conductivity was significantly different between normal and tumour tissue (p < 0.05). We determined the percentage of necrosis and fibrosis at the measurement site. We fitted the conductivity data to the Cole-Cole model. For the tumour data we determined Spearman's correlation coefficients between the Cole-Cole parameters and age, necrosis, fibrosis and tumour volume and found significant correlation between necrosis and the Cole-Cole parameters (p < 0.05). We conclude that necrosis within the tumour and the associated membrane breakdown is likely responsible for the observed change in conductivity.

  2. Cartilage-containing tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Eric M.

    1967-01-01

    An unusual case is reported of a woman aged 27 years who presented with four intrapulmonary cartilage-containing tumours which were resected from the left lung. The appearance of two new shadows in the chest several years later suggested that two of the resected tumours had recurred. Three of the four resected tumours consisted entirely of cartilage and bone and other connective tissues. The fourth tumour, although consisting almost entirely of cartilage and connective tissue, also contained epithelial tissue in the form of two small clefts, one in the periphery and the other in a connective tissue septum between the lobules of cartilage of the tumour. These tumours are regarded as a variation of the more typical cartilage-containing tumour of the lung which contains many spaces lined by respiratory epithelium and is regarded as a neoplasm arising in the connective tissue beneath the mucosa of a small bronchus with subsequent expansion into its lumen and enclosing spaces lined by the mucosal epithelium during its eccentric growth. The tumours consisting almost entirely of cartilage without spaces lined by epithelial cells are thought to expand into the adjacent lung tissue and not into the bronchial lumen. Therefore there is no inclusion of respiratory epithelium from the mucosa of the bronchus of origin. Images PMID:6033393

  3. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  4. CT/MRI of neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Reznek, Rodney H

    2006-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are often thought to be rare and rather recherché cancers which are of little concern to the general physician, surgeon or radiologist because of their rarity and esoteric nature. In fact, while relatively uncommon, the total group of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours incorporates the spectrum of all types of carcinoids, incuding bronchial carcinoids, and the whole gamut of islet-cell tumours. Some of these may present as functioning tumours, with a plethora of hormonal secretions and concomitant clinical syndromes, and GEPs in general have an incidence around 30 per million population per year. This means that in the whole European Union, for example, there will be in the region of 12000 new patients every year presenting with one or another manifestation of these tumours. Furthermore, the comparatively long survival of many of these patients, compared to more common adenocarcinomas or epithelial tumours, implies that the point prevalence is also not inconsiderable. However, it is undoubtedly true that these tumours can be difficult to identify, especially in their early stages, and it is then that radiological investigation becomes of paramount importance. Having taken into account all these considerations, most investigators would initiate investigation of a suspected or biochemically proven islet-cell tumour with cross-sectional imaging—either CT or MRI. This will clearly identify the larger lesions, allow assessment of the entire abdomen, and provide valuable information on the presence of hepatic metastates. PMID:17114072

  5. Küttner's tumour: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tagnon, B; Weynand, B; Reychler, H

    2008-01-01

    Küttner's tumour (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the salivary glands. It is a totally benign lesion. However, because of its clinical features, the clinical diagnosis is often that of a salivary gland neoplasm. We present a case of unilateral Küttner's tumour in the left submandibular salivary gland and discuss clinical, imaging and histological features.

  6. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  7. Leptin receptors are developmentally regulated in rat pituitary and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Morash, Barbara A; Imran, Ali; Wilkinson, Diane; Ur, Ehud; Wilkinson, Michael

    2003-11-28

    We have previously reported that leptin is expressed in adult rat brain and pituitary gland, though the role of leptin in these sites has not been determined. Leptin mRNA is developmentally regulated in the brain and pituitary of male and female rats during early postnatal development, suggesting a role in the maturation of the brain-pituitary system. Here, we sought to extend our previous studies by evaluating (1) the ontogeny of leptin receptor mRNA levels in rat brain and pituitary and (2) pituitary leptin protein levels in neonatal and pre-pubertal rats. Pituitary leptin concentration was highest shortly after birth (postnatal day (PD) 4, 25 ng/mg protein) and fell significantly throughout postnatal development and into adulthood (PD 60, 3.5 ng/mg protein; P<0.005) coincident with a decline in pituitary leptin mRNA levels. Significant age-related effects on leptin receptor mRNA levels were also observed in the pituitary and the hypothalamus of male and female rats using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In the pituitary, the short form (OBRa) mRNA levels were highest in neonatal rats (PD 4) but declined throughout postnatal development (PD 4-22) paralleling the fall in pituitary leptin mRNA and protein levels. The long form (OBRb) mRNA levels were unaffected by age between PD 4 and 22. In contrast, hypothalamic, levels of OBRb mRNA were very low to undetectable shortly after birth (PD 4) and rose significantly between PD 4 and 14/22 while levels of OBRa mRNA were not significantly different between PD 4 and 22. Immunohistochemical detection of leptin receptor immunoreactivity (all forms) revealed the presence of OBR-like protein in pituitary and hypothalamus as early as PD 4. Cortical leptin receptor mRNA levels were similar throughout early postnatal development. No gender-related differences in leptin receptor mRNA levels were noted in brain or pituitary. In conclusion, these data, together with our previous work, indicate that the neonatal pituitary gland

  8. Optimization of tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours by radiation dose redistribution: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Aste; Malinen, Eirik; Bruland, Øyvind S; Bentzen, Søren M; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-01-21

    Tumour hypoxia is a known cause of clinical resistance to radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to model the effects on tumour control probability (TCP) of selectively boosting the dose to hypoxic regions in a tumour, while keeping the mean tumour dose constant. A tumour model with a continuous oxygen distribution, incorporating pO(2) histograms published for head and neck patients, was developed. Temporal and spatial variations in the oxygen distribution, non-uniform cell density and cell proliferation during treatment were included in the tumour modelling. Non-uniform dose prescriptions were made based on a segmentation of the tumours into four compartments. The main findings were: (1) Dose redistribution considerably improved TCP for all tumours. (2) The effect on TCP depended on the degree of reoxygenation during treatment, with a maximum relative increase in TCP for tumours with poor or no reoxygenation. (3) Acute hypoxia reduced TCP moderately, while underdosing chronic hypoxic cells gave large reductions in TCP. (4) Restricted dose redistribution still gave a substantial increase in TCP as compared to uniform dose boosts. In conclusion, redistributing dose according to tumour oxygenation status might increase TCP when the tumour response to radiotherapy is limited by chronic hypoxia. This could potentially improve treatment outcome in a subpopulation of patients who respond poorly to conventional radiotherapy. PMID:17202629

  9. p53 tumour suppressor gene expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, C; Ziske, C; Wiedenmann, B; Moelling, K

    1996-01-01

    Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8675094

  10. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Tan A.; Sousa, Aurea D.; Jones, Michelle A.; Harrell, J. Chuck; Agoston, Elin S.; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M.; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S.; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R.; Crum, Christopher P.; Brugge, Joan S.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  11. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  12. Solitary fibrous tumour of the renal peripelvis.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, M; Nikaido, T

    1997-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms generally associated with the serosal surface, especially the pleura. This report describes two SFTs arising in the renal peripelvis, occurring in 33- and 36-year-old females. The lesions lacked the characteristic features of other recognized neoplasms that occur in the kidney. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were diffusely and strongly positive for vimentin and CD34, and some tumour cells expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin. Both tumours were diploid by flow cytometry. Both patients have had benign clinical courses with 7.5- and 1-year follow-up. The findings suggest that the SFTs may originate from peripelvic mesenchymal cells, a new location for SFT. SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumours arising in the renal pelvis and peripelvis.

  13. Semi-supervised analysis of human brain tumours from partially labeled MRS information, using manifold learning models.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Barbosa, Raúl; Vellido, Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    Medical diagnosis can often be understood as a classification problem. In oncology, this typically involves differentiating between tumour types and grades, or some type of discrete outcome prediction. From the viewpoint of computer-based medical decision support, this classification requires the availability of accurate diagnoses of past cases as training target examples. The availability of such labeled databases is scarce in most areas of oncology, and especially so in neuro-oncology. In such context, semi-supervised learning oriented towards classification can be a sensible data modeling choice. In this study, semi-supervised variants of Generative Topographic Mapping, a model of the manifold learning family, are applied to two neuro-oncology problems: the diagnostic discrimination between different brain tumour pathologies, and the prediction of outcomes for a specific type of aggressive brain tumours. Their performance compared favorably with those of the alternative Laplacian Eigenmaps and Semi-Supervised SVM for Manifold Learning models in most of the experiments.

  14. Histologically malignant solitary fibrous tumour of the anterior thoracic wall: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Archontaki, Maria; Korkolis, Dimitris P; Arnogiannaki, Niki; Hatzijiannis, Stelios; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Megapanos, Christos; Kassotakis, Dimitris; Kokkalis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare oncological entity that most often arises in the pleura. Over the past 10 years, the tumour has been described at numerous extrapleural locations. We present the case of a 42-year-old female Caucasian patient with an extrapleural SFT located at the anterior thoracic wall for 22 years, with atypical histological characteristics and clinical features of malignancy. Management consisted of a wide surgical resection, plastic reconstruction, and postoperative radiotherapy. Although extrapleural SFT usually behaves as a benign soft tissue tumour, it can also present with a more aggressive local behavior, including locoregional recurrence or metastasis. In that case, a multidisciplinary approach is required for accurate diagnosis and proper management.

  15. Beneficial role of overexpression of TFPI-2 on tumour progression in human small cell lung cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Marion; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Blechet, Claire; Guyetant, Serge; Pape, Alain Le; Heuze-Vourc’h, Nathalie; Courty, Yves; Lerondel, Stephanie; Sobilo, Julien; Iochmann, Sophie; Reverdiau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potent inhibitor of plasmin, a protease which is involved in tumour progression by activating (MMPs). This therefore makes TFPI-2 a potential inhibitor of invasiveness and the development of metastases. In this study, low levels of TFPI-2 expression were found in 65% of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive type of lung cancer. To study the impact of TFPI-2 in tumour progression, TFPI-2 was overexpressed in NCI-H209 SCLC cells which were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Investigations showed that TFPI-2 inhibited lung tumour growth. Such inhibition could be explained in vitro by a decrease in tumour cell viability, blockade of G1/S phase cell cycle transition and an increase in apoptosis shown in NCI-H209 cells expressing TFPI-2. We also demonstrated that TFPI-2 upregulation in NCI-H209 cells decreased MMP expression, particularly by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-3. Moreover, TFPI-2 inhibited phosphorylation of the MAPK signalling pathway proteins involved in the induction of MMP transcripts, among which MMP-1 was predominant in SCLC tissues and was inversely expressed with TFPI-2 in 35% of cases. These results suggest that downregulation of TFPI-2 expression could favour the development of SCLC. PMID:23905012

  16. Denosumab and giant cell tumour of bone—a review and future management considerations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S.F.; Adams, B.; Yu, X.C.; Xu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell tumour of bone (gctb) is one type of giant-cell-rich bone lesion characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated osteoclast-type giant cells. Giant cells are known to express rankl (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) and are responsible for the aggressive osteolytic nature of the tumour. No available treatment option is definitively effective in curing this disease, especially in surgically unsalvageable cases. In recent years, several studies of denosumab in patients with advanced or unresectable gctb have shown objective changes in tumour composition, reduced bony destruction, and clinical benefit. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets and binds with high affinity and specificity to rankl. Several large phase iii studies have shown that denosumab is more effective than bisphosphonates in reducing skeletal morbidity arising from a wide range of tumours and that it can delay bone metastasis. The relevant articles are reviewed here. The controversies related to the future use of denosumab in the treatment of gctb are discussed. PMID:24155640

  17. Targeting the hypoxic fraction of tumours using hypoxia-activated prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of a microenvironment within most tumours containing regions of low oxygen tension or hypoxia has profound biological and therapeutic implications. Tumour hypoxia is known to promote the development of an aggressive phenotype, resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Paradoxically, it is recognised as a high-priority target and one of the therapeutic strategies designed to eradicate hypoxic cells in tumours is a group of compounds known collectively as hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) or bioreductive drugs. These drugs are inactive prodrugs that require enzymatic activation (typically by 1 or 2 electron oxidoreductases) to generate cytotoxic species with selectivity for hypoxic cells being determined by (1) the ability of oxygen to either reverse or inhibit the activation process and (2) the presence of elevated expression of oxidoreductases in tumours. The concepts underpinning HAP development were established over 40 years ago and have been refined over the years to produce a new generation of HAPs that are under preclinical and clinical development. The purpose of this article is to describe current progress in the development of HAPs focusing on the mechanisms of action, preclinical properties and clinical progress of leading examples.

  18. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  19. Selective targeting of tumour neovasculature by a radiohalogenated human antibody fragment specific for the ED-B domain of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Demartis, S; Tarli, L; Borsi, L; Zardi, L; Neri, D

    2001-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a characteristic feature of many aggressive tumours and other disorders. Antibodies capable of binding to new blood vessels, but not to mature vessels, could be used as selective targeting agents for immunoscintigraphic and radioimmunotherapeutic applications. Here we show that scFv(L19), a recombinant human antibody fragment with sub-nanomolar affinity for the ED-B domain of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis, can be stably labelled with iodine-125 and astatine-211 with full retention of immunoreactivity, using a trimethyl-stannyl benzoate bifunctional derivative. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing two different types of tumour grafted subcutaneously, followed by ex vivo micro-autoradiographic analysis, revealed that scFv(L19) rapidly localises around tumour blood vessels, but not around normal vessels. Four hours after intravenous injection of the stably radioiodinated scFv(L19), tumour to blood ratios were 6:1 in mice bearing the F9 murine teratocarcinoma and 9:1 in mice bearing an FE8 rat sarcoma. As expected, all other organs (including kidney) contained significantly less radioactivity than the tumour. Since the ED-B domain of fibronectin has an identical sequence in mouse and man, scFv(L19) is a pan-species antibody and the results presented here suggest clinical utility of radiolabelled scFv(L19) for the scintigraphic detection of angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, it should now be possible to investigate scFv(L19) for the selective delivery of 211At to the tumour neovasculature, causing the selective death of tumour endothelial cells and tumour collapse. PMID:11357506

  20. Relationship between tumour shrinkage and reduction in Ki67 expression after primary chemotherapy in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, A; Berruti, A; Bersiga, A; Brizzi, M P; Bruzzi, P; Aguggini, S; Brunelli, A; Bolsi, G; Allevi, G; Generali, D; Betri, E; Bertoli, G; Alquati, P; Dogliotti, L

    2001-01-01

    The association between tumour shrinkage and reduction in kinetic cell activity after primary chemotherapy in human breast cancer is still a matter of investigation. 157 patients with T2-4, N0-1, M0 breast cancer received primary chemotherapy consisting of either the CMF regimen + tamoxifen (the first consecutive 76 cases) or the single agent epirubicin (the subsequent 81). Ki67, p53, bcl2, c-erbB2 and steroid hormone receptors were evaluated immunohistochemically in tumour specimens obtained before chemotherapy and at surgery. Tumour shrinkage of >50% occurred in 72.4% of patients. Ki67 expression significantly decreased after chemotherapy; the reduction correlated with tumour response in both univariate (P < 0.005) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.02). p53, bcl-2, steroid hormone receptor and c-erbB2 immunostaining were scarcely affected. Baseline bcl2 (P = 0.04) and c-erbB2 (P = 0.02) were directly and inversely associated with the reduction in Ki67 immunostaining, respectively. Baseline p53 expression (P < 0.01) was directly related with Ki67 expression at residual tumour, whereas oestrogen receptor expression (P < 0.001) was inversely related. Ki67 at residual tumour was a better predictor for relapse-free survival (RFS) than baseline Ki67. Clinical response (P < 0.03), but not reduction in Ki67, was a significant independent predictor for disease recurrence. Chemotherapy was found to induce tumour shrinkage and to reduce the number of cells in the cell cycle, but its effect on tumour biology/aggressiveness was minimal. Reduction in Ki67 immunostaining correlated with clinical response but failed to be related to RFS. Ki67 expression at surgery rather than at baseline appears to be a better predictor for disease relapse. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710821

  1. Pituitary fossa: a correlative anatomic and MR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, L.; Pech, P.; Daniels, D.; Charles, C.; Williams, A.; Haughton, V.

    1984-11-01

    This study characterizes the normal appearance of the pituitary fossa in partial saturation magnetic resonance (MR) images. In sagittal images, the pituitary fossa appears inhomogeneous. Correlation of sagittal MR images in normal subjects with sagittal cryomicrotomic images in cadavers suggests that the highest intensity signal from the posterior-inferior pituitary fossa is due to a fat pad. This conclusion was supported by MR images and postmortem cryotome sections obtained in normal subhuman primates.

  2. The history of pituitary surgery for Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gautam U; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H

    2012-02-01

    Although he never performed a pituitary operation for the disease, Harvey Cushing was the first to describe and treat patients with Cushing disease (CD). Other surgeons at the time were reluctant to operate on the pituitary due to the normal sella on skull radiographs in CD and the unclear etiology of the disorder. To better define and understand factors influencing the history of pituitary surgery for CD, the authors analyzed historical texts related to CD biology, diagnosis, and treatment. Cushing's monograph on basophilic pituitary adenomas and cortisol excess appeared in 1932. One year later in 1933, Alfred Pattison performed the first successful pituitary operation for CD by implanting radon seeds in the sella. Resection of a pituitary adenoma for CD was attempted 1 month later in 1933 by Howard Naffziger, resulting in only transient improvement that corresponded to the lack of tumor in the resected tissue. Soon thereafter, Susman in 1935 and Costello in 1936 described pituitary basophilic adenomas at autopsy in patients without premorbid endocrinopathy. They concluded that the adrenal gland was the cause of CD, which resulted in a 3-decade abandonment of pituitary surgery for CD. Jules Hardy in 1963 used the operating microscope to perform the first selective removal of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting microadenoma, which established a pituitary cause and defined the modern treatment of CD. Subsequent reports by Hardy, Laws, and Wilson resulted in widespread acceptance of pituitary surgery for CD. Initial reluctance to operate on the pituitary for CD was multifaceted and included general uncertainty surrounding the etiology of Cushing syndrome as well as a lack of early surgical success, both due to the small size of ACTH-secreting adenomas. Selective removal of ACTH-secreting adenomas identified the source of CD and ended the delay in acceptance of pituitary surgery for CD. PMID:21962161

  3. Neuroendocrine tumours - Medical therapy: Biological.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Anja; Krug, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin analogues (SSA) are well established antisecretory drugs that have been used as first line treatment for symptomatic control in hormonally active neuroendocrine tumours (NET) for three decades. Both available depot formulations of SSA, long-acting repeatable (LAR) octreotide and lanreotide autogel, seem similarly effective and well tolerated, although comparative trials in NET have not been performed. The importance of SSA as antiproliferative treatment has been increasingly recognized during recent years. Two placebo-controlled trials demonstrated significant prolongation of progression free survival under SSA treatment. However, objective response as assessed by imaging is rare. Interferon-α (IFNα) also has antisecretory and antiproliferative efficacy in NET. Due to the less favourable toxicity profile it mainly has a role as add-on option in the refractory setting, especially in carcinoid syndrome patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the antiproliferative efficacy of the multiligand SSA pasireotide and the role of pegylated IFNα. PMID:26971845

  4. A surface acoustic wave biosensor for interrogation of single tumour cells in microcavities.

    PubMed

    Senveli, Sukru U; Ao, Zheng; Rawal, Siddarth; Datar, Ram H; Cote, Richard J; Tigli, Onur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, biological cells are sensed and characterized with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices utilising microcavities. After tumour cells in media are transported to and trapped in microcavities, the proposed platform uses SAW interaction between the substrate and the cells to extract their mechanical stiffness based on the ultrasound velocity. Finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental results show that output phase information is an indicator of the stiffness modulus of the trapped cells. Small populations of various types of cells such as MCF7, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and JJ012 were characterized and characteristic moduli were estimated for each cell population. Results show that high frequency stiffness modulus is a possible biomarker for aggressiveness of the tumour and that microcavity coupled SAW devices are a good candidate for non-invasive interrogation of single cells.

  5. The proliferation marker Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 is of clinical value in predicting the biological behaviour of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Staibano, Stefania; Mascolo, Massimo; Rocco, Alba; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Ilardi, Gennaro; Siano, Maria; Pannone, Giuseppe; Vecchione, Maria Luisa; Nugnes, Loredana; Califano, Luigi; Zamparese, Rosanna; Bufo, Pantaleo; De Rosa, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) constitute a diagnostically challenging group of neoplasms with frequently unpredictable clinical outcome. The proliferation rate facilitates the identification of aggressive SGT. The Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 (CAF-1) is a major epigenetic regulator of nuclear chromatin organization during DNA replication. It plays a critical function in human tumourigenesis and has been proposed as a new proliferation and prognostic marker for some malignancies. This study focused on the role of CAF-1/p60 protein as a marker of clinical value for SGT. The expression of CAF-1/p60 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on a retrospective series of 362 surgically excised benign and malignant SGT with different histogenesis and, when available, on fine-needle pre-surgical cytological biopsies. The resulting data were compared with traditional prognostic parameters, including the expression of the routine proliferation marker ki67/MIB1. CAF-1/p60 was detectable in all SGT, with highest degree of expression in metastasizing malignant tumours. Moreover, the cases of benign tumours which progressed to carcinoma during the follow-up, showed significantly higher CAF-1/p60 expression than non-progressing benign SGT, both on histological sections and cytological smears of the primary tumour. Cox's multiple regression analysis selected CAF-1/p60 expression as the best independent predictor of cancer development for benign SGT (p<0.0001), and the best independent predictor of metastasis onset for malignant tumours (p<0.0004). Overexpression of CAF-1/p60, on histological and/or cytological samples, characterizes malignant SGT with aggressive behaviour, irrespective of their specific histotype, and allows the early diagnosis of progression toward malignancy of morphologically benign tumours.

  6. PRKAR1A and the evolution of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2010-09-15

    Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited tumor predisposition associated with pituitary tumors, including GH-producing pituitary adenomas and rare reports of prolactinomas. This disease is caused by mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced PKA signaling, which leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene have not been detected in sporadic pituitary tumors, but there is some data to suggest that non-genomic mechanisms may cause loss of protein expression. Unlike CNC patients, mice heterozygous for Prkar1a mutations do not develop pituitary tumors, although complete knockout of the gene in the Pit1 lineage of the pituitary produces GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. These data indicate that complete loss of Prkar1a/PRKAR1A is able to cause pituitary tumors in mice and men. The pattern of tumors is likely related to the signaling pathways employed in specific pituitary cell types. PMID:20451576

  7. Solitary fibrous tumour of the pancreas: a new member of the small group of mesenchymal pancreatic tumours.

    PubMed

    Lüttges, J; Mentzel, T; Hübner, G; Klöppel, G

    1999-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumours usually occur in the pleura, but occasionally they appear in extraserosal soft tissues or parenchymatous organs, where their diagnosis often causes problems. This report describes a solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the pancreas in a 50-year-old woman treated by left-side pancreatectomy. The tumour showed immunocytochemical reactivity for CD34, CD99 and bcl-2. Because of its favourable prognosis, SFT must be clearly distinguished from leiomyosarcoma, the most frequent nonepithelial tumour of the pancreas. Other mesenchymal tumours that may occur in the pancreas include tumours of the peripheral nerve sheath, fibrous histiocytic tumours and rare vascular tumours.

  8. Functional polarization of tumour-associated macrophages by tumour-derived lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Colegio, Oscar R; Chu, Ngoc-Quynh; Szabo, Alison L; Chu, Thach; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Jairam, Vikram; Cyrus, Nika; Brokowski, Carolyn E; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Phillips, Gillian M; Cline, Gary W; Phillips, Andrew J; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-09-25

    Macrophages have an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. To perform this function, macrophages must have the capacity to monitor the functional states of their 'client cells': namely, the parenchymal cells in the various tissues in which macrophages reside. Tumours exhibit many features of abnormally developed organs, including tissue architecture and cellular composition. Similarly to macrophages in normal tissues and organs, macrophages in tumours (tumour-associated macrophages) perform some key homeostatic functions that allow tumour maintenance and growth. However, the signals involved in communication between tumours and macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show that lactic acid produced by tumour cells, as a by-product of aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, has a critical function in signalling, through inducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the M2-like polarization of tumour-associated macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this effect of lactic acid is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Finally, we show that the lactate-induced expression of arginase 1 by macrophages has an important role in tumour growth. Collectively, these findings identify a mechanism of communication between macrophages and their client cells, including tumour cells. This communication most probably evolved to promote homeostasis in normal tissues but can also be engaged in tumours to promote their growth.

  9. Paediatric extracranial germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Furqan; Murray, Matthew J; Amatruda, James F; Coleman, Nicholas; Nicholson, James C; Hale, Juliet P; Pashankar, Farzana; Stoneham, Sara J; Poynter, Jenny N; Olson, Thomas A; Billmire, Deborah F; Stark, Daniel; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Management of paediatric extracranial germ-cell tumours carries a unique set of challenges. Germ-cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present across a wide age range and vary in site, histology, and clinical behaviour. Patients with germ-cell tumours are managed by a diverse array of specialists. Thus, staging, risk stratification, and treatment approaches for germ-cell tumours have evolved disparately along several trajectories. Paediatric germ-cell tumours differ from the adolescent and adult disease in many ways, leading to complexities in applying age-appropriate, evidence-based care. Suboptimal outcomes remain for several groups of patients, including adolescents, and patients with extragonadal tumours, high tumour markers at diagnosis, or platinum-resistant disease. Survivors have significant long-term toxicities. The challenge moving forward will be to translate new insights from molecular studies and collaborative clinical data into improved patient outcomes. Future trials will be characterised by improved risk-stratification systems, biomarkers for response and toxic effects, rational reduction of therapy for low-risk patients and novel approaches for poor-risk patients, and improved international collaboration across paediatric and adult cooperative research groups. PMID:27300675

  10. The Laser Treatment of Experimental Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    McGuff, Paul E.; Deterling, Ralph A.; Gottlieb, Leonard S.; Fahimi, H. Dariush; Bushnell, David; Roeber, Fred

    1964-01-01

    Some of the results of experiments performed during the past two years to assess effects of laser energy on experimental malignant tumours are reviewed. Twenty types of malignant tumours (most in the cheek pouch and 11 of human origin) were treated in over 700 Syrian hamsters. Results of laser treatment of malignant melanomas and thyroidal carcinomas are presented. A human patient with malignant melanoma treated by laser energy is described. Investigation of thermal effect revealed that the laser-treated tumour remained warm for about one minute, while the cautery-treated tumour cooled to normal temperature in five seconds. Direct action of laser on superficial tumours is possible; deeper lesions must be exposed surgically. Laser energy has a selective effect on certain malignant tumours, resulting in their progressive regression and ultimate dissolution. All hamsters with implanted malignant melanomas and carcinomas of human origin, after completion of a course of laser treatment, showed no gross or histologic evidence of tumour up to the date of last observation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 2eFig. 2fFig. 3Fig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 4cFig. 4dFig. 4eFig. 4fFig. 4gFig. 6 PMID:14229757

  11. Dynamics of the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis determined using a nonsurgical method for collecting pituitary venous blood from horses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S L; Irvine, C H; Donald, R A

    1996-01-01

    . Hypoglycemia provoked both CRH and AVP secretions, with the CRH increment being inversely proportional to the glucose nadir. Administration of the opioid antagonist, naloxone, increased PitVen ACTH; however, changes in AVP and CRH were variable and overall could not account for the ACTH response. This suggests that endogenous opioids inhibit a third ACTH secretagogue, stimulate an inhibitory factor, or also act at the pituitary. Chronic social stress, induced by confining newcomers with aggressive, resident mares, caused most introduced horses to become submissive. In such horses, plasma cortisol declined to levels similar to those during metyrapone infusion. Despite hypocortisolemia, PitVen ACTH was low, whereas PitVen CRH tended to be elevated. Moreover, chronically stressed horses did not respond to exogenous CRH. We conclude that at rest and during some perturbations AVP is the immediate stimulus for ACTH release. Even ACTH micropulses, previously thought to occur spontaneously, appear to be regulated by AVP in horses. On the other hand, CRH secretion and pituitary responsiveness to CRH rise when cortisol falls, suggesting that a major role for CRH is to fix the cortisol setpoint. However, during chronic stress, these relationships become disturbed, with results to date pointing toward the existence of an ACTH-release inhibiting factor.

  12. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Bent, C L; Sahdev, A; Rockall, A G; Singh, N; Sohaib, S A; Reznek, R H

    2009-04-01

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm(3)) and mucinous (6358.2 cm(3)) subtypes (p=0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  13. Gonadotropic pituitary carcinoma: HER-2/neu expression and gene amplification. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, Federico; Nosé, Vania; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Young, William F; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Bishop, Mari C; Hsi, Bradley; Fletcher, Jonathan A

    2003-08-01

    The authors report on two gonadotropic carcinomas of the adenohypophysis that occurred in a55-year-old man (Case 1) and a 53-year-old woman (Case 2), with signs of mass effect and amenorrhea, respectively. Both lesions were macroadenomas. The tumor in Case 1 metastasized to dura mater, skull, nasal sinus, and larynx 2 years after patient presentation, whereas that in Case 2 spread to vertebral bodies and ribs after a 19-year latency. Histologically, the primary, recurrent, and metastatic lesions in Case 1 featured brisk mitotic activity and high MIB-1 levels as well as p53 labeling indices. Immunoreactivity for HER-2/neu was assessable only in rare neoplastic cells of the second recurrence and in 80% of cells of the dural metastasis. Low-level HER-2/neu gene amplification was evident in the recurrent tumors and metastasis. The sellar and metastatic tumors in Case 2 resembled benign gonadotropic adenoma with oncocytic change; p53 accumulation, HER-2/neu overexpression, and HER-2/neu gene amplification were not present. The results indicate that low-level amplification of the HER-2/neu gene might be associated with pituitary carcinomas in which more aggressive behavior is seen. Further studies are needed to determine whether HER-2/neu plays a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary carcinoma.

  14. The combined epithelial odontogenic tumour in Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; Ng, K H

    1991-04-01

    The combined epithelial odontogenic tumour represents a hybrid lesion comprising primarily areas of adenomatoid odontogenic tumour intermixed with foci of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Five such cases retrieved from the files of the Division of Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, and four others from the existing literature were analysed. A mean age of 18.8 years, a female preponderance (66.7%) with a male to female ratio of 1:2 and predilection for the mandible (55.6%) were observed. All cases were treated by conservative surgery and the lack of recurrence confirmed the innocuous nature of this lesion.

  15. The prophylaxis of nonindustrial urothelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Balfour M.

    1973-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning carcinogenesis and the natural history of urothelial tumours precludes firm conclusions relative to nonindustrial prophylaxis. However, a number of measures are consistent with current data and may be instituted for those patients with a demonstrated propensity to urothelial tumours. Their acceptability is based on the lack of associated toxicity for the patient. These measures include the elimination of significant infection, cigarettes, artificial sweeteners, analgesic abuse and coffee, the administration of vitamins C and B6, and in selected cases, the use of thiotepa. It is emphasized that the merit of these steps in altering the natural history of urothelial tumours is uncertain. PMID:4197537

  16. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Behranwala, Kasim A; Straker, Peter; Wan, Andrew; Fisher, Cyril; Thompson, Jeremy N

    2005-01-01

    Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a benign, nonmetastasizing proliferation of myofibroblasts with a potential for local infiltration, recurrence and persistent local growth. Case report We report a case of a 51 year-old female, who had excision of a gallbladder tumour. Histopathology showed it to be IMT of the gallbladder. Conclusion The approach to these tumours should be primarily surgical resection to obtain a definitive diagnosis and relieve symptoms. IMT has a potential for local infiltration, recurrence and persistent local growth. PMID:15862123

  17. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Behranwala, Kasim A; Straker, Peter; Wan, Andrew; Fisher, Cyril; Thompson, Jeremy N

    2005-04-29

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a benign, nonmetastasizing proliferation of myofibroblasts with a potential for local infiltration, recurrence and persistent local growth. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 51 year-old female, who had excision of a gallbladder tumour. Histopathology showed it to be IMT of the gallbladder. CONCLUSION: The approach to these tumours should be primarily surgical resection to obtain a definitive diagnosis and relieve symptoms. IMT has a potential for local infiltration, recurrence and persistent local growth. PMID:15862123

  18. Warthin's tumour: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T R; Cozens, N J A; Robinson, I

    2009-11-01

    Warthin's tumour (benign cystadenolymphoma) is the second most common salivary gland tumour after pleomorphic salivary adenoma, and it is commonly encountered in routine head and neck ultrasonography. Tissue diagnosis can be achieved by fine-needle aspiration. Infarction and inflammatory response following fine-needle aspiration is previously described in excision specimens. We describe 7 cases of radiologically infarcting Warthin's tumours in situ in a retrospective analysis of 76 patients, and demonstrate an approximate incidence of at least 9% of infarction following fine-needle aspiration in lesions left in situ. We recommend the possibility of infarction and associated clinical symptoms being incorporated into pre-fine-needle aspiration patient counselling.

  19. Synchronous extra-parotid Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, H; Kirkham, N; Hogbin, B M

    1989-08-01

    Warthin's tumour (also known as adenolymphoma or papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is benign and accounts for 12 per cent of all neoplasms of the parotid gland. A case of extra-parotid Warthin's tumour occurring synchronously in a peri-parotid lymph node is described. This is not a metastatic phenomenon and occurs as a result of salivary gland inclusions of local lymph nodes during the embryological development of the parotid. Extra-parotid Warthin's tumour should be regarded as a benign incidental finding and the prognosis is excellent.

  20. A two-factor model of aggression.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  1. Multiple Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Budan, Renata M.; Georgescu, Carmen E.

    2016-01-01

    PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection databases were systematically searched for studies reporting synchronous double or multiple pituitary adenomas (MPA), a rare clinical condition, with a vague pathogenesis. Multiple adenomas of the pituitary gland are referred to as morphologically and/or immunocytochemically distinct tumors that are frequently small-sized and hormonally non-functional, to account for the low detection rate. There is no general agreement on how to classify MPA, various criteria, such as tumor contiguity, immunoreactivity, and clonality analysis are being used. Among the component tumors, prolactin (PRL)-immunopositive adenomas are highly prevalent, albeit mute in the majority of cases. The most frequent clinical presentation of MPA is Cushing’s syndrome, given the fact that in more than 50% of reported cases at least one lesion stains for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Plurihormonal hyperactivity may be diagnosed in a patient with MPA when more than one tumor is clinically active (e.g., ACTH and PRL) or in cases with at least one composite tumor (e.g., GH and PRL), to complicate the clinical scenario. Specific challenges associated with MPA include high surgical failure rates, enforcing second-look surgery in certain cases, and difficult preoperative neuroradiological imaging evaluation, with an overall sensitivity of only 25% for magnetic resonance imaging to detect distinct multiple tumors. Alternatively, minor pituitary imaging abnormalities may raise suspicion, as these are not uncommon. Postoperative immunohistochemistry is mandatory and in conjunction to electron microscopy scanning and testing for transcription factors (i.e., Pit-1, T-pit, and SF-1) accurately define and classify the distinct cytodifferentiation of MPA. PMID:26869991

  2. Nonfunctioning giant pituitary adenomas: Invasiveness and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Landeiro, José Alberto; Fonseca, Elissa Oliveira; Monnerat, Andrea Lima Cruz; Taboada, Giselle Fernandes; Cabral, Gustavo Augusto Porto Sereno; Antunes, Felippe

    2015-01-01

    Background: We report our surgical series of 35 patients with giant nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (GNFPA). We analyzed the rule of Ki-67 antigen expression in predicting recurrence. Methods: Thirty-five patients were operated between 2000 and 2010. Suprassellar extension of the tumors were classified according to Hardy and Mohr based on magnetic resonance (MR) studies. Pituitary endocrine function and MR scans were assessed preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Immunohistochemical studies were based in regard to the expression of the proliferative Ki-67 index and the hormonal receptor for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and prolactin. Tumors specimens were obtained from 35 patients with GNFPA. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was the approach of choice. Results: Thirty-five patients were submitted to 49 surgeries, 44 (89.8%) were transsphenoidal and 5 (10.2%) were transcranial. The most frequent preoperative complaints were visual acuity impairment and visual field defect in 25 (71.2%) and 23 (65.7%) cases, respectively. Improvement of visual acuitiy and visual field deficit after surgery was seen in 20 (80%) and 17 (73.9%) patients, respectively. Endocrinological deficits were encountered in 20 patients (57.1%). After surgery, 18 patients (51.4%) required hormonal replacement. Three patients had visual symptoms related to pituitary apoplexy and recovered after surgery. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) ranged from <1% to 4.8%. The rate of recurrence in tumors with Ki-67 <3% was 7.7% (2 patients), Ki-67 >3% was present in 5 patients and the recurrence committed 3 patients. Conclusion: In our series, regardless the improvement of visual function and compressing symptoms, 5 patients with expression of Ki-67 LI more than 3% experienced a recurrence. PMID:26674325

  3. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures.

  4. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays

    PubMed Central

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures. PMID:26183281

  5. Collaboration of cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages for neuroblastoma development.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Okito; Yoshida, Makiko; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour in children and is histologically classified by its Schwannian stromal cells. Although having fewer Schwannian stromal cells is generally associated with more aggressive phenotypes, the exact roles of other stromal cells (mainly macrophages and fibroblasts) are unclear. Here, we examined 41 cases of neuroblastoma using immunohistochemistry for the tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) markers CD68, CD163, and CD204, and a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) marker, alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Each case was assigned to low/high groups on the basis of the number of TAMs or three groups on the basis of the αSMA-staining area for CAFs. Both the number of TAMs and the area of CAFs were significantly correlated with clinical stage, MYCN amplification, bone marrow metastasis, histological classification, histological type, and risk classification. Furthermore, TAM settled in the vicinity of the CAF area, suggesting their close interaction within the tumour microenvironment. We next determined the effects of conditioned medium of a neuroblastoma cell line (NBCM) on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages in vitro. The TAM markers CD163 and CD204 were significantly up-regulated in PBMC-derived macrophages treated with NBCM. The expression of αSMA by BM-MSCs was increased in NBCM-treated cells. Co-culturing with CAF-like BM-MSCs did not enhance the invasive ability but supported the proliferation of tumour cells, whereas tumour cells co-cultured with TAM-like macrophages had the opposite effect. Intriguingly, TAM-like macrophages enhanced not only the invasive abilities of tumour cells and BM-MSCs but also the proliferation of BM-MSCs. CXCL2 secreted from TAM-like macrophages plays an important role in tumour invasiveness. Taken together, these results indicate that PBMC-derived macrophages and BM-MSCs are recruited to a tumour site

  6. Collaboration of cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages for neuroblastoma development.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Okito; Yoshida, Makiko; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour in children and is histologically classified by its Schwannian stromal cells. Although having fewer Schwannian stromal cells is generally associated with more aggressive phenotypes, the exact roles of other stromal cells (mainly macrophages and fibroblasts) are unclear. Here, we examined 41 cases of neuroblastoma using immunohistochemistry for the tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) markers CD68, CD163, and CD204, and a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) marker, alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Each case was assigned to low/high groups on the basis of the number of TAMs or three groups on the basis of the αSMA-staining area for CAFs. Both the number of TAMs and the area of CAFs were significantly correlated with clinical stage, MYCN amplification, bone marrow metastasis, histological classification, histological type, and risk classification. Furthermore, TAM settled in the vicinity of the CAF area, suggesting their close interaction within the tumour microenvironment. We next determined the effects of conditioned medium of a neuroblastoma cell line (NBCM) on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages in vitro. The TAM markers CD163 and CD204 were significantly up-regulated in PBMC-derived macrophages treated with NBCM. The expression of αSMA by BM-MSCs was increased in NBCM-treated cells. Co-culturing with CAF-like BM-MSCs did not enhance the invasive ability but supported the proliferation of tumour cells, whereas tumour cells co-cultured with TAM-like macrophages had the opposite effect. Intriguingly, TAM-like macrophages enhanced not only the invasive abilities of tumour cells and BM-MSCs but also the proliferation of BM-MSCs. CXCL2 secreted from TAM-like macrophages plays an important role in tumour invasiveness. Taken together, these results indicate that PBMC-derived macrophages and BM-MSCs are recruited to a tumour site

  7. Pituitary-ovarian-splenic axis in ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Oliver R.; Frazer, Michele L.; Ko, CheMyong

    2011-01-01

    Leukocytes are rapidly recruited to the preovulatory ovary and play a crucial role as facilitators of ovulation and luteal formation. In this article, recent findings on leukocyte trafficking to the ovary, as well as the physiological role of leukocytes in the ovary, will be summarized and discussed. We then explore the novel hypothesis that the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis might include the spleen as a reservoir of leukocytes by summarizing recent reports on this topic, both in the fields of immunology and reproductive biology. PMID:21600783

  8. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases. PMID:27081236

  9. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven Jm; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2012-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology.

  10. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven JM; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology. PMID:22294438

  11. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  12. Epilepsy, aggression, and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Borum, R; Appelbaum, K L

    1996-07-01

    Although epilepsy-related violence can occur, accounts of criminal behavior caused by epilepsy remain rare and unconvincing. The authors describe a case of apparent postictal aggression, resulting in felony assault charges, by a patient who had nocturnal complex partial seizures, followed by what appeared to be sleepwalking and periods of postictal wandering and confusion.

  13. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  14. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  15. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  16. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  17. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity.

    PubMed

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-09-28

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy-resistant state of the tumour cells.

  18. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity.

    PubMed

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-09-28

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy-resistant state of the tumour cells. PMID:27684506

  19. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in a 20-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Virupakshappa, Deepti; Rajashekhara, Bhari Sharanesha; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Das, Nagarajappa

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is a relatively rare and distinct odontogenic tumour that is exclusively odontogenic epithelium in origin. It comprises 3% of all odontogenic tumours. This report describes the surgical therapy, clinical course and morphological characteristics of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour that developed in the left maxilla of a 20-year-old patient. PMID:24810436

  20. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  1. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P

    2016-08-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT). Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirectly, at the presence and position of the adenoma. The first aim of this retrospective study was to compare findings of a multiple slice dynamic scanning protocol with those of a single slice dynamic protocol using a single slice CT scanner. The second aim was to compare the CT findings with surgical findings, and surgical findings with histopathological findings. Computed tomography with single and multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols was performed in 86 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Thirty dogs underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and pituitary specimens were collected as tumor, normal, mixed and neurohypophyseal samples and processed for histology. The pituitary flush was not detected more frequent in multiple slice dynamic scanning series than in single slice dynamic scanning series. However, in non-enlarged pituitaries, the flush was seen significantly more frequently than in enlarged pituitaries. Prediction of the nature of the tissue during hypophysectomy by the surgeon was inconclusive. In conclusion, when using a single slice CT scanner, both single or multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols can be used for localization of the neurohypophyseal flush, and, indirectly, the adenoma. However, based on this study, the aim of surgery in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism remains total adenohypophysectomy, and when the neurophypophysis is recognized, it may be left in situ. PMID:27473973

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in the Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leroith, D; Farkash, Y; Bar-Ziev, J; Spitz, I M

    1980-07-01

    Four siblings with classic Bardet-Biedl syndrome were studied. The brother had hypogonadism of testiculr origin, with high gonadotropin levels and exaggerated responses to luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, whereas the three sisters showed a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The remaining pituitary hormone function was intact.

  3. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses

    A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  4. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  5. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26906124

  6. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome.

  7. Ovarian tumours in pregnancy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pakhee; Kehoe, Sean

    2011-04-01

    Ovarian tumours in pregnancy are a diagnostic and management challenge that is increasingly being faced by the clinician. While most masses are benign and resolve spontaneously, there are others that persist and indicate the need for surgical management. Ultrasound not only detects asymptomatic masses but also helps to guide their management based on presence or absence of features suspicious of malignancy. The role of tumour markers in pregnancy is limited due to their non-specific nature. Most masses treated in pregnancy are benign (most commonly dermoids), and most malignancies are either of low malignant potential or germ cell tumours, usually early stage disease. Surgical management is indicated for symptomatic masses or those with increasing size or complexity indicating possible malignancy. Both laparoscopy and laparotomy have similar results with regard to obstetric outcome. Conservative management is preferred in the remainder. MRI may help in better characterization of doubtful masses. National tumour registries can help to establish guidelines.

  8. A rare solitary fibrous tumour of kidney.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Tilak Bahadur; Nepal, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumour is an unusual spindle cell neoplasm. It frequently arises from the serosal surface of pleural cavity but has recently been described in diverse extrapleural sites. Urogenital localization is rare and only 36 cases of solitary fibrous tumours of the kidney have been described on published report. We report a case of a large solitary fibrous tumour clinically and radiologically thought to be renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 30 year old female. The radical nephrectomy was performed. The tumour was a well- circumscribed, solid mass attached to the renal pelvis without necrosis and haemorrhage. Histopathologically, a spindle cell neoplasia with alternating hypo and hypercellular areas, storiform, fascicular and hemangipericytoma like growth pattern and less cellular dense collagen deposits were observed. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 protein. PMID:24362666

  9. Tumour marker detection in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mealy, K; Feely, J; Reid, I; McSweeney, J; Walsh, T; Hennessy, T P

    1996-10-01

    Levels of the tumour markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125 and SCC were measured in 58 patients presenting with oesophageal carcinoma and compared with levels in patients with benign oesophageal disease and levels in normal volunteers. CEA and CA 19-9 were significantly increased in the patients with oesophageal cancer, however, individual sensitivity for CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125 and SCC was only 28, 34, 10, and 32%, respectively. The combined sensitivity of all markers was 64% and specificity was 80%. There was no difference in combined tumour marker sensitivity between squamous or adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus. No consistent change in marker levels occurred with treatment, and tumour marker levels could not be significantly correlated with stage of disease or short-term survival. These results indicate that tumour marker sensitivity is too low for oesophageal cancer screening and has poor prognostic significance in those undergoing treatment.

  10. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Uppala, Divya; Talasila, Sunil; Babu, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour (AOT), a tumour composed of odontogenic epithelium, is an uncommon tumour of odontogenic origin that accounts for only 2.2- 7.1% of all odontogenic tumours. Very few cases of AOT associated with Dentigerous cyst (DC) have been reported till date, most cases are in females and have a striking tendency to occur in the anterior maxilla. The present case is that of a 14-year-old female who revealed a large radiolucent lesion associated with the crown of an unerupted canine located in the left maxillary anterior region. The microscopic examination revealed the presence of AOT in the fibrous capsule of a DC. In this paper, we describe the importance of grossing, sectioning and complete examination of the slide to diagnose such hybrid lesions. PMID:26155575

  11. Mesenchymal phosphaturic tumour: early detection of recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Allevi, Fabiana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The case of a recurrent phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of the maxillary sinus 10 years after the first surgical excision is reported. The neoplasm first presented with paraneoplastic osteomalacia causing a pathological femur fracture. A right maxillary sinus tumour was identified and treated thereafter. The patient had no local symptoms and serum electrolytes returned to normal after surgical removal of the tumour. However, 10 years later, the patient's urine Ca and P levels increased and an octreoscan detected a new tumour in the right maxillary sinus. Early diagnosis prevented the effects of the paraneoplastic activity of the neoplasm. This case emphasises the importance of specific, close follow-up, because the neoplasm rarely produces local signs indicating its position. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a late relapse presenting without relevant symptoms (local pain or swelling or pathological fractures). PMID:24827649

  12. Systemic Effects of Non-Endocrine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, James D.; Rona, George

    1964-01-01

    Tumours of non-endocrine origin may exert deleterious effects by elaborating active principles which disturb body regulation. Systemic manifestations are fairly common with neoplasms of the lung, kidney, gastro-intestinal tract and thymus. The secretion of these tumours may have a known chemical structure (serotonin), may present hormone-like action (parathormone, antidiuretic hormone, insulinoid), or have well-defined biological properties (erythropoietin, gastrin-like principle). Tumours may stimulate endocrine glands by an unknown mechanism, producing disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, hypercalcemia, gynecomastia and hypoglycemia. Thymomas may be associated with autoimmune diseases. Tumours may extensively utilize or excrete some metabolite (glucose) or electrolyte (Na or K). Awareness of the systemic effects of various neoplasms may lead to an early diagnosis and proper treatment of these manifestations. PMID:14204555

  13. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  14. Suppression of tumour growth by orally administered osteopontin is accompanied by alterations in tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Rittling, S R; Wejse, P L; Yagiz, K; Warot, G A; Hui, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: The integrin-binding protein osteopontin is strongly associated with tumour development, yet is an abundant dietary component as a constituent of human and bovine milk. Therefore, we tested the effect of orally administered osteopontin (o-OPN) on the development of subcutaneous tumours in mice. Methods: Bovine milk osteopontin was administered in drinking water to tumour-bearing immune-competent mice. Tumour growth, proliferation, necrosis, apoptosis and blood vessel size and number were measured. Expression of the α9 integrin was determined. Results: o-OPN suppressed tumour growth, increased the extent of necrosis, and induced formation of abnormally large blood vessels. Anti-OPN reactivity detected in the plasma of OPN-null mice fed OPN suggested that tumour-blocking peptides were absorbed during digestion, but the o-OPN effect was likely distinct from that of an RGD peptide. Expression of the α9 integrin was detected on both tumour cells and blood vessels. Potential active peptides from the α9 binding site of OPN were identified by mass spectrometry following in vitro digestion, and injection of these peptides suppressed tumour growth. Conclusions: These results suggest that peptides derived from o-OPN are absorbed and interfere with tumour growth and normal vessel development. o-OPN-derived peptides that target the α9 integrin are likely involved. PMID:24473400

  15. Unusual mass in the parapharyngeal space: a Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C-K Leslie; Sood, Sanjai; Bradley, Patrick J; Krishnan, Suren

    2006-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours are uncommon and can be a diagnostic challenge as the presenting symptoms are often vague and non-specific. Most of the PPS tumours are salivary tumours (pleomorphic adenoma being the most frequent diagnosis), and are thought to originate from minor salivary glands or the deep lobe of the parotid gland. Warthin's tumour, another benign salivary tumour involving the PPS has been rarely reported. A case of bilateral, metachronous Warthin's tumour involving the PPS is reported here. PPS Warthin's tumour is a very rare condition that if undiagnosed may result in considerable morbidity.

  16. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay

    2011-06-01

    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  17. Husbands' and Wives' Marital Adjustment, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Aggression as Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Aggression in Early Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression have long been associated in the marital literature, but the nature of their associations remains unclear. In this study, the authors examined these 3 constructs as risk factors for physical aggression during the first 2 years of marriage in 634 couples recruited as they applied for…

  18. Cervical intra-/extramedullary solitary fibrous tumour.

    PubMed

    Ogungbo, B; Prakash, S; Kulkarni, G; Bradey, N; Marks, S M; Scoones, D

    2005-06-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with a 9-month history of symptoms of right-sided weakness, tingling and hypersentivity to clothes on both sides of the body. MRI revealed a large intraspinal intradural tumour at the level of C3-C4 in the cervical cord. The final histology was a solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the cervical spinal cord. The radiological diagnosis, surgical management and histology are reviewed.

  19. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis: A great simulator?

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Infante-Valenzuela, Adrian; Rodriguez-Velver, Karla; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a life-threatening illness due to acute infarction of the pituitary gland. The most common symptoms associated with pituitary apoplexy are headache, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment, hypopituitarism, and altered mental status. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common acute complication of diabetes mellitus and is itself associated with similar symptoms. We present the case of a 38 year old woman, who presented with altered mental status and biochemical alterations suggestive of diabetic ketoacidosis who was found to have a pituitary apoplexy. The low frequency of this condition coupled with an acute and usually dramatic presentation that includes non-specific symptoms makes it a diagnostic challenge. Pituitary apoplexy can simulate a wide range of neurological conditions. PMID:26994379

  20. Endocrine changes in histiocytosis of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

    PubMed

    Toro Galván, Silvia; Planas Vilaseca, Alejandra; Michalopoulou Alevras, Theodora; Torres Díaz, Alberto; Suárez Balaguer, Javier; Villabona Artero, Carles

    2015-02-01

    Histiocytosis is characterized by proliferation of cells from the mononuclear phagocyte system, and may be divided into Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (including Erdheim-Chester disease [ECD]). While diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most common hypothalamic-pituitary consequence, anterior pituitary deficiencies are less known. This study analyzed the frequency and progression of pituitary hormone deficiencies and the radiographic findings in 9 patients (7 with LCH and 2 with ECD) with hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis. Eighty-nine percent of patients had DI (62% at diagnosis), and 78% had one or more anterior pituitary deficiencies (71% at diagnosis). HP involvement is relatively common in patients diagnosed with histiocytosis and hormone deficiencies may be present at diagnosis or appear gradually during the course of disease. Regular monitoring of these patients is recommended.