Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive pituitary tumours

  1. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, A; Powell, M; Williams, R; Hindmarsh, P; Brook, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 29 January 1997
 OBJECTIVES—Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for the excision of pituitary microadenomas in adults. This study was carried out to establish the long term efficacy and safety of TSS in children.
STUDY DESIGN—A 14 year retrospective analysis was carried out on 23 children (16 boys and seven girls), all less than 18 years of age, who had undergone TSS at our centre.
RESULTS—Twenty nine transsphenoidal surgical procedures were carried out. The most common diagnosis was an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma (14 (61%) patients). The median length of follow up was 8.0 years (range 0.3-14.0 years). Eighteen (78%) patients were cured after the first procedure. No death was related to the operation. The most common postoperative complication was diabetes insipidus, which was transient in most patients. Other complications were headaches in two patients and cerebrospinal fluid leaks in two patients. De novo endocrine deficiencies after TSS in children were as follows: three (14%) patients developed panhypopituitarism, eight (73%) developed growth hormone insufficiency, three (14%) developed secondary hypothyroidism, and four (21%) developed gonadotrophin deficiency. Permanent ACTH deficiency occurred in five (24%) patients, though all patients received postoperative glucocorticoid treatment until dynamic pituitary tests were performed three months after TSS.
CONCLUSIONS—TSS in children is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours, provided it is performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise. Surgical complications are minimal. Postoperative endocrine deficit is considerable, but is only permanent in a small proportion of patients.

 • Transsphenoidal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours in children • Transsphenoidal surgery should be performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise • Surgical complications of

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in pituitary tumours1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, I E; Keene, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of CSF rhinorrhoea due to pituitary tumours are reported and the literature reviewed. The treatment of choice appears to be trans-sphenoidal exploration of the pituitary fossa with insertion of a free muscle graft followed by radiotherapy. The probability of the tumour being a prolactin-secreting adenoma is discussed. PMID:7017123

  3. Pituitary tumours: inflammatory and granulomatous expansive lesions of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, R; Patelli, I; Casanueva, F F; Giustina, A

    2009-10-01

    . Pituitary involvement may also be observed in another form of systemic hystiocitosis, that is, Erdheim-Chester disease. Tuberculosis is a rare cause of hypophysitis, which may present with features of anterior pituitary dysfunction, such as hypopituitarism with hyperprolactinaemia. In conclusion, in patients with a sellar mass and unusual clinical presentation (DI, neurological symptoms), aggressiveness and onset and in the presence of systemic diseases, inflammatory and granulomatous pituitary lesions should be carefully considered in differential diagnosis.

  4. Pituitary tumours: TSH-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Mannavola, Deborah; Campi, Irene

    2009-10-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of all pituitary adenomas. In the last years, the diagnosis has been facilitated by the routine use of ultra-sensitive TSH immunometric assays. Failure to recognise the presence of a TSHoma may result in dramatic consequences, such as improper thyroid ablation that may cause the pituitary tumour volume to further expand. The diagnosis mainly rests on dynamic testing, such as T3 suppression tests and TRH, which are useful in differentiating TSHomas from the syndromes of thyroid hormone resistance. The first therapeutical approach to TSHomas is the pituitary neurosurgery. The medical treatment of TSHomas mainly rests on the administration of somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide and lanreotide, which are effective in reducing TSH secretion in more than 90% of patients with consequent normalisation of FT4 and FT3 levels and restoration of the euthyroid state.

  5. How effective is temozolomide for treating pituitary tumours and when should it be used?

    PubMed

    Halevy, Carmel; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown as an effective treatment option in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. This review analyses the published case series and demonstrates 42 % of patents show a radiological response and 27 % experience stable disease following TMZ. Prolactinomas and corticotroph tumours respond best to TMZ, showing approximately a 50 % response rate, with non-functioning tumours responding only half as frequently. Other factors that may predict the tumour's TMZ response include MGMT and MSH status, but neither is sufficiently robust to determine treatment decisions. TMZ has an accepted role in treating pituitary carcinoma and adenomas if radiation and surgery have failed to control tumour growth. To use TMZ on the basis of anticipated future aggression, as a primary therapy, or in preference to radiotherapy remains controversial.

  6. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Adamek, Dariusz; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Gołkowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Microvessel density in angiogenesis is regarded as a prognostic factor of tumour invasiveness, independent of cell proliferation. In recent studies of pituitary tumours, correlation between the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and micro-vascularization density and microvessel surface density has been established. We studied the expression of COX-2 in different types of pituitary adenomas to determine the usefulness of COX-2 expression as a prognostic factor of tumour progression or recurrence in patients with hypophyseal tumours. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied a group of 60 patients of mean age 46.7±17.6 (range, 18 to 85) years who underwent pituitary tumour surgery. Expression of COX-2, as determined by immunohistochemistry, was analyzed in relation to histopathology features of tumour, clinical symptoms, MR imaging and post-operative recurrence/progression of disease. Results COX-2 was expressed in adenomas of 87% of patients, with a median index value of 57.5% [IQR=60.5]. Highest COX-2 expression was observed in hormonally inactive adenomas and gonadotropinomas and lowest in prolactinomas. We found no differences in COX-2 expression with respect to patient age, gender, tumour size, degree of tumour invasiveness, or whether tumours were immunopositive or immunonegative for pituitary hormones, nor have we found any relation between COX-2 expression and recurrence or progression of tumour size. Conclusions COX-2 does not appear to be a predictive factor for recurrence or progression of tumour size. Nevertheless, due to the observed relatively high expression of COX-2 in pituitary adenomas, further studies with COX-2 inhibitors are justified in these tumours. PMID:22460097

  7. [Rol of pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG) in the pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortiga, Ruth; Sánchez Tejada, Laura; Peiró Cabrera, Gloria; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Arias Mendoza, Nieves; Aranda López, F Ignacio; Picó Alfonso, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pituitary tumours is far to be understood. Pituitary transforming tumour gene (PTTG), a gen that induces aneuploidy, genetic instability, cellular proliferation and to stimulate angiogenesis, has been involved in neoplasic transformation and shown overexpressed in many neoplasm as lung, breast, endometrium, thyroid and colon malignant tumours. On the other hand, PTTG has been inconsistently studied in pituitary tumours. The majority of studies have been performed in animals and there is a great variability in the methods used in its determination. The goal of this review is to resume the role of PTTG in tumourogenesis and critically to revise the studies published in humans in order to advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and to find clinical useful predictors of the behavior of these tumours.

  8. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pituitary Tumours using a Web-based Pituitary Tumour Registry in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Futaisi, Abdullah; Saif, Al-Yaarubi; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Qassabi, Salim; Al-Riyami, Shaden; Wali, Yasser

    2007-01-01

    Objective: From a recently instituted web-based pituitary tumour registry at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, this study explores the results of comprehensive clinical evaluation, hormonal levels, radiological evidence of pituitary mass lesion using magnetic resonance (MRI) and the different treatment modalities. Methods: All patients who were diagnosed with pituitary mass tumours in our tertiary care endocrinology clinic between January 1998 and February 2006 were registered in the Oman pituitary tumour registry. Two physicians performed hospital chart review and data entry. Results: A total of 160 entries were made into the pituitary tumour registry. The overall mean age of the cohort was 32 ±12 years (age range 8–73 years). The majority of registrations were female (n=114; 71%). There were 81 patients with non-functioning adenomas (50.6%), 59 with prolactinoma (36.9%) eight with acromegaly (5%), seven with craniopharyngioma (4.4%), four with Cushing’s disease (2.5%) and one with sarcoidosis (0.6%). Sub-group analyses were done only for the subjects with the 3 most prevalent pituitary tumours (non-functioning adenomas, prolactinomas, and acromegaly). The most prevalent symptoms are amenorrhea-galactorrhea (n=55; 37%), headache (n=31; 21%) and fatigue (n=23; 16%). The most common treatment modality was medical (n=58; 39%), followed by observation (n=56; 38%), surgery (n=31; 21%) and surgery plus medical (n=3; 2%). None of the patients in this registry are recorded to have died. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first pituitary tumour registry in the Arabian Gulf countries using a web-based programme. This tumour registry will enable us to characterize clinical and the epidemiological features of pituitary tumours in the Sultanate of Oman. PMID:21654941

  9. Pituitary tumours during pregnancy in mothers treated with bromocriptine.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, R W; Turkalj, I; Braun, P

    1979-01-01

    1 Out of 805 previously infertile women in whom pregnancy was achieved on bromocriptine treatment, 137 were diagnosed as having pituitary tumours. 2 In nine of these, tumour-related complications occurred during pregnancy, chiefly visual field impairment. Surgical intervention was considered necessary in two patients. In a third patient reinstitution of bromocriptine produced remission of symptoms. 3 Although the frequency of serious complications was low, the present state of knowledge indicates that surgery or irradiation of pituitary tumours should be preferred, at least as the first line of treatment, for patients contemplating pregnancy. PMID:444358

  10. Pituitary function after treatment of intracranial tumours in children.

    PubMed

    Shalet, S M; Beardwell, C G; Morris-Jones, P H; Pearson, D

    1975-07-19

    Pituitary-function tests have been done in twenty-seven patients at various times after treatment in childhood for intracranial tumours not directly involving the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Impaired growth hormone (G.H.) responses to hypoglycaemia and 'Bovril' were found in ten children. There seeems to be progressive impairment in G.H. production with time after treatment. During the first 3 months after neurosurgery no child was found to be G.H. deficient, but the peak G.H. response of this group seemed to be blunted when compared with a control group of children who had been treated for abdominal tumours. The rest of anterior-pituitary function in G.H.-deficient children seems quite normal except for a significantly greater basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (T.S.H.) level and T;S.H. response after thyrotrophin-releasing hormone. Two girls have developed secondary amenorrhoea, and one is G.H. deficient.

  11. Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour of the Mandible: An Unusually Aggressive Presentation of an Indolent Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Dev, DP Arul; Michael, Manoj Joseph; Akhilesh, AV; Das, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour (CEOT) or Pindborg tumour is a rare odontogenic tumour of epithelial origin. They constitute less than 1% of odontogenic tumours. Intra-ossseous variant of CEOT are more common compared to extra-osseous variant. Although benign, these can exhibit deceptively aggressive presentation. Here we report a rare case of CEOT in a 36-year-old female patient who presented with aggressive intra-osseous lesion with cortical breach and exuberant soft tissue proliferation. The lesion was treated with resection and reconstructed with titanium reconstruction plate. PMID:27790590

  12. Review of Presentation, Diagnosis and Management of Pituitary Tumours in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kimberley; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Although pituitary tumours are relatively uncommon, their association with menstrual irregularity and infertility brings them into the domain of obstetrics and gynaecology. This review addresses the range of pituitary tumours with particular regard to diagnosis, growth and behaviour and management during pregnancy. PMID:27757146

  13. Living with a pituitary tumour: a narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jane; Heath, James; Wall, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesise the illness narratives of individuals living with a pituitary tumour. Eight adults with a pituitary tumour were recruited from an endocrinology service in the north-west of England. A narrative methodology was adopted which investigated elements of the individual narratives such as metaphor and structure but which also aimed to produce a joint account of experience in this particular illness context by extracting themes across the stories; these are presented as part of a chronological narrative. However, the resulting group story was also analysed in terms of different types of narrative plots. The group narrative started from the recognition of symptoms and then diagnosis though treatment to post-treatment and future plans. In terms of narrative plots, one notable element of the joint narrative was the flow between the culturally dominant restitution narrative, where participants focused on treatment and recovery and the chaos narrative when recovery did not seem possible. The findings contain many elements consistent with previous research; however, the use of a celebrity figure to communicate about the illness experience and a perception that objects or individuals should not be taken at face value emerged as more novel findings.

  14. Temozolomide therapy in patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas or carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bogazzi, Fausto; Cannavo, Salvo; Ceccato, Filippo; Curtò, Lorenzo; De Marinis, Laura; Iacovazzo, Donato; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mazza, Elena; Minniti, Giuseppe; Nizzoli, Maurizio; Reni, Michele; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-02-01

    Temozolomide is effective in some patients with progressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. We report a survey study of Italian patients treated with Temozolomide because of aggressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma resistant to standard therapies. Italian endocrinologists were surveyed and asked to participate into the study. A questionnaire was sent to all those who agreed and had used Temozolomide in at least one patient with pituitary tumor. Database was closed in December 2013. A literature review was also performed. Thirty-one patients were included into the analysis. Mean age at start of Temozolomide treatment was 58.3 ± 1.9 years (± standard error). Six of the 31 (19.4%) Italian patients had a pituitary carcinoma. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) had disease control during Temozolomide treatment, while 6 patients (19.4%) had disease progression. Median follow-up after beginning Temozolomide was 43 months. Thirteen patients had tumor growth after stopping Temozolomide. The 2-year progression-free survival was 47.7% (95% CI 29.5-65.9%), while the 2-year disease control duration was 59.1% (95% CI 39.1-79.1%). Eleven patients died of progressive disease and other two patients of unrelated causes. The 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 83.9% (95% CI 70.7-97.1%) and 59.6% (95% CI 40.0-79.2%), respectively. Temozolomide is an additional effective therapeutic option for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. The drug is well tolerated and causes few severe adverse effects. Recurrence of the tumor can occur after an initial positive response and usually portends a grim outcome.

  15. Overexpression of the Notch3 receptor in non-functioning pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zengli; Miao, Yifeng; Lin, Yuchang; Lu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Human non-functioning pituitary adenomas cause hypopituitarism or the compression of adjacent structures. At present, there is no available medical treatment for these tumours. The Notch3 pathway has an important role in the progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. We found, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, that Notch3 mRNA was significantly upregulated in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas, and, using Western blotting, that Notch3 protein was expressed at a higher level in non-functioning pituitary adenomas than in normal human pituitary tissue. In addition, using immunohistochemistry, we observed that Notch3 is highly expressed in the cytoplasm of adenoma cells compared to normal pituitary cells. These results suggest that the overexpression of Notch3 mRNA and protein by non-functioning pituitary adenomas may facilitate the growth of these tumours. Our results provide the first comprehensive analysis of Notch3 mRNA and protein overexpression in non-functioning pituitary tumours. This study provides new insights into the pathogenesis of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas and implicates the Notch3 pathway as a molecular therapeutic target for their treatment.

  16. Clinical course and outcome of pregnancies in amenorrhoeic women with hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Torbjörn; Nillius, Sven Johan; Wide, Leif

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen term pregnancies occurred in 14 amenorrhoeic women with hyperprolactinaemia and radiological evidence of pituitary tumour. The abortion rate was high (32%). All but one of the term pregnancies occurred after ovulation-inducing treatment with human gonadotrophins and bromocriptine (four and 12 pregnancies respectively). Two of the 14 women had visual complications during pregnancy, but neither had serious residual visual impairment. Two patients had possible pituitary enlargement during pregnancy. Bromocriptine may be the most suitable primary treatment for many infertile women with prolactin-secreting tumours. Tumour complications during pregnancy are a definite risk, but most pregnancies went uneventfully to term. Patients with pituitary tumour should be carefully evaluated before starting ovulation-inducing treatment with bromocriptine alone, and they should be told of the possible risks and of the advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment with irradiation or surgery. Patients should be carefully monitored during pregnancy and have their visual fields checked frequently. If visual complications due to tumour enlargement occur during a pregnancy, reinstituting bromocriptine may be the treatment of choice. If this fails, other forms of treatment such as induction of labour, high-dose corticosteroid treatment, pituitary implantation of yttrium-90, or surgery may be effective. ImagesFIG 1FIG 2 PMID:638504

  17. Conservative removal of small pituitary tumours: is it justified by the pathological findings?

    PubMed Central

    Wrightson, P

    1978-01-01

    Operation by the trans-sphenoidal route allows removal of small pituitary adenomata with conservation of normal gland. Histological examination of tissue obtained at operation and necropsy in 73 cases showed that surgical methods at present in use are likely to leave tumour behind in the pituitary gland and in the dura mater of the pituitary fossa. The clinical significance of these findings will only become evident after following patients for an extended period, but there appears to be a strong indication for routine postoperative radiotherapy. Images PMID:632827

  18. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of the treatment of pituitary gland tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sowiński, Jerzy; Piątek, Katarzyna; Zybek, Ariadna; Ruchała, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays physicians are under economic pressure; therefore therapeutic decisions based on safety, efficacy, and the effectiveness of the medication also require economic analysis. The aim of this review is to discuss data concerning the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy in patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas, namely growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, prolactinoma and pituitary incidentaloma. In acromegalic patients using lanreotide is cheaper for health care payers and more convenient for physicians and patients because of the opportunity for self/partner injections, lower clogging risk and possibility of longer intervals between injections, while the efficacy is comparable with octreotide. Patients with prolactinomas should be treated with novel dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline or quinagolide, however, bromocriptine still remains a cheaper and almost as effective alternative. There are no easy methods or algorithms, but in general, extracting the maximum value from the investment in treatment is essential. PMID:23788980

  19. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of the treatment of pituitary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Sowiński, Jerzy; Sawicka, Nadia; Piątek, Katarzyna; Zybek, Ariadna; Ruchała, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays physicians are under economic pressure; therefore therapeutic decisions based on safety, efficacy, and the effectiveness of the medication also require economic analysis. The aim of this review is to discuss data concerning the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy in patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas, namely growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, prolactinoma and pituitary incidentaloma. In acromegalic patients using lanreotide is cheaper for health care payers and more convenient for physicians and patients because of the opportunity for self/partner injections, lower clogging risk and possibility of longer intervals between injections, while the efficacy is comparable with octreotide. Patients with prolactinomas should be treated with novel dopamine agonists, such as cabergoline or quinagolide, however, bromocriptine still remains a cheaper and almost as effective alternative. There are no easy methods or algorithms, but in general, extracting the maximum value from the investment in treatment is essential.

  20. Local optometrists are a major source of referrals to a pituitary tumour clinic.

    PubMed

    Surchi, Haval; Jafar-Mohammadi, Bahram; Pal, Aparna; Cudlip, Simon; Grossman, Ashley B

    2017-03-01

    Pituitary adenomas can be identified pathologically in some 20-25% of autopsy specimens, but only around 1/1000 of the population have clinically significant tumours.Classic bitemporal hemianopia occurs as tumour expands. These visual symptoms are the most common objective manifestations of non-functioning pituitary adenomas, and demand urgent decompression to increase the probability of a complete normalisation of visual function. Delayed diagnosis may lead to irreversible visual loss.The onset of the visual deficit is usually gradual such that many patients might not seek medical consultation for months or even years. Thus, early diagnosis is critical but may be significantly delayed by a failure of concern by the patient or their clinicians.During our joint weekly Pituitary Clinic meeting of the Oxford University Hospitals Endocrinology and Neurosurgical teams, it became apparent that a large percentage of patients with pituitary gland lesions had their problem detected after a routine visit to a local optometrist. With this in mind, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate all referrals to our services over 2 years of patients with diagnosed non-functioning pituitary adenomas who required operative intervention. We found that the majority of patients presenting with visual loss has been initially seen and referred by an optometrist, while 12% had been referred by an optometrist when the patient was unaware that they had a significant visual problem. We conclude that optometrists in our region play a major role in diagnosing pituitary tumours at an early stage, almost certainly avoiding irreversible visual loss in some patients.

  1. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  2. A critical reappraisal of MIB-1 labelling index significance in a large series of pituitary tumours: secreting versus non-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jaffrain-Rea, M L; Di Stefano, D; Minniti, G; Esposito, V; Bultrini, A; Ferretti, E; Santoro, A; Faticanti Scucchi, L; Gulino, A; Cantore, G

    2002-06-01

    Pituitary tumours are usually benign neoplasia, but may have a locally aggressive or malignant evolution. This study aimed to identify factors which mostly influence their proliferative activity, in order to clarify its value for clinical and research purposes. The proliferative index was determined in a prospective series of 132 pituitary tumours as the percentage of monoclonal antibody MIB-1-immunopositive cells and referred to as the MIB-1 labelling index (LI). Its distribution was analysed according to both univariate and multivariate models. A life-threatening pituitary tumour is presented separately. The mean LI was 1.24+/-1.59%, with significant differences between clinically secreting (CS) and clinically non-secreting (CNS) adenomas. In CS adenomas (n=65), LI was highly variable and markedly influenced by pre-operative pharmacological treatment (0.80+/-1.03 vs 2.06+/-2.39% in treated vs untreated cases, P=0.009); it decreased with patient's age (P=0.025, r=0.28) and increased with tumour volume and invasiveness. The influence of pre-operative treatment and macroscopic features on LI in this group was confirmed by multivariate analysis. In CNS adenomas (n=67), LI distribution was less variable than in CS adenomas (P<0.0001), it was age-independent and correlations with tumour volume, invasiveness or recurrence did not reach significance. In a rapidly growing parasellar tumour, the mean LI was 24% at first surgery and exceeded 50% at second surgery performed 4 months later. LI should be interpreted according to hormone secretion and pre-operative treatment. Unusually high LI values deserve particular attention.

  3. MRI image characteristics of materials implanted at sellar region after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bladowska, Joanna; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sokolska, Violetta; Badowski, Roman; Moroń, Krzysztof; Bonicki, Wiesław; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change in anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of the tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of implanted materials and time of its resorption. The purpose was to demonstrate the characteristics of the implanted materials on MRI performed after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours and to identify imaging criteria helpful in differential diagnosis of masses within the sellar region. Material/Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours were included in the study. In general, 469 MRI examinations were performed with a 1.5T scanner. We obtained T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images. In 102 cases, additional T2-weighted coronal, unenhanced images with 1.5 T unit were obtained as well. Results: The implanted materials appeared in 95 patient: fat in 86 and muscle with fascia in 3 patients. We could recognise implanted muscle and fascia in T2-weighted images, because of high signal intensity of the degenerating muscle and the line of low signal representing fascia. The implanted titanium mesh was found in 4 patients. Haemostatic materials were visible only in 2 patients in examinations performed at an early postoperative stage (1 month after the procedure). Conclusions: The knowledge of MRI characteristics of the materials implanted at the sellar region is very important in postoperative diagnosis of pituitary tumours and may help discriminate between tumorous and non-tumorous involvement of the sellar region. Some implanted materials, like fat, could be seen on MRI for as long as 10 years after the operation, others, like haemostatic materials, for only 1 month after surgery. T2-weighted imaging is a useful assessment method of the implanted muscle and fascia for a long time after surgery. PMID

  4. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  5. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts reflect the microenvironmental hallmarks of aggressive patient tumours.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Tadeo, Irene; Beckman, Siv; Sandén, Caroline; Jönsson, Jimmie; Erjefält, Jonas S; Berbegall, Ana P; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Øra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Gisselsson, David; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of high-risk childhood neuroblastoma is a clinical challenge which has been hampered by a lack of reliable neuroblastoma mouse models for preclinical drug testing. We have previously established invasive and metastasising patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDXs) from high-risk neuroblastomas that retained the genotypes and phenotypes of patient tumours. Given the important role of the tumour microenvironment in tumour progression, metastasis, and treatment responses, here we analysed the tumour microenvironment of five neuroblastoma PDXs in detail. The PDXs resembled their parent tumours and retained important stromal hallmarks of aggressive lesions including rich blood and lymphatic vascularisation, pericyte coverage, high numbers of cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumour-associated macrophages, and extracellular matrix components. Patient-derived tumour endothelial cells occasionally formed blood vessels in PDXs; however, tumour stroma was, overall, of murine origin. Lymphoid cells and lymphatic endothelial cells were found in athymic nude mice but not in NSG mice; thus, the choice of mouse strain dictates tumour microenvironmental components. The murine tumour microenvironment of orthotopic neuroblastoma PDXs reflects important hallmarks of aggressive and metastatic clinical neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma PDXs are clinically relevant models for preclinical drug testing.

  6. Temozolomide (Temodar®) and capecitabine (Xeloda®) treatment of an aggressive corticotroph pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Thearle, Marie S; Freda, Pamela U; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Isaacson, Steven R; Lee, Yoomi; Fine, Robert L

    2011-12-01

    Only rarely do corticotroph pituitary tumors become invasive leading to symptoms caused by compression of cranial nerves and other local structures. When aggressive pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do develop, conventional treatment options are of limited success. A 50-year-old man developed a giant invasive corticotroph pituitary tumor 2 years after initial presentation. His tumor and symptoms failed to respond to maximal surgical, radio-surgical, radiation and medical therapy and a bilateral adrenalectomy was done. He subsequently developed rapid growth of his tumor leading to multiple cranial nerve deficits. He was administered salvage chemotherapy with capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM), a novel oral chemotherapy regimen developed at our institution for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. After two cycles of CAPTEM, his tumor markedly decreased in size and ACTH levels fell by almost 90%. Despite further decreases in ACTH levels, his tumor recurred after 5 months with increased avidity on PET scan suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive phenotype. Temozolomide had been reported to be effective against other pituitary tumors and this case adds to this literature demonstrating its use along with capecitabine (CAPTEM) against a corticotroph tumor. Further evaluation of the CAPTEM regimen in patients with pituitary neuroendocrine tumors which fail to respond to classic treatments is warranted.

  7. Temozolomide and pasireotide treatment for aggressive pituitary adenoma: expertise at a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Filippo; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Manara, Renzo; Emanuelli, Enzo; Denaro, Luca; Milanese, Laura; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Bertorelle, Roberta; Scanarini, Massimo; D'Avella, Domenico; Occhi, Gianluca; Boscaro, Marco; Zagonel, Vittorina; Scaroni, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive pituitary adenomas (PAs) are clinically challenging for endocrinologists and neurosurgeons due to their locally invasive nature and resistance to standard treatment (surgery, medical or radiotherapy). Two pituitary-directed drugs have recently been proposed: temozolomide (TMZ) for aggressive PA, and pasireotide for ACTH-secreting PA. We describe the experience of our multidisciplinary team of endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, oncologists, otolaryngologists and pathologists with TMZ and pasireotide treatment for aggressive PAs in terms of their radiological shrinkage and genetic features. We considered five patients with aggressive PA, three of them non-secreting (two ACTH-silent and one becoming ACTH secreting), and two secreting (one GH and one ACTH). TMZ was administrated orally at 150-200 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days every 28 days to all 5 patients, and 2 of them also received pasireotide 600-900 µg bid sc. We assessed the MRI at the baseline and during TMZ or pasireotide treatment. We also checked for MGMT promoter methylation and IDH, BRAF and kRAS mutations. Considering TMZ, two patients showed PA progression, one stable disease and two achieved radiological and clinical response. Pasireotide was effective in reducing hypercortisolism and mass volume, combined with TMZ in one case. Both treatments were generally well tolerated; one patient developed a grade 2 TMZ-induced thrombocytopenia. None of patients developed hypopituitarism while taking TMZ or pasireotide treatment. No genetic anomalies were identified in the adenoma tissue. TMZ and pasireotide may be important therapies for aggressive PA, alone or in combination.

  8. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  9. Delayed radiation necrosis of the central nervous system in patients irradiated for pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Grattan-Smith, P J; Morris, J G; Langlands, A O

    1992-10-01

    Four cases of delayed radiation necrosis involving the CNS were found in a group of 46 patients irradiated for pituitary tumours over a six year period. This occurred in three of 11 patients with Cushing's disease representing an incidence of 27% in this group. There were no cases among 11 patients with acromegaly or among seven with prolactinomas. One case (6%) was found in the 17 patients with chromophobe adenomas. Standard doses of radiation were delivered to these patients and the findings support suggestions that the metabolic disturbances of Cushing's disease may reduce tolerance to radiation. Our results and a literature review indicate that if radiotherapy is used to treat Cushing's disease, the total dose should be less than 50 Gy at 2 Gy per day fractionation.

  10. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Misir Krpan, Ana; Dusek, Tina; Rakusic, Zoran; Solak, Mirsala; Kraljevic, Ivana; Bisof, Vesna; Ozretic, David; Kastelan, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma.

  11. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma. PMID:28357143

  12. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase activators in antiproliferative multi-drug pituitary tumour therapies: effects of combined treatments with compounds affecting the mTOR-p70S6 kinase axis in cultured pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Tulipano, G; Faggi, L; Cacciamali, A; Spinello, M; Cocchi, D; Giustina, A

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated under conditions that deplete cellular ATP levels and elevate AMP levels. We have recently shown that AMPK can represent a valid target for improving the medical treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas and the effects of its activation or inhibition in pituitary tumour cells are worthy of further characterisation. We aimed to determine whether AMPK may have a role in combined antiproliferative therapies based on multiple drugs targeting cell anabolic functions at different levels in pituitary tumour cells to overcome the risk of cell growth escape phenomena. Accordingly, we tried to determine whether a rationale exists in combining compounds activating AMPK with compounds targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. AMPK down-regulation by specific small-interfering RNAs confirmed that activated AMPK had a role in restraining growth of GH3 cells. Hence, we compared the effects of compounds directly targeting the mTOR-p70S6K axis, namely the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671, with the effects of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) on cell signalling and cell growth, in rat pituitary GH3 cells. AICAR was able to reduce growth factor-induced p70S6K activity, as shown by the decrease of phospho-p70S6K levels. However, it was far less effective than rapamycin and PF-4708671. We observed significant differences between the growth inhibitory effects of the three compounds in GH3 and GH1 cells. Interestingly, PF-4708671 was devoid of any effect. AICAR was at least as effective as rapamycin and the co-treatment was more effective than single treatments. AICAR induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, whereas rapamycin caused preferentially a decrease of cell proliferation. Finally, AICAR and rapamycin differed in their actions on growth factor-induced extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation

  13. Wide excision and ulno-carpal arthrodesis for primary aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, M.; Jandhyala, R.; Sharma, H.; Amin, P.; Pandit, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five patients underwent wide resection of the distal radial giant cell tumours (GCTs) followed by ulno-carpal arthrodesis. There were 15 male and ten female patients, with an average age of 21.5 years. Tumours included ten primary aggressive and 15 recurrent GCTs. Mean follow up was 2.4 years. Pain, swelling and reduced range of movement (ROM) were noted. Average time to fusion was 7.6 months. Five patients had persistent pain in the proximal forearm. Grip strength was 65% compared to the uninvolved side. Two patients had superficial wound infection, two underwent additional bone grafting and three implant removals due to hardware prominence were carried out. There was no evidence of carpal instability or arthritis on clinical or radiological examination at the time of final follow up. Fusion of the carpus to the ulna is a simple method of producing a painless stable wrist, though at the expense of mobility. The procedure allows wide resection with a lower rate of recurrence. Pain in the proximal forearm seems to persist for 3 to 4 months only to improve at subsequent follow up. The procedure provides a valid option for the management of primary aggressive and recurrent GCTs of distal radius. PMID:17643243

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and their relationships with aggression in early and late alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Saliha; Esel, Ertugrul

    2008-02-15

    The study aims at investigating the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations and aggression level in alcoholic patients during early and late alcohol withdrawal. Serum levels of basal cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) were measured three times, and cortisol and DHEAS response to dexamethasone twice during the early and late withdrawal periods in alcohol dependent males (n=30) and once in healthy control males (n=20). Abnormal cortisol non-suppression response to dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was observed in some proportion of the patients in early withdrawal, which normalized in late withdrawal. The study revealed reduced basal DHEAS levels and reduced DHEAS response to dexamethasone in late withdrawal. When the patients were assessed in two separate groups as high- and low-aggressives, in the high-aggression group abnormality in DST was observed during both early and late withdrawal periods, in the low-aggression group it was observed only in early withdrawal. While basal DHEAS levels were low in the high-aggression group only in early withdrawal, it was reduced in the low-aggression group during late withdrawal period. Some alterations of the HPA axis during alcohol withdrawal might be associated not only with alcohol use per se but also with aggressivity tendency of alcoholic patients.

  15. SOX2 haploinsufficiency is associated with slow progressing hypothalamo-pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Kelberman, Daniel; Buchanan, Charles R; Crolla, John; Arriazu, Maria Cristina; Roubicek, Martin; Moncet, Daniel; Martinez-Barbera, Juan P; Dattani, Mehul T

    2011-12-01

    SOX2 is an early developmental transcription factor and marker of stem cells that has recently been implicated in the development of the pituitary gland. Heterozygous SOX2 mutations have been described in patients with hypopituitarism and severe ocular abnormalities. In the majority of published cases, the pituitary gland is either small or normal in size. Here, we report two unrelated patients with SOX2 haploinsufficiency (a heterozygous gene deletion and a novel c.143TC>AA/p.F48X mutation) who developed nonprogressive pituitary tumors of early onset, suggesting a congenital etiology. The truncating mutation resulted in significant loss of function and impaired nuclear localization of the mutant protein, in addition to a failure to repress β-catenin transcriptional activity in vitro. This is the first indication that SOX2 haploinsufficiency is implicated in the generation of pituitary tumors with distinct clinical characteristics, possibly mediated via its effects on the Wnt signaling pathway.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is an independent indicator for invasion in human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wang; Sander, Andrew J; Jia, Guijun; Ni, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Lu, Runchun; Jiang, Wen G

    2013-09-01

    DR3 in tumours with sella destruction were also lower than in those without destruction. VEGI, possibly via DR3, suppresses the aggressive nature of pituitary tumours and its expression level is closely linked to the invasion and destruction of the suprasellar and sella regions. It also has implications for the endocrine nature of these tumours. VEGI thus has an important predictive and prognostic value in patients with pituitary tumours.

  17. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2015-03-04

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas compared with normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24-72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca(2+) and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors.

  18. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D.; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D.; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas comparedwith normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24–72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca2+ and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors. PMID:25737012

  19. Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of gamma 1-MSH-like immunoreactivity in pituitary corticotrophs and ACTH-producing tumours.

    PubMed

    Ali-Rachedi, A; Ferri, G L; Varndell, I M; Van Noorden, S; Schot, L P; Ling, N; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1983-12-01

    The presence of gamma 1-MSH has been demonstrated in bovine neuro-intermediate lobe by biochemical methods, thus suggesting that this peptide is cleaved from the cryptic region of pro-opiocortin. In this study we report the localisation of gamma 1-MSH-like immunoreactivity in the adenohypophysis of man, ox, pig, dog and guinea-pig using immunocytochemical procedures at both light and electron microscope levels. Antisera recognising the C-terminal Arg-Phe-amide and the C-terminal penta-peptide-amide of gamma 1-MSH have been used throughout this study. The immunostaining was found in all endocrine cells of the pars intermedia (where present) and in scattered cells of the pars distalis identified as corticotrophs. No gamma 1-MSH immunoreactivity was detected in rat adenohypophysis. In addition, 7 ACTH-producing tumours (1 pituitary adenoma and 6 ectopic) were investigated and shown to contain gamma 1-MSH immunoreactive cells.

  20. Lack of MHC class I antigens and tumour aggressiveness of the squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, F.; Concha, A.; Delgado, M.; Pérez-Ayala, M.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 60 primary laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours, 24 lymph node metastases and normal tissue were evaluated in frozen sections for the expression of MHC class I antigens, using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP technique. We found 13 tumours presenting total HLA-ABC loss, five with selective loss of HLA-A antigens and one with absence of HLA-B antigens. These losses were statistically associated with clinical and pathological parameters, such as T stage, degree of differentiation, scores according to the Jakobsson and Glanz grading systems and degree of leukocytic infiltration. Our results lead us to the following conclusions: (a) HLA class I losses were found in a group of tumours showing greater aggressiveness and worse prognosis; (b) these alterations in expression were not associated with an increased metastatic potential. Thus, the absence of HLA molecules in laryngeal tumours is related to greater local aggressiveness, and the loss of class I antigens seems to constitute an adaptive tumour mechanism to avoid the different anatomical and immunological barriers within the larynx. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2257212

  1. The effects of fluoride on cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Schulz, A; Solano-Agama, C; Arreola-Mendoza, L; Reyes-Márquez, B; Barbier, O; Del Razo, L M; Mendoza-Garrido, M E

    2009-10-28

    The consumption of drinking water rich in fluoride has toxic effects on the central nervous system. In cell biology research, fluoride is currently used as a phosphatase inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on different physiological processes in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells. We used a range of different fluoride concentrations, from levels below normal human serum concentrations (0.23 and 1.2 micromol/L) to those observed in chronically exposed persons (10.7 micromol/L) and above (107 and 1072 micromol/L). Treatment of 10.7 micromol/L fluoride resulted in a discrete induction of DNA synthesis, without a change in cell number. Cell migration, a behaviour stimulated by growth factors, was increased in cells treated with 2.4 micromol/L. At this fluoride concentration, changes in phosphorylation status of both cytoskeletal and cytosolic protein fractions, as well as in actin cytoskeletal arrangements were observed. The GH4C1 fluoride treated cells had significantly less cellular protein than control cells, suggesting an effect of fluoride on hormone secretion and protein synthesis in this endocrine cell. The bioreduction of MTT was significantly increased with a wide range of fluoride concentrations. With the highest fluoride concentration, 1072 micromol/L, all of the analysed parameters were significantly reduced, suggesting that this dose is highly toxic in GH4C1 cells. Our results show that biologically relevant concentrations of fluoride are capable of increasing cell migration in tumour cells, suggesting that exposure to fluoride could stimulate tumour invasion.

  2. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  3. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits calcium-activated potassium channels in rat pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shipston, M J; Armstrong, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The regulation of large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH4C1), which were voltage clamped at -40 mV in a physiological potassium gradient through amphotericin-perforated patches. 2. Maximal activation of PKC by 100 nM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PdBu) almost completely inhibited the voltage-activated outward current through BK channels. In contrast PdBu had no significant effect on the residual outward current after block of BK channels with 2 mM TEA or 30 nM charybdotoxin. In single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches, PdBu reduced the open probability of BK channels more than eightfold with no significant effect on mean open lifetime or unitary conductance. 3. The effects of PdBu on BK channels were not mimicked by the 4 alpha-isomer, which does not activate PKC, and were blocked almost completely by 25 microM chelerythrine, a specific, noncompetitive PKC inhibitor. 4. PdBu had no significant effect on the amplitude of the pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. Inhibition of BK channel activity by PKC provides the first molecular mechanism linking hormonal activation of phospholipase C to sustained excitability in pituitary cells. PMID:8799890

  4. A novel approach to juxta-articular aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours: resection arthrodesis using bone transport over an intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sharath K.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive juxta-articular giant cell tumours of the lower limbs occurring in young patients are a challenge to the average orthopaedic surgeon. Although it is the treatment of choice for these tumours, wide resection creates a problem for the reconstruction of large bone gaps. We describe our results after resection arthrodesis of such tumours using the technique of bone transport over a long intramedullary nail in 27 patients. This is the first and largest study of its kind in the management of giant cell tumours in the literature. All our patients fared well with this mode of treatment, and none had recurrence or major complications. PMID:16724184

  5. Decrease in FOXJ1 expression and its ciliogenesis program in aggressive ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours

    PubMed Central

    Abedalthagafi, Malak S.; Wu, Michael P.; Merrill, Parker H.; Du, Ziming; Woo, Terri; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hurwitz, Shelley; Ligon, Keith L.; Santagata, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Well-differentiated human cancers share transcriptional programs with the normal tissue counterparts from which they arise. These programs broadly influence cell behavior and function and are integral modulators of malignancy. Here, we show that the master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, FOXJ1, is highly expressed in cells along the ventricular surface of the human brain. Strong expression is present in cells of the ependyma and the choroid plexus as well as in a subset of cells residing in the subventricular zone. Expression of FOXJ1 and its transcriptional program is maintained in many well-differentiated human tumours that arise along the ventricle, including low-grade ependymal tumours and choroid plexus papilloma. Anaplastic ependymoma as well as choroid plexus carcinoma show decreased FOXJ1 expression and its associated ciliogenesis program genes. In ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours, reduced expression of FOXJ1 and its ciliogenesis program are markers of poor outcome and are therefore useful biomarkers for assessing these tumours. Transitions in ciliogenesis define distinct differentiation states in ependymal and choroid plexus tumours with important implications for patient care. PMID:26690880

  6. Increased β‑catenin and c-myc expression predict aggressive growth of non-functioning pituitary adenomas: An assessment using a tissue microarray-based approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhui; Wu, Youtu; Yu, Shengyuan; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2017-04-01

    Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) account for 80% of pituitary adenomas with the majority of these exhibiting recurrences post-surgery. Overexpression of β-catenin and c‑myc is common in numerous invasive tumors. The present study sought to investigate the correlation of β‑catenin and c‑myc expression levels with aggressive growth and recurrence of NFPAs, using immunohistochemical examination of tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays comprised 212 NFPAs specimens and 10 healthy specimens as controls. NFPAs were categorized as non‑aggressive or aggressive. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to determine the expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc. Correlation of the expression levels of β‑catenin and c‑myc with clinicopathological parameters, including aggressiveness and recurrence, were assessed by univariate, multivariate and logistic regression analysis. Increased expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc was detected in the majority of aggressive NFPAs specimens (71.1 and 88.7%, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between β‑catenin and c‑myc expression and aggressiveness [P=0.001, Odds Ratio (OR)=4.011; P<0.001, OR=30.833]. Only β‑catenin expression demonstrated a significant correlation with recurrence in NFPAs (P=0.021, OR=2.571). β‑catenin and c‑myc were demonstrated to be potential biomarkers for aggressive NFPAs and in the future, β-catenin may serve as a marker for aggressive behavior and recurrence in NFPAs.

  7. Successful Management of a Giant Pituitary Lactosomatotroph Adenoma Only with Cabergoline

    PubMed Central

    Bozkirli, Emre; Bakiner, Okan; Ersozlu Bozkirli, Emine Duygu; Ertorer, Eda; Bascil Tutuncu, Neslihan; Guvener Demirag, Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    Although advances in endocrinologic and neuroradiologic research allow easier recognition of pituitary adenomas, giant pituitary tumours are relatively rare. In the literature, the term “giant” is generally used when a pituitary tumour becomes larger than 4 cm in diameter. Cabergoline is a potent and long-acting inhibitor of prolactin secretion, which exhibits high specificity and affinity for dopamine D2 receptor. Herein, we report a 46-year-old woman with a giant lactosomatotroph pituitary adenoma, sized 6 × 5 × 5.5 cm, who is treated successfully only with cabergoline. The patient showed dramatic response to cabergoline treatment by means of clinical, biochemical and radiological imaging findings. Cabergoline seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of prolactin and growth hormone cosecreting pituitary adenomas as well as prolactinomas. However, surgical or more aggressive approach must be considered where indicated. PMID:23762662

  8. Overexpression of the growth-hormone-releasing hormone gene in acromegaly-associated pituitary tumors. An event associated with neoplastic progression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, K.; Kovacs, K.; Stefaneanu, L.; Scheithauer, B.; Killinger, D. W.; Lioyd, R. V.; Smyth, H. S.; Barr, A.; Thorner, M. O.; Gaylinn, B.; Laws, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical behavior of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors is known to vary greatly; however, the events underlying this variability remain poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that tumor overexpression of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene is one prognostically informative event associated with the clinical aggressiveness of somatotroph pituitary tumors. Accumulation of GHRH mRNA transcripts was demonstrated in 91 of a consecutive series of 100 somatotroph tumors by in situ hybridization; these findings were corroborated by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein translation was confirmed by Western blotting. By comparison, transcript accumulation was absent or negligibly low in 30 normal pituitary glands. GHRH transcripts were found to preferentially accumulate among clinically aggressive tumors. Specifically, GHRH mRNA signal intensity was 1) linearly correlated with Ki-67 tumor growth fractions (r = 0.71; P < 0.001), 2) linearly correlated with preoperative serum GH levels (r = 0.56; p = 0.01), 3) higher among invasive tumors (P < 0.001), and 4) highest in those tumors in which post-operative remission was not achieved (P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression, a model of postoperative remission likelihood was derived wherein remission was defined by the single criterion of suppressibility of GH levels to less than 2 ng/ml during an oral glucose tolerance test. In this outcome model, GHRH mRNA signal intensity proved to be the most important explanatory variable overall, eclipsing any and all conventional clinicopathological predictors as the single most significant predictor of postoperative remission; increases in GHRH mRNA signal were associated with marked declines in remission likelihood. The generalizability of this outcome model was further validated by the model's significant performance in predicting postoperative remission in a random sample of 30 somatotroph tumors treated at

  9. Low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in aggressive nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YOUTU; BAI, JIWEI; HONG, LINCHUAN; LIU, CHUNHUI; YU, SHENGYUAN; YU, GUOQIANG; ZHANG, YAZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a specific molecular marker for aggressiveness of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is urgently required in order to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NFPAs. In the present study, low expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in NFPAs was demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The results confirmed an abnormal accumulation of free β-catenin in the nuclei of NFPAs, which is the core step for the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. Furthermore, cyclin D1 and c-Myc, the downstream proteins of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway, were overexpressed in aggressive NFPAs. These findings demonstrated the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway in aggressive NFPAs. In addition, sFRP2 expression was observed to be inversely correlated to the aggressiveness of NFPAs. Therefore, sFRP2 may act as a tumor suppressor through modulation of the cellular cytosolic pool of β-catenin in NFPAs. Furthermore, the expression of sFRP2 may serve as a biomarker for NFPAs aggressiveness and prognosis. PMID:27347125

  10. Tumor-specific downregulation and methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes correlate with aggressiveness of human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi Rong; Sano, Toshiaki; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Asa, Sylvia L; Yamada, Shozo; Mizusawa, Noriko; Kudo, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    The gene products of CDH13 and CDH1, H-cadherin and E-cadherin, respectively, play a key role in cell-cell adhesion. Inactivation of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system caused by aberrant methylation is a common finding in human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 and CDH1 function as tumor suppressor and invasion suppressor genes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein in 5 normal pituitary tissues and 69 primary pituitary adenomas including all major types by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Reduced expression of H-cadherin was detected in 54% (28/52) of pituitary tumors and was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression was lost in 30% (21 of 69) and significantly reduced in 32% (22 of 69) of tumors. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in grade II, III, and IV than in grade I adenomas (P=0.015, P=0.029, and P=0.01, respectively). Using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), promoter hypermethylation of CDH13 and CDH1 was detected in 30 and 36% of 69 adenomas, respectively, but not in 5 normal pituitary tissues. Methylation of CDH13 was observed more frequently in invasive adenomas (42%) than in non-invasive adenomas (19%) (P<0.05) and methylation of CDH1 was more frequent in grade IV adenomas compared with grade I adenomas (P<0.05). Methylation of either CDH13 or CDH1 was identified in 35 cases (51%) and was more frequent in grade IV invasive adenomas than in grade I non-invasive adenomas (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). Downregulation of expression was correlated with promoter hypermethylation in CDH13 and CDH1. In conclusion, the tumor-specific downregulation of expression and methylation of CDH13 and CDH1, alone or in combination, may be involved in the development and invasive growth of pituitary adenomas.

  11. Identification of a novel BET bromodomain inhibitor-sensitive, gene regulatory circuit that controls Rituximab response and tumour growth in aggressive lymphoid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Emadali, Anouk; Rousseaux, Sophie; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Rome, Claire; Duley, Samuel; Hamaidia, Sieme; Betton, Patricia; Debernardi, Alexandra; Leroux, Dominique; Bernay, Benoit; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Combes, Florence; Ferri, Elena; McKenna, Charles E; Petosa, Carlo; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Ferro, Myriam; Gressin, Rémy; Callanan, Mary B; Khochbin, Saadi

    2013-01-01

    Immuno-chemotherapy elicit high response rates in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma but heterogeneity in response duration is observed, with some patients achieving cure and others showing refractory disease or relapse. Using a transcriptome-powered targeted proteomics screen, we discovered a gene regulatory circuit involving the nuclear factor CYCLON which characterizes aggressive disease and resistance to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab, in high-risk B-cell lymphoma. CYCLON knockdown was found to inhibit the aggressivity of MYC-overexpressing tumours in mice and to modulate gene expression programs of biological relevance to lymphoma. Furthermore, CYCLON knockdown increased the sensitivity of human lymphoma B cells to Rituximab in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, this effect could be mimicked by in vitro treatment of lymphoma B cells with a small molecule inhibitor for BET bromodomain proteins (JQ1). In summary, this work has identified CYCLON as a new MYC cooperating factor that autonomously drives aggressive tumour growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism is amenable to next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition, thereby providing a new combination therapy rationale for high-risk lymphoma. The nuclear factor CYCLON is a new MYC cooperating factor that drives tumor growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism can be targeted by next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition downstream of MYC. PMID:23828858

  12. Accuracy of CT parameters for assessment of tumour size and aggressiveness in lung adenocarcinoma with bronchoalveolar elements.

    PubMed

    Bhure, U N; Lardinois, D; Kalff, V; Hany, T F; Soltermann, A; Seifert, B; Steinert, H C

    2010-10-01

    Accurate determination of tumour size in lung adenocarcinoma with bronchoalveolar features (BAC) is important for the determination of TNM (tumour, nodes, metastasis) scores used in staging, prognosis and therapy response assessment. However, tumour sizes derived using lung window (LW) CT or soft-tissue/mediastinal window (MW) CT often give different results. This study examines which measurement correlates best with actual tumour size and which best identifies advanced disease. This retrospective study included 43 BAC patients who underwent surgical resection with mediastinal lymphadenectomy <4 weeks post CT scan. The largest unidimensional tumour diameter on each CT window was compared with actual histopathological tumour size (HP). LW, MW and HP size measurements and a recently described CT parameter - the modified tumour shadow disappearance rate (mTDR) = (1 - [MW/LW]) - were then used to determine which parameter best discriminated between the presence or absence of advanced disease. There was no difference between HP and LW sizes, but MW significantly underestimated HP size (p<0.0001). Unlike MW (p = 0.01) and mTDR (p = 0.001), neither HP (p = 0.14) nor LW (p = 0.10) distinguished between patients with or without advanced disease. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis at a cut-off of ≤0.13, the sensitivity and specificity of mTDR for detecting advanced disease were 69% and 89%, respectively. In patients with tumours ≤3 cm, only mTDR remained a significant predictor of advanced disease (p = 0.017), with best cut-off at ≤0.20, giving a sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 94%, respectively. MW better predicts advanced disease than LW and might also need to be recorded for RECIST (response evaluation criteria in solid tumours) assessment for T staging of BAC; however, mTDR appears to be an even better predictor and should also be used.

  13. Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Zhao, Yong; Li, Xin; Sun, Peng; Wang, Muwen; Wang, Ridong; Jin, Xunbo

    2012-01-01

    Background As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness. Methods Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed. Results Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax. Conclusions Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer. PMID:23077456

  14. Triple jeopardy in the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kian-Peng; Lee, Hwei-Yee; Rajasoorya, Raja C

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive pituitary tumors are rare the pathogenesis is not well established. The development of pituitary tumor after apoplexy has also been rarely reported. We describe the sequential development of Cushing's disease, apoplexy and aggressive pituitary tumor in the same patient. A 31-year old male presented with eutopic ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome which failed initial pituitary surgery. He underwent subsequent bilateral adrenalectomy for control of hypercortisolism. An episode of pituitary apoplexy then occurred which was followed by the development of a null-cell pituitary tumor. This second tumor exhibited an aggressive behavior with invasion into the surrounding structures and systemic spread clinically. This case provides important evidence for the hypotheses of the pathogenesis of aggressive pituitary tumors which could have arisen from surviving adenoma cells following apoplexy or as a de novo development of pituitary carcinoma from cells which were not part of the original adenoma. This is the first report of a transformation of Cushing's disease to an aggressive and invasive null cell tumor after pituitary irradiation, apoplexy and surgery.

  15. Developmental transcription factor NFIB is a putative target of oncofetal miRNAs and is associated with tumour aggressiveness in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Becker-Santos, Daiana D; Thu, Kelsie L; English, John C; Pikor, Larissa A; Martinez, Victor D; Zhang, May; Vucic, Emily A; Luk, Margaret Ty; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Piga, Daniela; Lhomme, Nicolas M; Tsay, Mike J; Yee, John; MacAulay, Calum E; Lam, Stephen; Lockwood, William W; Robinson, Wendy P; Jurisica, Igor; Lam, Wan L

    2016-10-01

    Genes involved in fetal lung development are thought to play crucial roles in the malignant transformation of adult lung cells. Consequently, the study of lung tumour biology in the context of lung development has the potential to reveal key developmentally relevant genes that play critical roles in lung cancer initiation/progression. Here, we describe for the first time a comprehensive characterization of miRNA expression in human fetal lung tissue, with subsequent identification of 37 miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that recapitulate their fetal expression patterns. Nuclear factor I/B (NFIB), a transcription factor essential for lung development, was identified as a potential frequent target for these 'oncofetal' miRNAs. Concordantly, analysis of NFIB expression in multiple NSCLC independent cohorts revealed its recurrent underexpression (in ∼40-70% of tumours). Interrogation of NFIB copy number, methylation, and mutation status revealed that DNA level disruption of this gene is rare, and further supports the notion that oncofetal miRNAs are likely the primary mechanism responsible for NFIB underexpression in NSCLC. Reflecting its functional role in regulating lung differentiation, low expression of NFIB was significantly associated with biologically more aggressive subtypes and, ultimately, poorer survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Akting and cycling: a tale of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2004-01-01

    Pituitary tumours are characterized by a series of phenotypic abnormalities, but the molecular nature of the underlying defects has proved peculiarly intractable. Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes involved in other tumours do not appear to play a major role in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumours. In addition, germline genetic disorders in which pituitary tumours are a common feature have not shed much light on the more common sporadic tumour. A number of defects in specific feedback regulation in the secretory tumours have been identified, but it is presently unclear as to what extent these are a consequence of the tumour, possibly enhancing its growth or survival, rather than the cause. However, recent studies on the cell cycle have demonstrated significant abnormalities that have been traced to a cytoplasmic kinase which appears to be abnormally expressed in the majority of pituitary adenomas, and we are beginning to see a possible unifying abnormality.

  17. Multidisciplinary Management of Pituitary Apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Adriana; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Esposito, Felice; Granata, Francesca; Ferreri, Felicia; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome due to ischemic or haemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland which complicates 2–12% of pituitary tumours, especially nonfunctioning adenomas. In many cases, it results in severe neurological, ophthalmological, and endocrinological consequences and may require prompt surgical decompression. Pituitary apoplexy represents a rare medical emergency that necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Modalities of treatment and times of intervention are still largely debated. Therefore, the management of patients with pituitary apoplexy is often empirically individualized and clinical outcome is inevitably related to the multidisciplinary team's skills and experience. This review aims to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of pituitary apoplexy and to discuss modalities of presentation, treatment, and times of intervention. PMID:28074095

  18. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs.

  19. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  20. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  1. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. Pituitary tumors are common, but often they don't cause health ... tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your ...

  2. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... almost always benign (not cancerous), but can cause hormonal imbalances and interfere with the normal function of the pituitary gland. Because the pituitary affects so many functions of the body, ... the tumor mass or hormonal changes (either too much or too little hormone). ...

  3. Long-term (up to 18 years) effects on GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion and tumour size of primary somatostatin analogue (SSTa) therapy in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma responsive to SSTa

    PubMed Central

    Maiza, Jean Christophe; Vezzosi, Delphine; Matta, Maria; Donadille, Florence; Loubes-Lacroix, Florence; Cournot, Maxime; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Context The role of somatostatin analogues (SSTa) in the treatment of acromegaly. Objective To evaluate the antihormonal and antitumour efficacy of long-term (up to 18 years) primary treatment with SSTa in patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma responsive to SSTa. Design An open, prospective, single-centre, clinical study. Patients Thirty-six acromegalic patients, aged 17–75 years (postoral glucose tolerance test GH > 1 µg/l, increased IGF-1 for age and sex), were monitored in a single centre and treated with SSTa as first-line therapy. The mean pretreatment GH level was 13·5 ±3·1 µg/l, and IGF-1 (as a percentage of the value over the normal range) was 302 ± 26%. The patients had macroadenoma (n = 25), microadenoma (n = 8) or empty sella turcica (n = 3). The mean duration of treatment was 8 years (range 3–18 years). Hormonal and morphological monitoring was undertaken after 6 months, and then the patients were followed annually. Results After 1 year, the mean GH and IGF-1 levels had reduced considerably (GH: 2·4 ± 0·3 µg/l; IGF-1; 174 ± 14%, P < 0·01), and they continued to decrease over 10 years, with a mean GH level of 1·6 ± 0·1 µg/l and IGF-1 of 123 ± 18% (P = 0·02). GH < 2 µg/l, normal IGF-1, or both were observed in 25 (70%), 24 (67%) and 21 (58%) patients, respectively. The mean reduction in tumour volume was 43% (range 13–97%) and shrinkage > 20% was obtained in 21 patients (72%). SSTa treatment was well tolerated with few digestive or metabolic side-effects. Conclusion Long-term (up to 18 years) treatment with SSTa used as first-line therapy is effective from both an antihormonal and antitumour perspective, and is well tolerated in acromegalic patients. PMID:17524029

  4. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... or milk production), sex hormones (control the menstrual cycle and other sexual functions), thyroid gland hormones (control the thyroid gland), adrenal gland hormones, and vasopressin (a hormone involved in water and electrolyte balance). Symptoms of pituitary adenoma and ...

  5. Pituitary tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  6. Pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Ranabir, Salam; Baruah, Manash P.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies. PMID:22029023

  7. A history of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2014-03-01

    The history of pituitary pathology is a long one that dates back to biblical times, but the last 25 years have represented an era of "coming of age." The role of the pituitary in health and disease was the subject of many studies over the last century. With the development of electron microscopy, immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry, the functional alterations associated with pituitary disease have been clarified. The additional information provided by molecular genetic studies has allowed progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders. Nevertheless, many questions remain to be answered. For example, pathologists cannot morphologically distinguish locally aggressive adenomas from carcinomas when tumor is confined to the sella. Sadly, basal cell carcinoma, the most common carcinoma of skin, usually causes less morbidity than pituitary adenomas, which occur in almost 20 % of the general population, can cause significant illness and even death, and yet are still classified as benign. The opportunity to increase awareness of the impact of these common lesions on quality of life is the current challenge for physicians and patients. We anticipate that ongoing multidisciplinary approaches to pituitary disease research will offer new insights into diseases arising from this fascinating organ.

  8. Pituitary Apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Briet, Claire; Salenave, Sylvie; Bonneville, Jean-François; Laws, Edward R; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary apoplexy, a rare clinical syndrome secondary to abrupt hemorrhage or infarction, complicates 2%-12% of pituitary adenomas, especially nonfunctioning tumors. Headache of sudden and severe onset is the main symptom, sometimes associated with visual disturbances or ocular palsy. Signs of meningeal irritation or altered consciousness may complicate the diagnosis. Precipitating factors (increase in intracranial pressure, arterial hypertension, major surgery, anticoagulant therapy or dynamic testing, etc) may be identified. Corticotropic deficiency with adrenal insufficiency may be life threatening if left untreated. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging confirms the diagnosis by revealing a pituitary tumor with hemorrhagic and/or necrotic components. Formerly considered a neurosurgical emergency, pituitary apoplexy always used to be treated surgically. Nowadays, conservative management is increasingly used in selected patients (those without important visual acuity or field defects and with normal consciousness), because successive publications give converging evidence that a wait-and-see approach may also provide excellent outcomes in terms of oculomotor palsy, pituitary function and subsequent tumor growth. However, it must be kept in mind that studies comparing surgical approach and conservative management were retrospective and not controlled.

  9. Cell cycle dysregulation in pituitary oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muşat, Madalina; Vax, Vladimir V; Borboli, Ninetta; Gueorguiev, Maria; Bonner, Sarah; Korbonits, Márta; Grossman, Ashley B

    2004-01-01

    The cell cycle is the process by which cells grow, replicate their genome and divide. The cell cycle control system is a cyclically-operating biochemical device constructed from a set of interacting proteins that induce and coordinate proper progression through the cycle, and includes cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and their inhibitors (CDKI). There are mainly two families of CDKI, the INK family (INK4a/p16; INK4b/p15; INK4c/p18 and INK4d/p19) and the WAF/KIP family (WAF1/p21; KIP1/p27; KIP2/p57). Progression through the cell cycle is mainly dependent on fluctuations in the concentration of cyclins and CDKI achieved through the programmed degradation of these proteins by proteolysis within the ubiquitin-proteasome system. There is also a transcriptional regulation of cyclin expression, probably dependent on CDK phosphorylation. The p53 family--p53, p63 and p73--function as transcription factors that play a major role in regulating the response of mammalian cells to stressors and damage, in part through the transcriptional activation of genes involved in cell cycle control (e.g. p21), DNA repair, senescence, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Essential for the maintenance of euploidy during mitosis is human securin, identical to the product of the pituitary tumour-transforming gene (PTTG). Loss of regulation at the G1/S transition appears to be a common event among virtually all types of human tumours. Aberrations of one or more components of the pRb/p16/cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway seem to be a frequent event (80%) in pituitary tumours. The role of p27 is rather that of a haploinsufficient gene. p27-/- mice show an increased growth rate, due to increased cellularity, testicular and ovarian cell hyperplasia and infertility, and hyperplasia of the pituitary intermediate lobe with nearly 100% mortality caused by such a benign pituitary tumour. Although the p27 gene was not found to be mutated in human pituitary tumours and its mRNA expression was similar in tumour samples

  10. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  11. Early hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery: cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Pumar, A; Soto, A; Pomares, M A; Palma, S; Mangas, M A; Leal, A; Villamil, F

    2007-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common complication in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It can be caused either by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or by the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS). CSWS frequently occurs in patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage and brain injury, but it is rare after pituitary tumour surgery. However, this diagnostic possibility should be considered as these disorders require specific treatment and have different prognoses. In this article, we present a case of acute and early hyponatraemia caused by CSWS after pituitary tumour surgery. We also revise the aetiology, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery.

  12. Fibrosarcoma complicating irradiated pituitary adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Farrell, M.A.; Kaufmann, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    Eight years after radiation therapy (5000 rads of 60Co) for a pituitary adenoma, a patient developed a sellar fibrosarcoma. The tumor had an aggressive growth pattern: it infiltrated the optic nerve, sphenoidal air sinus, hypothalamus, and both cavernous sinuses, where compression of the left internal carotid artery resulted in a massive hemispheric infarction. Surgery was ineffective in arresting rapid growth of the lesion; death occurring 5 months after onset of symptoms.

  13. [The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a model of gene regulation and a marker of tumour aggressiveness. An obvious therapeutic target?].

    PubMed

    Grépin, Renaud; Pagès, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    VEGF represents a model of gene expression regulation. RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3 Kinase pathways, activated in response to growth factors stimulation or by oncogenes, contribute to its expression by activating transcription factors or inactivating proteins implicated in degradation of its mRNA. These factors (Sp1/Sp3, HIF-1 and TTP) constitute molecular markers of tumor aggressiveness. VEGF is overexpressed in solid or hematologic tumors. Thus, numerous compounds regulating angiogenesis by targeting VEGF have been developed. However, their effects are not as spectacular as expected. The existence of anti-angiogenic isoforms of VEGF could be a cause of their less potent activity. These different points are discussed in this review article.

  14. Thyrotrophin (TSH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion.

    PubMed

    Kon, Y C; Loh, K C; Tambyah, J A; Lim, L H; Marshall, J C

    2001-09-01

    Thyrotrophin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, although rare, should be recognised as a possible cause of normal or elevated serum TSH in the presence of elevated serum free thyroid hormone levels. Clinical hyperthyroidism may be mild or absent. Early recognition provides the best chance for surgical cure. We report a patient with a TSH-secreting pituitary tumour with cavernous sinus invasion. This case illustrates that multiple modalities of treatment are often necessary and complementary in achieving control of tumour growth and hormonal hypersecretion when these tumours are diagnosed late.

  15. Clinicopathological correlation in pituitary gland metastasis presenting as anterior visual pathway compression.

    PubMed

    Luu, Susie T; Billing, Katie; Crompton, John L; Blumbergs, Peter; Lee, Andrew W; Chen, Celia S

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary gland metastases, albeit rare, remain an important differential in sellar and suprasellar tumours. Clinical and radiological features of pituitary metastases may be indistinguishable from benign suprasellar lesions such as a pituitary adenoma. Histopathology with immunohistochemical assay remains the key to the diagnosis of pituitary metastasis. We describe four patients with sellar lesions presenting with anterior visual pathway compression initially diagnosed as pituitary adenomas who on immunohistochemistry were found to have metastases to the pituitary. Classification of the cell histology determined the primary site of origin in some patients. This series demonstrates the importance of combining histopathology and immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of suprasellar lesions.

  16. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney in adults.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ritu; Singhal, Mitali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2013-03-04

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is a neural crest tumour derived from neuroectoderm. Renal PNET is a very rare tumour occurring during childhood or adolescence. We report two cases of PNET involving kidney in adults. Presenting signs and symptoms include abdominal/flank pain and/or haematuria. Microscopy reveals the tumour consisted of small round cells with round nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry with diffuse membranous positivity of tumour cells with CD99. As these tumours have an aggressive clinical course with rapid death in many reported cases, it is important to differentiate them from other small round-cell tumours.

  17. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  18. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicles. Prolactin causes milk production in the female breast. Its function in men is not known. Posterior pituitary The smaller, back part of the pituitary gland, known as the posterior pituitary, is really an ...

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Fergus; Navin, Patrick; Brett, Francesca; Dennedy, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour. Learning points While non-functioning gonadotropinomas represent the most common form of pituitary macroadenoma, functioning gonadotropinomas are exceedingly rare. Acute tumour enlargement, with potential pituitary apoplexy, is a rare but important adverse effect arising from GNRH agonist therapy in the presence of both functioning and non-functioning pituitary gonadotropinomas. GNRH antagonist therapy represents an alternative treatment option for patients with hormonal therapy-requiring prostate cancer, who also have diagnosed with a pituitary gonadotropinoma. PMID:27284452

  20. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: a rare brain tumour of childhood.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Babar; Soares, Delvene; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Rajesh; Minhas, Khurram; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2013-05-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy is a rare, mostly benign but locally aggressive tumour of neural crest cell origin occurring in infants. The most commonly affected anatomic site is the maxilla. Such tumours of the brain and skull are very rare. We present the case of an 8 months old baby girl whose presenting complaint was a swelling in the scalp for 6 months. She was otherwise asymptomatic. CT imaging confirmed the presence of an osteolytic tumour in the anterior parasagittal skull with dural involvement. The tumour was surgically excised enbloc. The patient has been well at 2 years follow-up without any evidence of recurrence.

  1. Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

  2. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  3. Pituitary Somatostatin Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is a major regulator of pituitary function, mostly inhibiting hormone secretion and to a lesser extent pituitary cell growth. Five SRIF receptor subtypes (SSTR1–5) are ubiquitously expressed G-protein coupled receptors. In the pituitary, SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3 and SSTR5 are expressed, with SSTR2 and SSTR5 predominating. As new SRIF-analogs have recently been introduced for treatment of pituitary disease, we evaluate the current knowledge of cell-specific pituitary SRIF receptor signaling and highlight areas of future research for comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms. Elucidating pituitary SRIF receptor signaling enables understanding of pituitary hormone secretion and cell growth, and also points to future therapeutic development for pituitary disorders. PMID:20149677

  4. CT of pituitary abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  5. Pituitary lymphoma developing within pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ken; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Naoaki; Miyauchi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Go; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2012-06-01

    Lymphoma occurring in the pituitary gland is an exceedingly infrequent event. Here, we describe a case of pituitary lymphoma complicating recurrent pituitary adenoma. A 56-year-old male with a history of pituitary adenoma was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the left ocular adnexa, which was successfully treated by standard chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. Eight months later, he complained of diplopia and bitemporal hemianopia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected a suprasellar tumor. Transsphenoidal biopsy of the mass was performed, and histopathological examination revealed DLBCL admixed with pituitary adenoma. On a review of the literature, we found that pituitary lymphoma developing within adenoma is a recurrent phenomenon. The composite tumor is likely to be characterized by suprasellar involvement and presentation of visual disturbances. Moreover, in the present case, the suprasellar tumor remained visible after autologous peripheral stem cell transplant, likely due to the residual pituitary adenoma. We therefore recommend that refractory pituitary lymphoma should be vigorously biopsied in search of possibly underlying adenoma.

  6. Tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, F.

    1985-01-01

    Tumours induce the growth of host blood vessels to support their proliferation. This process of angiogenesis is evoked by specific chemical signals. Recognition of these angiogenic factors has led to experimental methods for cancer diagnosis and for inhibiting malignant growth by specifically blocking neovascularisation. The clinical potential of these techniques is discussed. PMID:2413796

  7. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  8. Effect of prolactin and bromocriptine on growth of transplanted hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Briand, P.; Thorpe, S. M.; Daehnfeldt, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Administration of ovine prolactin alone supported growth of hormone-dependent GR mouse mammary tumours. Growth of hormone-independent tumours was not stimulated. Furthermore, administration of bromocriptine, a compound that inhibits release of prolactin from the pituitary gland, was shown to inhibit the growth of hormone-dependent tumours in animals receiving treatment with progesterone + oestrone. Administration of prolactin or bromocriptine to mice bearing tumours that grew independently of progesterone + oestrone treatment had no influence on tumour growth. We conclude that direct as well as indirect evidence has been found for the involvement of prolactin in the growth of transplanted, hormone-dependent GR mouse mammary tumours. PMID:577471

  9. Crooke's cell tumors of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Davidson, Jennilee M; Syro, Luis V; Rotondo, Fabio; Montoya, Julian F; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael D; Kovacs, Kalman

    2015-05-01

    Crooke's cell adenomas are a rare type of pituitary neoplasm. They produce adrenocorticotropic hormone causing Cushing's disease or may be endocrinologically silent. These tumors are usually invasive, may exhibit aggressive clinical behavior, and often recur with a low success of cure after reoperation and/or radiotherapy. Due to their rarity, they present great difficulties in assessing prognosis, treatment, and clinical management. Neurosurgeons and physicians dealing with pituitary adenomas diagnosed as Crooke's cell adenomas have to be aware of their potential clinical aggressiveness to plan strict follow-up of patients and eventual multimodality treatment. We review here the published cases of Crooke's cell tumors, as well as the clinical and histopathological characteristics of these unusual neoplasms.

  10. Non-functioning pituitary tumors: 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Cámara Gómez, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas in adults, accounting for approximately 14%-28% of all clinically relevant pituitary tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of tumors that cause symptoms by compression and/or hormone deficiencies. The possibility of tumor growth is increased in macroadenomas and solid tumors as compared to microadenomas and cystic tumors. Diagnosis is based on imaging procedures (magnetic resonance imaging), but there are studies reporting promising potential biomarkers. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first therapeutic option for large tumors with compressive symptoms. There is no evidence that endoscopic procedures improve outcomes, but they decrease morbidity. There is no unanimity in finding prognostic predictors of recurrence. Radiosurgery achieves tumor control and, sometimes, adenoma size reduction. Its adverse effects increase with higher doses and tumor sizes>4cm(3). Drug treatment is of little value. In aggressive non-functioning tumors, temozolomide (TMZ) may be used with caution because no controlled studies are available. TMZ achieves tumor control in 38%-40% of aggressive non-functioning tumors. The optimal treatment regimen and duration have not been defined yet. Lack of response to TMZ after 3 cycles predicts for treatment resistance, but initial response does not ensure optimal mid or long-term results. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression has a limited predictive value of response to treatment with TMZ in aggressive non-functioning tumors. It should therefore not be a determinant factor in selection of patients to be treated with TMZ.

  11. Occult invasive pituitary adenoma predisposing to fatal bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Moore, S A

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary adenomata are benign neoplasms which usually grow slowly and present with manifestations relating to an associated endocrinopathy or visual disturbance. Rarely these neoplasms will demonstrate a more aggressive behavior with extracranial extension and symptoms of upper airway obstruction or anosmia. Several reported cases suggest that although these neoplasms behave aggressively the overall survival and prognosis for these patients remains good. We present the clinical and postmortem findings of an occult invasive pituitary adenoma leading to the development of bacterial meningitis, coma and death. This communication stresses the necessity for the early diagnosis and treatment of the invasive adenomata to prevent the development of potentially fatal infectious sequelae.

  12. Association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Guaraldi, Federica; Prencipe, Nunzia; di Giacomo, Valentina; Scanarini, Massimo; Gasco, Valentina; Gardiman, Marina Paola; Berton, Alessandro M; Ghigo, Ezio; Grottoli, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    Intracranial tumors of different histologic types infrequently affect patients with pituitary adenomas and no history of head irradiation. The association with craniopharyngioma is extremely rare. Aims of this paper are: (1) to provide a critical literature review of typical features of pituitary adenoma presenting in association with craniopharyngioma; (2) to describe the first documented (clinically, biochemically, histologically, and radiologically) case of aggressive, suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma presenting with amenorrhea, progressive reduction of visual field, and severe headache in a 38-year-old woman, a decade after surgical cure for microprolactinoma associated with empty sella, during which she had carried two pregnancies; and (3) to discuss common etiopathogenetic mechanisms, in relation to the management of these lesions. Systematic literature search for English literature focusing on the association of craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma was performed using PubMed database. Additional relevant articles from references lists were also included. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological examinations performed in our patient for the two brain lesions at diagnosis and follow up were collected. Literature search retrieved nine articles. Typically, craniopharyngioma were of adamantinomatous type, occurred simultaneously to pituitary adenoma, presented with headache and visual loss, and affected men. No case of clearly documented metachronous lesion affecting a woman after pregnancy had been described before. Although very rare and with uncertain etiopathogenesis, second tumors (i.e., craniopharyngioma) should be considered in patients with a history of pituitary adenoma, presenting with suggestive signs and symptoms, even after a long disease-free period, in order to provide proper and prompt treatment.

  13. Effects of cabergoline in a pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Leese, G.; Jeffreys, R.; Vora, J.

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone with co-existent primary hyperaldosteronism is described. After his second transsphenoidal surgery, the patient developed a Staphylococcus aureus pituitary abscess. Symptoms improved after abscess drainage. Subsequent cabergoline therapy arrested the deterioration of symptoms. and decreased serum follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Cabergoline may be a useful treatment for aggressively growing non-prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. PMID:9307745

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    PubMed

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.

  15. Morphology of the pituitary gland in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, N J; van der Hage, M H; Flik, G; Lumeij, J T; Rijnberk, A

    2004-05-01

    Pituitary tumours are the cause of hyperadrenocorticism in a variety of species, but the role of the pituitary gland in hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets is not known. In this species, the disease is mediated by the action of excess gonadotrophins on the adrenal cortex and is characterized by an excessive secretion of sex steroids. In this study, the pituitary gland of four healthy control ferrets, intact or neutered, and 10 neutered ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism was examined histologically following immunohistochemical labelling for adrenocorticotrophic hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that somatotrophs, thyrotrophs and lactotrophs were the most abundant cell types of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland in the healthy ferrets. The distribution of corticotrophs was similar to that in the dog and man. In ferrets, as in dogs, the melanotrophic cell was almost the only cell type of the pars intermedia. Gonadotrophs were found in the pars distalis of neutered, but not intact ferrets. All the ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism had unilateral or bilateral alterations of the adrenal gland. In addition, in the pituitary gland of two of these ferrets a tumour was detected. These tumours were not immunolabelled by antibodies against any of the pituitary hormones, and had characteristics of the clinically non-functional gonadotroph tumours seen in man. In some of the other ferrets low pituitary immunoreactivity for gonadotrophic hormones was detected, which may have been due to the feedback of autonomous steroid secretion by the neoplastic transformation of the adrenal cortex. It is concluded that initially high concentrations of gonadotrophins resulting from castration may initiate hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex. The low incidence of pituitary tumours and the low density of gonadotrophin-positive cells in non

  16. Diagnosis and management of isolated pituitary metastasis from adenocarcinoma of unknown origin presenting as loss of libido

    PubMed Central

    Feghaly, Julien; Astras, George

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gland metastasis from primary tumours is uncommon on its own. Rarely, some of these primary tumours may be of unknown origin. This metastasis to the pituitary gland could manifest as diabetes insipidus, cranial nerve palsies, headaches, fatigue and other symptoms. In rare cases, it could present as loss of libido. We describe here this rare presentation, loss of libido, examine the diagnosis and management undertaken, and provide a systematic review of the literature for similar cases. PMID:25827917

  17. TSH secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Kumar, S

    2009-07-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are a very rare cause of hyperthyroidism. They typically present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and rarely can be asymptomatic. TSH secreting tumors account for 1 percent of all pituitary adenoma. They are a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis in which adenomas completely or partially lose feedback regulation of thyroid hormones and lead to sustained stimulation of thyroid gland. The most definitive treatment of thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is transsphenoidal removal of tumor after restoring euthyroidism. We report a case of pituitary adenoma associated with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels.

  18. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  20. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  1. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

  2. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  3. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  4. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  5. [Thyrotropin--TSH secreting pituitary tumor].

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Grzegorz; Podgórski, Jan K; Warczyńska, Agnieszka; Koziarski, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing pituitary tumors represent 0.9 to 2.8% of all pituitary adenomas. They cause secondary or central hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of these tumors has been increasing in the past 20 years. It was produced by introduction of the sensitive immunoradio-metric assay of TSH and better radiological imaging (magnetic resonance imaging). TSH--secreting pituitary adenomas are aggressive and invasive neoplasms. Most reports describe a poor outcome after pharmacological therapy, surgery and radiation therapy. Presently the diagnosis of thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor is based on the lack of: a. inhibition of TSH levels in the presence of increased free thyroid hormones; b. response of TSH to stimulation with TRH; c. and presence of a abnormal, neoplastic(adenomatous) intrasellar or parasellar mass. Surgical excision (selective adenomectomy) by the transsphenoidal route is the first treatment. Craniotomy should be reserved for parasellar tumors with significant lateral extension. Pharmacological pretreatment with long acting somatostatin analogues is recently a standard before surgery. This medical treatment of the TSH-omas is effective in reducing TSH and free thyroid hormone plasma levels. Administration of the somatostatin analogues causing tumor mass shrinkage and changes consistency. This pretreatment is effective therapy and improves surgical outcome especially in patients harbouring macroadenomas. Radiotherapy is noncurative and produces long term complications (hypopituitarism). Authors present and discuss current cure criteria of TSH-omas with reference to their clinical experience.

  6. Pituitary gland and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Foyouzi, Nastaran; Frisbaek, Yr; Norwitz, Errol R

    2004-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is central to mammalian reproductive function, including conception, pregnancy maintenance, parturition, and breastfeeding. Pregnancy is associated with substantial physiologic changes within this endocrine axis to meet the demands of pregnancy, which include support of the fetus (volume support, nutritional and oxygen supply, clearance of fetal waste), protection of the fetus (from starvation, drugs, toxins), preparation of the uterus for labor, and protection of the mother from potential cardiovascular injury at delivery. This article reviews the anatomy, embryology, and physiology of the pituitary. The effect of pregnancy on pituitary structure and function, in health and disease, also is discussed.

  7. Pituitary Colloid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guduk, Mustafa; Sun, Halil Ibrahim; Sav, Murat Aydin; Berkman, Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Colloid cysts appear most commonly in the third ventricle, their occurrence in the sellar region is uncommon. The authors report a female patient with a pituitary colloid cyst. She was diagnosed incidentally with a sellar lesion by a routine paranasal computed tomography examination performed for planning of a dental implant surgery. Radiologic examinations revealed a pituitary lesion that was removed by transnasal transsphenoidal route. Her pathologic examination revealed that the lesion was a colloid cyst. Although rare, colloid cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions PMID:27792102

  8. Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour: Case Report of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Kumarguru, B.N.; Bhat, Balachandra; Ramaswamy, A.S.; Kumar, M. Udaya

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (PNET) is a member of the family of small round cell tumours. PNET is more aggressive in kidney when compared to the other sites. It usually presents in childhood or adolescence. It has an aggressive clinical course and may process towards metastatic disease culminating in death. A 24-year-old female presented with left sided abdominal swelling. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a heterogeneous left renal mass. Consequently the patient underwent nephrectomy of left kidney and left oophorectomy. Grossly, the tumour involved almost entire kidney, showed multi-lobular, grey, glistening appearance with focal haemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the tumour cells were arranged in diffuse infiltrating sheets, cohesive lobules, Homer-Wright rosettes and perivascular pseudo-rosettes. Individual tumour cells were small round cells with scant cytoplasm and round nuclei having dispersed chromatin. Features were suggestive of PNET. Immunohistochemistry showed tumour cells displaying strong membrane positivity for MIC 2. Renal PNET needs to be differentiated from other primary and metastatic renal round-cell tumours. Most of the cases of renal PNET have poor response to standard treatment of combined surgical resection, post-operative irradiation, and chemotherapy. PNET is a rare primary tumour in the kidney. Histopathological diagnosis has to be confirmed by immunophenotyping of the tumour cells. PMID:28384877

  9. Lack of Ubiquitin Specific Protease 8 (USP8) Mutations in Canine Corticotroph Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.; Weigand, Isabel; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Broeckx, Bart; Herterich, Sabine; Allolio, Bruno; Deutschbein, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cushing’s disease (CD), also known as pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumours. Affected humans and dogs have similar clinical manifestations, however, the incidence of the canine disease is thousand-fold higher. This makes the dog an obvious model for studying the pathogenesis of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Despite certain similarities identified at the molecular level, the question still remains whether the two species have a shared oncogenetic background. Recently, hotspot recurrent mutations in the gene encoding for ubiquitin specific protease 8 (USP8) have been identified as the main driver behind the formation of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas in humans. In this study, we aimed to verify whether USP8 mutations also play a role in the development of such tumours in dogs. Methods Presence of USP8 mutations was analysed by Sanger and PCR-cloning sequencing in 38 canine ACTH-secreting adenomas. Furthermore, the role of USP8 and EGFR protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a subset of 25 adenomas. Results None of the analysed canine ACTH-secreting adenomas presented mutations in the USP8 gene. In a subset of these adenomas, however, we observed an increased nuclear expression of USP8, a phenotype characteristic for the USP8 mutated human tumours, that correlated with smaller tumour size but elevated ACTH production in those tumours. Conclusions Canine ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas lack mutations in the USP8 gene suggesting a different genetic background of pituitary tumourigenesis in dogs. However, elevated nuclear USP8 protein expression in a subset of tumours was associated with a similar phenotype as in their human counterparts, indicating a possible end-point convergence of the different genetic backgrounds in the two species. In order to establish the dog as a useful animal model for the study of CD, further comprehensive studies are

  10. Nine cases of Merkel cell tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, A

    1997-01-01

    Merkel cell tumour is an aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm arising in the dermis. Although only a few hundred cases have been reported worldwide, nine were seen in Nottingham between 1985 and early 1994. The patients were five women and four men age 63-88. One was the first Afro-Caribbean reported to have such a tumour. In no case was the diagnosis made clinically; histological and histochemical examination was necessary. Three of the patients died quickly with metastatic disease. The primary treatment is surgical excision. For advanced disease, radiotherapy is commonly beneficial. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9306997

  11. Interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bolanowski, Marek; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Maksymowicz, Maria; Potoczek, Stanisław; Syrycka, Joanna; Podgórski, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting adenomas (TSH-oma) are very rare pituitary tumours. They are macroadenomas usually presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and mass effects. They can co-secrete other hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin. Different malignancies, including haematological ones, are reported in patients with pituitary diseases. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs mostly in older patients, more often in males. CLL is associated with increased risk of second malignancies such as other blood neoplasms, skin and solid tumours. We present a successful neurosurgical outcome in a patient with an interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-oma and asymptomatic CLL.

  12. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak Mohanty, Sweta; Ray, Jay Gopal; Richa; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mandal, Chitra; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2010-11-23

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare benign tumour of neural crest origin that was first described by Krompecher in 1918.1 It is predominantly found in infancy, with about 92% of cases below the age of 12 months and 82% below the age of 6 months. The predominant site of origin is in the premaxilla though it is reported at other sites also including the skull, the mandible, the epididymis and the brain.2 The lesions often have areas of bluish discolouration on the surface and are characterised by displacement of the involved tooth bud and local aggressiveness. The present report deals with two cases of MNTI, a 5-month-old baby girl and a 6-month-old baby boy who reported to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dr R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital, Kolkata, India. The clinical, radiological, histological and immunohistochemical findings, confirmed the diagnosis of MNTI. Flow cytometry was performed to analyse aneuploidy. The tumours were treated surgically with no history of recurrence to date.

  13. Epidural Anesthesia for Caesarean Section in a Pregnant Patient with Pituitary Macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D. Dinesh; Sureshkumar, K; Patil, Shubhada A.

    2014-01-01

    Anaesthesia for patient with pituitary adenoma posted for non-neurosurgical surgeries is a challenge to the anaesthesiologist with the risk of sudden change in intracranial dynamics during administration of spinal anaesthesia or during stress response of general anaesthesia. There is a chance of increase in tumour size during antenatal period. A careful assessment of pituitary function and a screening of visual field and fundus examination are essential to rule out any mass effect. We are presenting the anaesthetic management of patient with pituitary macroadenoma posted for elective caesarean section done under epidural anaesthesia due to its rarity. PMID:25177577

  14. ICA Occlusion by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma post-TSS and irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Zammar, Diala; Akagami, Ryojo

    2011-01-01

    Occlusion of intracranial arteries by a pituitary adenoma with ensuing infarction is a rare occurrence. In this case study, we show the instance of a pituitary macroadenoma and apoplexy causing mechanical obstruction of the internal carotid artery with consequent infarction following transphenoidal surgery (TSS) and radiation therapy in a patient with Cushing's disease. We report a 44-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea and headaches. Necessary investigations, resection by TSS, and microscopic examination revealed an adenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. The pituitary tumour recurred in subsequent years, resulting in the development of Cushing's disease and syndrome. Despite two more transphenoidal surgeries, radiotherapy, and medical suppressive therapy, the pituitary adenoma continued to enlarge, and the hypercortisolemia and Cushingoid symptoms persisted. A craniotomy was arranged as the next step in the treatment strategy. Only hours prior to the scheduled surgery, the patient developed left-sided hemiplegia, was diagnosed with acute occlusion of the right ICA and underwent an emergency bifrontal craniotomy with evacuation of the tumour and decompression. Pathological examination revealed evidence of apoplexy in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. This case demonstrates the vast scope of complications that can arise from pituitary adenomas despite combination therapy and forewarns clinicians to be prepared to manage these infrequent but conceivable occurrences. PMID:22399870

  15. Co-occurrence of Pituitary Adenoma with Suprasellar and Olfactory Groove Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kai-Zheong; Goldschlager, Tony; Chandra, Ronil V.; Hall, Jonathan; Uren, Brent; Pullar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The co-existence of pituitary adenoma and meningioma is extremely rare. It is even rarer in patients with no previous known risk factors for either tumour. Here, we present a case of synchronous non-functioning pituitary adenoma with suprasellar and olfactory groove meningiomas in a patient without previous irradiation. Methods: The tumours were diagnosed on MRI in the 65-year-old patient who presented with patchy visual deficits. The decision was made to undergo surgery for resection of the suprasellar meningioma and the pituitary adenoma, leaving the small olfactory groove meningioma intact. Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was performed. Results: Macroscopic clearance was achieved for pituitary macroadenoma and suprasellar meningioma. Postoperatively, visual field tsting and pituitary axis hormonal levels were normal. The pituitary macroadenoma was confirmed to be a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. The meningioma was diagnosed to be of WHO grade 1. Conclusion: The rationale for choosing such management option, including its risks and benefits in this challenging patient is discussed. PMID:27872697

  16. Cushing's disease due to a giant pituitary adenoma in early infancy: CT and MRI features.

    PubMed

    Maeder, P; Gudinchet, F; Rillet, B; Theintz, G; Meuli, R

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-month-old girl presenting with diabetes insipidus and Cushing s disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large tumour arising from the sella turcica, extending up to the foramen of Monro and invading the cavernous sinuses. Surgery was performed to remove the suprasellar part of the tumour, and histology revealed an adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma. This entity is very rare in this age group and the MRI features have not previously been described.

  17. Pituitary microadenoma treated with antipsychotic drug aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    Wix-Ramos, Richard J; Paez, Reinalis; Capote, Eduardo; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Male patient 24 years old with a pituitary microadenoma and mental and behavioural disorders due to multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances (cocaine, cannabis and alcohol) were treated with haloperidol (dopamine receptor blocker) 10 mg daily. In the last control, the patient presented mammary hypertrophy; laboratory testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, reporting the presence of a pituitary microadenoma syndrome with hormonal alteration (Prolactin levels 28.4 ng/ml). Haloperidol, carbamazepine and levomepromazine were then discontinued. He was started on aripiprazole 15 mg po daily for 4 days; the dosage was then increased to 30 mg po daily, with Valproic Acid 500 mg po tid. After 3 weeks on aripiprazole, the mammary hypertrophy that had increased in the patient had resolved. After 10 weeks follow up of prolactin revealed a normal level, at 4.33 ng/ml. Insomnia, aggressiveness, irritability, visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations remained absent after treatment with aripiprazole which is not a first line drug in multiple drug use patient with psychosis. We also consider the correlation of drug use in patient with psychosis, haloperidol treatment, pituitary microadenoma syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, and dopamine D2- receptor partial agonist aripiprazole treatment. This article also summarizes some relevant patents.

  18. Leptin and the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Sone, M; Osamura, R Y

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, Zhang et al. of Rockefeller University in New York reported the first successful complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning of leptin by the positional cloning method. Leptin was identified as the gene of ob/ob mouse in genetic obesity syndromes. It has very strong food intake control, and body weight and energy expenditure. The name "leptin" derived from the Greek word leptos, meaning "thin." We hereby review major advances leading to our current finding of leptin, leptin receptor and its structure, the outline of homozygote, and also influence of leptin in the pituitary. (The structure of leptin) The mouse obese gene has been localized to chromosome 6. With human leptin gene on chromosome 7q31.3, its DNA has more than 15000 base pairs and consists of three exons and two introns. For bioactivation of leptin the importance of disulfide-binding site is suggested. Human leptin which replaced the 128-th arginine with glutamine has the function of an aldosteron antagonist, which is reported to have the function of athrocytosis inhibition. The resemblance of leptin precursor of human, mouse and rat is very high, i.e., mouse and rat homology is 96% and mouse and human homology is 83%. (The structure of leptin receptor) The mutant gene, which is the cause of obesity, was shown on map on diabetic mouse (db/db) chromosome 4, and it was proven to be the same as the leptin receptor gene cloned by Tartaglia et all. Further studies have found the Zucker fatty rat (fa/fa) to be incorporated into a linkage map of rat chromosome 5, whose region of rat is the equivalent to the region of conserved synteny of the db/db mouse gene. The leptin receptor is glycoprotein consisting of a single transmembrane-spanning component. The primary structure of leptin receptor belongs to the cytokine-class1 family, the single membrane-spanning receptor, and is highly related to the gp130 signal-transducing component of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G

  19. [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Mezosi, Emese; Nemes, Orsolya

    2009-09-27

    According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas". The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis. The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs. The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease. The available dopamine agonists in Hungary are bromocriptine and quinagolide. In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients. Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas. In the last decades, significant improvement has been reached in surgical procedures, resulting in low mortality rates. Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment. The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly. The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production. A new, promising somatostatin analog, pasireotide is evaluated in clinical trials. The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy. The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.

  20. Evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in pituitary macroadenomas without optic chiasmal compression

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, G; Auriemma, R S; Cardone, D; Grasso, L F S; Velotti, N; Simeoli, C; Di Somma, C; Pivonello, R; Colao, A; de Crecchio, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this prospective study was to measure the thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a cohort of consecutive de novo patients with pituitary macroadenomas without chiasmal compression. Patients and methods Twenty-two consecutive patients with pituitary macroadenoma without chiasmal compression (16 men, 6 women, aged 45.2±14.6 years, 43 eyes) entered the study between September 2011 and June 2013. Among them, 31.8% harboured a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a corticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and 13.6% a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Eighteen subjects (nine females, nine males, mean age 36.47±6.37 years; 33 eyes) without pituitary adenoma, with normal ophthalmic examination, served as controls. In both patients and controls, cpRNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT. Results Patients were significantly older (P=0.02) than controls. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, colour fundus photography, and automatic perimetry test were within the normal range in patients and controls. Conversely, cpRNFL (P=0.009) and GCC (P<0.0001) were significantly thinner in patients than in controls. The average GCC (r=0.306, P=0.046) significantly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. OCT parameters did not differ significantly between patients with a tumour volume above the median and those with a tumour volume below the median. Conclusion Pituitary macroadenomas, even in the absence of chiasmal compression, may induce GCC and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning. SD-OCT may have a role in the early diagnosis and management of patients with pituitary tumours. PMID:25853400

  1. Predictors of aggressive clinical phenotype among immunohistochemically confirmed atypical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    Despite formal pathological criteria, not all atypical pituitary adenomas display clinically aggressive behavior. We set out to determine which factors predict a clinically aggressive phenotype among a cohort of atypical pituitary adenomas. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from April 2008 to July 2015. Of 569 pituitary adenomas, 47 (8.3%) patients were surgically treated for atypical adenomas as defined by the WHO criteria. Clinically aggressive adenomas were defined as occurring in those patients who necessitated additional therapeutic intervention after the index (first) surgery, including additional surgery, medical therapy, or radiosurgery. Forty-seven patients with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of atypical adenomas were identified and of these, 23 were noted to have a clinically aggressive course. Among the remaining 24 patients, the disease remained quiescent after the index surgery. On univariate analysis, clinically aggressive lesions were more likely to have a larger axial diameter on MRI (2.9±1.9cm vs. 1.9±0.7cm, p=0.02), greater incidence of cavernous sinus invasion (65.2% vs. 20.8%, p<0.01), and greater incidence of clival extension (60.9% vs. 0, p<0.01) on preoperative imaging. The two groups were equivalent with regard to immunohistochemical staining for ACTH, HGH, LH, FSH, PRL, and TSH. Clinically aggressive lesions, however, trended towards a greater average MIB-1 proliferative index (7.5%±4.9 vs. 6.0%±3.6, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, the MIB-1 proliferative index trended towards statistical significance (p=0.06) as an independent predictor of clinical aggressiveness. Atypical pituitary adenomas are defined by a rigid set of immunohistochemical markers, but not all necessarily demonstrate an aggressive clinical phenotype.

  2. Extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, A K; Reddy, M K; Javvadi, V; Kannan, T

    2011-06-01

    We report an unusual case of extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumour in a 15-month-old male child. The tumour was retroperitoneal in location and consisted of triphasic Wilms' tumour elements, along with the presence of heterologous components. The heterologous teratoid elements were composed of predominantly glandular epithelium with the presence of focal skeletal muscle, adipose and neuroglial tissues. Although extrarenal Wilms' tumours have been documented in the literature, only a few cases have been noted to date. We present the relevant clinical, radiological, histomorphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of this rare tumour, and discuss the various theories of its histogenesis.

  3. What Are the Key Statistics about Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors About Pituitary Tumors What Are the Key Statistics About Pituitary Tumors? About 10,000 pituitary tumors ... What Are Pituitary Tumors? What Are the Key Statistics About Pituitary Tumors? What’s New in Pituitary Tumor ...

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors for Pituitary Tumors? Do We Know What Causes Pituitary Tumors? Can Pituitary Tumors Be Prevented? Pituitary Tumors Causes, ... from a parent. (See Do We Know What Causes Pituitary Tumors? ) Most often, though, the cause of pituitary tumors ...

  5. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Cristina, Carolina; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives. PMID:25505910

  6. Angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: human studies and new mutant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Carolina; Luque, Guillermina María; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Zubeldia-Brenner, Lautaro; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  7. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  8. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols.

  9. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  10. Pituitary cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-08-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity (μG) experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually > 50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible μG ``sensing systems'' within the pituitary cell.

  11. Pituitary cells in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually >50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible microgravity 'sensing systems' within the pituitary cell.

  12. A rare case of pituitary chromophobe carcinoma in a dog: clinical, tomographic and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Longo, M.; Binanti, D.; Zagarella, P.G.; Iocca, F.; Zani, D. De; Ravasio, G.; Giancamillo, M. Di; Zani, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    A 9 year old male mixed-breed dog was presented for progressive aggressiveness towards the owner. The neurological evaluation was consistent with a forebrain syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed enlargement of the third ventricle and presence of a large spheroidal neoplasm in the sellar/parasellar region suggestive of a pituitary macroadenoma. On the owner request, the dog was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, pituitary carcinomas have been rarely described in dogs, especially the chromophobe subtype. PMID:27800300

  13. Imaging tumours of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Andrew P; Maor, Yaakov; Czerniak, Abraham

    2012-12-01

    Although comparatively rare, ampullary tumours tend to be more readily curable than periampullary lesions and pancreatic carcinomas, consequent upon an earlier presentation, a lower likelihood of involved lymph nodes or vascular infiltration and a less aggressive histology. Recently, selected early cases have been able to resected endoscopically making accurate preoperative tumour (T) staging critical in such decision making. The most commonly available imaging methods are endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and CT scanning where in the former case there is variable accuracy for larger (T2/T3) ampullary tumours particularly where the patient has undergone preoperative common bile duct stenting. CT scanning has consistent shown inferior T staging of ampullary tumours when compared with EUS, although it provides information concerning visceral and nodal metastatic disease. Transpapillary intraductal ultrasound (where available) has shown high accuracy for early T1 tumours potentially suitable for endoscopic or local ampullary excision with the added advantage that it may be conducted without preliminary sphincterotomy. Recently, our group has been using intraoperative transduodenal ultrasound which assists surgical decision making concerning local excision or radical pancreaticoduodenal resection. Very recent images using 3-dimensional endoduodenal ultrasound has provided exquisite images of the ampulla and remain to be validated in ampullary neoplasms.

  14. [Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas].

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas represent 0.5 to 1% of all pituitary adenomas. They are recognized with increasing frequency due to the measurement of TSH level in patients with hyperthyroidism, the ultra sensitive TSH assays and the improvement in pituitary imaging. Patients present mild or moderate signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation shows increased free thyroid hormone concentration with detectable, normal or increased serum TSH level, raising the differential diagnosis with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals pituitary adenomas in most patients. Transphenoidal surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while long-acting somatostatin analogs seem to be an alternative medical treatment to surgery in patients with macroadenomas or invasive pituitary tumors.

  15. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  16. Ameloblastoma: an aggressive lesion of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Suma, M S; Sundaresh, K J; Shruthy, R; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-10-09

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. Among all types of ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma is believed to be locally aggressive lesion that has the tendency for recurrence. In this report we present a large multicystic ameloblastoma in the left body-ramus region of the mandible in a 55-year-old woman. This large lesion was diagnosed with the help of CT and was successfully managed by hemimandibulectomy with simultaneous reconstruction using iliac crest bone.

  17. Malignant tumours after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, D; Reinke, P; Kirchner, S; Schnorr, D; Lindeke, A; Loening, S A

    1996-10-01

    In 1243 patients after renal transplantation, 39 malignant tumours were detected in 37 patients. The average latency period between transplantation and tumour disease was 72 months. Tumours included 8 malignant lymphomas, 7 dermatomas and 24 visceral tumours. The patients who developed a tumour had received fewer blood transfusions before transplantation than a tumour-free control group of 60 patients with renal transplants. Rejection crises occurred in a significantly smaller number of tumour patients compared with the control group.

  18. Case report: late aggressive meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Stein, M E; Drumea, K; Guilbord, J N; Ben-Itzhak, O; Kuten, A

    1995-10-01

    The clinical, radiological and pathological findings in a 28-year-old female patient who developed aggressive meningioma 20 years after prophylatic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are described here. Only four cases of late atypical/aggressive meningioma following PCI were detected in a thorough search of the literature. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and PCI, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumour, including aggressive meningioma.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pituitary Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Nieto, Leandro Eduardo; Fuertes, Mariana; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, progress has been made on the identification of mechanisms involved in anterior pituitary cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic changes, and microRNAs deregulation contribute to the initiation of pituitary tumors. Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas, they are mostly benign, indicating that intrinsic mechanisms may regulate pituitary cell expansion. Senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and represents an important protective mechanism against malignancy. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene involved in early stages of pituitary tumor development, and also triggers a senescence response by activating DNA-damage signaling pathway. Cytokines, as well as many other factors, play an important role in pituitary physiology, affecting not only cell proliferation but also hormone secretion. Special interest is focused on interleukin-6 (IL-6) because its dual function of stimulating pituitary tumor cell growth but inhibiting normal pituitary cells proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IL-6 has a key role in promoting and maintenance of the senescence program in tumors. Senescence, triggered by PTTG activation and mediated by IL-6, may be a mechanism for explaining the benign nature of pituitary tumors.

  20. Endolymphatic sac tumour.

    PubMed

    Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Tang, Ing Ping; Wong, Siong Lung

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a papillary tumour at the cerebellopontine angle in a 41-year-old man. He presented with left-sided facial and ear pain associated with dizziness, nystagmus and hearing loss. CT scan of the temporal bone showed a destructive tumour at the left cerebellopontine angle. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis of the endolymphatic sac tumour was made. Endolymphatic tumour is a low grade adenocarcinoma that originates from the endolymphatic sac. The definitive diagnosis requires a combination of clinical features, radiological finding and pathological correlation.

  1. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  2. Assessment of Mitotic Activity in Pituitary Adenomas and Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Kamal; Yamada, Yukio; Scheithauer, Bernd; Kovacs, Kalman; Yamada, Shozo; Stefaneanu, Lucia

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of mitotic activity represents one of the oldest and most routinely used histopathologic methods of evaluating the biological aggressiveness of human tumors. In the case of pituitary tumors, however, the relevance of this approach as a means of gauging tumor behavior remains ill-defined. In this article, the relationship between the mitotic index and biological aggressiveness of pituitary tumors was evaluated in a series of 54 pituitary adenomas and 6 primary pituitary carcinomas. All tumors were fully classified by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; adenomas were further stratified on the basis of their invasion status, the latter being defined as gross, operatively, or radiologically apparent infiltration of dura or bone. Mitotic figures were present in 11 tumors, 10 being either invasive adenomas or pituitary carcinomas. A significant association between the presence of mitotic figures and tumor behavior was noted, as evidenced by progressive increments in the proportion of cases expressing mitotic figures in the categories of noninvasive adenoma, invasive adenoma, and pituitary carcinoma (3.9, 21.4, and 66.7%, respectively; Fisher's exact test, two-tailed, p < 0.001). The mitotic index, however, appeared to be a less informative parameter, being extremely low in all cases (mean = 0.016% +/- 0.005 [+/- SEMI). Although the mean mitotic index in pituitary carcinomas (0.09% +/- 0.035) was significantly higher than the mean mitotic index of either noninvasive adenomas (0.002% +/- 0.002) or invasive adenomas (0.013% +/- 0.005), no practical threshold value capable of distinguishing these three groups was evident. Comparison of the mitotic index with Ki-67 derived growth fractions in these tumors revealed a significant but weak linear correlation (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). These data suggest that when, mitotic figures are present, they do provide some indication of the behavior and invasive potential of pituitary tumors. For routine diagnostic

  3. Maintained aggressive behavior in gonadectomized male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Weiss, C S; Coughlin, J P

    1979-07-01

    Adult male Betta splendens were gonadectomized and tested twice for aggressive behavior two weeks later. In a mutual viewing test environment, it was found that gonadectomized animals maintained their aggressive behavior on all six indices of aggression at a level equal to controls. Animals that showed some testis regeneration and sham operated fish were also equal to controls. The results are interpreted to mean that adult aggressive behavior in male B. splendens may not be under the control of gonadal hormones. Pituitary gonadotropins, interrenal gland, and critical period hypotheses are given as possible explanations of the maintained aggressiveness following castration.

  4. Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggression is a near-universal behaviour with substantial influence on and implications for human and animal social systems. The neurophysiological basis of aggression is, however, poorly understood in all species and approaches adopted to study this complex behaviour have often been oversimplified. We applied targeted expression profiling on 40 genes, spanning eight neurological pathways and in four distinct regions of the brain, in combination with behavioural observations and pharmacological manipulations, to screen for regulatory pathways of aggression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), an animal model in which social rank and aggressiveness tightly correlate. Results Substantial differences occurred in gene expression profiles between dominant and subordinate males associated with phenotypic differences in aggressiveness and, for the chosen gene set, they occurred mainly in the hypothalamus and telencephalon. The patterns of differentially-expressed genes implied multifactorial control of aggression in zebrafish, including the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system, serotonin, somatostatin, dopamine, hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal, hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and histamine pathways, and the latter is a novel finding outside mammals. Pharmacological manipulations of various nodes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-system and serotonin pathways supported their functional involvement. We also observed differences in expression profiles in the brains of dominant versus subordinate females that suggested sex-conserved control of aggression. For example, in the HNS pathway, the gene encoding arginine vasotocin (AVT), previously believed specific to male behaviours, was amongst those genes most associated with aggression, and AVT inhibited dominant female aggression, as in males. However, sex-specific differences in the expression profiles also occurred, including differences in aggression-associated tryptophan hydroxylases and estrogen receptors

  5. Stereotactic Irradiation of GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Minniti, G.; Scaringi, C.; Amelio, D.; Maurizi Enrici, R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is often employed in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions in order to prevent tumour regrowth and normalize elevated GH and IGF-I levels. It achieves tumour control and hormone normalization up to 90% and 70% of patients at 10–15 years. Despite the excellent tumour control, conventional RT is associated with a potential risk of developing late toxicity, especially hypopituitarism, and its role in the management of patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas remains a matter of debate. Stereotactic techniques have been developed with the aim to deliver more localized irradiation and minimize the long-term consequences of treatment, while improving its efficacy. Stereotactic irradiation can be given in a single dose as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or in multiple doses as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). We have reviewed the recent published literature on stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques. PMID:22518123

  6. Gene Therapy for Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Jaita, Gabriela; Castro, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Although most pituitary tumors are considered typically benign, others can cause severe and progressive disease. The principal aims of pituitary tumor treatment are the elimination or reduction of the tumor mass, normalization of hormone secretion and preservation of remaining pituitary function. In spite of major advances in the therapy of pituitary tumors, for some of the most difficult tumors, current therapies that include medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic methods are often unsatisfactory and there is a need to develop new treatment strategies. Gene therapy, which uses nucleic acids as drugs, has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of pituitary tumors that do not respond to classical treatment strategies if the patients become intolerant to the therapy. The development of animal models for pituitary tumors and hormone hypersecretion has proven to be critical for the implementation of novel treatment strategies and gene therapy approaches. Preclinical trials using several gene therapy approaches for the treatment of anterior pituitary diseases have been successfully implemented. Several issues need to be addressed before clinical implementation becomes a reality, including the development of more effective and safer viral vectors, uncovering novel therapeutic targets and development of targeted expression of therapeutic transgenes. With the development of efficient gene delivery vectors allowing long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity, gene therapy will become one of the most promising approaches for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID:16457646

  7. Endoscopic surgery of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Dhepnorrarat, Rataphol Chris; Ang, Beng Ti; Sethi, Dharambir Singh

    2011-08-01

    Endoscopic pituitary surgery has been gaining wide acceptance as the first-line treatment of most functional pituitary adenomas. This technique has many advantages over traditional procedures, and growing evidence supports its use for endocrine control of functioning tumors. This article reviews data on the different modalities of treatment of functioning pituitary adenomas and compares the results. Endoscopic pituitary surgery controls tumor growth and endocrinopathy as well as or better than other treatment modalities. Complication rates are low and patient recovery is fast. Furthermore, surgery provides a means of achieving prompt decompression of neurologic structures and endocrine remission.

  8. Progressive dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Hamish; Tannenburg, Anthony; Walker, David G; Coyne, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) is a benign tumour characterised by cortical location and presentation with drug resistant partial seizures in children. Recently the potential for malignant transformation has been reported, however progression without malignant transformation remains rare. We report a case of clinical and radiologic progression of a DNET in a girl 10 years after initial biopsy.

  9. COX-2 over-expression correlates with VEGF and tumour angiogenesis in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Felisbina L; Pires, Isabel; Parente, Margarida; Gregório, Hugo; Lopes, Carlos S

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible roles of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in canine mammary cancer angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 70 tumours (28 benign and 42 malignant) in order to detect COX-2 and VEGF expression. Microvessel density (MVD) was determined by CD31 immunolabelling to assess tumour angiogenesis. There was a significantly higher expression of COX-2 (P<0.001), VEGF (P<0.001) and MVD (P<0.001) in malignant compared to benign tumours. In the malignant group, the MVD of COX-2 positive tumours was significantly higher than that of COX-2 negative tumours (P=0.026). A similar association was observed for VEGF (P<0.001) positive tumours. The results from this study suggested that over-expression of COX-2 and VEGF may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant tumours.

  10. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression. PMID:21521500

  11. Acromegaly in a patient with normal pituitary gland and somatotropic adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Kurowska, Maria; Tarach, Jerzy S; Zgliczyński, Wojciech; Malicka, Joanna; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Janczarek, Marzena

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic acromegaly is a very rare clinical entity occurring in less than 1% of acromegalic patients. In most cases it is caused by GHRH or rarely GH-secreting neoplasms. Even rarer are ectopic pituitary adenomas located in the sphenoid sinus or nasopharynx that originate from pituitary remnants in the craniopharyngeal duct. This dissertation presents the difficulties in visualizing GH-secreting adenoma located in the sphenoid sinus. A 55-year-old man had somatic features of acromegaly for several years. MRI imaging revealed a slightly asymmetric pituitary gland (14 yen 4 mm) without focal lesions. Simultaneously, a spherical mass, 10 mm in diameter, corresponding with ectopic microadenoma was demonstrated on the upper wall of the sphenoid sinus. The serum GH level was 4.3 mg/l, IGF-1 = 615 mg/l, and a lack of GH suppression with oral glucose was proven. After preliminary treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, transsphenoidal pituitary tumour removal was performed. Histopathological, electron microscopical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed densely granulated somatotropic pituitary adenoma: GH(+), PRL(-), ACTH(-), TSH(-), FSH(-), LH(-), MIB1 < 1%, SSTR3(+) and SSTR5(+). Post-surgical evaluation showed normal pituitary MRI scans, GH and IGF-1 levels 0.18 mug/l and 140 mg/l, respectively, as well as normal GH suppression with oral glucose. The careful analysis of possible pituitary embryonic malformations points out their significance for proper localization of extrapituitary adenomas.

  12. Molecular genetic studies of sporadic pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Boggild, M.D.; Jenkinson, S.; McTernan, P.; Perrett, C.W.; Clayton, R.N.; Thakker, R.V.; Pistorello, M.; Boscaro, M.; Scanarini, M.

    1994-02-01

    Tumor formation may result from the activation of dominant oncogenes or by inactivation of recessive, tumor suppressor genes. The role of such mutations in the development of pituitary tumors has been studied. Tumors from 88 patients, representing the 4 major classes of adenoma, were investigated. In DNA extracted from matched leukocyte and tumor samples, allelic deletions were sought with 15 probes identifying restriction, fragment length polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 5, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, and 22. Evidence of amplification or rearrangement of 10 recognized cellular oncogenes (N-ras, mycL1, mycN, myc, H-ras, bcl1, H-stf1, sea, kraS2, and fos) was sought in tumor DNA. Activating dominant mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were detected using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify exons 7-10 and hybridizing the product to normal and mutant allele-specific oligonucleotides. Allelic deletions on chromosome 11 were identified in 16 tumors (18%) representing all 4 major subtypes. Deletions on other autosomes were observed in less than 6% of tumors. Three adenomas had deletions on multiple autosomes, 2 of these were aggressive and recurrent. Mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} were confirmed to be specific to somatotrophinomas, being identified in 36% of such tumors in this series. No evidence of amplification or rearrangement of other recognized cellular oncogenes was found. Inactivation of a recessive oncogene on chromosome 11 is an important and possibly early event in the development of the four major types of pituitary adenoma, whereas activating mutations of G{sub s{alpha}} are confirmed to be specific to somatotropinomas. Two aggressive tumors were found to have multiple autosomal losses, suggesting a multistep progression in the development of tumors of this phenotype. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ricardo; Castano, Ananda; Abelairas, Jose; Peralta, Jesus; Garcia-Cabezas, Miguel A; Sanchez-Orgaz, Margarita; Arbizu, Alvaro; Vallejo-Garcia, Jose

    2011-07-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) are a group of soft-tissue tumours of neuroepithelial origin that arise outside the central and sympathetic nervous system. Orbital location is infrequent, and to the best of the authors' knowledge only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. With this article, the authors report the demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options of primary orbital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour, based on their patients and on the cases reported in the literature to date. A differential diagnosis should be made with other small round cell tumours; immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques are essential for this purpose. Although bone invasion and extraorbital extension are possible, systemic metastases are uncommon in the cases of orbital pPNETs. Surgery has been the initial treatment in most cases; chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is considered the best additional treatment. The orbital pPNET could be less aggressive than other forms of pPNETs, since most of the patients reported were alive after the follow-up period (at least 6 months).

  14. Combining Cadherin Expression with Molecular Markers Discriminates Invasiveness in Growth Hormone and Prolactin Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, N; Romanò, N; Meunier, A-C; Galibert, E; Fontanaud, P; Mathieu, M-N; Osterstock, G; Osterstock, P; Baccino, E; Rigau, V; Loiseau, H; Bouillot-Eimer, S; Barlier, A; Mollard, P; Coutry, N

    2016-02-01

    Although growth hormone (GH)- and prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas are considered benign, in many patients, tumour growth and/or invasion constitute a particular challenge. In other tumours, progression relies in part on dysfunction of intercellular adhesion mediated by the large family of cadherins. In the present study, we have explored the contribution of cadherins in GH and PRL adenoma pathogenesis, and evaluated whether this class of adherence molecules was related to tumour invasiveness. We have first established, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, the expression profile of classical cadherins in the normal human pituitary gland. We show that the cadherin repertoire is restricted and cell-type specific. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs express mainly E-cadherin and cadherin 18, whereas N-cadherin is present in the other endocrine cell types. This repertoire undergoes major differential modification in GH and PRL tumours: E-cadherin is significantly reduced in invasive GH adenomas, and this loss is associated with a cytoplasmic relocalisation of cadherin 18 and catenins. In invasive prolactinomas, E-cadherin distribution is altered and is accompanied by a mislocalisation of cadherin 18, β-catenin and p120 catenin. Strikingly, de novo expression of N-cadherin is present in a subset of adenomas and cells exhibit a mesenchymal phenotype exclusively in invasive tumours. Binary tree analysis, performed by combining the cadherin repertoire with the expression of a subset of known molecular markers, shows that cadherin/catenin complexes play a significant role in discrimination of tumour invasion.

  15. Aggressive multiple surgical interventions to pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Shirasaka, Tomonori; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    We describe our experience with a patient who had metastasized pulmonary artery sarcoma, but survived 7 years after diagnosis. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma after resection of metastatic tumours to the bilateral lungs. The primary lesion in the pulmonary artery trunk extending into the bilateral branches was treated by tumour endoarterectomy followed by chemotherapy. He underwent resections of lung metastases two more times before detection of recurrent obstructive pulmonary artery sarcoma 4 years after the tumour endoarterectomy. En bloc resection of the tumour including the pulmonary artery trunk, valve and interventricular septum was performed, and the right ventricular out flow tract was reconstructed with a stentless pulmonary valve and equine pericardium. He died of the disease soon after an operation for metastatic brain tumour 3 years later. Pulmonary artery sarcoma has a dismal prognosis, but aggressively repeated surgical interventions may lengthen survival.

  16. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S

    2015-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin.

  17. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life.

  18. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas: biological and molecular features, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Losa, M; Fortunato, M; Molteni, L; Peretti, E; Mortini, P

    2008-12-01

    Central hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is a rare cause of hyperthyroidism, representing 0.5-1.0% of all pituitary adenomas. The etiopathogenesis of TSH-secreting-adenomas is unknown and no definite role for various oncogenes has been proven. Patients with TSH-secreting adenoma usually present with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism milder than those in patients with hyperthyroidism of thyroid origin, in addition to symptoms secondary to mass effects of the pituitary tumour. Mixed pituitary tumours co-secrete growth hormone and prolactin. The characteristic biochemical abnormalities are normal or high serum TSH concentrations in the presence of elevated total and/or free thyroid hormones concentrations. Measurement of markers of peripheral thyroid hormone action and dynamic tests may aid in the differential diagnosis with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. Neuroimaging is fundamental to visualize the pituitary tumor. Therapy of TSH-secreting adenomas can be accomplished by surgery, radiation therapies, and medical treatment with somatostatin analogs or dopamine agonists. Nowadays, and in contrast with the first reports on this rare disease, most patients are well controlled by current therapies.

  19. Subcellular localisation of VEGF in different pituitary cells. Changes of its expression in oestrogen induced prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; De Paul, Ana Lucía; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Roth, Félix Daniel; Aoki, Agustín; Torres, Alicia Inés

    2005-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenic factor in the pituitary gland. The objective of this study was to unveil the VEGF subcellular localisation in different pituitary cell types and to evaluate changes in its expression at different time intervals after oestrogen stimulation. A relevant feature demonstrated was the identification of this cytokine in the nucleus and cytoplasm of lactotrophs, somatotrophs and gonadotrophs, as well as in follicle-stellate cells of male rats. Oestrogen treatment increased the number of VEGF immunopositive cells and its expression detected differentially by western blot in both nucleus and cytoplasm of pituitary cells when compared to the control. At ultrastructural level VEGF appeared associated with nucleolus and euchromatin involving a possible internal autocrine loop. In lactotrophs, the predominant cell of the tumour, VEGF was immunodetected in RER, Golgi complex, and vesicular organelles, supporting further the association with an auto-paracrine effect exerted by VEGF. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of VEGF revealed a prevalent accumulation of VEGF in the cytoplasm. The presence of VEGF in the nucleus may probably be associated with a translocation to this cell compartment. This study demonstrated a cytoplasmic and nuclear immunolocalisation of VEGF in normal and tumoural adenohypophyseal cells. In the course of prolactinoma development, the oestrogen stimulated VEGF expression in tumoural cells, promoting a vascular adaptation which contributes to growth and progression of the tumour.

  20. Increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human pituitary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Noah F.; Du, Ziming; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Woodmansee, Whitney W.; Reardon, David A.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Fecci, Peter E.; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Dunn, Gavin P.; Dunn, Ian F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subsets of pituitary tumors exhibit an aggressive clinical courses and recur despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Because modulation of the immune response through inhibition of T-cell checkpoints has led to durable clinical responses in multiple malignancies, we explored whether pituitary adenomas express immune-related biomarkers that could suggest suitability for immunotherapy. Specifically, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential biomarker whose expression may portend more favorable responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapies. We thus investigated the expression of PD-L1 in pituitary adenomas. Methods PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were evaluated in 48 pituitary tumors, including functioning and non-functioning adenomas as well as atypical and recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Pituitary tumors express variable levels of PD-L1 transcript and protein. PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were significantly increased in functioning (growth hormone and prolactin-expressing) pituitary adenomas compared to non-functioning (null cell and silent gonadotroph) adenomas. Moreover, primary pituitary adenomas harbored higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA compared to recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were observed in all pituitary tumors and were positively correlated with increased PD-L1 expression, particularly in the functional subtypes. Conclusions Human pituitary adenomas harbor PD-L1 across subtypes, with significantly higher expression in functioning adenomas compared to non-functioning adenomas. This expression is accompanied by the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an immune response to pituitary tumors and raise the possibility of considering checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cases refractory to conventional management. PMID:27655724

  1. Cushing syndrome associated with an adrenal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Helena; Brain, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by an adrenal tumour or a pituitary corticotrophin-secreting adenoma. The management is challenging and requires an individualised approach and multidisciplinary care. We present the case of a 23-month-old female child with a history of excessive weight gain, growth failure, hirsutism, acne and behavioural difficulties. Investigations revealed elevated serum midnight cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol. Overnight dexamethasone suppression testing showed no suppression of cortisol levels. Abdominal imaging revealed a right-sided suprarenal mass. She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology showed an adrenal cortical carcinoma. There was clinical improvement with catch-up growth and weight normalisation. Despite being rare in clinical practice, in a child with weight gain, hirsuitism and growth failure the diagnosis must be considered. The overall prognosis of CS in childhood is good, but challenges remain to ensure normal growth and body composition. PMID:22927284

  2. Cushing syndrome associated with an adrenal tumour.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Helena; Brain, Caroline

    2012-08-27

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by an adrenal tumour or a pituitary corticotrophin-secreting adenoma. The management is challenging and requires an individualised approach and multidisciplinary care. We present the case of a 23-month-old female child with a history of excessive weight gain, growth failure, hirsutism, acne and behavioural difficulties. Investigations revealed elevated serum midnight cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol. Overnight dexamethasone suppression testing showed no suppression of cortisol levels. Abdominal imaging revealed a right-sided suprarenal mass. She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology showed an adrenal cortical carcinoma. There was clinical improvement with catch-up growth and weight normalisation. Despite being rare in clinical practice, in a child with weight gain, hirsuitism and growth failure the diagnosis must be considered. The overall prognosis of CS in childhood is good, but challenges remain to ensure normal growth and body composition.

  3. Effect of anti-glycolytic agents on tumour cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A metabolic change is one of the tumour hallmarks, which has recently attracted a great amount of attention. One of the main metabolic characteristics of tumour cells is a high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in a glycolysis pathway than that in a tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Warburg effect constitutes a fundamental adaptation of tumour cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumour glycolysis may become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we research the effect of potential anticancer agents on tumour cells in vitro. In our study, we found a high sensitivity of tumour cells to anti-glycolityc drugs. In addition, tumour cells are more resistant to the agents studied in comparison with normal cells. We also observed an atypical cooperative interaction of tumour cells in the median lethal dose of drugs. They formed the specific morphological structure of the surviving cells. This behavior is not natural for the culture of tumour cells. Perhaps this is one of the mechanisms of cells' adaptation to the aggressive environment.

  4. Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the uterus: a poor prognostic subtype of uterine tumours.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Carla; Vieira, Joana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Lopes, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumours are extremely rare tumours. They can occur in pure form or combined with another component including endometrioid adenocarcinoma. We aimed to review the clinical impact of neuroectodermal phenotype in uterine tumours, after we recently diagnosed one such case. A 58-year-old female presented with irregular vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography and CT showed the presence of a large uterine mass with irregular contours. At laparotomy it was found to extend to the right ureter, sigmoid colon and some small intestinal loops. Microscopic examination revealed that the tumour consisted of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma component merging with an extensive neuroectodermal component. No EWSR1 or FUS rearrangement was found in the two tumour components. The patient received two courses of chemotherapy but died 11 months after the initial diagnosis. We reviewed the morphological and molecular criteria for the diagnosis of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumours published in the literature. We conclude that regardless of the detection of an EWSR1 rearrangement, the presence of a neuroectodermal differentiation component in these rare uterine tumours is a marker of aggressive behaviour, and its presence should be highlighted in the diagnosis.

  5. Intracranial tumoural haemorrhage--a report of 58 cases.

    PubMed

    Yuguang, Liu; Meng, Liu; Shugan, Zhu; Yuquan, Jiang; Gang, Li; Xingang, Li; Chengyuan, Wu

    2002-11-01

    In order to study the computerized tomographic (CT) appearances and clinical characteristics of intracranial tumoural haemorrhage (ITH), we analyzed retrospectively fifty-eight patients with ITH and reviewed the literature. As a result, 91% patients had acute or subacute onset and 26% manifested haemorrhage as their first symptoms. CT scanning indicated that intratumoural bleeding occurred in 23 cases, bleeding into parenchyma 18 cases, subarachnoid space 6 cases, ventricle 3 cases and subdural space 8 cases. Thirty-eight patients had emergency operations and the others had selective operations. Both tumours and haematomas were removed all together in all patients. Fifty-five patients were cured or improved and three died during the perioperative stage in our series. Among the patients with ITH, there were 21 metastatic tumours, 19 gliomas, 10 meningiomas, 6 pituitary adenomas, 1 melanoma and 1 acoustic neurilemoma. The onset of most ITH resembled that of cerebrovascular diseases. The location of ITH and the CT appearances of ITH varied in different cerebral tumours. Radical removal of brain tumours with haemorrhage is an effective treatment for ITH, which can greatly decrease the perioperative mortality rate and improve the prognoses of patients.

  6. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with concomitant adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Fahid Tariq; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Khan, Akbar Ali; Phadke, Rahul; Powell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Plurihormonal pituitary adenomas are tumours that show immunoreactivity for more than one hormone that cannot be explained by normal adenohypophysial cytodifferentiation. The most common combinations in these adenomas include growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and one or more glycoprotein hormone sub-units (β-TSH, β-FSH, β-LH and αSU). The authors report two cases of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma expressing the rare combination of ACTH and GH. They both underwent successful transphenoidal hypophysectomy (TSH). Long-term post-operative follow-up revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence. Due to the multiple secretions and plurihormonal characteristics clinical diagnosis of composite pituitary adenomas can be difficult. The authors discuss the diagnosis and management of composite pituitary adenomas and review the literature regarding this rare phenomenon.

  7. Breast-conserving surgery is contraindicated for recurrent giant multifocal phyllodes tumours of breast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy between breast conserving surgery and simple mastectomy for phyllodes tumours of the breast remains because of the unpredictable nature of the disease. Although some benign tumours may show an unusually aggressive behaviour, modified radical surgery for phyllodes tumours offers no survival advantage, and recently more conservative surgical approaches have been deployed. Case presentation A 30-year-old woman with a giant multifocal tumour of the breast underwent breast-conserving surgery that made use of the well- circumscribed feature of the tumour. The case demonstrates the safety, and cosmetic benefit of the breast-conserving approach for multifocal phyllodes tumours except for the high recurrence rate. Conclusions Large size, multifocality, and borderline or malignant histology are contraindications for breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25023082

  8. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  9. Initial and postoperative hyponatremia associated with pituitary adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, S; Fuwa, I; Seto, H; Ushio, Y

    1997-01-01

    This 67 year-old man experienced 3 episodes of symptomatic hyponatraemia. Radiological examination revealed a sellar lesion and the tumour was removed via the transsphenoidal route. Thereafter, he simultaneously developed intractable diabetes insipidus and serious hyponatraemia with persistent natriuresis. His level of atrial natriuretic peptide was not significantly elevated, however, his plasma aldosterone concentration was low. The oral administration of salt gradually improved his hyponatraemia as well as the coincident symptoms. By the administration of a mineralocorticoid, fludrocortisone acetate, we succeeded in maintaining his serum sodium level without salt replacement. We discuss the mechanism(s) and treatment of hyponatraemia associated with pituitary tumour.

  10. Euclidean and fractal geometry of microvascular networks in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Gaetani, Paolo; Goglia, Umberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mortini, Pietro; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

    2008-07-01

    In geometrical terms, tumour vascularity is an exemplary anatomical system that irregularly fills a three-dimensional Euclidean space. This physical characteristic and the highly variable shapes of the vessels lead to considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, and the removal of metabolites. Although these biological characteristics are well known, quantitative analyses of newly formed vessels in two-dimensional histological sections still fail to view their architecture as a non-Euclidean geometrical entity, thus leading to errors in visual interpretation and discordant results from different laboratories concerning the same tumour. We here review the literature concerning microvessel density estimates (a Euclidean-based approach quantifying vascularity in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissues) and compare the results. We also discuss the limitations of Euclidean quantitative analyses of vascularity and the helpfulness of a fractal geometry-based approach as a better means of quantifying normal and neoplastic pituitary microvasculature.

  11. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakakis, Nikolaos; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Dang, Mary N; Lynch, Julie; Belchetz, Paul; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Summary A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed. Learning points: Ectopic acromegaly is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of acromegaly. Ectopic acromegaly is almost always due to extra-pituitary GHRH secretion

  12. Concurrent somatotroph and plurihormonal pituitary adenomas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Mellora; FitzGerald, Louise; Kiupel, Matti

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered, domestic longhair cat was referred for investigation of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Routine haematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including culture), total T4 and urine creatinine:cortisol ratio were unremarkable, but markedly increased insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was identified and a pituitary mass was subsequently documented. The cat was treated conservatively with the dopamine agonist L-deprenyl and was re-presented 16 months later for worsening polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, marked lumbar muscle atrophy, development of a pendulous abdomen and marked thinning of the abdominal skin. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasonography, dexamethasone suppression testing and endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The cat was treated with trilostane (30 mg q24h PO) and showed some clinical improvement, but developed an opportunistic fungal infection and skin fragility syndrome 4.5 months after commencing treatment, and was euthanased. A double-pituitary adenoma comprising a discrete somatotroph adenoma and a separate plurihormonal adenoma (positive immunoreactivity for ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) was identified on post-mortem examination. These two pituitary adenomas were suspected to have arisen as independent neoplastic entities with the plurihormonal tumour either being clinically silent at the initial presentation or having developed over the subsequent 16 months.

  13. The determinants of tumour immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Blankenstein, Thomas; Coulie, Pierre G.; Gilboa, Eli; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Many standard and targeted therapies, as well as radiotherapy, have been shown to induce an anti-tumour immune response, and immunotherapies rely on modulating the host immune system to induce an anti-tumour immune response. However, the immune response to such therapies is often reliant on the immunogenicity of a tumour. Tumour immunogenicity varies greatly between cancers of the same type in different individuals and between different types of cancer. So, what do we know about tumour immunogenicity and how might we therapeutically improve tumour immunogenicity? We asked four leading cancer immunologists around the world for their opinions on this important issue. PMID:22378190

  14. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  15. Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen; Zender, Lars; Miething, Cornelius; Dickins, Ross A.; Hernando, Eva; Krizhanovsky, Valery; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer arises from a combination of mutations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, the extent to which tumour suppressor gene loss is required for maintaining established tumours is poorly understood. p53 is an important tumour suppressor that acts to restrict proliferation in response to DNA damage or deregulation of mitogenic oncogenes, by leading to the induction of various cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis or cellular senescence1,2. Consequently, p53 mutations increase cell proliferation and survival, and in some settings promote genomic instability and resistance to certain chemotherapies3. To determine the consequences of reactivating the p53 pathway in tumours, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to conditionally regulate endogenous p53 expression in a mosaic mouse model of liver carcinoma4,5. We show that even brief reactivation of endogenous p53 in p53-deficient tumours can produce complete tumour regressions. The primary response to p53 was not apoptosis, but instead involved the induction of a cellular senescence program that was associated with differentiation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. This program, although producing only cell cycle arrest in vitro, also triggered an innate immune response that targeted the tumour cells in vivo, thereby contributing to tumour clearance. Our study indicates that p53 loss can be required for the maintenance of aggressive carcinomas, and illustrates how the cellular senescence program can act together with the innate immune system to potently limit tumour growth. PMID:17251933

  16. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.L.; Goldman, J.M.; Rehnberg, G.L.

    1986-12-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, the authors evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. They also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants.

  17. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  18. The relationship between total and phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT3 tumour cell expression, components of tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gujam, Fadia J.A.; McMillan, Donald C.; Edwards, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between tumour cell expression of total and phosphorylated STAT1 (ph-STAT1) and STAT3 (ph-STAT-3), components of tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of total and ph-STAT1, and STAT3 were performed on tissue microarray of 384 breast cancer specimens. Tumour cell expression of STAT1 and STAT3 at both cytoplasmic and nuclear locations were combined and identified as STAT1/STAT3 tumour cell expression. These results were related to cancer specific survival (CSS) and phenotypic features of the tumour and the host. High ph-STAT1 and ph-STAT3 tumour cell expression were associated with increased ER (both P≤0.001) and PR (both P <0.05), reduced tumour grade (P=0.015 and P<0.001 respectively) and necrosis (both P=0.001). Ph-STAT1 was associated with increased general inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.007) and ph-STAT3 was associated with lower CD4+ infiltration (P=0.024). In multivariate survival analysis, only high ph-STAT3 tumour cell expression was a predictor of improved CSS (P=0.010) independent of other tumour and host-based factors. STAT1 and STAT3 tumour cell expression appeared to be an important determinant of favourable outcome in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. The present results suggest that STAT1 and STAT3 may affect disease outcome through direct impact on tumour cells, counteracting aggressive tumour features, as well as interaction with the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:27769057

  19. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  20. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R

    2005-07-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  1. Delayed sequelae of pituitary irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, K.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1958, 781 patients at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have received helium-particle stereotactic radiosurgery to the adenohypophysis. Autopsy findings in 15 of these patients are reported. Ten patients received pituitary radiation (average dose, 116 Gy in six fractions) for progressive neovascularization retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus. Evidence of a time-dependent course of progressive fibrosis in their pituitary glands was found. Five patients were treated for eosinophilic adenomas. Although they had lower average doses of radiation (56 Gy in six fractions), their pituitary glands showed cystic cavitation of the adenomas. The adenomas thus appeared more radiosensitive than the normal pars anterior, which, in turn, was more radiosensitive than the adjacent neurohypophysis. No significant radiation changes were found in the surrounding brain or cranial nerves. The endocrine organs under pituitary control showed varying degrees of atrophy, and clinical tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal ral tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal radiation lesion confined to the pituitary gland but did not cause injury to the critical structures of the surrounding central nervous system.

  2. What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... adenomas. If you had a functional (hormone-making) pituitary adenoma, hormone measurements can often be done within days ... risk. Occasionally, people with large or fast-growing pituitary adenomas may be disabled or have their lives shortened ...

  3. Radiotherapy in Phyllodes Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Balukrishna; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Paul, M J; Backianathan, Selvamani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes Tumour (PT) of the breast is a relatively rare breast neoplasm (<1%) with diverse range of pathology and biological behaviour. Aim To describe the clinical course of PT and to define the role of Radiotherapy (RT) in PT of the breast. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of hospital data of patients with PT presented from 2005 to 2014 was done. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results. Simple description of data was done in this study. Age and duration of symptoms were expressed in median and range. Percentages, tables and general discussions were used to understand the meaning of the data analyzed. Results Out of the 98 patients, 92 were eligible for analysis. The median age of presentation was 43 years. A total of 64/92 patients were premenopausal. There was no side predilection for this tumour but 57/92 patients presented as an upper outer quadrant lump. Fifty percent of the patients presented as giant (10 cm) PT. The median duration of symptoms was 12 months (range: 1-168 months). A 60% of patients had Benign (B), 23% had Borderline (BL) and 17% had malignant (M) tumours. The surgical treatment for benign histology included Lumpectomy (L) for 15%, Wide Local Excision (WLE) for 48%, and Simple Mastectomy (SM) for 37%. All BL and M tumours were treated with WLE or SM. There was no recurrence in B and BL group when the margin was ≥1 cm. All non-metastatic M tumours received adjuvant RT irrespective of their margin status. Total 3/16 patients with M developed local recurrence. Total 6/16 M patients had distant metastases (lung or bone). Our median duration of follow up was 20 months (range: 1-120 months). Conclusion Surgical resection with adequate margins (>1 cm) gave excellent local control in B and BL tumours. For patients with BL PT, local radiotherapy is useful, if margins are close or positive even after the best surgical resection. There is a trend towards improved local control with adjuvant radiotherapy for

  4. Pituitary function and morphology in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luigi; Tortora, Fabio; Modica, Roberta; Ramundo, Valeria; Riccio, Eleonora; Daniele, Aurora; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Pisani, Antonio; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2015-11-01

    Endocrine abnormalities are known to affect patients with Fabry disease (FD). Pituitary gland theoretically represents an ideal target for FD because of high vascularization and low proliferation rate. We explored pituitary morphology and function in a cohort of FD patients through a prospectic, monocentric study at an Academic Tertiary Center. The study population included 28 FD patients and 42 sex and age-matched normal subjects. The protocol included a contrast enhancement pituitary MRI, the assessment of pituitary hormones, anti-pituitary, and anti-hypothalamus antibodies. At pituitary MRI, an empty sella was found in 11 (39%) FD patients, and in 2 (5%) controls (p < 0.001). Pituitary volume was significantly smaller in FD than in controls (p < 0.001). Determinants of pituitary volume were age and alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity. Both parameters resulted independently correlated at multivariate analysis. Pituitary function was substantially preserved in FD patients. Empty sella is a common finding in patients with FD. The major prevalence in the elderly supports the hypothesis of a progressive pituitary shrinkage overtime. Pituitary function seems not to be impaired in FD. An endocrine workup with pituitary hormone assessment should be periodically performed in FD patients, who are already at risk of cardiovascular complications.

  5. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  6. Leukaemia cell of origin identified by chromatin landscape of bulk tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    George, Joshy; Uyar, Asli; Young, Kira; Kuffler, Lauren; Waldron-Francis, Kaiden; Marquez, Eladio; Ucar, Duygu; Trowbridge, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The precise identity of a tumour's cell of origin can influence disease prognosis and outcome. Methods to reliably define tumour cell of origin from primary, bulk tumour cell samples has been a challenge. Here we use a well-defined model of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to demonstrate that transforming haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors results in more aggressive AML than transforming committed progenitor cells. Transcriptome profiling reveals a gene expression signature broadly distinguishing stem cell-derived versus progenitor cell-derived AML, including genes involved in immune escape, extravasation and small GTPase signal transduction. However, whole-genome profiling of open chromatin reveals precise and robust biomarkers reflecting each cell of origin tested, from bulk AML tumour cell sampling. We find that bulk AML tumour cells exhibit distinct open chromatin loci that reflect the transformed cell of origin and suggest that open chromatin patterns may be leveraged as prognostic signatures in human AML. PMID:27397025

  7. Diagnosing Musculoskeletal Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Simon R.; Spooner, David; Sneath, Rodney S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 we became aware of a worrying increase in apparent errors in the histopathological diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumours in our Unit. As a result all cases seen over the past 8 years were reviewed by an independent panel. Of the 1996 cases reviewed there was an error in 87. In 54 cases (2.7%) this had led to some significant change in the active management of the patient. The main areas where errors arose were in those very cases where clinical and radiological features were not helpful in confirming or refuting the diagnosis. The incidence of errors rose with the passage of time, possibly related to a deterioration in the pathologist’s health. The error rate in diagnosing bone tumours in previously published series ranges from 9 to 40%. To ensure as accurate a rate of diagnosis as possible multidisciplinary working and regular audit are essential. PMID:18521309

  8. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy.

  9. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  10. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in Ewing sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour.

    PubMed

    Elbashier, S H A; Nazarina, A R; Looi, L M

    2013-12-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES)/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm affecting mainly children and young adults. The tumour is included with other primitive neoplasms under the category of small round cell tumour. Cytokeratin expression in ES/PNET has been described in sporadic case reports as well as a few systemic series. We studied this feature in Malaysian patients diagnosed in University Malaya Medical Centre on the basis of typical morphology and immunohistochemical assays. Immunohistochemical staining for AE1/AE3 and MNF116 were performed in 43 cases. Cytokeratin was expressed in 17 cases (39.5%) in focal, intermediate or diffuse patterns. There was no significant association between cytokeratin immunoreactivity and the following parameters: patient age, sex, skeletal and extraskeletal primary location as well as primary, metastastic or recurrent tumours or chemotherapy treatment. A significant association between cytokeratin and neuron specific enolase (NSE) expression was demonstrated. Our study supports evidence of epithelial differentiation in ES/PNET and emphasizes that the expression of cytokeratin does not exclude ES/PNET in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours.

  11. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Natalie; Walach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.0001), indicating that more progressed and aggressive tumours may require a higher level of aerobic glycolysis. In palliative patients, a clear trend was observed in patients who adhered strictly to a ketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials.

  12. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals.

  13. [Phyllodes tumour: a rare, rapidly growing breast tumour].

    PubMed

    den Exter, Paul L; Hornstra, Bonne J; Vree, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented at the breast outpatient clinic with a giant tumour of her left breast. The size, rapid growth and radiological characteristics of the lesion led us to suspect a phyllodes tumour. A histological examination of a needle biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. An additional CT scan revealed no signs of metastases. We performed a mastectomy during which a tumour measuring 48 x 33 x 25 cm was resected. Histological examination revealed a borderline phyllodes tumour. Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast and pre-operatively these are often difficult to differentiate from fibroadenomas. Phyllodes tumours have a variable clinical course with the ability to metastasize and a propensity to recur locally. Complete excision with wide margins is essential to prevent local recurrence. In our case, the surgical margins were limited and our patient was therefore treated with postoperative radiation therapy.

  14. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  15. Pituitary apoplexy associated with cabergoline therapy.

    PubMed

    Chng, Edwin; Dalan, Rinkoo

    2013-12-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare medical emergency which results from hemorrhage or infarction in the pituitary gland. One of the predisposing factors is treatment with dopamine agonists, especially bromocriptine. We report a 20-year-old Chinese man with prolactinoma who developed pituitary apoplexy 6 weeks after initiation of cabergoline. He was treated conservatively with supportive therapy, and recovered well with no loss of pituitary function. A literature search was conducted and a review of the reported patients with pituitary apoplexy during treatment with dopamine agonists is discussed.

  16. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  17. Adenohypophysitis in rat pituitary allografts

    PubMed Central

    Rotondo, Fabio; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Asa, Sylvia L; Lombardero, Matilde; Berczi, Istvan; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2010-01-01

    The histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations in 81 pituitary allografts from Lewis rats transplanted beneath the renal capsule of Wistar rats were investigated. Intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts were also examined. Recipient rats were sacrificed at various time points after transplantation. Two days after transplantation, the central portion of the allografts demonstrated ischaemic necrosis. A week later, massive mononuclear cell infiltrates consisting primarily of lymphocytes and to a lesser extent, macrophages, plasma cells and granulocytes became prominent. At about three to four weeks after transplantation, the mononuclear cell infiltrate diminished; the surviving adenohypophysial cells, mainly prolactin (PRL) cells, increased in number and necrosis was replaced by connective tissue. No histological changes were noted in the intrasellar pituitaries of rats bearing allografts. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the surviving adenohypophysial cells were mainly PRL-producing cells. Electron microscopy revealed adenohypophysial cell destruction, a spectrum of inflammatory cells and, in late phase, accumulation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. PRL cells were the prominent cell types; they increased in number. It appears that pituitary allografts are ‘foreign’ and evoke an immune response, suggesting that they may be used as an experimental animal model for morphological investigation of the development and progression of adenohypophysitis, a rare disease occurring mainly in young women often associated with pregnancy. PMID:20586813

  18. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia and hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ando, Yasuyo

    2015-04-09

    Pituitary apoplexy, a syndrome caused by haemorrhage into the pituitary gland, typically manifests as sudden severe headache, visual symptoms and hypopituitarism, including adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia following temporal headache and diagnosed through evaluation for hyponatraemia. MRI focusing on the pituitary gland helped to confirm the diagnosis. Our experience serves as a useful reminder of this atypical presentation of pituitary apoplexy, also known as 'subclinical pituitary apoplexy,' and underscores the importance of careful evaluation for hyponatraemia using serial urine osmolality, which is useful to distinguish hypovolaemic hyponatraemia from euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Clinicians should consider pituitary apoplexy as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia, loss of energy or hyponatraemia, following headache even when the patient is lacking classical symptoms such as severe headache or visual symptoms.

  19. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia and hyponatraemia

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ando, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy, a syndrome caused by haemorrhage into the pituitary gland, typically manifests as sudden severe headache, visual symptoms and hypopituitarism, including adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia following temporal headache and diagnosed through evaluation for hyponatraemia. MRI focusing on the pituitary gland helped to confirm the diagnosis. Our experience serves as a useful reminder of this atypical presentation of pituitary apoplexy, also known as ‘subclinical pituitary apoplexy,’ and underscores the importance of careful evaluation for hyponatraemia using serial urine osmolality, which is useful to distinguish hypovolaemic hyponatraemia from euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Clinicians should consider pituitary apoplexy as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia, loss of energy or hyponatraemia, following headache even when the patient is lacking classical symptoms such as severe headache or visual symptoms. PMID:25858941

  20. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-06-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice.

  1. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level1. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice. PMID:23727729

  2. Modelling and Detecting Tumour Oxygenation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Skeldon, Anne C.; Chaffey, Gary; Lloyd, David J. B.; Mohan, Vineet; Bradley, David A.; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Tumours that are low in oxygen (hypoxic) tend to be more aggressive and respond less well to treatment. Knowing the spatial distribution of oxygen within a tumour could therefore play an important role in treatment planning, enabling treatment to be targeted in such a way that higher doses of radiation are given to the more radioresistant tissue. Mapping the spatial distribution of oxygen in vivo is difficult. Radioactive tracers that are sensitive to different levels of oxygen are under development and in the early stages of clinical use. The concentration of these tracer chemicals can be detected via positron emission tomography resulting in a time dependent concentration profile known as a tissue activity curve (TAC). Pharmaco-kinetic models have then been used to deduce oxygen concentration from TACs. Some such models have included the fact that the spatial distribution of oxygen is often highly inhomogeneous and some have not. We show that the oxygen distribution has little impact on the form of a TAC; it is only the mean oxygen concentration that matters. This has significant consequences both in terms of the computational power needed, and in the amount of information that can be deduced from TACs. PMID:22761687

  3. Aggressive responding in abstinent heroin addicts: neuroendocrine and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Moi, Gabriele; Bussandri, Monica; Bubici, Cristina; Mossini, Matteo; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Brambilla, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Objective measures of experimentally induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, in comparison with 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were preliminarily submitted to DSM-IV interviews, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participant. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response). Money-earning responses were not different in drug-free heroin addicts and controls during the first two sessions and significantly lower during the third session in heroin-dependent subjects (t=2.99, P<.01). Aggressive responses were significantly higher (F=4.9, P<.01) in heroin addicted individuals, in comparison with controls. During the experimentally induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) concentrations increased less significantly, and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), increased more significantly in abstinent heroin-dependent subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamine changes, BDHI "direct" and "irritability" scores, MMPI "psychopathic deviate" scores in heroin-dependent subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between heroin-exposure extent (substance abuse history duration) and aggressiveness levels. The present findings suggest that heroin-dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relation with monoamine hyperreactivity, after long-term opiate discontinuation. Aggressiveness in heroin addicts seems to be related more to the

  4. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  5. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  6. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  7. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  8. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  9. A pleiomorphic GH pituitary adenoma from a Carney complex patient displays universal allelic loss at the protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1A (PRKARIA) locus

    PubMed Central

    Bossis, I; Voutetakis, A; Matyakhina, L; Pack, S; Abu-Asab, M; Bourdeau, I; Griffin, K; Courcoutsakis, N; Stergiopoulos, S; Batista, D; Tsokos, M; Stratakis, C

    2004-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome associated with GH-producing pituitary tumours and transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene are responsible for approximately half the known CNC cases but have never found in sporadic pituitary tumours. Pituitary tissue was obtained from an acromegalic CNC patient heterozygote for a common (PRKARIA)i-inactivating mutation. Both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed a highly pleiomorphic pituitary adenoma. The cell culture population appeared morphologically heterogeneous and remained so after more than 30 passages. The mixture was comprised of cells strongly immunostained for GH, spindle-shaped myofibroblast-like cells, and cuboid cells with large axonal projections (negative for GH). The population appeared to have both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Both at baseline and at passage 30, cytogenetic analysis indicated the presence of normal 46, XY diploid karyotype, whereas losses of the PRKARIAi locus were demonstrated in more than 98% of the cells by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, supporting this gene's involvement in pituitary tumorigenesis. Allelic loss may have occurred in a single precursor cell type that differentiated and clonally expanded into several phenotypes. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may also occur in CNC-associated pleiomorphic pituitary adenomas. PMID:15286154

  10. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  11. VEGF targets the tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-12-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

  12. Successful treatment of pituitary carcinoma with concurrent radiation, temozolomide, and bevacizumab after resection.

    PubMed

    Touma, Waseem; Hoostal, Spencer; Peterson, Richard A; Wiernik, Andres; SantaCruz, Karen S; Lou, Emil

    2017-03-11

    The optimal treatment of pituitary carcinomas (PC) is unknown. Treatment includes surgical resection, radiation, and more recently, temozolomide (TMZ). Pituitary adenomas have relatively high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor; therefore, bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic agent, has been used in a small number of aggressive or malignant pituitary tumors after recurrence. However, it has not been administered concurrently with other chemotherapeutic agents or combined with radiation therapy in PC. We present a 63-year-old man with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting PC, causing visual loss. It was resected transsphenoidally. There were several notable factors placing the patient at high risk for recurrence including distant metastasis in the form of a pulmonary nodule. Morphologically, his tumor was a pituitary neoplasm with malignant histopathologic features. It had abundant mitotic figures and zones of necrosis. Six weeks post-surgery, the patient started concurrent chemoradiation, using combination therapy with TMZ and bevacizumab. TMZ was continued for 12 cycles in the adjuvant setting. The ACTH was effective as a serum-based tumor marker and normalized during treatment. The patient is alive, five years after diagnosis, with no recurrence to date. This is the first case of pituitary carcinoma treated successfully with concurrent chemoradiation therapy that combined TMZ and bevacizumab with a long-term follow up.

  13. Cardiac failure due to a giant desmoid tumour of the posterior mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Bouchikh, Mohammed; Arame, Alex; Riquet, Marc; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise

    2013-12-01

    We report a rare case of a giant desmoid tumour responsible for cardiac and respiratory failure. Complete removal was decided upon, despite an initial failure in another centre because of symptom severity. In such cases, wide local resection remains the best therapeutic approach, but the risk of local recurrence is high. Literature review confirms the exceptional presentation and the benefit of aggressive surgery.

  14. Imaging biomarkers of brain tumour margin and tumour invasion.

    PubMed

    Price, S J; Gillard, J H

    2011-12-01

    Invasion of tumour cells into the normal brain is one of the major reasons of treatment failure for gliomas. Although there is a good understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that occur during this invasion, it is not possible to detect the extent of the tumour with conventional imaging. However, there is an understanding that the degree of invasion differs with individual tumours, and yet they are all treated the same. Newer imaging techniques that probe the pathological changes within tumours may be suitable biomarkers for invasion. Imaging methods are now available that can detect subtle changes in white matter organisation (diffusion tensor imaging), tumour metabolism and cellular proliferation (using MR spectroscopy and positron emission tomography) occurring in regions of tumour that cannot be detected by conventional imaging. The role of such biomarkers of invasion should allow better delineation of tumour margins, which should improve treatment planning (especially surgery and radiotherapy) and provide information on the invasiveness of an individual tumour to help select the most appropriate therapy and help stratify patients for clinical trials.

  15. Promoter CpG methylation of multiple genes in pituitary adenomas: frequent involvement of caspase-8.

    PubMed

    Bello, M Josefa; De Campos, Jose M; Isla, Alberto; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rey, Juan A

    2006-02-01

    The epigenetic changes in pituitary adenomas were identified by evaluating the methylation status of nine genes (RB1, p14(ARF), p16(INK4a), p73, TIMP-3, MGMT, DAPK, THBS1 and caspase-8) in a series of 35 tumours using methylation-specific PCR analysis plus sequencing. The series included non-functional adenomas (n=23), prolactinomas (n=6), prolactinoma plus thyroid-stimulating hormone adenoma (n=1), growth hormone adenomas (n=4), and adrenocorticotropic adenoma (n=1). All of the tumours had methylation of at least one of these genes and 40% of samples (14 of 35) displayed concurrent methylation of at least three genes. The frequencies of aberrant methylation were: 20% for RB1, 17% for p14(ARF), 34% for p16(INK4a), 29% for p73, 11% for TIMP-3, 23% for MGMT, 6% for DAPK, 43% for THBS1 and 54% for caspase-8. No aberrant methylation was observed in two non-malignant pituitary samples from healthy controls. Although some differences in the frequency of gene methylation between functional and non-functional adenomas were detected, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Our results suggest that promoter methylation is a frequent event in pituitary adenoma tumourigenesis, a process in which inactivation of apoptosis-related genes (DAPK, caspase-8) might play a key role.

  16. Bovine papillomaviruses: their role in the aetiology of cutaneous tumours of bovids and equids.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Lubna; Campo, M Saveria

    2008-10-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is perhaps the most extensively studied animal papillomavirus. In cattle BPVs induce benign tumours of cutaneous or mucosal epithelia, called papillomas or warts. Cattle papillomas are benign tumours and generally regress without eliciting any serious clinical problems in the host, but occasionally persist and provide the focus for malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, as in the case of cancer of the urinary bladder and cancer of the upper alimentary canal. BPV is the only papillomavirus that jumps species: the virus also infects equids, and gives rise to fibroblastic tumours called sarcoids. Sarcoids very rarely regress, more often they persist and can be locally aggressive. These tumours are the most common dermatological tumour of equids worldwide. The purpose of this review is to discuss the biology of BPV, the biology of bovine tumours and equine sarcoids, and present the current understanding of BPV in tumour pathogenesis in its natural host, cattle, and in its heterologous host, equids. Finally, the use of anti-BPV vaccines as a therapy for equine sarcoids will be discussed. Only limited information on the clinical or pathological aspects of either bovine or equine tumours will be provided as this subject has been extensively addressed previously.

  17. Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumour- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Gül, Ayhan; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumours (UTROSCTs) are an extremely rare type of uterine body tumours arising from the endometrial stroma. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and natural history of UTROSCTs are still a question of debate, as there is little available data in the literature. Although rare, the possibility of UTROSCTs should be kept in mind, when a patient presents with abnormal bleeding and an enlarged uterus. UTROSCTs appear dirty white/cream-coloured, gelatinous, well-circumscribed mass with smooth surface on macroscopic examination. We present a rare case of endometrial stromal tumour with sex-cord-like differentiation which was successfully treated by hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. PMID:28208949

  18. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    PubMed

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects.

  19. Pituitary cretinism in two sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, H; Watanabe, N; Ootsuka, M; Kajiwara, M; Gohya, N

    1980-01-01

    Two sisters with cretinism are reported. Each showed low levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the elder sister, serum TSH did not increase after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. We conclude that cretinism in these 2 sisters was due to TSH deficiency. This is the second report of 'familial' pituitary cretinism (TSH-deficient congenital hypothyroidism). PMID:7436542

  20. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  1. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  2. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Rehnberg, G L

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, we evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. We also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:3830104

  3. Pituitary apoplexy: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Andrea; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by sudden increase in pituitary gland volume secondary to ischemia and/or necrosis, usually in a pituitary adenoma. Most cases occur during the 5th decade of life, predominantly in males and in previously unknown clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. There are some predisposing factors as arterial hypertension, anticoagulant therapy and major surgery. Clinical picture comprises headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsies and hypopituitarism. Most cases improve with both surgical and expectant management and the best approach in the acute phase is still controversial. Surgery, usually by transsphenoidal route, is indicated if consciousness and/or vision are impaired, despite glucocorticoid replacement and electrolyte support. Pituitary function is impaired in most patients before apoplexy and ACTH deficiency is common, which makes glucocorticoid replacement needed in most cases. Pituitary deficiencies, once established, usually do not recover, regardless the treatment. Sellar imaging and endocrinological function must be periodic reevaluated.

  4. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African.

    PubMed

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L

    1976-06-01

    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  5. Novel Genetic Causes of Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Francisca; Korbonits, Márta

    2016-10-15

    Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely. A significant proportion of growth hormone- and adrenocorticotrophin-secreting adenomas have activating somatic mutations in the GNAS and USP8 genes, respectively. Rarely, germline mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis, often in a familial setting. Classical tumor predisposition syndromes include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4) syndromes, Carney complex, and McCune-Albright syndrome. Pituitary tumors have also been described in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, DICER1 syndrome, and SDHx mutations. Pituitary adenomas with no other associated tumors have been described as familial isolated pituitary adenomas. Patients with AIP or GPR101 mutations often present with pituitary gigantism either in a familial or simplex setting. GNAS and GPR101 mutations that arise in early embryonic age can lead to somatic mosaicism involving the pituitary gland and resulting in growth hormone excess. Senescence has been suggested as the key mechanism protecting pituitary adenomas turning malignant in the overwhelming majority of cases. Here we briefly summarize the genetic background of pituitary adenomas, with an emphasis on the recent developments in this field. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 5030-42. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "ENDOCRINE CANCERS

  6. Lack of Oestrogenic Inhibition of the Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in Somatolactotroph Tumour Cells.

    PubMed

    Eijo, G; Gottardo, M F; Jaita, G; Magri, M L; Moreno Ayala, M; Zárate, S; Candolfi, M; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

    2015-09-01

    Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We have previously shown that oestrogens sensitise normal anterior pituitary cells to the apoptotic effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. In the present study, we examined whether oestrogens also modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway and apoptosis in GH3 cells, a rat somatolactotroph tumour cell line. As determined by Western blotting, 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) (10(-9) m) increased the nuclear concentration of NF-κB/p105, p65 and p50 in GH3 cells. However, E2 did not modify the expression of Bcl-xL, a NF-κB target gene. TNF-α induced apoptosis of GH3 cells incubated in either the presence or absence of E2 . Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway using BAY 11-7082 (BAY) (5 μm) decreased the viability of GH3 cells and increased the percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL)-positive GH3 cells. BAY also increased TNF-α-induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, an effect that was further increased by an inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway, SP600125 (10 μm). We also analysed the role of the NF-κB signalling pathway on proliferation and apoptosis of GH3 tumours in vivo. The administration of BAY to nude mice bearing GH3 tumours increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and decreased the number of proliferating GH3 cells. These findings suggest that GH3 cells lose their oestrogenic inhibitory action on the NF-κB pathway and that the pro-apoptotic effect of TNF-α on these tumour pituitary cells does not require sensitisation by oestrogens as occurs in normal pituitary cells. NF-κB was required for the survival of GH3 cells, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB pathway could interfere with pituitary tumour progression.

  7. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  8. From pituitary adenoma to pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET): an International Pituitary Pathology Club proposal.

    PubMed

    Asa, S L; Casar-Borota, O; Chanson, P; Delgrange, E; Earls, P; Ezzat, S; Grossman, A; Ikeda, H; Inoshita, N; Karavitaki, N; Korbonits, M; Laws, E R; Lopes, M B; Maartens, N; McCutcheon, I E; Mete, O; Nishioka, H; Raverot, G; Roncaroli, F; Saeger, W; Syro, L V; Vasiljevic, A; Villa, C; Wierinckx, A; Trouillas, J

    2017-04-01

    The classification of neoplasms of adenohypophysial cells is misleading because of the simplistic distinction between adenoma and carcinoma, based solely on metastatic spread and the poor reproducibility and predictive value of the definition of atypical adenomas based on the detection of mitoses or expression of Ki-67 or p53. In addition, the current classification of neoplasms of the anterior pituitary does not accurately reflect the clinical spectrum of behavior. Invasion and regrowth of proliferative lesions and persistence of hormone hypersecretion cause significant morbidity and mortality. We propose a new terminology, pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET), which is consistent with that used for other neuroendocrine neoplasms and which recognizes the highly variable impact of these tumors on patients.

  9. Benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions in men.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P J

    1986-01-01

    In a consecutive medicolegal necropsy series benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions occurred in 52% of the 95 men aged 35-69 years. The incidence increased with age, mainly due to small bile duct tumours (n = 26; mean age 56.7 years; p less than 0.01; mean size 1.3 mm). The next most common tumours were cavernous hemangiomas (n = 19; mean age 53.9 years; mean size 5.2 mm) that were not related to age. Focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3; mean size 8.0 mm) tended to occur in a younger age group (mean age 40.3 years; p less than 0.001). Multiple bile duct tumours were present in 46% and hemangiomas in 50% of the men studied. Liver cell adenoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis were incidental findings (one case of each). Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was associated with the consumption of alcohol and a total dose of 21.5 g of testosterone. These results indicate that benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions are not rare in men but may remain undetected because of their small size. Images PMID:3950039

  10. Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristovão M; Biancur, Douglas E; Wang, Xiaoxu; Halbrook, Christopher J; Sherman, Mara H; Zhang, Li; Kremer, Daniel; Hwang, Rosa F; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Evans, Ronald M; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2016-08-25

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a highly hypoxic, nutrient-poor environment. As such, these tumours must alter how they capture and use nutrients to support their metabolic needs. Here we show that stroma-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical for PDAC metabolism through the secretion of non-essential amino acids (NEAA). Specifically, we uncover a previously undescribed role for alanine, which outcompetes glucose and glutamine-derived carbon in PDAC to fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus NEAA and lipid biosynthesis. This shift in fuel source decreases the tumour’s dependence on glucose and serum-derived nutrients, which are limited in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we demonstrate that alanine secretion by PSCs is dependent on PSC autophagy, a process that is stimulated by cancer cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel metabolic interaction between PSCs and cancer cells, in which PSC-derived alanine acts as an alternative carbon source. This finding highlights a previously unappreciated metabolic network within pancreatic tumours in which diverse fuel sources are used to promote growth in an austere tumour microenvironment.

  11. Pituitary abscess after autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leff, R S; Martino, R L; Pollock, W J; Knight, W A

    1989-05-01

    The first case of pituitary abscess arising in a patient during recovery from autologous bone marrow transplantation is reported. A 31-year-old man with a 9 month history of T-cell lymphoma died suddenly more than 60 days after successful treatment with high-dose cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation, and autologous bone marrow infusion. Autopsy revealed a pituitary abscess associated with clinically silent sphenoid sinusitis. Unique aspects of this case are presented and clinical and pathologic features of pituitary abscess are reviewed. Although rare, pituitary abscess may complicate recovery from bone marrow transplantation.

  12. Preventive effects of antioestrogen on mammary and pituitary tumorigenesis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, C.; Yokoro, K.; Matsushima, R.

    1984-01-01

    Six groups of inbred male Wistar/Furth (WF) rats were castrated at 40 days of age and group I received no further treatment. Groups 3 and 5 received 5.0 mg diethylstilboestrol (DES) pellets. Groups 4 and 6 were given both DES and 5.0 mg anti-oestrogen (antiE) clomiphene citrate pellets. At 50-55 days of age groups 2, 5, and 6 were exposed daily to drinking water containing 5.0 mg N-nitrosobutylurea (NBU), for 30 days. None of the castrated rats given NBU alone developed mammary or pituitary tumours (MT, PT). When antiE was administered, both MT and PT incidences were reduced in rats given DES alone or in combination with NBU. Furthermore, in antiE-treated rats receiving DES and NBU the mean number of MT per rat was also significantly decreased. Similarly a marked reduction in the mean pituitary weight was observed in antiE-treated groups. These results indicate that antiE treatment was effective in the prevention of both mammary and pituitary tumorigenesis in rats receiving DES alone or receiving a combination of DES and NBU, and its inhibitory effect on mammary tumorigenesis may be mainly due to competitive antagonism for DES-induced pituitary tumorigenesis by antiE. PMID:6498074

  13. Calvarial malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy presenting with widespread intracranial metastasis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Sunil V; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2012-09-01

    The piamater, branchial arch derivatives and melanocytes, derivatives of the neural crest, are associated with rare, sporadic, non-inherited embryonic neuroectodermal dysplasia. We report a case of a 13 year-old girl with a malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy, an uncommon malignant extra-axial pigmented tumour with an aggressive clinical course. The clinical presentation, radiology, surgical management, adjuvant therapy are discussed along with a brief review of literature. The patient had widespread intracranial metastasis at presentation and rapidly deteriorated while on adjuvant therapy. A hyperdense extra-axial tumour on plain computed tomogram in a child could suggest a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour. Its malignant variant is associated with a poor prognosis when associated with widespread intracranial metastasis.

  14. Unravelling tumour heterogeneity using next-generation imaging: radiomics, radiogenomics, and habitat imaging.

    PubMed

    Sala, E; Mema, E; Himoto, Y; Veeraraghavan, H; Brenton, J D; Snyder, A; Weigelt, B; Vargas, H A

    2017-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity in cancers has been observed at the histological and genetic levels, and increased levels of intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity have been reported to be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This review provides an overview of radiomics, radiogenomics, and habitat imaging, and examines the use of these newly emergent fields in assessing tumour heterogeneity and its implications. It reviews the potential value of radiomics and radiogenomics in assisting in the diagnosis of cancer disease and determining cancer aggressiveness. This review discusses how radiogenomic analysis can be further used to guide treatment therapy for individual tumours by predicting drug response and potential therapy resistance and examines its role in developing radiomics as biomarkers of oncological outcomes. Lastly, it provides an overview of the obstacles in these emergent fields today including reproducibility, need for validation, imaging analysis standardisation, data sharing and clinical translatability and offers potential solutions to these challenges towards the realisation of precision oncology.

  15. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene and its binding factor in endocrine cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vicki E; Franklyn, Jayne A; McCabe, Christopher J

    2010-12-03

    The pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG1) encodes a multifunctional protein (PTTG) that is overexpressed in numerous tumours, including pituitary, thyroid, breast and ovarian carcinomas. PTTG induces cellular transformation in vitro and tumourigenesis in vivo, and several mechanisms by which PTTG contributes to tumourigenesis have been investigated. Also known as the human securin, PTTG is involved in cell cycle regulation, controlling the segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. This review outlines current information regarding PTTG structure, expression, regulation and function in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. Recent progress concerning the use of PTTG as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target will be considered. In addition, the PTTG binding factor (PBF), identified through its interaction with PTTG, has also been established as a proto-oncogene that is upregulated in several cancers. Current knowledge regarding PBF is outlined and its role both independently and alongside PTTG in endocrine and related cancers is discussed.

  16. Social regulation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, R C; Soma, K; Fernald, R D

    1993-01-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via neural and hormonal feedback. This axis is also subject to exogenous influences, particularly social signals. In the African cichlid fish Haplochromis burtoni, gonadal development in males is socially regulated. A small fraction of the males, which are brightly colored, maintain territories and aggressively dominate inconspicuously colored nonterritorial males. Here we show through manipulation of the social and endocrine environment that changes in social status and gonadal state are accompanied by soma size changes in a population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the ventral forebrain. In territorial males, these cells are significantly larger than in nonterritorial males. When an animal switches from being territorial to nonterritorial through a change in social situation, these cells shrink; in animals that change from nonterritorial to territorial status, the cells enlarge. These gonadotropin-releasing hormone-containing cells project to the pituitary and are ultimately responsible for regulating gonadal growth. This mechanism of socially induced cell size change provides the potential for relatively quick adaptive changes in the neuron-endocrine system without nerve cell addition or death. Since the structure of this regulatory axis is conserved among all vertebrates, other species with socially modulated reproductive physiology may exhibit a similar form of physiological regulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8356086

  17. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  18. Murine Bioluminescent Hepatic Tumour Model

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Simon; Salwa, Slawomir; Gao, Xuefeng; Tabirca, Sabin; O'Hanlon, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Gerald C.; Tangney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This video describes the establishment of liver metastases in a mouse model that can be subsequently analysed by bioluminescent imaging. Tumour cells are administered specifically to the liver to induce a localised liver tumour, via mobilisation of the spleen and splitting into two, leaving intact the vascular pedicle for each half of the spleen. Lewis lung carcinoma cells that constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc1) are inoculated into one hemi-spleen which is then resected 10 minutes later. The other hemi-spleen is left intact and returned to the abdomen. Liver tumour growth can be monitored by bioluminescence imaging using the IVIS whole body imaging system. Quantitative imaging of tumour growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation of viable tumour cells. Tumour cell death and necrosis due to drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This mouse model allows for investigating the mechanisms underlying metastatic tumour-cell survival and growth and can be used for the evaluation of therapeutics of liver metastasis. PMID:20689502

  19. Detection of Pituitary Antibodies by Immunofluorescence: Approach and Results in Patients With Pituitary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Adriana; De Remigis, Alessandra; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; De Vincentiis, Ludovica; Guaraldi, Federica; Lupi, Isabella; Iwama, Shintaro; Wand, Gary S.; Salvatori, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pituitary antibodies have been measured mainly to identify patients whose disease is caused or sustained by pituitary-specific autoimmunity. Although reported in over 100 publications, they have yielded variable results and are thus considered of limited clinical utility. Objectives: Our objectives were to analyze all publications reporting pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence for detecting the major sources of variability, to experimentally test these sources and devise an optimized immunofluorescence protocol, and to assess prevalence and significance of pituitary antibodies in patients with pituitary diseases. Study Design and Outcome Measures: We first evaluated the effect of pituitary gland species, section fixation, autofluorescence quenching, blockade of unwanted antibody binding, and use of purified IgG on the performance of this antibody assay. We then measured cross-sectionally the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in 390 pituitary cases and 60 healthy controls, expressing results as present or absent and according to the (granular, diffuse, perinuclear, or mixed) staining pattern. Results: Human pituitary was the best substrate to detect pituitary antibodies and yielded an optimal signal-to-noise ratio when treated with Sudan black B to reduce autofluorescence. Pituitary antibodies were more common in cases (95 of 390, 24%) than controls (3 of 60, 5%, P = .001) but did not discriminate among pituitary diseases when reported dichotomously. However, when expressed according to their cytosolic staining, a granular pattern was highly predictive of pituitary autoimmunity (P < .0001). Conclusion: We report a comprehensive study of pituitary antibodies by immunofluorescence and provide a method and an interpretation scheme that should be useful for identifying and monitoring patients with pituitary autoimmunity. PMID:24606106

  20. Pituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vergès, Bruno; Boureille, Françoise; Goudet, Pierre; Murat, Arnaud; Beckers, Albert; Sassolas, Geneviève; Cougard, Patrick; Chambe, Béatrice; Montvernay, Corinne; Calender, Alain

    2002-02-01

    To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on pituitary disease were compared with those from 110 non-MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas, matched for age, year of diagnosis, and follow-up period. Genetic analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in 197 of the MEN1 patients. In our MEN1 series, pituitary disease occurred in 136 of 324 (42%), less frequently than hyperparathyroidism (95%, P < 0.001) and endocrine enteropancreatic tumors (54%, P < 0.01). Mean age of onset of pituitary tumors was 38.0+/-15.3 yr (range, 12-83 yr). Pituitary disease was associated with hyperparathyroidism in 90% of cases, with enteropancreatic tumors in 47%, with adrenal tumors in 16%, and with thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in 4%. Pituitary disease was the initial lesion of MEN1 in 17% of all MEN1 patients. MEN1 pituitary adenomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men (50% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Among the 136 pituitary adenomas, there were 85 prolactinomas and 12 GH-secreting, 6 ACTH-secreting, 13 cosecreting, and 20 nonsecreting tumors. Eighty-five percent of MEN1-related pituitary lesions were macroadenomas (vs. 42% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), including 32% of invasive cases. Among secreting adenomas, hormonal hypersecretion was normalized, after treatment, in only 42% (vs. 90% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), with a median follow-up of 11.4 yr. No correlation was found between the type of MEN1 germ-line mutation and the presence or absence of pituitary adenoma. Our study, based on a large group of MEN1 patients, shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 42% of the cases and are characterized by a larger size and a more aggressive presentation than without MEN1.

  1. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon.

  2. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  3. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Crnjac, Anton; Veingerl, Bojan; Vidovic, Damjan; Kavalar, Rajko; Hojski, Aljaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malign ant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy. Case report A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year. Conclusions Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures. PMID:26834527

  4. Apoptosis: its role in pituitary development and neoplastic pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, M F; Carvalho, L R S; Bronstein, M D

    2014-04-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a phenomenon in which different stimuli trigger cellular mechanisms that culminate in death, in the absence of inflammatory cell response. Two different activation pathways are known, the intrinsic pathway (or mitochondrial) and extrinsic (or death-receptor pathway), both pathways trigger enzymatic reactions that lead cells to break up and be phagocytized by neighboring cells. This process is a common occurrence in physiological and pathological states, participating in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of organs. In the early steps of pituitary gland formation, numerous apoptotic cells are detected in the separation of Rathke's pouch from the roof of oral ectoderm. In the distal part of the gland, which will form the adenohypophysis, the ratio of apoptosis was significantly lower. However, there is evidence that neoplastic pituitary cells undergo unbalance in genes that control apoptosis leading to uncontrolled cell growth. No direct evidence of apoptosis was found in the drugs used for tumors producing prolactin and growth hormone. In conclusion, an unbalancing in the apoptosis process is the boundary between development and tumor growth.

  5. The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Keyzer, Y; Lenne, F; Auzan, C; Jégou, S; René, P; Vaudry, H; Kuhn, J M; Luton, J P; Clauser, E; Bertagna, X

    1996-03-01

    Ectopic ACTH secretion occurs in highly differentiated and rather indolent tumors like bronchial carcinoids or, in contrast, in various types of aggressive and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. We explored this phenomenon using the recently cloned human pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor as an alternate molecular marker of the corticotroph phenotype. Expression of V3 receptor, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes was examined in tumors of pituitary and nonpituitary origin. A comparative RT-PCR approach revealed signals for both V3 receptor and CHR receptor mRNAs in 17 of 18 ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, and 6 of 6 normal pituitaries; in six growth hormone- or prolactin-secreting adenomas, a very faint V3 receptor signal was observed in three cases, and CRH receptor signal was undetected in all. Six of eight bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome had both POMC and V3 receptor signals as high as those in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas; in contrast, no POMC signal and only a very faint V3 receptor signal were detected in six of eight nonsecreting bronchial carcinoids. Northern blot analysis showed V3 receptor mRNA of identical size in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids and pituitary tumors. Other types of nonpituitary tumors responsible for ectopic ACTH syndrome presented much lower levels of both POMC and V3 receptor gene expression than those found in ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. In contrast with the V3 receptor, CRH receptor mRNA was detected in the majority of neuroendocrine tumors irrespective of their POMC status. These results show that expression of the V3 receptor gene participates in the corticotroph phenotype. Its striking association with ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids defines a subset of nonpituitary tumors in which ectopic POMC gene expression is but one aspect of a wider process of corticotroph cell differentiation, and opens new possibilities of

  6. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Gonzales, J.; Page, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions.

  7. The occurrence of intracranial rhabdoid tumours in mice depends on temporal control of Smarcb1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Richer, Wilfrid; Fréneaux, Paul; Chauvin, Céline; Lucchesi, Carlo; Guillemot, Delphine; Grison, Camille; Lequin, Delphine; Pierron, Gaelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Nicolas, André; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stéphanie; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Ayrault, Olivier; Surdez, Didier; Delattre, Olivier; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are highly aggressive tumours of infancy, frequently localized in the central nervous system (CNS) where they are termed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and characterized by bi-allelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumour suppressor gene. In this study, by temporal control of tamoxifen injection in Smarcb1flox/flox;Rosa26-CreERT2 mice, we explore the phenotypes associated with Smarcb1 inactivation at different developmental stages. Injection before E6, at birth or at 2 months of age recapitulates previously described phenotypes including embryonic lethality, hepatic toxicity or development of T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Injection between E6 and E10 leads to high penetrance tumours, mainly intra-cranial, with short delays (median: 3 months). These tumours demonstrate anatomical, morphological and gene expression profiles consistent with those of human AT/RTs. Moreover, intra- and inter-species comparisons of tumours reveal that human and mouse RTs can be split into different entities that may underline the variety of RT cells of origin. PMID:26818002

  8. Nuclear expression of Survivin in paediatric ependymomas and choroid plexus tumours correlates with morphologic tumour grade.

    PubMed

    Altura, R A; Olshefski, R S; Jiang, Y; Boué, D R

    2003-11-03

    Survivin is a gene that is widely expressed throughout the development of the normal mammalian embryo. Subcellular localisation of Survivin to both the nucleus and cytoplasm has suggested multiple functional roles, including inhibition of cell death, especially as demonstrated within a variety of malignant cell types, as well as regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint. The expression of Survivin has been associated with an adverse clinical outcome in a large number of malignancies. However, nuclear Survivin expression has been described as an independent variable of favourable prognosis in two large clinical studies of breast and gastric carcinomas. Reports of Survivin expression in normal postnatal, differentiated tissues have been restricted to cell types with high proliferative capacities, including vascular endothelium, endometrium, colonic epithelium, and activated lymphocytes. Prior to this report, expression within the normal human brain had not been characterised. Here, we analyse the expression of Survivin in human brain sections obtained from perinatal and paediatric autopsy cases. We report a strikingly high level of expression of Survivin within normal ependyma and choroid plexus (CP). Analysis of corresponding neoplastic tissue in paediatric ependymomas and CP tumours shows that expression of the nuclear form of Survivin correlates with morphologic tumour grade, with a loss of nuclear expression associated with progressive cytologic anaplasia. This pattern of expression supports a hypothesis that Survivin plays a functional role in normal ependymal growth and/or neural stem cell differentiation, and that abnormally low levels of expression of the nuclear form of this protein may be a marker of more aggressive disease and/or higher morphologic grade in ependymal and CP tumours.

  9. Pituitary volume in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Patricia; Christian, Christopher; Robinson, Delbert G; Sevy, Serge; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Napolitano, Barbara; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2012-07-30

    Pituitary volumes were measured in 55 first-episode schizophrenia patients at a baseline timepoint with 38 receiving a followup scan after antipsychotic treatment. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers had baseline scans with 34 receiving a followup scan. There were no baseline group differences in pituitary volumes or changes in volume following antipsychotic treatment.

  10. Pituitary volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Patricia; Christian, Christopher; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sevy, Serge; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Napolitano, Barbara; Bilder, Robert M.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary volumes were measured in 55 first-episode schizophrenia patients at a baseline timepoint with 38 receiving a followup scan after antipsychotic treatment. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers had baseline scans with 34 receiving a followup scan. There were no baseline group differences in pituitary volumes or changes in volume following antipsychotic treatment. PMID:22858406

  11. Effects of zinc deficiency on pituitary somatotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, S.; Fosmire, G.; Hymer, W.C. )

    1991-03-15

    To test whether the growth retardation that accompanies zinc deficiency may involve a direct effect of zinc on pituitary, rats were divided into three groups and fed a Zn deficient diet for 10 days. On day 10 rats were anesthetized and blood, femurs, and pituitaries were collected. Pituitaries from each group were either enzymatically dissociated into individual cells or homogenized and centrifuged into three fractions. Growth retardation was evidenced by decreased body weights and narrower epiphyseal widths in PF and ZD rats. Pituitary weights were also lower in PF and ZD rats. Pituitary zinc per unit tended to be highest in PF and lowest in ZD rats, although this trend was significant only for the 250g pellet fraction. Total cell counts from dissociated pituitaries tended to be highest for AL and lowest for ZD rats. Total growth hormone (HGH) per pituitary also followed this trend, although the amount of GH per somatotroph did not buffer between groups. Interestingly, GH released from dissociated pituitary cells cultured in defined media for 3 days was twice as great from ZD vs PF, AL being intermediate. Serum GH levels did not differ between groups although the trend was ZD > PF >AL.

  12. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Tortora, Fabio; Baldelli, Roberto; Cocchiara, Francesco; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Sbardella, Emilia; Simeoli, Chiara; Caranci, Ferdinando; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor represents about 10 % of pituitary adenomas and at the time of diagnosis most of them are microadenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment of Cushing's disease and accurate localization of the tumor within the gland is essential for selectively removing the lesion and preserving normal pituitary function. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for the detection of pituitary tumors, but adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenomas are not correctly identified in 30-50 % of cases, because of their size, location, and enhancing characteristics. Several recent studies were performed with the purpose of better localizing the adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas through the use in magnetic resonance imaging of specific sequences, reduced contrast medium dose and high-field technology. Therefore, an improved imaging technique for pituitary disease is mandatory in the suspect of Cushing's disease. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and to provide a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to be followed in case of suspicion adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  13. Reversible suprasellar pituitary mass secondary to hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, J.A.; Lee, P.A.; Albright, A.L. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA )

    1989-12-08

    Sellar enlargement and suprasellar extension of a pituitary mass, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic scanning in three children with primary hypothyroidism, resolved after treatment with levothyroxine sodium. This condition, a logical consequence of the pathogenesis of primary hypothyroidism, must be considered in patients with pituitary and suprasellar masses.

  14. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Mahendra, Lodd; Rangarajan, Sumanth; Madasamy, Ramasamy; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland's role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis. PMID:26199763

  15. A case of pituitary abscess presenting without a source of infection or prior pituitary pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a relatively uncommon cause of pituitary hormone deficiencies and/or a suprasellar mass. Risk factors for pituitary abscess include prior surgery, irradiation and/or pathology of the suprasellar region as well as underlying infections. We present the case of a 22-year-old female presenting with a spontaneous pituitary abscess in the absence of risk factors described previously. Her initial presentation included headache, bitemporal hemianopia, polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her pituitary showed a suprasellar mass. As the patient did not have any risk factors for pituitary abscess or symptoms of infection, the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively. She underwent transsphenoidal resection and purulent material was seen intraoperatively. Culture of the surgical specimen showed two species of alpha hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus capitis and Prevotella melaninogenica. Urine and blood cultures, dental radiographs and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to show any source of infection that could have caused the pituitary abscess. The patient was treated with 6weeks of oral metronidazole and intravenous vancomycin. After 6weeks of transsphenoidal resection and just after completion of antibiotic therapy, her headache and bitemporal hemianopsia resolved. However, nocturia and polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus and amenorrhoea from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism persisted. Learning points Pituitary abscesses typically develop in patients who have other sources of infection or disruption of the normal suprasellar anatomy by either surgery, irradiation or pre-existing pathology; however, they can develop in the absence of known risk factors. Patients with pituitary abscesses typically complain of headache, visual changes and symptoms of pituitary hormone deficiencies. As other pituitary neoplasms present with similar clinical findings, the diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often not

  16. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  17. Pituitary stem cells: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Vankelecom, Hugo; Chen, Jianghai

    2014-03-25

    Some 5 years ago, the stem cells of the adult pituitary gland were discovered. Subsequent in-depth characterization revealed expression of several stemness markers and embryo-typical factors. Now, the quest is open to decipher their role in the gland. When and how pituitary stem cells differentiate to contribute to the mature hormone-producing cell populations is not known. New research models support their involvement in cell regeneration after injury in the gland, and suggest a possible role in pituitary tumor formation. From their expression phenotype, pituitary stem cells seem to re-use embryonic developmental programs during the creation of new hormonal cells. Here, we will review the latest progression in the domain of pituitary stem cells, including the uncovering of some new molecular flavors and of the first potential functions. Eventually, we will speculate on their differentiation programs towards hormonal cells, with a particular focus on gonadotropes.

  18. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD.

  19. Somatotroph pituitary tumors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2012-05-01

    A series of 11 pituitary tumors in budgerigars were classified on the basis of their clinical, gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Affected birds were young to middle-aged. Clinically, neurologic signs--including difficulties flying, ataxia, and blindness--were most commonly reported. Additional clinical signs included weight loss, abnormal feathers or molting, increased respiratory efforts, and exophthalmos. Nine birds were diagnosed with chromophobic pituitary adenomas, and 2 birds had chromophobic pituitary carcinomas. Only 1 tumor was delimited to the pituitary gland; the other 10 variably invaded the brain, skull, and retrobulbar space. Distant metastases were identified in 2 birds. All tumors were immunohistochemically strongly positive for growth hormone, consistent with the diagnosis of somatotroph tumors. The common occurrence and early onset may suggest a genetic predisposition of budgerigars to develop somatotroph pituitary tumors with a high incidence of local invasion and with metastatic potential.

  20. Thrombospondin-1 expression in urothelial carcinoma: prognostic significance and association with p53 alterations, tumour angiogenesis and extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    Ioachim, E; Michael, MC; Salmas, M; Damala, K; Tsanou, E; Michael, MM; Malamou-Mitsi, V; Stavropoulos, NE

    2006-01-01

    recurrence and disease progression Conclusion Our data suggest that both tumour and stromal TSP-1 expression may play a role in tumour aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In addition, the correlation of stromal TSP-1 expression with extracellular matrix components fibronectin and tenascin indicate its possible implication in tumour stroma remodeling. PMID:16732887

  1. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, D; Furlong, N J; Wilding, J P H; MacFarlane, I A

    2007-01-01

    Objective Adults with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease have increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the prevalence of CVD and adequacy of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (according to current treatment guidelines) was studied in a large group of patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease. Study design In 2005, 152 consecutive adult patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease attending our neuro‐endocrine centre were clinically examined and blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body composition and smoking status were assessed. Results Of the 152 patients, 36.8% had treated hypertension and 28.2% had treated dyslipidaemia. Many of these patients had inadequate BP control (BP >140/85 mm Hg, 44.6%) and undesirable lipid levels (total cholesterol >4.0 mmol/l, 69%). Also, many of the untreated patients had BP and lipid levels which should have been considered for treatment (26 patients (27%) and 83 patients (76%), respectively). Smoking was admitted in 18% of patients. Central adiposity was present in 86% and obesity (body mass index ⩾30) was present in 50%. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and often inadequately treated in adult patients with hypothalamic‐pituitary disease. Aggressive treatment of these factors is essential to reduce mortality and morbidity from CVD in these patients. PMID:17403957

  2. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Delahunt, Brett; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Algaba, Ferran; Egevad, Lars; Ulbright, Thomas M; Tickoo, Satish K; Srigley, John R; Epstein, Jonathan I; Berney, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    Since the last World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme for tumours of the urinary tract and male genital organs, there have been a number of advances in the understanding, classification, immunohistochemistry and genetics of testicular germ cell tumours. The updated 2016 draft classification was discussed at an International Society of Urological Pathology Consultation on Testicular and Penile Cancer. This review addresses the main updates to germ cell tumour classification. Major changes include a pathogenetically derived classification using germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) as a new name for the precursor lesion, and the distinction of prepubertal tumours (non-GCNIS-derived) from postpubertal-type tumours (GCNIS-derived), acknowledging the existence of rare benign prepubertal-type teratomas in the postpubertal testis. Spermatocytic tumour is adopted as a replacement for spermatocytic seminoma, to avoid potential confusion with the unrelated usual seminoma. The spectrum of trophoblastic tumours arising in the setting of testicular germ cell tumour continues to expand, to include epithelioid and placental site trophoblastic tumours analogous to those of the gynaecological tract. Currently, reporting of anaplasia (seminoma or spermatocytic tumour) or immaturity (teratoma) is not required, as these do not have demonstrable prognostic importance. In contrast, overgrowth of a teratomatous component (somatic-type malignancy) and sarcomatous change in spermatocytic tumour indicate more aggressive behaviour, and should be reported.

  3. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2013-12-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located in the pituitary fossa. In the postnatal individual, the hypothalamus-pituitary axis plays a central role in maintaining homeostatic functions, like control of metabolism, reproduction, and growth. Stem cells are suggested to play a role in the homeostatic adaptations of the adult pituitary gland, such as the rapid specific cell-type expansion in response to pregnancy or lactation. Several cell populations have been suggested as pituitary stem cells, such as Side Population cells and cells expressing Sox2 or Nestin. These cell populations are discussed in this review. Also, stem and progenitor cells are thought to play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis, such as the development of pituitary adenomas in dogs. There are limited reports on the role of stem cells in pituitary adenomas, especially in dogs. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize this cell population and to develop specific cell targeting therapeutic strategies as a new way of treating canine CD.

  4. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presented with primary hypothyroidism and likely had thyrotroph hyperplasia given prompt resolution with thyroxine. The second and third women were diagnosed with pathological gonadotroph hyperplasia due to primary gonadal insufficiency, with histopathological confirmation including gonadal-deficiency cells in the third case where surgery could have been avoided. The fourth woman likely had idiopathic PH, though she had concomitant polycystic ovary syndrome which is a debated cause of PH. Patients suspected of PH should undergo comprehensive hormonal, radiological and sometimes ophthalmological evaluation. This is best conducted by a specialised multidisciplinary team with preference for treatment of underlying conditions and close monitoring over surgical intervention. Learning points Normal pituitary dimensions are influenced by age and gender with the greatest pituitary heights seen in young adults and perimenopausal women.Pituitary enlargement may be seen in the settings of pregnancy, end-organ insufficiency with loss of negative feedback, and excess trophic hormone from the hypothalamus or neuroendocrine tumours.PH may be caused or exacerbated by medications including oestrogen, GNRH analogues and antipsychotics.Management involves identification of cases of idiopathic PH suitable for simple surveillance and reversal of pathological or iatrogenic causes where they exist.Surgery should be avoided in PH as it rarely progresses. PMID:26124954

  5. Virtual endoscopy is a useful device for training and preoperative planning of transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, S; Forster, M-T; Donat, M; Neubauer, A; Bühler, K; Wegenkittl, R; Czech, T; Hainfellner, J A; Knosp, E

    2004-08-01

    Virtual endoscopy (vE) allows simulated three-dimensional (3-D) visualisation of anatomical structures by computerised reconstruction of radiological images. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of vE and its potential benefits for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. vE was realised using a commercially available ray-casting software plugin of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS). For this study, the vE system was enhanced with volume segmentation, transparency and cutting tools. The data for vE were derived from high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans of 22 patients with pituitary pathology (20 pituitary adenomas, 2 Rathke's cleft cysts) preoperatively. Anatomic structures were identified on vE images and compared with the intraoperative endoscopic views. The simulated 3-D vE images were found to be comparable to the intraoperative endoscopic anatomy in terms of distortion and angle of view. vE was found to be particularly useful for the preoperative depiction of 1) the nasal anatomy and its variations for choosing the side of the approach, 2) the sphenoid sinus septae and chambers for improved intraoperative orientation, 3) the transparent 3-D simulated visualisation of the pituitary gland, tumour and adjacent anatomic structures in relation to the sphenoid sinus landmarks for planning the opening of the sellar floor. We conclude that vE harbours the potential to become a valuable tool in endoscopic pituitary surgery for training purposes and preoperative planning. Furthermore, vE may add to the safety of interventions in case of anatomic variations.

  6. Adult supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour presenting as intracranial haemorrhage: Case report.

    PubMed

    Black-Tiong, Sean P; Sandler, Simon J I; Otto, Sophia; Wells, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are highly malignant tumours with an aggressive clinical behaviour. Commonly seen in children, they are uncommon in the adult population, and rare in the supratentorial location. Adult supratentorial PNETs (ST-PNET) typically present with symptoms relating to raised intracranial pressure, seizures, or focal neurological deficits. Presentation with intracranial haemorrhage has been reported only twice before in the literature, one of which was fatal. We report the case of intracranial haemorrhage secondary to ST-PNET in a young adult and her immediate management.

  7. Microsatellite instability in thyroid tumours and tumour-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lazzereschi, D; Palmirotta, R; Ranieri, A; Ottini, L; Verì, M C; Cama, A; Cetta, F; Nardi, F; Colletta, G; Mariani-Costantini, R

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-one thyroid tumours and tumour-like lesions were analysed for instability at ten dinucleotide microsatellite loci and at two coding mononucleotide repeats within the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) type II receptor (TβRII) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptor (IGFIIR) genes respectively. Microsatellite instability (MI) was detected in 11 out of 51 cases (21.5%), including six (11.7%) with MI at one or two loci and five (9.8%) with Ml at three or more loci (RER+ phenotype). No mutations in the TβRII and IGFIIR repeats were observed. The overall frequency of MI did not significantly vary in relation to age, gender, benign versus malignant status and tumour size. However, widespread MI was significantly more frequent in follicular adenomas and carcinomas than in papillary and Hürthle cell tumours: three out of nine tumours of follicular type (33.3%) resulted in replication error positive (RER+), versus 1 out of 29 papillary carcinomas (3.4%, P = 0.01), and zero out of eight Hürthle cell neoplasms. Regional lymph node metastases were present in five MI-negative primary cancers and resulted in MI-positive in two cases. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888478

  8. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  9. Preoperative long-acting octreotide treatment for invasive thyrotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma after previous radioiodine thyroid ablation.

    PubMed

    Gruszka, Anna; Zielinski, Grzegorz M; Kunert-Radek, Jolanta

    2014-02-01

    We report a 33-year-old woman with invasive thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma after previous thyroid ablation with radioiodine who was successfully treated with transsphenoidal surgery after pre-treatment with octreotide-LAR for 10 months. Since invasive and aggressive thyrotropin-secreting macroadenomas are more frequently observed in patients who have undergone thyroid ablation, we suggest preoperative treatment with somatostatin analogs should be considered in these patients to reduce serum thyrotropin and stabilize or reduce tumor size.

  10. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  11. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  12. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  13. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  14. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  15. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  16. Vasoproliferative tumours of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, H.; Bornfeld, N.; Vij, O.; Coupland, S.; Bechrakis, N.; Kellner, U.; Foerster, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Vasoproliferative tumours of the retina (VPTR) are benign tumours of unknown origin, occurring mostly in otherwise healthy patients. VPTR may be associated with other chorioretinal diseases, such as uveitis. The tumours, which histologically represent reactive gliovascular proliferations, are characterised by a pink to yellow appearance on funduscopy and are accompanied by exudative and haemorrhagic changes of the retina.
METHODS—22 cases of VPTR in 21 patients were examined with a follow up period between 1 month and 6 years. Ophthalmological changes associated with VPTR were intraretinal and subretinal exudations (n=18), exudative detachments of the surrounding sensory retina (n=13), intraretinal and subretinal haemorrhages (n=10), exudative changes within the macula (n=10), hyperpigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium at the border of the exudative retinal changes (n=9), and vitreous haemorrhages (n=4). Tumour biopsy was performed in two cases. Treatment consisted of plaque radiotherapy (n=14), plaque radiotherapy and cryotherapy (two), cryotherapy only (two), observation (three), and enucleation in one case of a blind and painful eye.
RESULTS—Regression of the tumour and the associated exudative changes could be observed in all treated cases. Visual acuity at last follow up improved two lines or more in two cases, remained within two lines of the initial visual acuity in 15 cases, and worsened in the remaining five. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens and the tumour of the enucleated eye showed massive capillary proliferation with perivascular spindle-shaped glial cells of retinal origin.
CONCLUSION—The correct diagnosis of VPTR is of importance as these lesions may lead to visual loss. Further, VPTR must be differentiated from angiomas associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease as well as from ocular and systemic malignancies. Regression of tumour thickness and associated retinal changes can be achieved with

  17. Estrogens sensitize anterior pituitary gland to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pisera, D; Candolfi, M; Navarra, S; Ferraris, J; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Castro, M G; Seilicovich, A

    2004-10-01

    Tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and cell death by apoptosis. Estradiol affects proliferation as well as apoptosis in hormone-dependent tissues. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were chronically estrogenized with implanted Silastic capsules containing 1 mg of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Cycling or OVX and E2-treated rats were injected with LPS (250 microg/rat ip). Apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in sections of the anterior pituitary gland and spleen. Chronic estrogenization induced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Acute endotoxemia triggered apoptosis of cells in the anterior pituitary gland of E2-treated rats but not of OVX rats. No differences were observed in the apoptotic response to LPS in spleen between OVX and E2-treated rats. The apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary to LPS was variable along the estrous cycle, being higher at proestrus than at estrus or diestrus I. Approximately 75% of the apoptotic cells were identified as lactotropes by immunofluorescence. In conclusion, our results indicate that estradiol induces apoptosis and enables the proapoptotic action of LPS in the anterior pituitary gland. Also, our study suggests that estrogens may be involved in anterior pituitary cell renewal during the estrous cycle, sensitizing lactotropes to proapoptotic stimuli.

  18. A case of pituitary apoplexy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Davies, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pituitary apoplexy is a rare event in pregnancy. A 41-year-old woman with a known pituitary microadenoma presented with visual disturbance and headache during the second trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated pituitary apoplexy with chiasmal compression. After treatment with corticosteroid therapy, she underwent transsphenoidal excision of the pituitary adenoma. Visual abnormalities were completely restored and pituitary function preserved. There was no evidence of impact on the foetus. The literature on the subject is reviewed with emphasis on the management of the apoplectic patient with mild and stable neuro-ophthalmological signs. Learning points There are no clear guidelines on the management of pituitary apoplexy in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach can minimise morbidity and mortality.Pituitary apoplexy has an unpredictable clinical course and determining which clinical situations warrant early surgery needs to take into consideration the presence and severity of neurological signs and their stability.The management of conscious apoplectic patients with absent or mild and stable neuro-ophthalmological signs is controversial. PMID:25031837

  19. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  20. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  1. Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2011-01-01

    Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development. PMID:21976722

  2. Significance and therapeutic implications of endothelial progenitor cells in angiogenic-mediated tumour metastasis.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Valentina; Jiang, Wen G; Lane, Jane; Cui, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Cancer conveys profound social and economic consequences throughout the world. Metastasis is responsible for approximately 90% of cancer-associated mortality and, when it occurs, cancer becomes almost incurable. During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells pass through a series of complex steps including the establishment of tumour-associated angiogenesis. The human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) are a cell population derived from the bone marrow which are required for endothelial tubulogenesis and neovascularization. They also express abundant inflammatory cytokines and paracrine angiogenic factors. Clinically hEPCs are highly correlated with relapse, disease progression, metastasis and treatment response in malignancies such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. It has become evident that the hEPCs are involved in the angiogenesis-required progression and metastasis of tumours. However, it is not clear in what way the signalling pathways, controlling the normal cellular function of human BM-derived EPCs, are hijacked by aggressive tumour cells to facilitate tumour metastasis. In addition, the actual roles of hEPCs in tumour angiogenesis-mediated metastasis are not well characterised. In this paper we reviewed the clinical relevance of the hEPCs with cancer diagnosis, progression and prognosis. We further summarised the effects of tumour microenvironment on the hEPCs and underlying mechanisms. We also hypothesized the roles of altered hEPCs in tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. We hope this review may enhance our understanding of the interaction between hEPCs and tumour cells thus aiding the development of cellular-targeted anti-tumour therapies.

  3. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  4. Neonatal haemochromatosis with reversible pituitary involvement.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Giuseppe; Bèrczes, Rita; Pelliccioli, Isabella; Bosisio, Michela; Agostinis, Cristina; Resti, Massimo; Zambelli, Marco; Lucianetti, Alessandro; Colledan, Michele; D'Antiga, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal haemochromatosis is a rare alloimmune gestational disease with a high mortality. The hallmark of neonatal haemochromatosis is severe neonatal liver failure associated with extrahepatic siderosis. Thus far, no pituitary dysfunction has been reported to result from the tissue damage associated with extrahepatic siderosis. The present report describes a neonate with neonatal haemochromatosis and secondary hypothyroidism associated with pituitary iron deposition. Both the conditions were successfully treated by ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. Pituitary gland dysfunction is another possible extrahepatic manifestation of neonatal haemochromatosis, and it is reversible after liver transplantation.

  5. Breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Julia Fragoso; Bacchin, Renata Prota; Costa, Priscila Scatena; Alves, Gisele Malavazi; Fraige Filho, Fadlo; Stella, Lenira Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic tumors to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor. Prognosis of patients with breast cancer metastasis is poor and depends on the primary neoplastic extension. We report a 54 year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the pituitary stalk first diagnosed because of visual disturbance with no other symptoms. Pituitary gland stalk metastasis is a very uncommon find and this case report includes a literature review.

  6. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    PubMed

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  7. Postirradiation sarcomatous transformation of a pituitary adenoma: a combined pituitary tumor. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Pieterse, S.; Dinning, T.A.; Blumbergs, P.C.

    1982-02-01

    A case is reported in which a fibrosarcoma developed 20 years after irradiation of a pituitary chromophobe adenoma. This rare lesion, like most of the other documented postirradiation pituitary sarcomas, was a combination of fibrosarcoma and pituitary adenoma. These lesions tend to behave in a characteristic fashion, with onset after a long latent interval following irradiation, growth to a large size, and failure to metastasize.

  8. Radiotherapy alone for local tumour control in esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Benfari, G; Fusconi, M; Ciofalo, A; Gallo, A; Altissimi, G; Celani, T; De Vincentiis, M

    2008-12-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour. Due to its low incidence, this neoplasm is difficult to evaluate and its treatment remains a matter of debate. Although the role of post-operative radiation is relatively well-defined, little is reported regarding the role of radiotherapy as the only treatment modality. A retrospective analysis of the literature has been conducted. With reference to the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma, 55 patients submitted only to radiotherapy have been selected from publications of internationally indexed literature between 1979 and 2006. According to the Kadish classification, 6 patients were in stage A, 12 in stage B, and 37 in stage C. Response to therapy for each stage was assessed. There was no evidence of disease in: 6/6 stage A patients with a median follow-up period of 103.6 months, 7/12 stage B patients with a median followup period of 120 months, and 7/37 stage C patients with a median follow-up period of 77.3 months. A total of 27 patients died due to tumour-related causes and 5 due to intercurrent disease, while 3 patients were alive with disease (local recurrence and cervical lymph node metastasis). In conclusion, esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant tumour which grows both locoregionally and distantly. For this reason, despite the satisfying results regarding response to radiotherapy alone in stage A patients, irradiation should be used only in early lesions arising below the cribriform plate, whereas all other cases require aggressive and multimodal therapy.

  9. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  10. Tumour-associated eosinophilia in the bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D; Fletcher, C D; Gower, R L

    1984-01-01

    Tumour eosinophilia is an uncommon but striking phenomenon which has been found in many tumours, mostly of large cell type or squamous differentiation. The incidence, appearance and importance of tumour eosinophilia in the bladder are described. Eosinophilia is commoner in deeply invasive tumours and in tumours showing squamous metaplasia. Transitional cell carcinomas with eosinophilia have a better prognosis than those without, but this improvement is not seen in squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder. When eosinophilia is found on superficial biopsies of a bladder tumour, the possibility of muscle invasion should be considered. PMID:6725595

  11. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  12. Pituitary apoplexy causing spontaneous remission of acromegaly following long-acting octreotide therapy: a rare drug side effect or just a coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is characterized by abrupt onset of haemorrhage or non-haemorrhagic infarction of a pituitary adenoma. The clinical features include acute onset severe headache, visual field defects, meningeal irritation, ophthalmoplegia and hypopituitarism. The pituitary apoplexy may be clinically silent in ∼25% of patients. We report a case of acromegaly due to pituitary macroadenoma. The patient was started on long-acting octreotide therapy. On 3-month follow-up, the patient showed clinical and biochemical remission and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed subclinical haemorrhage and resolution of tumour. The octreotide therapy was stopped. On 6-month follow-up, the patient was still in remission and the MRI of brain revealed non-enhancing mixed intensities haemorrhagic and cystic areas of the pituitary gland. In our patient, whether spontaneous remission of acromegaly due to subclinical pituitary haemorrhage was coincidental or due to long-acting octreotide therapy is still a dilemma. We report this case because of rarity and clinical importance of this unusual occurrence. PMID:27123308

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, T H; Amin, M R; Bashar, M A; Ahmed, Z; Matin, A; Hasan, G Z; Islam, M D; Hossain, M Z

    2011-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour in infancy is rare, mainly benign with little tendency to recur after excision or effective curettage. This pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin occurring in infants before 1 year of age. The most common site of occurrence is the anterior maxillary alveolar ridge (70%), following by the skull, brain and mandible. The genital organ is the most frequent extra cranial site. We report a 6 months old male baby with a similar tumour arising from right half of cheek involving the maxilla. We diagnosed the case after histological report. We remove the tumour through a sub-labial incision. The mass was blackish in colour, and was mobilized from all side including from the maxillary sinuses. The author thought that this should be reported for improving the clinical awareness and treatment of pigmented soft tissue mass in children. Almost one year follow up of the patients showed no recurrence.

  14. PHD2 in tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, D A; Giaccia, A J

    2010-01-01

    Originally identified as the enzymes responsible for catalysing the oxidation of specific, conserved proline residues within hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), the additional roles for the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins have remained elusive. Of the four identified PHD enzymes, PHD2 is considered to be the key oxygen sensor, as knockdown of PHD2 results in elevated HIF protein. Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of PHD2 in tumourigenesis. However, there is conflicting evidence as to the exact role of PHD2 in tumour angiogenesis. The divergence seems to be because of the contribution of stromal-derived PHD2, and in particular the involvement of endothelial cells, vs tumour-derived PHD2. This review summarises our current understanding of PHD2 and tumour angiogenesis, focusing on the influences of PHD2 on vascular normalisation and neovascularisation. PMID:20461086

  15. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  16. Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in neuroleptic treated patients with psychotic disorder.

    PubMed

    Melkersson, K; Hulting, A L

    2000-01-01

    Three patients with psychoses and concomitant prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours are described. Patients A and B had bipolar and schizoaffective disorders, respectively. They had both been treated with neuroleptics for 20 years before the prolactinomas were revealed. Patient C developed a paranoid psychosis after two years of continuous bromocriptine treatment for a pituitary tumour. In patient A the prolactin level was successfully normalized and a good antipsychotic effect was maintained by combined therapy with haloperidol and quinagolide but not bromocriptine. In patient B the prolactinoma was removed by surgery, in view of the serious nature of the psychotic disorder, to avoid psychotic relapse by treatment with a dopamine agonist. In patient C a good result was obtained with the combination of clozapine and bromocriptine. These case reports support the view that neuroleptics being dopamine antagonists and dopamine agonistic agents which are the primary treatment of prolactinomas can cancel out each other's effects. The combination of clozapine and quinagolide is recommended as the treatment of choice for most patients.

  17. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Ora, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

  18. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  19. Vanishing Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stepanyan, Hayk; Payne, Russell; Ouyang, Tao; Zacharia, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar lesions in adults and are typically managed surgically through transsphenoidal resection when symptomatic. Due to their close proximity to the optic chiasm, pituitary macroadenomas often present with signs of bitemporal hemianopsia. Alternatively, these tumors can cause mass effect, thus presenting with signs of elevated intracranial pressure or can present with signs and symptoms of endocrine dysfunction. Here, we discuss a 55-year-old male diagnosed with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPA) based on cranial imaging, ophthalmologic exam, and endocrine evaluation. Following diagnosis, the patient was scheduled for transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done three and half months later for surgical planning, the tumor had almost completely regressed and only residual pituitary tissue was noted. We describe the presentation and clinical course of the patient, summarize chief differential diagnoses, and discuss potential managements of these conditions. PMID:27900232

  20. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and ...

  1. Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol (/sup 3/H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. /sup 3/HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. /sup 3/HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas.

  2. Clinical analysis of infarction in pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Deyong; Wang, Shousen; Huang, Yinxing; Zhao, Lin; Wei, Liangfeng; Ding, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study is to summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment and prognosis of pituitary apoplexy caused by ischemic infarction. Methods: From January 2010 to March 2014, 412 patients with pituitary adenoma were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery at Fuzhou General Hospital, with 9 cases being diagnosed with ischemic infarction stroke. Imaging examinations were performed, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pituitary adenomas were evaluated according to suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior and posterior classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used for identifying pituitary adenoma. Results: Tumor height was 1.3-3.3 cm, with an average of 2.27 cm. Eight patients had typical clinical stroke symptoms. Preoperatively, high blood growth hormone concentration was presented in 6 cases, full hypopituitarism in 2 cases, dysfunction of corticosteroids and gonads in 4 cases, and single gonadal dysfunction in 2 cases. Ring enhancement was presented in 8 cases on constructed computed tomography or magnetic resonance images, and sellar settlement in 7 cases. Eight patients were conducted with transsphenoidal resection, and secondary transsphenoidal after craniotomy in 1 case. During surgery, poor tumor blood supply was found in 7 cases, cheese-like or tofu-like necrotic tissues in 5 cases, and few dark blood clots in 2 cases. Conclusions: Pituitary ischemic infarction stroke is clinically rare, but can be correctly diagnosed before surgery by imaging examinations. The pathological characteristics of the tumor are necrosis and fibrosis, which are easy for resection. Therefore, pituitary adenoma usually has good prognosis. PMID:26221291

  3. Pharmacokinetic and anti-cancer properties of high dose ascorbate in solid tumours of ascorbate-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet C M; Wohlrab, Christina; Hicks, Kevin O; Strother, R Matthew; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Robinson, Bridget A; Dachs, Gabi U

    2016-10-01

    Despite recent evidence for an anti-tumour role for high-dose ascorbate, potential mechanisms of action are still unclear. At mM concentrations that are achieved with high-dose intravenous administration, autoxidation of ascorbate can generate cytotoxic levels of H2O2. Ascorbate is also a required co-factor for the hydroxylases that suppress the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). HIF-1 supports an aggressive tumour phenotype and is associated with poor prognosis, and previous studies have shown that optimizing intracellular ascorbate levels down-regulates HIF-1 activation. In this study we have simultaneously measured ascorbate concentrations and the HIF-1 pathway activity in tumour tissue following high dose ascorbate administration, and have studied tumour growth and physiology. Gulo(-/-) mice, a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition, were implanted with syngeneic Lewis lung tumours, 1g/kg ascorbate was administered into the peritoneum, and ascorbate concentrations were monitored in plasma, liver and tumours. Ascorbate levels peaked within 30min, and although plasma and liver ascorbate returned to baseline within 16h, tumour levels remained elevated for 48h, possibly reflecting increased stability in the hypoxic tumour environment. The expression of HIF-1 and its target proteins was down-regulated with tumour ascorbate uptake. Elevated tumour ascorbate levels could be maintained with daily administration, and HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor protein levels were reduced in these conditions. Increased tumour ascorbate was associated with slowed tumour growth, reduced tumour microvessel density and decreased hypoxia. Alternate day administration of ascorbate resulted in lower tumour levels and did not consistently decrease HIF-1 pathway activity. Levels of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters 1 and 2 were not clearly associated with ascorbate accumulation by murine tumour cells in vitro or in vivo. Our results support

  4. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  5. Effect of fluoxetine on blood concentrations of serotonin, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, B; García-Belenguer, S; León, M; Chacón, G; Villegas, A; Palacio, J

    2011-10-01

    Canine aggression directed towards people is the most frequent reason for referral to behaviour practices. The serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are believed to play an important role in controlling aggression. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is the most commonly used drug in canine aggression. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a 30-day-long fluoxetine treatment on the peripheral serotonergic system and the HPA axis in canine aggression. To this end, the concentrations of serum serotonin (5-HT) and plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were analysed in a group of aggressive (n = 22) and nonaggressive dogs (n = 9) during pre- (day 0) and posttreatment (day 30) conditions. Treatment caused a significant decrease in 5-HT concentrations (46% in the aggressive group and 32% in the control group). There was a trend towards a rise of DHEA/cortisol ratio values after treatment both in the aggressive and the control group. The determination of blood 5-HT and the DHEA/cortisol ratio could have important clinical applications in the future for deciding which animals might benefit from a given treatment as well as for monitoring the response. Further large-scale studies with this aim should be carried out to obtain sound conclusions.

  6. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour: report of two cases mimicking neurofibroma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mishra, Sudhansu; Mishra, Sanjib; Deo, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are a rare entity. Most of them occur in children and young adults. To date, 47 cases of primary spinal PNET have been reported in the literature. We present two cases of primary spinal PNET. In both cases, the tumours were thoracic extradural ones with intrathoracic extension through intervertebral foramina resembling neurofibroma. These tumours are highly aggressive with rapid growth as evidenced by the short history in both of our cases. Both cases underwent gross total removal of the intraspinal and thoracic components. Postoperatively, both patients underwent cranio-spinal radiotherapy. A review of the literature shows that the overall prognosis of PNETs of the spinal cord is very poor even with adequate surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One patient died after 4 months and the other one is still alive 8 months after surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  7. Primary brain tumours in adults.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Damien; Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Lahutte, Marion; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2012-05-26

    Important advances have been made in the understanding and management of adult gliomas and primary CNS lymphomas--the two most common primary brain tumours. Progress in imaging has led to a better analysis of the nature and grade of these tumours. Findings from large phase 3 studies have yielded some standard treatments for gliomas, and have confirmed the prognostic value of specific molecular alterations. High-throughput methods that enable genome-wide analysis of tumours have improved the knowledge of tumour biology, which should lead to a better classification of gliomas and pave the way for so-called targeted therapy trials. Primary CNS lymphomas are a group of rare non-Hodgkin lymphomas. High-dose methotrexate-based regimens increase survival, but the standards of care and the place of whole-brain radiotherapy remain unclear, and are likely to depend on the age of the patient. The focus now is on the development of new polychemotherapy regimens to reduce or defer whole-brain radiotherapy and its delayed complications.

  8. Localization of carboxyl ester lipase in human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Vigetti, Davide; Placidi, Claudia; Finzi, Giovanna; Uccella, Silvia; Clerici, Moira; Bartolini, Barbara; Carnevali, Ileana; Losa, Marco; Capella, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes a wide variety of lipid substrates, including ceramides, which are known to show inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion in experimental models. Because no studies on CEL expression in human pituitary and pituitary adenomas have been reported in the literature, we investigated CEL expression in 10 normal pituitary glands and 86 well-characterized pituitary adenomas [12 FSH/LH cell, 17 α-subunit/null cell, 6 TSH cell, 21 ACTH cell, 11 prolactin (PRL) cell, and 19 GH cell adenomas] using IHC, immunoelectron microscopy, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR. In normal adenohypophysis, CEL was localized in GH, ACTH, and TSH cells. In adenomas, it was mainly found in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH tumors, whereas its expression was poor in the corresponding silent adenomas and was lacking in FSH/LH cell, null cell, and PRL cell adenomas. Ultrastructurally, CEL was localized in secretory granules close to their membranes. This is the first study demonstrating CEL expression in normal human pituitary glands and in functioning GH, ACTH, and TSH adenomas. Considering that CEL hydrolyzes ceramides, inactivating their inhibitory function on pituitary hormone secretion, our findings suggest a possible role of CEL in the regulation of hormone secretion in both normal and adenomatous pituitary cells.

  9. Etiology, prognosis, and management of secondary pituitary abscesses forming in underlying pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ahmed J; Rowland, Nathan Christopher; Mian, Matthew; Hiniker, Annie; Tate, Matthew; Aghi, Manish Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Pituitary abscesses occurring in pre-existing pituitary pathology like Rathke's cleft cyst or adenomas (secondary pituitary abscesses) are rare and of unclear etiology. While surgery and antibiotics have been effective in some cases reported to date, leading to the suggestion that secondary pituitary abscesses are mostly indolent, we investigated the hypothesis that infected adenomas, given their propensity to invade the paranasal sinuses and subarachnoid space, could carry a worse prognosis than uninfected adenomas or secondary abscesses forming in other pituitary pathologies. We identified infected adenomas from our center through retrospective review. Given the rarity of this diagnosis at any single center, we also reviewed published cases of secondary pituitary abscesses occurring in pituitary adenomas to look for common features. Twenty-three cases (19 from the literature and four from our center) of infected adenomas were identified. The mean age at presentation was 46 years, with 65 % male. The most common presenting symptoms were visual disturbances (83 %) and headache (65 %), followed by infectious signs like fever (39 %) and meningitis (26 %). The sphenoidal sinus was the most common site of extrasellar invasion. While good outcome occurred in 74 % of patients, and most achieved vision improvement, the mortality was 26 %. Patients with infected pituitary adenomas commonly present with visual disturbances and headache, with symptoms of infection also occurring. Surgery and antibiotics are indicated for these lesions. While the infection is more indolent than other intracranial abscesses, it is associated with high mortality even after prompt operation and antibiotic treatment.

  10. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, glucose metabolism and TNF-α in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Keckeis, Marietta; Lattová, Zuzana; Kemlink, David; Wetter, Thomas-Christian; Schuld, Andreas; Sonka, Karel; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a deficiency in the production of hypocretin/orexin, which regulates sleep and wakefulness, and also influences appetite, neuroendocrine functions and metabolism. In this case-control study, 11 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and 11 healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. The average age of patients and controls was 35.1 ± 13.2 and 41.0 ± 2.9 years, respectively, body mass index was 28.1 ± 6.6 and 25.5 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) . We did not find evidence of a significantly increased prevalence of disturbed glucose tolerance in patients with narcolepsy. After hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, the number of non-suppressors did not differ between the groups, indicating normal negative feedback sensitivity. The level of cortisol after dexamethasone suppression was significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy, suggesting a slight basal downregulation and/or a slightly increased negative feedback sensitivity of the major endocrine stress system in narcolepsy. Following corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation, there were no significant differences in levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone or cortisol, and in adrenocortical responsivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Finally, patients with narcolepsy displayed significantly higher plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p55, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p75 and interleukin 6 after adjustment for body mass index. The present study confirms that narcolepsy by itself is not associated with disturbances of glucose metabolism, but goes along with a subtle dysregulation of inflammatory cytokine production. We also found that dynamic hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system response is not altered, whereas negative feedback to dexamethasone might be slightly enhanced.

  11. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE); a rare association with phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R N; Phaujdar, Sibaji; Banerjee, Siwalik; Siddhanta, Sattik; De, Dibyendu; Bhattachary, Kuntal; Pal, Hare Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare entity mainly found in elderly males. It is characterized by pitting edema mainly of dorsum of both hands giving a "boxing glove hand" appearance; rarely involving feet also, acute in onset, negative rheumatoid factor and a good response to low dose corticosteroid therapy. Clinically it almost resembles a case of polymyalgia rheumatica, late onset rheumatoid arthritis or other seronegative spondyloarthropathy.Though there are multiple underlying factors causing this rare entity but it has very close associations with many malignancies.So far its association with solid tumours and hematological malignancies has been reported. Phyllodes tumour of breast shows wide spectrum of activity from a benign condition to a locally aggressive and sometimes metastatic tumour.One fourth of the cases recur after definitive treatment.Our case represent an unusual association with recurrent phyllodes tumour of breast with RS3PE.

  12. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen1, G. F.; Chen, Y. Z.; Ren, G. X.

    2006-10-01

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  13. 'Primary extrarenal Wilms' tumour': rare presentation of a common paediatric tumour.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vandana; Verma, Amit Kumar; Batra, Vineeta; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2014-06-06

    Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma), the most common abdominal malignancy of childhood, occurs primarily as a malignant renal tumour. Extrarenal Wilms' tumour is rare with occasional reports from the Indian subcontinent. The various locations of extrarenal Wilms' tumour include retroperitoneum, uterus, skin and thorax. In this report we will discuss the imaging features highlighting the imaging differential diagnosis in a case of retroperitoneal (extrarenal) primary Wilms' tumour.

  14. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis: clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the anatomy of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the somatotrophic axis, and neurohypophysis.

  15. Mice with inactivation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (Aip) display complete penetrance of pituitary adenomas with aberrant ARNT expression.

    PubMed

    Raitila, Anniina; Lehtonen, Heli J; Arola, Johanna; Heliövaara, Elina; Ahlsten, Manuel; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Jalanko, Anu; Paetau, Anders; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Karhu, Auli

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene have been shown to predispose to pituitary adenoma predisposition, a condition characterized by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors. To study AIP-mediated tumorigenesis, we generated an Aip mouse model. Heterozygous mice developed normally but were prone to pituitary adenomas, in particular to those secreting GH. A complete loss of AIP was detected in these lesions, and full penetrance was reached at the age of 15 months. No excess of any other tumor type was found. Ki-67 analysis indicated that Aip-deficient tumors have higher proliferation rates compared with Aip-proficient tumors, suggesting a more aggressive disease. Similar to human AIP-deficient pituitary adenomas, immunohistochemical studies showed that expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 or 2 (ARNT or ARNT2) protein was lost in the mouse tumors, suggesting that mechanisms of AIP-related tumorigenesis involve aberrant ARNT function. The Aip(+/-) mouse appears to be an excellent model for the respective human disease phenotype. This model constitutes a tool to further study AIP-associated pituitary tumorigenesis and may be potentially valuable in efforts to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pituitary adenomas.

  16. Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, T; Varsier, N; Kikuchi, Y; Wake, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N

    2008-02-12

    In a case-control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR values were below 0.1 W kg(-1), far lower than the level at which thermal effects may occur, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for regular mobile phone users being 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-2.37) for glioma and 0.70 (0.42-1.16) for meningioma. When the maximal SAR value inside the tumour tissue was accounted for in the exposure indices, the overall OR was again not increased and there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to SAR-derived exposure indices. A non-significant increase in OR among glioma patients in the heavily exposed group may reflect recall bias.

  17. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  18. Isolation of inflammatory cells from human tumours.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marta E

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory cells are present in many tumours, and understanding their function is of increasing importance, particularly to studies of tumour immunology. The tumour-infiltrating leukocytes encompass a variety of cell types, e.g. T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and mast cells. Choice of the isolation method greatly depends on the tumour type and the leukocyte subset of interest, but the protocol usually includes tissue disaggregation and cell enrichment. We recommend density centrifugation for initial enrichment, followed by specific magnetic bead negative or positive panning with leukocyte and tumour cell selective antibodies.

  19. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  20. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  1. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  2. The trans-sphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas in elderly patients and surgical risk.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, M; Bertani, G; Carrabba, G; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Caroli, M; Sala, E; Ferrante, E; Gaini, S M; Spada, A; Mantovani, G; Lania, A

    2013-06-01

    In western countries, the process of "ageing of the population" is increasingly forcing clinical medicine to find answers for pathologies affecting the elder segments of our community. In this respect, pituitary adenomas often raise difficult questions on surgical indications, since little is known about postoperative morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS), which is considered the gold standard for surgical resection of the majority of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas, is supposed to be a low morbidity and mortality procedure in adult patients. However, only a few contradicting data are available in the literature about elderly patients. In this paper we retrospectively analyze a cohort of 43 consecutive patients aged more than 65 years, operated on for pituitary adenomas at our Institution in the years 1998-2007. These patients were treated by transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS) for resection of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 31), GH-secreting adenomas (n = 4) and ACTH-secreting adenomas (n = 8). Clinical records reported a macroadenoma with tumour-related mass symptoms in about 80 % of patients; single or multiple pituitary deficits were present in 44 % of patients. Regarding comorbidities, cardiac disease was the most frequently observed (86 %); assessment of anaesthesiological risk indicated a moderate to severe ASA score in most patients, 11 % showing a 4-5 score. On the basis of current criteria, our retrospective analysis revealed that cure was achieved in 54 % of patients. The outcome was similar to that observed in the general population of patients undergoing transphenoidal surgery in our centre, without differences in the rate of surgical and endocrinological cure, minor and major surgical complications and hospitalization duration. In particular, no significant anaesthesiological complications were observed and no patient developed either permanent diabetes

  3. The anterior pituitary gland: lessons from livestock.

    PubMed

    Scanes, C G; Jeftinija, S; Glavaski-Joksimovic, A; Proudman, J; Arámburo, C; Anderson, L L

    2005-07-01

    There has been extensive research of the anterior pituitary gland of livestock and poultry due to the economic (agricultural) importance of physiological processes controlled by it including reproduction, growth, lactation and stress. Moreover, farm animals can be biomedical models or useful in evolutionary/ecological research. There are for multiple sites of control of the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. These include the potential for independent control of proliferation, differentiation, de-differentiation and/or inter-conversion cell death, expression and translation, post-translational modification (potentially generating multiple isoforms with potentially different biological activities), release with or without a specific binding protein and intra-cellular catabolism (proteolysis) of pituitary hormones. Multiple hypothalamic hypophysiotropic peptides (which may also be produced peripherally, e.g. ghrelin) influence the secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones. There is also feedback for hormones from the target endocrine glands. These control mechanisms show broadly a consistency across species and life stages; however, there are some marked differences. Examples from growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone will be considered. In addition, attention will be focused on areas that have been neglected including the role of stellate cells, multiple sub-types of the major adenohypophyseal cells, functional zonation within the anterior pituitary and the role of multiple secretagogues for single hormones.

  4. Stellate Cell Networks in the Teleost Pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Matan; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    The folliculostellate cells of the mammalian pituitary are non-endocrine cells that are implicated in long-distance communication and paracrine signaling, but to date, these cells have yet to be characterized in teleosts. We found that the stellate cells of the teleost pituitary share many common attributes with mammalian folliculostellate cells. By labeling of stellate cells in live preparations of tilapia pituitaries we investigated their distribution, association with other endocrine cells and their anatomical and functional coupling. In the pars intermedia, stellate cells were arranged around neuronal bundles and their processes extended into the pars distalis. Within the pars distalis, stellate cells formed close associations with FSH cells and, to a lesser degree, with GH and LH cells, suggesting differential paracrine regulation of the two gonadotrope populations. The production of follistatin by stellate cells further corroborates the notion of a paracrine role on FSH release. We also found stellate cells to form gap junctions that enabled dye transfer to neighboring stellate cells, implicating that these cells form a large-scale network that connects distant parts of the pituitary. Our findings represent the first wide-scale study of stellate cells in teleosts and provide valuable information regarding their functional roles in pituitary function. PMID:27086978

  5. The retinoblastoma gene in human pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, V.L.; Arnold, A.; Alexander, J.M.; Klibanski, A. )

    1993-09-01

    Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is important in the pathogenesis of many human tumors. Recently, the frequent occurrence of pituitary tumors was reported in mice genetically engineered to have one defective RB allele, a genetic background analogous to that of patients with familial retinoblastoma. The molecular pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors is largely unknown, and the potential role of RB gene inactivation in these neoplasms has not been examined. Consequently, the authors studied 20 human pituitary tumors (12 clinically nonfunctioning tumors, 4 somatotroph adenomas, 2 prolactinomas, and 2 corticotrophy adenomas) for tumor-specific allelic loss of the RB gene using a highly informative polymorphic locus within the gene. Control leukocyte DNA samples from 18 of these 20 patients were heterozygous at this locus, permitting genetic evaluation of their paired tumor specimens. In contrast to the pituitary tumors in the mouse model, none of these 18 human tumors exhibited RB allelic loss. These findings indicate that RB gene inactivation probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of common types of human pituitary tumors. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Pituitary function in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Uitz, P M; Hartleb, S; Schaefer, S; Al-Fakhri, N; Kann, P H

    2013-01-01

    Haemochromatosis may impair the function of endocrine organs, amongst others the pituitary gland. It was the aim of this study to determine pituitary function in adult patients with genetically defined hereditary haemochromatosis in a prospective diagnostic study using a standardised stimulation test. Therefore, 22 patients (7 females, 15 males; age at diagnosis of haemochromatosis 48.1 ± 7.9 years; age at study inclusion 50.7 ± 7.7 years) with genetically defined hereditary haemochromatosis were investigated by a combined pituitary stimulation test (CRH, GHRH/arginine, GnRH, TRH). In 11 patients (50% of the study population; 2 females, 9 males), pituitary insufficiencies were detected [isolated corticotrophic insufficiency (peak cortisol < 181.25 μg/l/500 nmol/l) n=10 (2 females, 8 males); combined corticotrophic and borderline gonadotrophic insufficiency (basal testosterone 2.4-3.0 μg/l without basal LH-elevation) in 1 male]. Somatotrophic pituitary insufficiencies were not found. IFG-1 concentrations below -2 standard deviations in 7 patients (32%) may be attributed to impaired hepatic IGF-1 synthesis. Hypopituitarism, particularly corticotrophic insufficiency, seems to be prevalent in a considerable number of middle-aged patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. Despite normal somatotrophic function, low IGF-1 serum concentrations may be found in a subgroup of haemochromatosis patients.

  7. Endogenous pacemaker activity of rat tumour somatotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Renata; Robert, Christophe; Cannon, Robert; Vigues, Stephan; Arnoux, Annie; Kordon, Claude; Hammond, Constance

    1998-01-01

    Cells derived from a rat pituitary tumour (GC cell line) that continuously release growth hormone behave as endogenous pacemakers. In simultaneous patch clamp recordings and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) imaging, they displayed rhythmic action potentials (44.7 ± 2.7 mV, 178 ± 40 ms, 0.30 ± 0.04 Hz) and concomitant [Ca2+]i transients (374 ± 57 nM, 1.0 ± 0.2 s, 0.27 ± 0.03 Hz). Action potentials and [Ca2+]i transients were reversibly blocked by removal of external Ca2+, addition of nifedipine (1 μM) or Ni2+ (40 μM), but were insensitive to TTX (1 μM). An L-type Ca2+ current activated at -33.6 ± 0.4 mV (holding potential (Vh), −40 mV), peaked at -1.8 ± 1.3 mV, was reduced by nifedipine and enhanced by S-(+)-SDZ 202 791. A T/R-type Ca2+ current activated at -41.7 ± 2.7 mV (Vh, -80 or -60 mV), peaked at -9.2 ± 3.0 mV, was reduced by low concentrations of Ni2+ (40 μM) or Cd2+ (10 μM) and was toxin resistant. Parallel experiments revealed the expression of the class E calcium channel α1-subunit mRNA. The K+ channel blockers TEA (25 mM) and charybdotoxin (10–100 nM) enhanced spike amplitude and/or duration. Apamin (100 nM) also strongly reduced the after-spike hyperpolarization. The outward K+ tail current evoked by a depolarizing step that mimicked an action potential reversed at −69.8 ± 0.3 mV, presented two components, lasted 2–3 s and was totally blocked by Cd2+ (400 μM). The slow pacemaker depolarization (3.5 ± 0.4 s) that separated consecutive spikes corresponded to a 2- to 3-fold increase in membrane resistance, was strongly Na+ sensitive but TTX insensitive. Computer simulations showed that pacemaker activity can be reproduced by a minimum of six currents: an L-type Ca2+ current underlies the rising phase of action potentials that are repolarized by a delayed rectifier and Ca2+-activated K+ currents. In between spikes, the decay of Ca2+-activated K+ currents and a persistent inward cationic current depolarize the membrane

  8. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  9. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    PubMed Central

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27738402

  10. A novel brain tumour model in zebrafish reveals the role of YAP activation in MAPK- and PI3K-induced malignant growth

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Marie; Gourain, Victor; Reischl, Markus; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Benelli, Matteo; Demichelis, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Sieger, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Somatic mutations activating MAPK and PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumours based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK and PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells and found that HRASV12 was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho (p)-ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component. Application of an eight-gene signature to human brain tumours establishes that YAP activation distinguishes between mesenchymal glioblastoma and low grade glioma in a wide The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sample set including gliomas and glioblastomas (GBMs). This suggests that the activation of YAP might be an important event in brain tumour development, promoting malignant versus benign brain lesions. Indeed, co-expression of dominant-active YAP (YAPS5A) and HRASV12 abolishes the development of heterotopias and leads to the sole development of aggressive tumours. Thus, we have developed a model proving that neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours might originate from the same activation of oncogenes through somatic mutations, and established that YAP activation is a hallmark of malignant brain tumours. PMID:27935819

  11. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front.

  12. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  13. Notch as a tumour suppressor.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Craig S; Radtke, Freddy

    2017-03-01

    The Notch signalling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that has a crucial role in regulating development and homeostasis in various tissues. The cellular processes and events that it controls are diverse, and continued investigation over recent decades has revealed how the role of Notch signalling is multifaceted and highly context dependent. Consistent with the far-reaching impact that Notch has on development and homeostasis, aberrant activity of the pathway is also linked to the initiation and progression of several malignancies, and Notch can in fact be either oncogenic or tumour suppressive depending on the tissue and cellular context. The Notch pathway therefore represents an important target for therapeutic agents designed to treat many types of cancer. In this Review, we focus on the latest developments relating specifically to the tumour-suppressor activity of Notch signalling and discuss the potential mechanisms by which Notch can inhibit carcinogenesis in various tissues. Potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or augmenting Notch-mediated tumour suppression will also be highlighted.

  14. New frontiers for astrocytic tumours.

    PubMed

    Nano, Rosanna; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio; Paolini, Alessandro; Pasi, Francesca; Corbella, Franco; DI Liberto, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumour, remains an unsolved clinical problem. A great deal of work has been done in an effort to understand the biology and genetics of glioblastoma multiforme, but clinically effective treatments remain elusive. It is well known that malignant gliomas develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In this review we evaluated the literature data regarding therapeutic progress for the treatment of astrocytic tumours, focusing our attention on new frontiers for glioblastoma. The research studies performed in in vitro and in vivo models show that the application of hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is safe and could be a promising tool in the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Our efforts are focused towards new fields of research, for example nanomedicine and the study of the uptake and cytotoxic effects of magnetic nanoparticles. The improvement of the quality of life of patients, by increasing their survival rate is the best result to be pursued, since these tumours are considered as ineradicable.

  15. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  16. Fibrosarcoma after high energy radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.H.; Cail, W.S.; Morris, J.L.; Constable, W.C.

    1980-11-01

    Pituitary sarcoma is a rare late complication of radiotherapy for pituitary tumors. Although early case reports involved multiple courses of relatively low-energy radiation therapy, pituitary sarcoma has been seen with single courses of high-energy x-ray or heavy particle radiotherapy. This report describes a fibrosarcoma of the pituitary occurring 5 years after 4,500 rad (45 Gy) of x-irradiation delivered in 20 treatments over 3 weeks by an 8 MeV linear accelerator.

  17. Methylator phenotype of malignant germ cell tumours in children identifies strong candidates for chemotherapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapalan, J N; Noor, D A Mohamed; Lee, S-H; Tan, C L; Appleby, V A; Kilday, J P; Palmer, R D; Schwalbe, E C; Clifford, S C; Walker, D A; Murray, M J; Coleman, N; Nicholson, J C; Scotting, P J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas are the two major pure histological subtypes of germ cell tumours. To date, the role of DNA methylation in the aetiology of this class of tumour has only been analysed in adult testicular forms and with respect to only a few genes. Methods: A bank of paediatric tumours was analysed for global methylation of LINE-1 repeat elements and global methylation of regulatory elements using GoldenGate methylation arrays. Results: Both germinomas and YSTs exhibited significant global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements. However, in germinomas, methylation of gene regulatory regions differed little from control samples, whereas YSTs exhibited increased methylation at a large proportion of the loci tested, showing a ‘methylator' phenotype, including silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the methylator phenotype of YSTs was coincident with higher levels of expression of the DNA methyltransferase, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B, suggesting a mechanism underlying the phenotype. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of a large number of potential tumour suppressor genes in YSTs might explain why they exhibit a more aggressive natural history than germinomas and silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent cell death might explain the relative resistance of YSTs to conventional therapy. PMID:21712824

  18. The prognosis of primary intracerebral tumours presenting with epilepsy: the outcome of medical and surgical management.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D F; Hutton, J L; Sandemann, D; Foy, P M; Shaw, M D; Williams, I R; Chadwick, D W

    1991-01-01

    It is not known whether conservative or early aggressive (resective surgery with or without radiotherapy) management is better for tumours presenting with epilepsy. The prognosis of 560 patients with a clinical and CT diagnosis of intrinsic supratentorial tumour was examined retrospectively. Epilepsy was the first symptom in 164 patients. Histological confirmation of diagnosis was available in 391 (70%) of cases. Median survival was 37 months in the group presenting with epilepsy and six months in those presenting with other symptoms (p less than 0.0001). Patients presenting with epilepsy were more likely to have a normal clinical examination, a non-enhancing low density lesion on CT scan and a low grade tumour. From Cox's stepwise proportional hazards model, significant independent variables adversely affecting prognosis were increasing age, focal neurological signs and enhancing CT lesions at diagnosis, non-resective surgery and male sex. Of those presenting with epilepsy 80 patients had surgical treatment within two months of CT diagnosis. The Cox's model failed to identify any beneficial effects for either early resective surgery or radiotherapy. In primary intracerebral tumours with presentations other than epilepsy, resective surgery and radiotherapy were amongst the important factors associated with prolonged survival. Primary intracerebral tumours presenting with epilepsy are relatively benign and their outcome appears to be chiefly determined by clinical factors. PMID:1744647

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor in Odontogenic Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) is a tumour motility stimulating protein secreted by tumour cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated transmembrane protein and a receptor for autocrine motility factor. It has been known to play a role in progression of neoplastic lesions. Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices that serve as structural barriers as well as substrates for cellular interactions. The network of type IV collagen is thought to define the scaffold integrating other components such as laminins and perlecan into highly organized supramolecular architecture. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor in odontogenic lesions. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of Type IV Collagen and Autocrine motility factor receptor was evaluated in 31 odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumour and ameloblastic carcinoma. Normal follicular tissue formed the control. Results: Maximum expression for Type IV Collagen was seen in multicystic ameloblastoma and minimum expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The maximum expression of AMFR was seen in ameloblastic carcinoma and minimum expression in multicystic ameloblastoma. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested an association of loss of expression of type IV Collagen with progression of lesion. AMFR expression was found to be associated with the aggressive potential of tumours. PMID:25478440

  20. Effects of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs).

    PubMed

    Demestre, Maria; Terzi, Menderes Yusuf; Mautner, Victor; Vajkoczy, Peter; Kurtz, Andreas; Piña, Ana Luisa

    2013-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited genetic disease affecting 1 in 3,500 individuals. A prominent feature of NF1 is the formation of benign tumours of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurofibromas). However, these can become malignant and form highly metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), which are usually fatal despite aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Recent studies have shown that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can induce differentiation and inhibit angiogenesis in several kinds of tumours. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of PEDF on MPNST angiogenesis and tumour growth. PEDF inhibited proliferation and augmented apoptosis in S462 MPNST cells after 48 h of treatment in culture. In xenografts of S462 MPNST cells in athymic nude mice, PEDF suppressed MPNST tumour burden, due mainly to inhibition of angiogenesis. These results demonstrate for the first time inhibitory effects of PEDF on the growth of human MPNST via induction of anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis. Our results suggest that PEDF could be a novel approach for future therapeutic purposes against MPNST.

  1. Cell lines from MYCN transgenic murine tumours reflect the molecular and biological characteristics of human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy J; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Ford, Jette; Smith, Janice; Murray, Jayne E; Flemming, Claudia; Lastowska, Maria; Jackson, Michael S; Hackett, Christopher S; Weiss, William A; Marshall, Glenn M; Kees, Ursula R; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    Overexpression of the human MYCN oncogene driven by a tyrosine hydroxylase promoter causes tumours in transgenic mice that recapitulate the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. To establish an in vitro model to study this process, a series of isogenic cell lines were developed from these MYCN-driven murine tumours. Lines were established from tumours arising in homozygous and hemizygous MYCN transgenic mice. Hemizygous tumours gave rise to cell lines growing only in suspension. Homozygous tumours gave rise to similar suspension lines as well as morphologically distinct substrate-adherent lines characteristic of human S-type neuroblastoma cells. FISH analysis demonstrated selective MYCN transgene amplification in cell lines derived from hemizygous mice. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis confirmed a range of neuroblastoma-associated genetic changes in the various lines, in particular, gain of regions syntenic with human 17q. These isogenic lines together with the transgenic mice thus represent valuable models for investigating the biological characteristics of aggressive neuroblastoma.

  2. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G.; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M.; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L.; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  3. Rathke cleft cyst masquerading as pituitary abscess

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chengxian; Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Xiaohai; Deng, Kan; Feng, Ming; Yao, Yong; Wang, Renzhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) is a rare cystic sellar entity, which is usually small in size and asymptomatic in most patients. RCC presenting panhypopituitarism and a cystic lesion with rim enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging is extremely rare. Therefore, it is easy to be misdiagnosed as pituitary abscess because of the similar clinical manifestations and neuroimaging changes. Case summary: We report a rare case of RCC masquerading as pituitary abscess clinically and radiologically with no evidence of central nervous system infection. The patient was initially suspected to be diagnosed with pituitary abscess, which was denied by the histopathological findings of RCC with no intraoperative drainage of abscess. We present an uncommon case of RCC masquerading as pituitary abscess in a 62-year-old Chinese male patient. The patient was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital complaining of severe frontal pulsatile headache, visual acuity deficit, polyuria, polydipsia, and slight disturbance of consciousness. The biochemical and endocrinological examinations revealed severe hyponatremia and panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar lesion with the apparent cystic change and rim enhancement. Accordingly, pituitary abscess was misdiagnosed at the beginning. The patient received hormone replacement therapy and underwent a trans-sphenoidal surgery. The surgical findings were uneventful. The histopathological examinations showed no infiltration of inflammatory cells or pus, and proved the lesion to be RCC. Conclusion: Through this rare case, we aim to emphasize that the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions requires constant vigilance and that RCC may lead to clinical and radiological changes similar with pituitary abscess. PMID:28272259

  4. Pituitary autoimmunity in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ravinder; Kochupillai, Narayana; Crock, Patricia A; Jaleel, Abdul; Gupta, Nandita

    2002-09-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a frequent complication of pregnancy in India. Sheehan's description of postpartum hypopituitarism promoted the belief that PPH leads to necrosis of the enlarged pituitary gland of pregnancy and hypopituitarism. However, slow clinical progression suggests factors other than ischemia in its pathogenesis. Tissue necrosis could release sequestered antigens, triggering autoimmunity of the pituitary and delayed hypopituitarism in Sheehan's syndrome. Twenty-six consecutive patients with postpartum hypopituitarism were studied, 19 with Sheehan's syndrome based on a history of PPH and hormone profile suggesting pituitary failure [mean (SD) age 32.7 +/- 6.4 yr, duration of illness 5.5 +/- 3.1 yr], and seven patients with no history of PPH, categorized as "Other." Pituitary imaging and basal T(4), TSH, cortisol, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, and autoantibodies against pituitary (PitAb) and thyroid (TMA) were evaluated. Controls included 28 healthy females without prior conception (22 +/- 5 yr) and 28 with prior conception (26 +/- 5 yr). Twelve of 19 (63.1%) patients with Sheehan's syndrome and one of seven in the Other group had PitAb against the 49-kDa autoantigen; neuron-specific enolase. Four of 28 (14.2%) controls without prior conception and 5 of 28 (17.8%) controls with prior conception had PitAb positivity (P < 0.001 and <0.01 vs. Sheehan's syndrome, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean serum hormone values and TMA positivity between patients with Sheehan's syndrome and the Other group as well as patients with or without PitAb positivity. Pituitary autoimmunity may play a role in the cause of hypopituitarism following PPH.

  5. Resistance to tumour challenge after tumour laser thermotherapy is associated with a cellular immune response

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, K; Myllymäki, L; Jansner, K; Stenram, U; Tranberg, K-G

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT) of an experimental liver tumour is superior to surgical excision, at least partly due to a laser-induced immunological effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time–response relationship of the ILT-induced immunisation and the cellular response of macrophages and lymphocytes. A dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma was transplanted into the liver of syngeneic rats. Rats with tumour were treated 6–8 days later (tumour size 0.25–0.40 cm3) with ILT of tumour or resection of the tumour-bearing lobe. Two groups of rats without tumour were treated with resection of a normal liver lobe or ILT of normal liver. A challenging tumour was implanted into the liver of each rat 2, 5 or 10 weeks after primary treatment. Rats were killed 6, 12 and 48 days (or earlier due to their condition) after challenge (n=8 in all groups). Immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine lymphocytes (CD8, CD4) and macrophages (ED1, ED2) in rats having had treatment of a primary tumour. Interstitial laser thermotherapy of the first tumour was followed by eradication of challenging tumour and absence of tumour spread. This contrasted with rapid growth and spread of challenging tumour in the other groups. In the challenging vital tumour tissue and in the interface between the tumour and surroundings, the number of ED1 macrophages and CD8 lymphocytes was higher in rats having been treated with the ILT of tumour than in those having undergone resection of the tumour-bearing lobe. The number of ED2 macrophages and CD4 lymphocytes was low and did not vary between these two groups. Interstitial laser thermotherapy elicited an immune response that eradicated a challenging tumour and was associated with increased numbers of tumour-infiltrating macrophages and CD8 lymphocytes. PMID:16091763

  6. A preliminary investigation of the role of the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ of the Hippo signalling pathway in canine and feline mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, G; Sacchetto, R; Cavicchioli, L; Sammarco, A; Mainenti, M; Ferro, S; Trez, D; Zulpo, M; Michieletto, S; Cecchinato, A; Goldschmidt, M; Zappulli, V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Cancer metastases are responsible for the high mortality rate. A small but distinct subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), have the capacity to self-renew, initiate tumour formation, and develop metastases. The CSC content in human breast cancer correlates with the Hippo tumour suppressor signalling pathway. Specifically, the activity of YAP/TAZ, transcription co-activators of the Hippo pathway, sustains the self-renewal and tumour-initiation capacities of CSCs. Little is known about YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours, which are very common tumours. The preliminary aim of the study was to investigate the expression of YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of YAP/TAZ was observed in all carcinomas compared to normal tissues, indicating neoplastic deregulation of the Hippo pathway. Nuclear expression significantly increased in grade III (high grade carcinomas) compared to grade I (low grade carcinomas) tumours, suggesting that YAP/TAZ play a role in the increased aggressiveness of these tumours. Moreover, different scoring systems for immunohistochemical analyses were compared and the H index and the Allred scores were the most significant. In conclusion, YAP/TAZ are expressed in aggressive canine and feline mammary tumours as reported in some human cancers. Further studies might better elucidate the role of the Hippo pathway in prognosis and as a target for new therapies. In addition, tumours in dogs and cats may be a useful model to study this pathway.

  7. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  8. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  9. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  10. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  11. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  12. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Apostolos K A; Dimitropoulou, Fotini; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Lyra, Stavroula; Seretis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively. Learning points Pituitary abscess is a rare disease and the reported clinical features vary mimicking other pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of pituitary abscess is often very difficult to make and rarely included in the differential. The histological findings of acute inflammatory infiltration confirm the diagnosis of pituitary abscess. Medical and surgical treatment is usually recommended upon diagnosis of a pituitary abscess. PMID:27274845

  13. Novel mutations associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Romero, Christopher J; Pine-Twaddell, Elyse; Radovick, Sally

    2011-06-01

    The pituitary gland produces hormones that play important roles in both the development and the homeostasis of the body. A deficiency of two or several of these pituitary hormones, known as combined pituitary hormone deficiency, may present in infants or children due to an unknown etiology and is considered congenital or idiopathic. Advancements in our understanding of pituitary development have provided a genetic basis to explain the pathophysiological basis of pituitary hormone disease. Nevertheless, there are several challenges to the precise characterization of abnormal genotypes; these exist secondary to the complexities of several of the hypothalamic/pituitary developmental factors and signals, which ultimately integrate in a temporal and spatial dependent manner to produce a mature gland. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of pituitary hormone disease may be dynamic as subsequent hormone deficiencies may develop over time. The characterization of patients with mutations in genes responsible for pituitary development provides an opportunity to discover potential novel mechanisms responsible for pituitary pathophysiology. The focus of this review is to report the most recent mutations in genes responsible for pituitary development in patients with hypopituitarism and emphasize the importance to physicians and researchers for characterizing these patients. Continuing efforts toward understanding the molecular basis of pituitary development as well as genetic screening of patients with pituitary disease will offer new insights into both diagnostic and potential therapeutic options that will decrease the morbidity and mortality in patients with hypopituitarism.

  14. Pituitary Medicine From Discovery to Patient-Focused Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context: This perspective traces a pipeline of discovery in pituitary medicine over the past 75 years. Objective: To place in context past advances and predict future changes in understanding pituitary pathophysiology and clinical care. Design: Author's perspective on reports of pituitary advances in the published literature. Setting: Clinical and translational Endocrinology. Outcomes: Discovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and mechanisms for pituitary control, have culminated in exquisite understanding of anterior pituitary cell function and dysfunction. Challenges facing the discipline include fundamental understanding of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis leading to more effective treatments of inexorably growing and debilitating hormone secreting pituitary tumors as well as medical management of non-secreting pituitary adenomas. Newly emerging pituitary syndromes include those associated with immune-targeted cancer therapies and head trauma. Conclusions: Novel diagnostic techniques including imaging genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses will yield further knowledge to enable diagnosis of heretofore cryptic syndromes, as well as sub classifications of pituitary syndromes for personalized treatment approaches. Cost effective personalized approaches to precision therapy must demonstrate value, and will be empowered by multidisciplinary approaches to integrating complex subcellular information to identify therapeutic targets for enabling maximal outcomes. These goals will be challenging to attain given the rarity of pituitary disorders and the difficulty in conducting appropriately powered prospective trials. PMID:26908107

  15. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland: tuft sign

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bacha, K.M.; Portha, C.

    1983-10-01

    Diagnosis of an intrasellar pituitary microadenoma by CT may be difficult if the only finding is a small defect in enhancement. The diagnosis can be facilitated by dynamic CT of the pituitary gland in the coronal plane. This method permits visualization of the capillary bed of the pituitary, whose displacement (tuft sign) could be an indication of the presence of a microadenoma.

  16. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1820 Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a... standard pituitary luteinizing hormone and is reconstituted for use by addition of 5 milliliters of...

  20. Aggressive responding of male heroin addicts under methadone treatment: psychometric and neuroendocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Raggi, M A; Giusti, F; Delsignore, R; Bertacca, S; Brambilla, F

    2001-12-01

    Objective measures of experimentally-induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 methadone-treated heroin addicts, in comparison to 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were submitted to preliminary DSM IV interviews, Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses, and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participants. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response), or protecting their counter (escape response). Money-earning responses were significantly lower (t=4.38, P<0.001) and aggressive responses significantly higher (t=5.45; P<0.001) in methadone patients in comparison to controls. During the experimentally-induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations increased significantly less and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), significantly more in methadone subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamines changes, BDHI 'direct' and 'irritability' scores, MMPI 'psychopathic deviate' scores both in methadone subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between methadone doses, or exposure extent, and aggressiveness levels. Our findings suggest that heroin dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relationship with monoamines hyper-reactivity, also under methadone medication. Aggressiveness in methadone patients seems to be related more to the personality traits than to drug effects. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses, unexpectedly dissociated from catecholamines rise

  1. PET imaging of primary mediastinal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, K.; Yamada, S.; Kondo, T.; Yamada, K.; Fukuda, H.; Fujiwara, T.; Ito, M.; Ido, T.

    1996-01-01

    Mediastinal masses include a wide variety of tumours and remain an interesting diagnostic challenge for radiologist. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) studies of primary mediastinal tumours in order to predict the malignancy of these tumours preoperatively. Twenty-two patients with primary mediastinal tumours were studied with PET using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). The histological findings of surgical pathology or biopsy, or mediastinoscopy were compared with those of computerised tomography (CT) and PET. PET images were evaluated semiquantitatively using the differential uptake ratio (DUR). Increased FDG uptake was observed in nine of ten patients with malignant tumours, including thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, invasive thymomas and a case of sarcoidosis. A moderate level of FDG uptake was found in a myeloma, non-invasive thymomas, and a schwannoma, whereas a low uptake was observed in a teratoma and various benign cysts. The mean FDG uptake of malignant tumours was significantly higher than that of benign tumours. Both thymic cancer and invasive thymoma showed a high FDG uptake. CT examination resulted in three false-negative and two false-positive cases when used in predicting tumour invasion, while PET was associated with a false-positive and a false-negative case. In conclusion, the use of FDG with PET is clinically helpful in evaluating the malignant nature of primary mediastinal tumours. Our results also suggest that a high FDG uptake reflects the invasiveness of malignant nature of thymic tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8611400

  2. Gene expression profiling of human ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Biade, S; Marinucci, M; Schick, J; Roberts, D; Workman, G; Sage, E H; O'Dwyer, P J; LiVolsi, V A; Johnson, S W

    2006-01-01

    There is currently a lack of reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer. We established gene expression profiles for 120 human ovarian tumours to identify determinants of histologic subtype, grade and degree of malignancy. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the most variable set of expression data resulted in three major tumour groups. One consisted predominantly of benign tumours, one contained mostly malignant tumours, and one was comprised of a mixture of borderline and malignant tumours. Using two supervised approaches, we identified a set of genes that distinguished the benign, borderline and malignant phenotypes. These algorithms were unable to establish profiles for histologic subtype or grade. To validate these findings, the expression of 21 candidate genes selected from these analyses was measured by quantitative RT–PCR using an independent set of tumour samples. Hierarchical clustering of these data resulted in two major groups, one benign and one malignant, with the borderline tumours interspersed between the two groups. These results indicate that borderline ovarian tumours may be classified as either benign or malignant, and that this classifier could be useful for predicting the clinical course of borderline tumours. Immunohistochemical analysis also demonstrated increased expression of CD24 antigen in malignant versus benign tumour tissue. The data that we have generated will contribute to a growing body of expression data that more accurately define the biologic and clinical characteristics of ovarian cancers. PMID:16969345

  3. Gene expression profiling of human ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Biade, S; Marinucci, M; Schick, J; Roberts, D; Workman, G; Sage, E H; O'Dwyer, P J; Livolsi, V A; Johnson, S W

    2006-10-23

    There is currently a lack of reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer. We established gene expression profiles for 120 human ovarian tumours to identify determinants of histologic subtype, grade and degree of malignancy. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the most variable set of expression data resulted in three major tumour groups. One consisted predominantly of benign tumours, one contained mostly malignant tumours, and one was comprised of a mixture of borderline and malignant tumours. Using two supervised approaches, we identified a set of genes that distinguished the benign, borderline and malignant phenotypes. These algorithms were unable to establish profiles for histologic subtype or grade. To validate these findings, the expression of 21 candidate genes selected from these analyses was measured by quantitative RT-PCR using an independent set of tumour samples. Hierarchical clustering of these data resulted in two major groups, one benign and one malignant, with the borderline tumours interspersed between the two groups. These results indicate that borderline ovarian tumours may be classified as either benign or malignant, and that this classifier could be useful for predicting the clinical course of borderline tumours. Immunohistochemical analysis also demonstrated increased expression of CD24 antigen in malignant versus benign tumour tissue. The data that we have generated will contribute to a growing body of expression data that more accurately define the biologic and clinical characteristics of ovarian cancers.

  4. Pott's puffy tumour: still not an eradicated entity.

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Brell, M; Cardona, E; Claramunt, E; Costa, J M

    2001-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumour is an infrequent entity characterised by one or more subperiosteal abscesses associated with frontal bone osteomyelitis. Although cases in patients of all ages have been reported, teenagers are the most frequently affected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential because of the high risk of severe neurological complications, such as epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and secondary septic thrombosis of the dural sinuses. This paper describes the case of a patient with a subperiosteal abscess resulting from sinusitis, with orbital and intracranial extension, and subsequent neurological complications. Despite modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, 13 new cases have been published in the last 5 years; in at least 3 (23%) of these cases there were serious neurological complications. Upper respiratory infections and sinusitis are leading causes of visits to the emergency department in the paediatric age group; however, no risk factors for poor outcome have so far been identified in any of these patients.

  5. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in normal rat pituitary gland, estrogen-induced rat pituitary tumor and human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Male rat pituitary glands, diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced rat pituitary tumors and 12 human pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptor proteins. Positive immunostaining of AT1 was observed in a subpopulation of anterior and intermediate pituitary lobe cells as well as in some nerve endings of the neurohypophysis. In the DES-induced rat pituiary tumors, the subpopulation of AT1-immunnopositive cells was smaller than in the non-tumoral anterior pituitary. In human pituitary adenomas, weak AT1 immunostaining was found in 5 tumors. In the remaining adenomas, the AT1 immunostaining was trace (doubtful) or absent. The AT1 immunostaining in the peritumoral non-neoplastic pituitary tissue was stronger than that observed in the tumors. The normal rat pituitaries and rat tumors did not show immunostaining with anti-AT2 antibody. In human pituitary adenomas, the tumoral cells were AT2- negative but moderate to strong AT2 immunostaining was observed in intratumoral blood vessel walls. The data suggest that the experimental (in rat) and spontaneous (in man) pituitary tumorigenesis is associated with the down-regulation of AT1 receptors. The expression of AT2 receptors, in turn, may be connected with the process of tumoral neo-angiogenesis.

  8. The AIP (aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein) gene and its relation to the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Catrin; Grossman, Ashley

    2014-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas are monoclonal neoplasms that may secrete excessive quantities of their endogenous hormones, or may not be associated with any obvious syndrome, in which case they are known as non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Around 2 % have been said to occur in a familial setting, in the absence of any other tumor, now described as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Some 15-30 % of such families harbor inactivating germ-line mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene, along with 20 % of pediatric seemingly sporadic cases. AIP mutants are referred to as having pituitary adenoma predisposition, and present with early onset, aggressive macroadenomas, most of which secrete somatotropin. Evidence from transfection studies implies that AIP acts as a tumor suppressor; although whether this is mediated through an interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, phosphodiesterases, or with cell cycle regulators such as survivin or RET remains controversial. However, at present an interaction with the cyclic AMP pathway seems most plausible. Recently, evidence has shown that AIP may act at the cell surface, causing changes in integrin function. The presence of AIP mutations in a significant proportion of FIPA families as well as in apparently sporadic cases, particularly in young patients, suggests a need to screen such patients for AIP mutations to enable better clinical management. However, the absence of AIP mutations in over half of such cases highlights the need to search for further gene mutations.

  9. The CRHR1 gene contributes to genetic susceptibility of aggressive behavior towards others in Chinese southwest Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bifeng; Gu, Tao; Ma, Bo; Zheng, Guoqing; Ke, Bingxiong; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Lirui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Hu, Liping; Chen, Yang; Qiu, Jianbo; Nie, Shengjie

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might play a major role in genetic susceptibility of aggressive behavior. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene and aggressive behavior in Chinese southwest Han population. Participants consist of 282 healthy controls and 177 violent criminals (including robbery and intentional injury, which represent for aggressive behavior towards property and aggressive behavior towards others). Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CRHR1 gene including rs4458044, rs242924, and rs1768996 were genotyped using improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) methods. Single-locus analysis revealed that none of the studied SNPs was significantly associated with the risk of aggressive behavior; however, haplotype analysis showed that a haplotype GGA significantly increased the susceptibility of aggressive behavior towards others with an odds ratios equal to 3.32 (p = 0.003). The present results, for the first time, indicate that the CRHR1 gene polymorphism is significantly associated with aggressive behavior in Chinese southwest Han population. Subjects with GGA haplotype have an increased susceptibility to aggressive behavior towards others.

  10. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  11. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  12. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  13. Growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE: case report.

    PubMed

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Liebert, Włodzimierz; Gryczyńska, Maria; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Blanco-Gangoo, Al Ricardo; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary tumors causing acromegaly are usually macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and they can grow aggressively, infiltrating surrounding tissues. Difficulty in achieving complete tumor removal at surgery can lead toward a strong tendency for recurrence, making it necessary to consider a means of treatment other than those currently used such as somatostatin analogs (SSAs), growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, surgical removal, and radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient diagnosed with an aggressive, giant GH-secreting tumor refractory to medical therapy but ultimately treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE. A 26-year-old male with an invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland (5.6 × 2.5 × 3.6 cm) and biochemically confirmed acromegaly underwent 2 partial tumor resections: the first used the transsphenoidal approach and the second used the transcranial method. The patient received SSAs pre- and postoperatively. Because of the progression in pituitary tumor size, he underwent classic irradiation of the tumor (50 Gy). One and a half years later, the patient presented with clinically and biochemically active disease, and the tumor size was still 52 mm in diameter (height). Two neurosurgeons disqualified him from further surgical procedures. After confirming the presence of somatostatin receptors in the pituitary tumor by using (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, we treated the patient 4 times with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE. After this treatment, the patient attained partial biochemical remission and a reduction in the tumor mass for the first time. Treatment with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE may be a promising option for some aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas when other methods have failed.

  14. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Ahmed; Lubina-Solomon, Alexandra; Kew, Fiona M; Webster, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Elevated serum prolactin at 7081 mIU/l and suppressed gonadotropins (LH <0.1 U/l; FSH <0.1 U/l) were detected. Serum oestradiol was significantly elevated at 7442 pmol/l with undetectable β-human chorionic gonadotropin. MRI showed a bulky pituitary with no visible adenoma. MRI of the abdomen showed a 4.8 cm mass arising from the right ovary with no evidence of metastatic disease. Serum inhibin B was elevated at 2735 ng/l. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of a JGCT, stage International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1A. Immunohistochemical staining for prolactin was negative. Post-operatively, oestrogen and prolactin levels were normalised, and she subsequently had a successful pregnancy. In summary, we present a case of an oestrogen-secreting JGCT with hyperprolactinaemia manifesting clinically with galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea. We postulate that observed hyperprolactinaemia was caused by oestrogenic stimulation of pituitary lactotroph cells, a biochemical state analogous to pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hyperprolactinaemia as a result of excessive oestrogen production in the context of a JGCT. Learning points Hyperprolactinaemia with bilateral galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea has a wide differential diagnosis and is not always caused by a prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma.Significantly elevated serum oestradiol levels in the range seen in this case, in the absence of pregnancy, are indicative

  15. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  16. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  17. Increased serum interleukin-22 levels in patients with PRL-secreting and non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, S; Ferrau, F; Cotta, O R; Saitta, S; Barresi, V; Cristani, M T; Saija, A; Ruggeri, R M; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2014-02-01

    Cytokines' involvement in tumorigenesis has been hypothesized. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is implicated in proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways via its receptor IL-22R. Its role in pituitary adenomas has never been investigated. Twenty-seven patients with pituitary macroadenomas (PA, 21 males, mean age 53.8 ± 14.4 years) and 30 healthy controls (19 males, mean age 50.4 ± 8.4 years) were enrolled. Out of 27 PA patients, 17 had a non-functioning tumour (NFPA) and 10 a PRL-secreting adenoma (PRL-oma). Serum IL-22 levels were measured in both patients and controls. Immunohistochemical (IHC) tumoral IL-22R expression was evaluated in 10 patients with NFPA and 4 with PRL-oma. IL-22 levels were significantly higher in PA patients than in controls [32.47 (11.29-70.12) vs. 5.58 (0.19-21.46) pg/mL, p < 0.0001] but did not correlate with tumor maximum diameter and were not associated to pituitary function impairment. PRL-oma patients had significantly higher IL-22 levels than NFPA patients [37.18 (14.82-70.12) vs. 21.29 (11.29-56) pg/mL, p = 0.039]. IHC revealed a strong IL-22R staining in 100 % of PRL-omas and 60 % of NFPAs. We provide the first evidence of increased serum IL-22 levels in patients with pituitary macroadenoma, especially in PRL-omas, regardless of tumor size and/or degree of pituitary function impairment. We also demonstrated the expression of IL22R in all PRL-omas and in 60 % of NFPAs.

  18. Prognostic significance of tumour stroma ratio in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Downey, Candice L; Thygesen, Helene H; Sharma, Nisha; Shaaban, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Tumour stroma ratio (TSR) is emerging as an important prognostic indicator in cancer. We have previously shown TSR to be prognostic in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Its role in inflammatory breast cancer, a rare but aggressive form of breast cancer, has not been identified. Here we aimed to determine the prognostic significance of TSR in a cohort of patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma. TSR was measured by point counting virtual H&E stained tissue sections in 45 inflammatory breast cancer cases. The whole tumour area was sampled. Optimum cut-offs to distinguish high and low TSR was determined by log-rank test. The relationship of TSR to overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed alongside multivariate analysis. The optimal cut-offs between high and low TSR were determined to be 31% for OS and 46% for DFS. There was no significant difference in OS (p = 0.53) nor DFS (p = 0.66) between high and low TSR groups. Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate any new trends, within the limits of a small data sample. A significant correlation was found between pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival (p = 0.008). There is no evidence that TSR has prognostic significance in inflammatory breast cancer. When compared with published data in non-inflammatory breast carcinoma, this supports the view that differences in stromal biology exist between tumour types and highlights the importance of considering this when interpreting the prognostic value of TSR. However, these findings must be interpreted in the light of the small sample size.

  19. Spinal metastases from pituitary hemangiopericytic meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Skultety, F.M.; Masih, A.S.; McComb, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    A rare, previously irradiated, recurrent malignant angioblastic meningioma of the pituitary, hemangiopericytic type, was locally controlled by a new endocurietherapy technique that allows delivery of very high (10,000 cGy), sharply localized irradiation. Rather than succumbing to the local tumor recurrence, as would otherwise be expected, the patient developed distant spinal metastases several years later.

  20. Expression of orexin receptors in the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Tadeusz; Smolinska, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Orexin receptors type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) are G protein-coupled receptors whose structure is highly conserved in mammals. OX1R is selective for orexin A, and OX2R binds orexin A and orexin B with similar affinity. Orexin receptor expression was observed in human, rat, porcine, sheep as well as Xenopus laevis pituitaries, both in the adenohypophysis and in the neurohypophysis. The expression level is regulated by gonadal steroid hormones and GnRH. The majority of orexins reaching the pituitary originate from the lateral hypothalamus, but due to the presence of the receptors and the local production of orexins in the pituitary, orexins could deliver an auto/paracrine effect within the gland. Cumulative data indicate that orexins are involved in the regulation of LH, GH, PRL, ACTH, and TSH secretion by pituitary cells, pointing to orexins' effect on the functioning of the endocrine axes. Those hormones may also serve as a signal linking metabolic status with endocrine control of sleep, arousal, and reproduction processes.

  1. Surgical treatment of benign endobronchial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Halttunen, P; Meurala, H; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C-G

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of benign endobronchial tumour are reported which were successfully treated by bronchial resection. In two cases (of fibroma and leiomyoma respectively) a cylinder of bronchus alone was resected; in one case (lipoma) a healthy right upper lobe was preserved by a bronchoplastic procedure and in the other (chondroma) the tumour was removed with the right lower lobe, which was irreversibly damaged. It is important to recognise that such tumours are unsuitable for treatment by endoscopic means alone. Images PMID:7157223

  2. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  3. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6 months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; β-catenin, CHOP, C/EBPα and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and β-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBPα and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver.

  4. Endovascular treatment of primary hepatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Popiel, M; Gulie, L; Turculeţ, C; Beuran, M

    2008-01-01

    First transcatheter embolization of hepatic artery has been materializing in 1974, in France, for unresectable hepatic tumours. Then, this treatment has become use enough in many countries, especially in Japan, where primary hepatic tumours are very frequent. In this article, we present procedures of interventional endovascular treatment for primary hepatic tumours: chemoembolization, intra–arterial chemotherapy. The study comprises patients with primary hepatic tumours investigated by hepatic–ultrasound and contrast–enhanced CT or MRI. DSA–hepatic angiography is very important to verify the accessory hepatic supply. It has been performed selective catheterization of right/left hepatic branches followed by cytostatics injection. Most of the patients have benefit by hepatic chemoembolization (cytostatics, Lipiodol and embolic materials). The selective intra–arterial chemotherapy (cytostatics without Lipiodol) was performing in cases with contraindications for Lipiodol or embolic materials injection (cirrhosis–Child C, thrombosis of portal vein, hepatic insufficiency). For treatment of primary hepatic tumours we use 5–F–Uracil, Farmarubicin and Mytomicin C. Less numbers of the reservoirs were placed because financial causes. Chemoembolization was better than procedures without Lipiodol or embolic materials. Lipiodol reached in tumoural tissue and the distribution of Lipiodol harmonises with degree of vascularisation. After the chemoembolization procedure, the diameter of tumours decreased gradually depending on the size of tumour. Effective alternative for unresectable primary hepatic tumours (big size, hepatic dysfunction, and other surgical risk factors) is endovascular interventional treatment. PMID:20108517

  5. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  6. Histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, T J

    1990-01-01

    The histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours, which includes the concept of metaplastic carcinoma, is controversial. Four such tumours were examined for evidence of metaplastic transition from carcinoma to sarcoma using morphology and reticulin stains. Consecutive sections were stained immunohistochemically using cytokeratin and vimentin to determine whether cells at the interface between carcinoma and sarcoma expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin. There was no evidence of morphological, architectural, or immunohistochemical transitions from carcinoma to sarcoma in the four tumours studied. This suggests that ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours are not metaplastic carcinomas but are composed of histogenetically different elements. Images PMID:2160478

  7. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  8. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  9. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  10. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  11. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  12. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  13. Early manifestation of communicating hydrocephalus after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for aggressive giant atypical prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Ohe, Naoyuki; Iwama, Toru; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Aggressive giant invasive pituitary adenomas refractory to standard surgical or medical treatment remain a genuine challenge. In addition, communicating hydrocephalus (CH) attributed to malabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) developing after radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas has not been previously reported. Herein, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male presenting with a giant atypical prolactinoma refractory to previous therapies, including pharmacotherapy and repetitive surgery. He underwent image-guided fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in 28 fractions, resulting in early manifestation of CH associated with undisputed, both radiological and hormonal response. He recovered well after a shunt placement, with otherwise favorable consequences such as sustained tumor regression, decreasing prolactin level, and retained visual function for a 22-month follow-up. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy would provide a viable treatment alternative for these refractory cases, while caution should be exercised regarding the possibility of iatrogenic CH.

  14. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  15. Activation of tumour cell ECM degradation by thrombin-activated platelet membranes: potentially a P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Pang, J H; Coupland, L A; Freeman, C; Chong, B H; Parish, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    The promotion of tumour metastasis by platelets may occur through several mechanisms including the induction of a more metastatic phenotype in tumour cells and assisted extravasation of circulating tumour cells. Whilst the mechanisms underlying platelet-assisted extravasation have been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying platelet promotion of an aggressive phenotype within a tumour cell population. Herein, we demonstrate in vitro that MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells incubated with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes adopt a Matrigel-degrading phenotype in a dose- and contact time-dependent manner. The same phenotypic change was observed with three other human tumour cell lines of diverse anatomical origin. Moreover, tumour cell lines that had been cultured with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes had a greater metastatic capacity when injected into mice. This in vivo effect was reliant upon a co-incubation period of >2 h implying a mechanism involving more than platelet membrane binding that occurred within 5 min. Upon further investigation it was found that simultaneous blocking of the platelet-membrane proteins P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa prevented interactions between platelet membranes and MDA-MB-231 cells but also significantly reduced the ability of tumour cells to degrade Matrigel. These results confirm that platelets induce a more aggressive phenotype in tumour cells but also identify the platelet proteins involved in this effect. P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa also play a role in assisting tumour cell extravasation and, thus, are ideal targets for the therapeutic intervention of both stages of platelet-assisted metastasis.

  16. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important.

  17. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Somerhausen, Nicolas De Saint Aubain

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To study the evolution of concepts concerning gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) over 30 years. Discussion. GISTs have been, for more than 30 years, the subject of considerable controversy regarding their line of differentiation as well as the prediction of their behaviour. Furthermore, once they spread within the peritoneal cavity, they are extremely hard to control. The recent findings of c-Kit mutations and the immunohistochemical detection of the product of this gene, KIT or CD117, in the mainly non-myogenic subset of this family of tumours, has led to a reappraisal of this group of lesions, which, with some exceptions, is now thought to be derived from the interstitial cells of Cajal, and this has facilitated a clearer definition of their pathological spectrum. In this article, we review chronologically the evolution of the concept of GIST with the gradual application of electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, DNA ploidy analysis. We discuss the impact of these techniques on the pathological assessment and clinical management of GISTs. PMID:18521245

  18. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Radikova, Z; Macho, L; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess basal function and responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during dynamic testing. Methods: Insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, as intravenous bolus) was induced in 17 patients and 11 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined in plasma. Results: Comparable basal cortisol levels were found in the two groups, with a trend to be lower in ankylosing spondylitis. In the ankylosing spondylitis group, there were higher concentrations of IL-6 (mean (SEM): 16.6 (2.8) pg/ml v 1.41 (0.66) pg/ml in controls; p<0.001) and TNFα (8.5 (1.74) pg/ml v 4.08 (0.42) pg/ml in controls; p<0.01). Glucose, insulin, ACTH, DHEAS, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ significantly from control. The IIH test was carried out successfully in 11 of the 17 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and the ACTH and cortisol responses were comparable with control. General linear modelling showed a different course of glycaemia (p = 0.041) in the ankylosing spondylitis patients who met the criteria for a successful IIH test compared with the controls. Conclusions: The results suggest there is no difference in basal HPA axis activity and completely preserved responsiveness of the HPA axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The interpretation of the different course of glycaemia during IIH in ankylosing spondylitis requires further investigation. PMID:15140773

  19. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  20. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  1. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  2. Pituitary blastoma: a unique embryonal tumor.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Bernd W; Horvath, E; Abel, T W; Robital, Y; Park, S-H; Osamura, R Y; Deal, C; Lloyd, R V; Kovacs, K

    2012-09-01

    Pituitary blastoma, a recently described tumor of the neonatal pituitary, exhibits differentiation to Rathke epithelium and adenohypophysial cells of folliculostellate and secretory type, a reflection of arrested pituitary development and unchecked proliferation (Scheithauer et al. in Acta Neuropathol 116(6):657-666, 2008). Herein, we report the pathologic features of three additional cases, all ACTH-producing. One involved a 9-month-old male presenting with progressive right ophthalmoplegia, MRI findings of a large suprasellar mass with cavernous sinus invasion, and elevated plasma ACTH levels. The second was nonfunctioning and occurred in a 13-month-old female with right third nerve palsy. The third had been previously published as a "pituitary adenoma" in a 2-year-old female (Min et al. in Pathol Int 57(9):600-605, 2007). The subtotally resected tumors were subject to histochemical, immunohistochemical and, in two cases, ultrastructural study. Histologically, the complex tumors consisted of glands of varying from rosettes to glandular structures resembling Rathke epithelium, small undifferentiated-appearing cells (blastema), and large secretory cells. Mucin-producing goblet cells were noted in case 3. Cell proliferation was high in two cases and low in case 3. Immunoreactivity of the secretory cells included synaptophysin, chromogranin, various keratins and, to a lesser extent, ACTH and beta endorphin. MGMT immunolabeling was 40-60%. Mitotic activity was moderate to high in cases 1 and 2 and was low in case 3. The same was true for MIB-1 labeling. Germ cell markers were lacking in all cases. One tumor ultrastructurally consisted of three cell populations including (a) small, polyhedral, primitive-appearing cells (blastema) with scant cytoplasm, abundant glycogen and few organelles, (b) folliculostellate cells and (c) large corticotroph cells containing rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi membranes, spherical, 150-400 nm secretory granules and occasional

  3. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  4. Peculiarities of hyperlipidaemia in tumour patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dilman, V. M.; Berstein, L. M.; Ostroumova, M. N.; Tsyrlina, Y. V.; Golubev, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The study group included 684 cases: 258 patients with breast carcinoma, 113 males with lung cancer, 42 patients with rectal tumours, 42 patients with stomach tumours, 59 patients with fibroadenomatosis, and 170 healthy subjects of varying age (male and female). A relatively high blood triglyceride level was found in patients with breast, lung, rectal (females), and stomach (female) tumours. The blood concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with breast, lung, and stomach (female) tumours was relatively low. The elimination of tumour (breast carcinoma) did not lead to significant changes in lipid metabolism. There was no correlation between degree of lipidaemia and stage of tumour progression except in the cases of rectal cancer. Preliminary results are presented on the tentative classification of hyperlipoproteinaemia in tumour patients, using the lipid concentration threshold values advocated by Carlson et al. (1977); an increased frequency of Type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia proved to be the most characteristic feature of tumour patients. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the importance of lipid metabolic disturbances, primarily those due to ageing, in the genesis of the syndrome of "cancerophilia" (predisposition to cancer). PMID:7248149

  5. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica

    2009-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach.

  6. Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon.

  7. [Single-cell sequencing and tumour heterogeneity].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2014-12-01

    The heterogeneity of tumours is now beginning to be documented precisely by single-cell new-generation sequencing. Recently published results on breast tumours show that each of the cells analysed displays a unique pattern of point mutations. This extensive genetic diversity is present before any treatment, and is likely to cause resistance to initially successful targeted therapies.

  8. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  9. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  10. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  11. A study of intermediate lobe differentiation in the human pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    McNicol, A M

    1986-11-01

    The immunohistochemical demonstration of neurofilament (NF) polypeptide was used to identify nerves in a series of 17 pituitary adenomas. NF-positive fibres were present in two out of five corticotroph adenomas sited deep in the anterior lobe, in one out of five sited in the intermediate zone and in two out of seven non-corticotroph adenomas. Such nerve fibres were often seen in relation to blood vessels. The distribution of alpha-MSH immunoreactive cells was examined in 25 normal pituitaries and in 23 cases of Cushing's disease. Such cells were scattered throughout the normal gland and there was no increase in numbers in pregnancy. alpha-MSH was demonstrated in 18 corticotroph adenomas in Cushing's disease. There was no correlation with the site of the tumour or the presence of nerve fibres. alpha-MSH cells were distributed normally in the para-adenomatous gland. Crooke's hyaline change and alpha-MSH coexisted in some corticotrophs. These findings support the concept that 'intermediate lobe' function, as found in animals, has no discrete anatomical location in man.

  12. Dasatinib inhibits mammary tumour development in a genetically engineered mouse model.

    PubMed

    Karim, Saadia A; Creedon, Helen; Patel, Hitesh; Carragher, Neil O; Morton, Jennifer P; Muller, William J; Evans, Thomas Rj; Gusterson, Barry; Sansom, Owen J; Brunton, Valerie G

    2013-08-01

    Src family kinase activity is elevated in a number of human cancers including breast cancer. This increased activity has been associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Src inhibitors are currently in clinical development with a number of trials currently assessing their activity in breast cancer. However, the results to date have been disappointing and a further evaluation of the preclinical effects of Src inhibitors is required to help establish whether these agents will be useful in the treatment of breast cancer. In this study we investigate the effects of dasatinib, which is a potent inhibitor of Src family kinases, on the initiation and development of breast cancer in a genetically engineered model of the disease. The mouse model utilized is driven by expression of activated ErbB-2 under the transcriptional control of its endogenous promoter coupled with conditional loss of Pten under the control of Cre recombinase expressed by the BLG promoter. We show that daily oral administration of dasatinib delays tumour onset and increases overall survival but does not inhibit the proliferation of established tumours. The striking difference between the dasatinib-treated group of tumours and the vehicle controls was the prominent squamous metaplasia that was seen in six out of 11 dasatinib-treated tumours. This was accompanied by a dramatic up-regulation of both E-cadherin and β-catenin and down-regulation of ErbB-2 in the dasatinib-treated tumours. Dasatinib also inhibited both the migration and the invasion of tumour-derived cell lines in vitro. Together these data support the argument that benefits of Src inhibitors may predominate in early or even pre-invasive disease.

  13. Early life stress, the development of aggression and neuroendocrine and neurobiological correlates: what can we learn from animal models?

    PubMed

    Veenema, Alexa H

    2009-10-01

    Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA), vasopressin and serotonin systems and their relevance for the regulation of aggression are discussed. Data suggest that social deprivation-induced inappropriate forms of aggression are associated with high or low HPA axis (re)activity and a generally lower functioning of the serotonin system in adulthood. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic modifications in HPA and serotonin systems influence the outcome of early life stress and may even moderate adverse effects of early social deprivation on aggression. A more comprehensive study of aggression, neuroendocrine, neurobiological and (epi)genetic correlates of early life stress using animal models is necessary to provide a better understanding of the invasive aggressive deficits observed in humans exposed to child maltreatment.

  14. The status of epidermal growth factor receptor in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Showeil, Rania; Romano, Claudia; Valganon, Mikel; Lambros, Maryou; Trivedi, Pritesh; Van Noorden, Susan; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; El-Kaffash, Dalal; El-Etreby, Nour; Natrajan, Rachael; Foroni, Letizia; Osborne, Richard; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The majority of borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) behave in a benign fashion, but some may show aggressive behavior. The reason behind this has not been elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to contribute to cell survival signals as well as metastatic potential of some tumours. EGFR expression and gene status have not been thoroughly investigated in BOTs as it has in ovarian carcinomas. In this study we explore protein expression as well as gene mutations and amplifications of EGFR in BOTs in comparison to a subset of other epithelial ovarian tumours. We studied 85 tumours, including 61 BOTs, 10 low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs), 9 high grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and 5 benign epithelial tumours. EGFR protein expression was studied using immunohistochemistry. Mutations were investigated by Sanger sequencing exons 18-21 of the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR. Cases with comparatively higher protein expression were examined for gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization. We also studied the tumours for KRAS and BRAF mutations. Immunohistochemistry results revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear EGFR expression with variable degrees between tumours. The level of nuclear localization was relatively higher in BOTs and LGSCs as compared to HGSCs or benign tumours. The degree of nuclear expression of BOTs showed no significant difference from that in LGSCs (mean ranks 36.48, 33.05, respectively, p=0.625), but was significantly higher than in HGSCs (mean ranks: 38.88, 12.61 respectively, p< 0.001) and benign tumours (mean ranks: 35.18, 13.00 respectively, p= 0.010). Cytoplasmic expression level was higher in LGSCs. No EGFR gene mutations or amplification were identified, yet different polymorphisms were detected. Five different types of point mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E BRAF mutation were detected exclusively in BOTs and LGSCs. Our study reports for the first time nuclear localization of EGFR in BOTs. The nuclear

  15. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  16. Colorectal cancer manifesting with metastasis to prolactinoma: report of a case involving symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy.

    PubMed

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Sunthornyothin, Sarat

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary metastasis is an uncommon first presentation of systemic malignancy. The most common presenting symptom of pituitary metastasis is diabetes insipidus reflecting involvement of the stalk and/or posterior pituitary. We herein present a unique case of the coexistence of both a functioning pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) and pituitary metastasis of advanced colorectal cancer with pituitary apoplexy as the first manifestation of underlying malignancy. The present case emphasizes the need to consider pituitary metastasis as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with pituitary lesions and be aware that tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur unexpectedly in those with pituitary metastases.

  17. Complications of mandibular reconstruction in childhood: Report of a case of Juvenile Aggressive Fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Meloni, Silvio Mario; Raho, Maria Teresa; Tullio, Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Juvenile aggressive fibromatosis is an acquired disease affecting young children. There are two types: superficial and deep; the first is not aggressive whilst the second invades other tissues deeply. This is a case report of the deep variant of juvenile aggressive fibromatosis of the lateral mandible affecting a 24-month-old young female patient. The tumour has been treated surgically by resection of the mandible and reconstruction with a rib-graft. To by-passs resorption of the rib-graft and to re-establish the correct three-dimensional shape of the facial skeleton, osteodistraction of the reconstructed mandible was performed six months post-peratively. In this article the surgical techniques to reconstruct the mandible in young children are discussed.

  18. p53 tumour suppressor gene expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, C; Ziske, C; Wiedenmann, B; Moelling, K

    1996-01-01

    Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8675094

  19. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  20. A novel truncating AIP mutation, p.W279*, in a familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindred.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Taşkıran, Bengür; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Faucz, Fabio R; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-07-01

    Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) constitute 2-3% of pituitary tumours. AIP is the most commonly mutated gene in FIPA. We herein report a novel germline mutation of the AIP gene in a family with FIPA. We present two patients, a father and his 12-year-old daughter, diagnosed clinically and using laboratory measures with acromegaly-gigantism. Both underwent transsphenoidal hypophyseal surgery for macroadenomas. We initially detected a novel heterozygous germline AIP mutation, c.836G>A (p.W279*), in the father's DNA. We then found the same mutation in his affected daughter. Pituitary adenomas associated with AIP mutations mostly present as FIPA (68%) at an early age (78% occur at <30 years old). They are often growth hormone (GH) - or prolactin - secreting macroadenomas (88%) that have already extended beyond the sella at the time of diagnosis. Acromegalic cases are resistant to somatostatin analogues and multimodal management is frequently essential to control the disease. Our patients had normalized GH/IGF-1 values soon after surgery, although enough time may not have elapsed to reach final cure. While penetrance of the disease can be as low as 10% in FIPA, especially children and young patients with somatotropinoma and prolactinoma should be surveyed for inactivating mutations or deletions in AIP. Determining the causative mutations may be of assistance in early diagnosis, treatment success, and genetic counseling.

  1. Preoperative volume determination for pituitary adenoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukic, Dženan; Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H. A.; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma, and sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Manual slice-by-slice segmentation takes quite some time that can be reduced by using the appropriate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm that we have applied recently to segmenting glioblastoma multiforme. A modification of this scheme is used for adenoma segmentation that is much harder to perform, due to lack of contrast-enhanced boundaries. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of ten magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. The segmentations were compared to the segmentation results of the proposed method using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The average DSC for all datasets was 75.92%+/-7.24%. A manual segmentation took about four minutes and our algorithm required about one second.

  2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Feek, C M; Marante, D J; Edwards, C R

    1983-11-01

    Anterior pituitary corticotrophin cells secrete ACTH as part of a larger precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin. Post-translational cleavage of this precursor yields three major peptides: ACTH, beta-LPH and N-POMC. Experiments both in vivo and in vitro suggest that N-POMC may act as a prohormone amplifier for ACTH-induced adrenal steroidogenesis and as regulator of adrenocortical cell growth. The secretion of POMC is under the control of CRF. These findings are discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of corticotrophinoma. The primary defect in this condition appears to reside at the level of the anterior pituitary cell and is readily amenable to treatment by trans-sphenoidal microsurgery. The estimation of plasma ACTH concentrations is proving useful in the monitoring of various clinical conditions including Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  3. Semi-supervised analysis of human brain tumours from partially labeled MRS information, using manifold learning models.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Barbosa, Raúl; Vellido, Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    Medical diagnosis can often be understood as a classification problem. In oncology, this typically involves differentiating between tumour types and grades, or some type of discrete outcome prediction. From the viewpoint of computer-based medical decision support, this classification requires the availability of accurate diagnoses of past cases as training target examples. The availability of such labeled databases is scarce in most areas of oncology, and especially so in neuro-oncology. In such context, semi-supervised learning oriented towards classification can be a sensible data modeling choice. In this study, semi-supervised variants of Generative Topographic Mapping, a model of the manifold learning family, are applied to two neuro-oncology problems: the diagnostic discrimination between different brain tumour pathologies, and the prediction of outcomes for a specific type of aggressive brain tumours. Their performance compared favorably with those of the alternative Laplacian Eigenmaps and Semi-Supervised SVM for Manifold Learning models in most of the experiments.

  4. Canine mammary tumour cell lines established in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E

    1993-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common tumours in the female dog. The tumours have a complex histology and exist in epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal forms. To study the biology of canine mammary tumours, five cell lines have been established and characterized. The results indicate that canine mammary tumours might be derived from mammary stem cells and that the tumour growth is independent of oestrogens. The established canine mammary tumour cell lines will be valuable tools in further studies of the histogenesis and pathogenesis of these tumours.

  5. Adult Wilms' Tumour: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Modi, Sunny; Tiang, Kor Woi; Inglis, Po; Collins, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) is the most common renal tumour in children. Wilms' tumour in adults is extremely rare and has a poorer prognosis than paediatric Wilms' tumour. It is difficult to differentiate adult Wilms' tumour from renal cell carcinoma based on radiological findings alone. The diagnosis in adults is often serendipitous following nephrectomy for presumed renal cell carcinoma. Because of the paucity of literature, there are no standard protocols for the management of adult Wilms' tumour, and therefore, it is managed as per paediatric Wilms' tumour. Herein, we report the case of adult Wilms' tumour in a 43-year-old man, which was diagnosed unexpectedly following nephrectomy for presumed renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Adamantinoma: an unusual bone tumour.

    PubMed

    Roque, Pedro; Mankin, Henry J; Rosenberg, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Adamantinoma is a rare tumour, which most often affects the tibia and produces lytic and sometimes destructive lesions, which can cause fractures. The lesions occur principally in adults and are more common in males. A small percentage of the patients develop metastases, sometimes quite late in the course. Our institution has treated 42 patients with adamantinomas since 1972 and has evaluated them by imaging studies and histology. The majority of the patients were treated by resection of the lesion and insertion of an intercalary allograft. Only three of the patients died of disease with the time until death ranging from 10 to 17 years. Recurrence occurred in only three patients and the allograft success rate in terms of function was 71% at a mean time of 10 years.

  7. Targeting the hypoxic fraction of tumours using hypoxia-activated prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of a microenvironment within most tumours containing regions of low oxygen tension or hypoxia has profound biological and therapeutic implications. Tumour hypoxia is known to promote the development of an aggressive phenotype, resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Paradoxically, it is recognised as a high-priority target and one of the therapeutic strategies designed to eradicate hypoxic cells in tumours is a group of compounds known collectively as hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) or bioreductive drugs. These drugs are inactive prodrugs that require enzymatic activation (typically by 1 or 2 electron oxidoreductases) to generate cytotoxic species with selectivity for hypoxic cells being determined by (1) the ability of oxygen to either reverse or inhibit the activation process and (2) the presence of elevated expression of oxidoreductases in tumours. The concepts underpinning HAP development were established over 40 years ago and have been refined over the years to produce a new generation of HAPs that are under preclinical and clinical development. The purpose of this article is to describe current progress in the development of HAPs focusing on the mechanisms of action, preclinical properties and clinical progress of leading examples.

  8. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the pleura: a case report with unusual follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ostoros, Gyula; Orosz, Zsolt; Kovács, Gábor; Soltész, Ilona

    2002-06-01

    In 1994 a 19-year-old woman presented with a few weeks history of back ache. Routine chest X-ray and CT examination revealed a lesion originating from the parietal pleura and destroying the ribs. The tumour was resected during thoracotomy. The histological examination raised the possibility of atypical carcinoid tumour. One year later the tumour recurred. After its re-resection, the patient received radiotherapy. Three years after the initial presentation multiple pulmonary metastases developed. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, receiving vincristine, epi-adriamycin and cyclophosphamide in 8 cycles, which resulted in complete remission. Between 1998 and 1999 progressions and partial remissions were observed, while the patient received further cycles of chemotherapy. Histological revision was performed in 1999 and a final diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the pleura was made. Immunohistochemically co-expression of cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin, and NSE was observed. The patient died in June 2000. The whole follow-up period was 76 months. We thought this case to be worth for presentation because this unusual long survival, which was probably due to the aggressive complex anticancer treatment.

  9. Beneficial role of overexpression of TFPI-2 on tumour progression in human small cell lung cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Marion; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Blechet, Claire; Guyetant, Serge; Pape, Alain Le; Heuze-Vourc’h, Nathalie; Courty, Yves; Lerondel, Stephanie; Sobilo, Julien; Iochmann, Sophie; Reverdiau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potent inhibitor of plasmin, a protease which is involved in tumour progression by activating (MMPs). This therefore makes TFPI-2 a potential inhibitor of invasiveness and the development of metastases. In this study, low levels of TFPI-2 expression were found in 65% of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive type of lung cancer. To study the impact of TFPI-2 in tumour progression, TFPI-2 was overexpressed in NCI-H209 SCLC cells which were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Investigations showed that TFPI-2 inhibited lung tumour growth. Such inhibition could be explained in vitro by a decrease in tumour cell viability, blockade of G1/S phase cell cycle transition and an increase in apoptosis shown in NCI-H209 cells expressing TFPI-2. We also demonstrated that TFPI-2 upregulation in NCI-H209 cells decreased MMP expression, particularly by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-3. Moreover, TFPI-2 inhibited phosphorylation of the MAPK signalling pathway proteins involved in the induction of MMP transcripts, among which MMP-1 was predominant in SCLC tissues and was inversely expressed with TFPI-2 in 35% of cases. These results suggest that downregulation of TFPI-2 expression could favour the development of SCLC. PMID:23905012

  10. Brain Tumour Segmentation based on Extremely Randomized Forest with high-level features.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Adriano; Pereira, Sergio; Correia, Higino; Oliveira, J; Rasteiro, Deolinda M L D; Silva, Carlos A

    2015-08-01

    Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive brain tumours. Segmentation of these tumours is important for surgery and treatment planning, but also for follow-up evaluations. However, it is a difficult task, given that its size and locations are variable, and the delineation of all tumour tissue is not trivial, even with all the different modalities of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We propose a discriminative and fully automatic method for the segmentation of gliomas, using appearance- and context-based features to feed an Extremely Randomized Forest (Extra-Trees). Some of these features are computed over a non-linear transformation of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using the publicly available Challenge database from BraTS 2013, having obtained a Dice score of 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73 for the complete tumour, and the core and the enhanced regions, respectively. Our results are competitive, when compared against other results reported using the same database.

  11. Outcome-based profiling of astrocytic tumours identifies prognostic gene expression signatures which link molecular and morphology-based pathology.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Christian; Bergner, Sven; Brodoehl, Stefan; Brodhun, Michael; Ewald, Christian; Kalff, Rolf; Krüger, Jutta; Patt, Stephan; Kiehntopf, Michael; Deufel, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Astrocytomas are intracranial malignancies for which invasive growth and high motility of tumour cells preclude total resection; the tumours usually recur in a more aggressive and, eventually, lethal form. Clinical outcome is highly variable and the accuracy of morphology-based prognostic statements is limited. In order to identify novel molecular markers for prognosis we obtained expression profiles of: i) tumours associated with particularly long recurrence-free intervals, ii) tumours which led to rapid patient death, and iii) tumour-free control brain. Unsupervised data analysis completely separated the three sample entities indicating a strong impact of the selection criteria on general gene expression. Consequently, significant numbers of specifically expressed genes could be identified for each entity. An extended set of tumours was then investigated by RT-PCR targeting 12 selected genes. Data from these experiments were summarised into a sample-specific index which assigns tumours to high- and low-risk groups as successfully as does morphology-based grading. Moreover, this index directly correlates with definite survival suggesting that integrated gene expression data allow individualised prognostic statements. We also analysed localisation of selected marker transcripts by in situ hybridization. Our finding of cell-specificity for some of these outcome-determining genes relates global expression data to the presence of morphological correlates of tumour behaviour and, thus, provides a link between morphology-based and molecular pathology. Our identification of expression signatures that are associated individually with clinical outcome confirms the prognostic relevance of gene expression data and, thus, represents a step towards eventually implementing molecular diagnosis into clinical practice in neuro-oncology.

  12. PITUITARY VOLUME IN SCHIZOPHRENIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Romo-Nava, F.; Hoogenboom, W.S.; Pelavin, P. E.; Alvarado, J.L.; Bobrow, L.H.; MacMaster, F.P.; Keshavan, M.; McCarley, R.W.; Shenton, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is converging evidence supporting hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) and chronic schizophrenia (CHSZ). Such an aberrant HPA activity might have volumetric consequences on the pituitary gland. However, previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies assessing pituitary volume (PV) in SSD are conflicting. The main objective of this study was to examine further PV in SSD. Methods PV were manually traced on structural MRIs in 137 subjects, including subjects with SPD (n=40), FESZ (n=15), CHSZ (n=15), and HC (n=67). We used an ANCOVA to test PV between groups and gender while controlling for inter-subject variability in age, years of education, socioeconomic status, and whole brain volume. Results Overall, women had larger PV than men, and within the male sample all SSD subjects had smaller PV than HC, statistically significant only for the SPD group. In addition, dose of medication, illness duration and age of onset were not associated with PV. Conclusion Chronic untreated HPA hyperactivity might account for smaller PV in SPD subjects, whereas the absence of PV changes in FESZ and CHSZ patients might be related to the normalizing effects of antipsychotics on PV. SPD studies offer a way to examine HPA related alterations in SSD without the potential confounds of medication effects. PMID:23522905

  13. Fractionated proton beam irradiation of pituitary adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ronson, Brian B.; Schulte, Reinhard W.; Han, Khanh P.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D. . E-mail: jdslater@dominion.llumc.edu

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: Various radiation techniques and modalities have been used to treat pituitary adenomas. This report details our experience with proton treatment of these tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pituitary adenomas treated with protons, who had at least 6 months of follow-up, were included in this analysis. Forty-two patients underwent a prior surgical resection; 5 were treated with primary radiation. Approximately half the tumors were functional. The median dose was 54 cobalt-gray equivalent. Results: Tumor stabilization occurred in all 41 patients available for follow-up imaging; 10 patients had no residual tumor, and 3 had greater than 50% reduction in tumor size. Seventeen patients with functional adenomas had normalized or decreased hormone levels; progression occurred in 3 patients. Six patients have died; 2 deaths were attributed to functional progression. Complications included temporal lobe necrosis in 1 patient, new significant visual deficits in 3 patients, and incident hypopituitarism in 11 patients. Conclusion: Fractionated conformal proton-beam irradiation achieved effective radiologic, endocrinological, and symptomatic control of pituitary adenomas. Significant morbidity was uncommon, with the exception of postradiation hypopituitarism, which we attribute in part to concomitant risk factors for hypopituitarism present in our patient population.

  14. Pituitary Adenoma Volumetry with 3D Slicer

    PubMed Central

    Nimsky, Christopher; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present pituitary adenoma volumetry using the free and open source medical image computing platform for biomedical research: (3D) Slicer. Volumetric changes in cerebral pathologies like pituitary adenomas are a critical factor in treatment decisions by physicians and in general the volume is acquired manually. Therefore, manual slice-by-slice segmentations in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which have been obtained at regular intervals, are performed. In contrast to this manual time consuming slice-by-slice segmentation process Slicer is an alternative which can be significantly faster and less user intensive. In this contribution, we compare pure manual segmentations of ten pituitary adenomas with semi-automatic segmentations under Slicer. Thus, physicians drew the boundaries completely manually on a slice-by-slice basis and performed a Slicer-enhanced segmentation using the competitive region-growing based module of Slicer named GrowCut. Results showed that the time and user effort required for GrowCut-based segmentations were on average about thirty percent less than the pure manual segmentations. Furthermore, we calculated the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) between the manual and the Slicer-based segmentations to proof that the two are comparable yielding an average DSC of 81.97±3.39%. PMID:23240062

  15. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence.

    PubMed

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Haedo, Mariana R; Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-17

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence.

  16. Diabetes insipidus following resection of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Schreckinger, Matthew; Szerlip, Nicholas; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a common complication following pituitary surgery and can be transient or permanent. Neurogenic DI occurs following injury to the magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamus that produce and transport arginine vasopressin (AVP) and form the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract. DI is defined by a constellation of signs and symptoms resulting in dilute high-volume urine output and increasing serum osmolality. The body's inability to concentrate urine leaves the patient dehydrated and leads to metabolic abnormalities that can be life threatening if not recognized and treated in a timely manner with an exogenous AVP analog. The reported incidence of postsurgical central DI varies from 1 to 67%. This wide range likely reflects inconsistencies in the working definition of DI across the literature. Factors affecting the rate of DI include pituitary tumor size, adherence to surrounding structures, surgical approach, and histopathology of pituitary lesion. The likelihood of postoperative DI can be reduced by careful preservation of the neurovascular structures of the hypothalamus, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis. Vigilance and meticulous surgical technique are essential to minimize injury to these critical regions that can lead to postsurgical DI.

  17. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  18. Tracking the dynamics of circulating tumour cell phenotypes using nanoparticle-mediated magnetic ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudineh, Mahla; Aldridge, Peter M.; Ahmed, Sharif; Green, Brenda J.; Kermanshah, Leyla; Nguyen, Vivian; Tu, Carmen; Mohamadi, Reza M.; Nam, Robert K.; Hansen, Aaron; Sridhar, Srikala S.; Finelli, Antonio; Fleshner, Neil E.; Joshua, Anthony M.; Sargent, Edward H.; Kelley, Shana O.

    2016-11-01

    Profiling the heterogeneous phenotypes of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in whole blood is critical to unravelling the complex and dynamic properties of these potential clinical markers. This task is challenging because these cells are present at parts per billion levels among normal blood cells. Here we report a new nanoparticle-enabled method for CTC characterization, called magnetic ranking cytometry, which profiles CTCs on the basis of their surface expression phenotype. We achieve this using a microfluidic chip that successfully processes whole blood samples. The approach classifies CTCs with single-cell resolution in accordance with their expression of phenotypic surface markers, which is read out using magnetic nanoparticles. We deploy this new technique to reveal the dynamic phenotypes of CTCs in unprocessed blood from mice as a function of tumour growth and aggressiveness. We also test magnetic ranking cytometry using blood samples collected from cancer patients.

  19. Perianal giant condyloma acuminata [buschke lowenstein tumour] - first case report from the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Chowdri, Nisar A; Gagloo, Mushtaq A; Parray, Fazal Q; Sheikh, Zahoor A; Rouf, A; Wani, A

    2007-10-01

    Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant condyloma acuminata is a rare entity with only less then 50 cases reported in English literature so far. No such case has been reported from the Kashmir valley. They are considered as intermediate lesions between simple condyloma acuminata and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. A 57-year-old heterosexual male presented with a giant perianal condyloma. The lesion was surgically excised completely. Postoperatively patient was put on topical 5-FU ointment. Patient is recurrence free 6 months after surgery. The giant condyloma acuminate is an aggressive tumour with propensity for recurrance and malignant transformation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. One such rare case is discussed with review of literature.

  20. Pituitary transplantation: Part 1. Successful reconstitution of pituitary-dependent hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N B; Zacur, H A; Allen, G S

    1985-03-01

    Neonatal or adult pituitary glands were transplanted to the median eminence of adult rats of the same or a histoincompatible inbred strain. The hormonal status of 39 transplanted rats and of control animals was evaluated by serial determination of serum prolactin and thyroxine. Grafts of neonatal tissue to adults of the same strain resulted in normal postoperative hormone levels. This indicates not only that pituitary grafts had survived, but also that the transplants were under hypothalamic control. Grafts of adult tissue were less successful. The prolactin value was lower, but still within the normal range, whereas the thyroxine value was lower than normal, suggesting that viable pituitary tissue had survived but was not under hypothalamic control. Transplantation across a histocompatibility barrier was uniformly unsuccessful. Postoperative prolactin levels were low and thyroxine levels were not significantly different from those in hypophysectomized controls.

  1. Pituitary fossa: a correlative anatomic and MR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, L.; Pech, P.; Daniels, D.; Charles, C.; Williams, A.; Haughton, V.

    1984-11-01

    This study characterizes the normal appearance of the pituitary fossa in partial saturation magnetic resonance (MR) images. In sagittal images, the pituitary fossa appears inhomogeneous. Correlation of sagittal MR images in normal subjects with sagittal cryomicrotomic images in cadavers suggests that the highest intensity signal from the posterior-inferior pituitary fossa is due to a fat pad. This conclusion was supported by MR images and postmortem cryotome sections obtained in normal subhuman primates.

  2. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  3. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours.

  4. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  5. A model of vascular tumour growth in mice combining longitudinal tumour size data with histological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ribba, Benjamin; Watkin, Emmanuel; Tod, Michel; Girard, Pascal; Grenier, Emmanuel; You, Benoît; Giraudo, Enrico; Freyer, Gilles

    2011-02-01

    Optimising the delivery of antiangiogenic drugs requires the development of drug-disease models of vascular tumour growth that incorporate histological data indicative of cytostatic action. In this study, we formulated a model to analyse the dynamics of tumour progression in nude mice xenografted with HT29 or HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In 30 mice, tumour size was periodically measured, and percentages of hypoxic and necrotic tissue were assessed using immunohistochemistry techniques on tumour samples after euthanasia. The simultaneous analysis of histological data together with longitudinal tumour size data prompted the development of a semi-mechanistic model integrating random effects of parameters. In this model, the peripheral non-hypoxic tissue proliferates according to a generalised-logistic equation where the maximal tumour size is represented by a variable called 'carrying capacity'. The ratio of the whole tumour size to the carrying capacity was used to define the hypoxic stress. As this stress increases, non-hypoxic tissue turns hypoxic. Hypoxic tissue does not stop proliferating, but hypoxia constitutes a transient stage before the tissue becomes necrotic. As the tumour grows, the carrying capacity increases owing to the process of angiogenesis. The model is shown to correctly predict tumour growth dynamics as well as percentages of necrotic and hypoxic tissues within the tumour. We show how the model can be used as a theoretical tool to investigate the effects of antiangiogenic treatments on tumour growth. This model provides a tool to analyse tumour size data in combination with histological biomarkers such as the percentages of hypoxic and necrotic tissue and is shown to be useful for gaining insight into the effects of antiangiogenic drugs on tumour growth and composition.

  6. Intracranial aggressive fibromatosis presenting as panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, A; Cesur, M; Aktaş, B; Utkan, G; Gedik, V Tonyukuk; Erdogan, Mf; Kamel, N

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a rare, locally aggressive, proliferative fibroblastic lesion affecting musculoaponeurotic structures, most often, of the limbs and trunk. Intracranial AF is extremely rare and requires aggressive treatment to prevent recurrence. We present a case of a 34 year-old male with AF involving intracranial structures causing panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. Patient was admitted to hospital because of polyuria, polydipsia, and loss of libido, impotence, hearing loss, and gait disturbance. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging, the lesion extended through the sphenoid sinus into the both pterygoid recesses, destroying the left lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus and invading the retroorbital area. There was also a distinct lesion in the hypothalamic area. The tumor was markedly isointense on both T2- and T1-weighted images relative to gray matter, and enhanced strongly after administration of gadolinium. The patient underwent partial resection of the lesion via a transcranial approach. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as AF. No other sites were found to be involved by thorax and abdominal tomography. Hormonal assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction revealed panhypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus. Replacement therapy was instituted. In this case, standard treatment of wide-field surgical resection was impossible. On the basis of reports that radiotherapy is an effective treatment for this kind of tumor, we administered radiation to the affected area, since chemotherapy and hormonal treatment of non-resectable tumors are not satisfactory. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AF presenting as panhypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus.

  7. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  8. [Macroprolactinemia associated with pituitary macroadenoma: treatment with quinagolide].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Gergely; Szücs, Nikolette; Kender, Zoltán; Czirják, Sándor; Rácz, Károly

    2010-06-27

    According to current concept, macroprolactin is biologically inactive and, therefore, its accumulation in serum has little, if any, pathological significance. Authors present the history of a 80-year-old man who proved to have, among other associated disorders, an intra- and parasellar pituitary tumor measuring 21x12x12 mm in size which was revealed by pituitary MRI. His hormonal evaluation indicated a marked hyperprolactinemia mainly due to macroprolactinemia (total prolactin, 514 ng/ml; reference range, 1.6-10.7 ng/ml; macroprolactin 436 ng/ml, monomer prolactin 78.2 ng/ml). Tests for function of the pituitary-thyroid axis showed a mild subclinical primary hypothyroidism. The function of the pituitary-adrenal axis was normal, and other hormonal tests revealed low-normal serum gonadotropins and decreased testosterone level, whereas serum insulin-like growth factor I was normal. Although the majority of current guidelines state that dopamine-agonist treatment which is successfully used in prolactin-producing pituitary tumors and in other hyperprolactinemic disorders is unnecessary in patients with macroprolactinemia, the authors introduced a dopamine-agonist, quinagolide. During prolonged treatment, plasma prolactin returned close to the upper limit of normal (12.3 ng/ml) and 9 months after the beginning of treatment pituitary MRI showed a remarkable shrinkage of the pituitary tumor. Authors propose that in this patient the pituitary tumor secreted macroprolactin, and they recommend a treatment trial with dopamine-agonist in pituitary macroadenomas associated with macroprolactinemia.

  9. Delayed puberty due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Kyung Mook; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Suh, Sang Il; Kim, Nan Hee; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop

    2006-03-01

    Hypopituitarism is not a common cause of delayed puberty. A 22 year old man was referred to our clinic because of the absence of the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The patient had no complaints of physical discomfort. Random serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone level were obtained and found to be low. The combined pituitary function stimulation test revealed a partial hypopituitarism. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and showed decreased pituitary stalk enhancement and ectopic neurohypophysis. Therefore, we conclude that the delayed puberty was a result of hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk dysgenesis and ectopic neurohypophysis. The patient was started on hormone replacement therapy and gradually developed secondary sexual characteristics.

  10. PRKAR1A and the evolution of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2010-09-15

    Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited tumor predisposition associated with pituitary tumors, including GH-producing pituitary adenomas and rare reports of prolactinomas. This disease is caused by mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced PKA signaling, which leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene have not been detected in sporadic pituitary tumors, but there is some data to suggest that non-genomic mechanisms may cause loss of protein expression. Unlike CNC patients, mice heterozygous for Prkar1a mutations do not develop pituitary tumors, although complete knockout of the gene in the Pit1 lineage of the pituitary produces GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. These data indicate that complete loss of Prkar1a/PRKAR1A is able to cause pituitary tumors in mice and men. The pattern of tumors is likely related to the signaling pathways employed in specific pituitary cell types.

  11. Contrast‐enhanced ultrasound of pancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Crosara, Stefano; Dal Corso, Flavia; Barbi, Emilio; Canestrini, Stefano; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Indication/purpose: To review contrast‐enhanced ultrasound features of the most common pancreatic tumours. Methods: Contrast‐enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can provide distinctive features of pancreatic tumours that are reported in the present paper, providing radiologic‐pathological correlations and clarifying the main differential diagnosis. Conclusion: Contrast‐enhanced ultrasound plays a well‐established role in the evaluation of pancreatic tumours. When possible, CEUS should be always performed after the initial US diagnosis, in order to improve the accuracy of the first line examination. PMID:28191218

  12. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

  13. Transoral robotic surgery for retromolar trigone tumours.

    PubMed

    Durmus, K; Apuhan, T; Ozer, E

    2013-12-01

    The retromolar trigone is a challenging transoral surgical site due to the difficulty of visualization. Our aim is to report a new technique of transoral robotic resection of retromolar trigone tumours. We present three patients with retromolar trigone tumours with pathological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma who underwent successful transoral robotic resection. Robotic retromolar trigone resection and concurrent supraomohyoid neck dissections were performed in all patients without any complication. In conclusion, transoral robotic surgery is a safe and feasible technique for resection of malignant retromolar trigone tumours with minimal complications and favourable outcomes.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of indium-111 (In-111) octreotide pituitary activity: Comparison in patient with and without pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.; Waxman, A.; Nguyen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Indium 111 Octreotide is known to detect pituitary tumors. Variable low level pituitary activity has been reported in pts. with no demonstrable pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no studies which quantitatively categorize pituitary activity with respect to distinguishing normal subject from pts. with pituitary tumors. 13 pts. with proven, treated acromegaly were included, as well as 15 pts. with no history of pituitary disorder. Both groups underwent SPECT In-111 scintigraphy 24 hours post-injection Average count per pixel ratios were obtained for the pituitary/calvarium (P/C) and pituitary/brain (P/B) regions. 10 pts. with acromegaly underwent growth hormone (GH) measurements 2 hours post-glucose load. Statistical correlation between growth hormone levels using P/C and P/B ratios were obtained. P/C ratios, as well as P/B ratios demonstrated high correlation with serum GH levels correlation coefficient(r)= .717 for P/C p<0.05, and correlation coefficient(r) = 0.828 for P/B ratios p<0.005. P/C ratios and P/B ratios for controls correlated closely with the upper level of normal predicted by P/C or P/B ratios as a function of serum growth hormone found in patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor SPECT scintigraphy of the pituitary and appropriate quantitation can predict patients with growth hormone secreting tumors.

  15. Acromegaly with negative pituitary MRI and no evidence of ectopic source: the role of transphenoidal pituitary exploration?

    PubMed

    Daud, Sameera; Hamrahian, Amir H; Weil, Robert J; Hamaty, Marwan; Prayson, Richard A; Olansky, Leann

    2011-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas of the pituitary gland are usually macroadenomas (>10 mm in size). Often these adenomas are locally invasive by the time of diagnosis. Acromegaly secondary to a very small pituitary microadenoma not visualized on pituitary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is rare. We report a patient with acromegaly and an unremarkable pituitary MR imaging who had negative work up for ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) or GH secreting tumors. Transsphenoidal pituitary exploration revealed a pituitary adenoma located on the left side of the sella against the medial wall of the cavernous sinus extending posteriorly along the floor of the sella all the way to the right side. The acromegaly was treated with resection of the pituitary adenoma and normalization of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and GH levels. In a patient with acromegaly and unremarkable pituitary MR imaging, with no evidence of ectopic GH and GHRH production, transsphenoidal pituitary exploration is a reasonable approach and may result in clinical improvement and biochemical cure in the hand of experienced surgeon. This approach may avoid long term medical treatment with its associated cost.

  16. Fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiao-Zhu; Li, Chiao-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Lin, Meng-Chi; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Liu, Feng-Chen; Chen, Yuan-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The fatal type of antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare but life-threating condition. It may be triggered by surgery or infection. Endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery is a common procedure for pituitary tumor. We report a catastrophic case of a young woman died of fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery. Methods and Result: A 31-year-old woman of a history of stroke received endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor. The whole procedure was smooth. However, the patient suffered from acute delirium on postoperative day 4. Then, her consciousness became comatose state rapidly with dilatation of pupils. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging of brain demonstrated multiple acute lacunar infarcts. The positive antiphosphoipid antibody and severe thrombocytopenia were also noted. Fatal antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed. Plasma exchange, corticosteroids, anticoagulant agent were prescribed. The hemodynamic condition was gradually stable. However, the consciousness was still in deep coma. The patient died of organ donation 2 months later. Conclusion: If patients have a history of cerebral stroke in their early life, such as a young stroke, the APS and higher risk of developing fatal APS after major surgery should be considered. The optimal management of APS remains controversial. The best treatment strategies are only early diagnosis and aggressive therapies combing of anticoagulant, corticosteroid, and plasma exchange. The intravenous immunoglobulin is prescribed for patients with refractory APS. PMID:28072724

  17. Immunohistochemical Expression of p16 and p21 in Pituitary Tissue Adjacent to Pituitary Adenoma versus Pituitary Tissue Obtained at Autopsy: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed

    Manojlovic Gacic, Emilija; Skender-Gazibara, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Dundjerovic, Dusko; Boricic, Novica; Raicevic, Savo; Popovic, Vera

    2015-05-01

    Normal pituitary tissue is frequently used for comparison with protein expression in tumor tissue, being obtained either at surgery or at autopsy. p16 and p21 proteins are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, belonging to INK4 and Cip/Kip family, respectively. Their expression is increased in response to DNA damage or other cellular stressors, resulting in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints. They also play important roles in cellular senescence. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in p16 and p21 immunohistochemical expression in normal pituitary tissue adjacent to pituitary adenoma obtained during neurosurgical procedure with pituitary tissue obtained at autopsy, from patients who died from non-endocrinological diseases. Our results show significant difference in p16 nuclear and p21 cytoplasmic immunohistochemical expression between two types of normal pituitary tissues. One of the reasons for this difference could be the age of subjects because those who underwent autopsy for a non-endocrinological disease were significantly older than subjects who underwent neurosurgery for a pituitary adenoma. Our finding that differences are probably not influenced by postmortem changes is supported by no significant correlation between postmortem interval and immunohistochemical p16 and p21 expression. The influence of the presence of a pituitary adenoma could not be evaluated in these specimens.

  18. [Malignant phyllodes tumour : a case report].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, J; Burlet, O; Sylvestre, R M; Wetz, P; Delvenne, Ph

    2016-11-01

    A 28 year old woman has suffered over the previous month from a post-traumatic swelling sensation of the left breast. Ultrasonography demonstrates a 9 cm, sharply-cut, rounded, hypo-echogenic lesion. Surgery is performed, with the hypothesis of an haematoma. The pathological analysis of the lesion shows a malignant phyllodes tumour with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous features. No metastasis is found. A radical mastectomy is performed and the patient benefits from an adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Phyllodes tumours represent up to 1 % of all mammary cancers, with 10-20 % of malignant lesions. These tumours behave differently from usual breast cancers. This atypical case, arising in a traumatic context, provides the opportunity to discuss the treatment and classification of phyllodes tumours of the breast.

  19. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Junginger, J; Röthlisberger, A; Lehmbecker, A; Stein, V M; Ludwig, D C; Baumgärtner, W; Seehusen, F

    2013-11-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd dog was presented with paraparesis quickly progressing to paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass beneath the thoracolumbar vertebral column infiltrating the spinal canal and resulting in severe extradural compression of the spinal cord. Microscopically, this comprised a cell-rich unencapsulated tumour supported by fine bands of a fibrovascular stroma and occasionally forming primitive rosettes. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumour cells to express synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had low to moderate numbers of intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour was diagnosed. This is a rare embryonal tumour of neural origin that may have arisen from adrenal medulla, autonomic ganglia or peripheral nerves.

  20. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  1. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  2. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  3. Tumour-targeted nanomedicines: principles and practice

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, T; Hennink, W E; Storm, G

    2008-01-01

    Drug targeting systems are nanometre-sized carrier materials designed for improving the biodistribution of systemically applied (chemo)therapeutics. Various different tumour-targeted nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, and clear evidence is currently available for substantial improvement of the therapeutic index of anticancer agents. Here, we briefly summarise the most important targeting systems and strategies, and discuss recent advances and future directions in the development of tumour-targeted nanomedicines. PMID:18648371

  4. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells undergo malignant transformation via indirect co-cultured with tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Yalan; Bai, Lu; Cui, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as well as being potential carriers for tumour therapy. However, the safety of using MSCs in tumours is unknown. Herein, we analyse malignant transformation of MSCs in the tumour microenvironment. Rat bone marrow MSCs were cultured with malignant rat glioma C6 cells without direct cell-cell contact. After 7 days, the cells were assessed for transformation using flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and chromosomal analysis. In addition, wild-type (WT) p53, mutant p53 and mdm2 was determined using Western blotting. Almost all MSCs became phenotypically malignant cells, with significantly decreased WT p53 expression and increased expression of mutant p53 and mdm2, along with an aneuploid karyotype. To evaluate tumorigenesis in vivo, the MSCs indirect co-cultured with C6 cells for 7 days were transplanted subcutaneously into immuno-deficient mice. The cells developed into a large tumour at the injection site within 8 weeks, with systemic symptoms including cachexia and scoliosis. Pathological and cytological analysis revealed poorly differentiated pleomorphic cells with a dense vascular network and aggressive invasion into the adjacent muscle. These data demonstrate that MSCs became malignant cancer cells when exposed to the tumour microenvironment and suggest that factors released from the cancer cells have a critical role in the malignant transformation of MSCs.

  5. Targeting the NG2/CSPG4 proteoglycan retards tumour growth and angiogenesis in preclinical models of GBM and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Svendsen, Agnete; Kmiecik, Justyna; Immervoll, Heike; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Planagumà, Jesús; Reed, Rolf Kåre; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Miletic, Hrvoje; Enger, Per Øyvind; Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Chekenya, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the progenitor marker Neuron-glia 2 (NG2/CSPG4) or melanoma proteoglycan on cancer cells and angiogenic vasculature is associated with an aggressive disease course in several malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and melanoma. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of NG2 mediated malignant progression and its potential as a therapeutic target in clinically relevant GBM and melanoma animal models. Xenografting NG2 overexpressing GBM cell lines resulted in increased growth rate, angiogenesis and vascular permeability compared to control, NG2 negative tumours. The effect of abrogating NG2 function was investigated after intracerebral delivery of lentivirally encoded shRNAs targeting NG2 in patient GBM xenografts as well as in established subcutaneous A375 melanoma tumours. NG2 knockdown reduced melanoma proliferation and increased apoptosis and necrosis. Targeting NG2 in two heterogeneous GBM xenografts significantly reduced tumour growth and oedema levels, angiogenesis and normalised vascular function. Vascular normalisation resulted in increased tumour invasion and decreased apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that NG2 promotes tumour progression by multiple mechanisms and represents an amenable target for cancer molecular therapy.

  6. Nonfunctioning giant pituitary adenomas: Invasiveness and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Landeiro, José Alberto; Fonseca, Elissa Oliveira; Monnerat, Andrea Lima Cruz; Taboada, Giselle Fernandes; Cabral, Gustavo Augusto Porto Sereno; Antunes, Felippe

    2015-01-01

    Background: We report our surgical series of 35 patients with giant nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (GNFPA). We analyzed the rule of Ki-67 antigen expression in predicting recurrence. Methods: Thirty-five patients were operated between 2000 and 2010. Suprassellar extension of the tumors were classified according to Hardy and Mohr based on magnetic resonance (MR) studies. Pituitary endocrine function and MR scans were assessed preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Immunohistochemical studies were based in regard to the expression of the proliferative Ki-67 index and the hormonal receptor for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and prolactin. Tumors specimens were obtained from 35 patients with GNFPA. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was the approach of choice. Results: Thirty-five patients were submitted to 49 surgeries, 44 (89.8%) were transsphenoidal and 5 (10.2%) were transcranial. The most frequent preoperative complaints were visual acuity impairment and visual field defect in 25 (71.2%) and 23 (65.7%) cases, respectively. Improvement of visual acuitiy and visual field deficit after surgery was seen in 20 (80%) and 17 (73.9%) patients, respectively. Endocrinological deficits were encountered in 20 patients (57.1%). After surgery, 18 patients (51.4%) required hormonal replacement. Three patients had visual symptoms related to pituitary apoplexy and recovered after surgery. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) ranged from <1% to 4.8%. The rate of recurrence in tumors with Ki-67 <3% was 7.7% (2 patients), Ki-67 >3% was present in 5 patients and the recurrence committed 3 patients. Conclusion: In our series, regardless the improvement of visual function and compressing symptoms, 5 patients with expression of Ki-67 LI more than 3% experienced a recurrence. PMID:26674325

  7. A dynamical model of tumour immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frascoli, Federico; Kim, Peter S; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2014-07-01

    A coupled ordinary differential equation model of tumour-immune dynamics is presented and analysed. The model accounts for biological and clinical factors which regulate the interaction rates of cytotoxic T lymphocytes on the surface of the tumour mass. A phase plane analysis demonstrates that competition between tumour cells and lymphocytes can result in tumour eradication, perpetual oscillations, or unbounded solutions. To investigate the dependence of the dynamic behaviour on model parameters, the equations are solved analytically and conditions for unbounded versus bounded solutions are discussed. An analytic characterisation of the basin of attraction for oscillatory orbits is given. It is also shown that the tumour shape, characterised by a surface area to volume scaling factor, influences the size of the basin, with significant consequences for therapy design. The findings reveal that the tumour volume must surpass a threshold size that depends on lymphocyte parameters for the cancer to be completely eliminated. A semi-analytic procedure to calculate oscillation periods and determine their sensitivity to model parameters is also presented. Numerical results show that the period of oscillations exhibits notable nonlinear dependence on biologically relevant conditions.

  8. Smooth muscle tumours of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, T.; Danton, M. H.; Parks, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    Neoplasms arising from smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are uncommon, comprising only 1% of gastrointestinal tumours. A total of 51 cases of smooth muscle tumour of the GI tract were analysed; 44 leiomyomas and 7 leiomyosarcomas. Lesions occurred in all areas from the oesophagus to the rectum, the stomach being the commonest site. Thirty-six patients had clinical features referable to the tumour. The tumour was detected during investigation or management of an unrelated disease process in 15 patients. The clinical presentation varied depending on tumour location, but abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the commonest presenting symptoms. The lesion was demonstrated preoperatively, mainly by endoscopy and barium studies, in 27 patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice, where possible. There was no recurrence in the leiomyoma group but four patients died in the leiomyosarcoma group. Although rare, smooth muscle tumours should be considered in situations where clinical presentation and investigations are not suggestive of any common GI disorder. The preoperative assessment and diagnosis is difficult because of the variability in clinical features and their inaccessibility to routine GI investigation. It is recommended that, where possible, the lesion, whether symptomatic or discovered incidentally, should be excised completely to achieve a cure and prevent future complications. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2221768

  9. Loss of heterozygosity at the SS receptor type 5 locus in human GH- and TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Filopanti, M; Ballarè, E; Lania, A G; Bondioni, S; Verga, U; Locatelli, M; Zavanone, L M; Losa, M; Gelmini, S; Peri, A; Orlando, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2004-11-01

    SS receptor types 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) are involved in the control of secretion and proliferation of normal and tumoral somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. The mechanisms leading to reduced responsiveness to SS analogues in patients with pituitary tumors are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to verify the possible loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the sst5 gene locus in somatotroph and thyrotroph adenomas by screening leukocyte and tumor DNA for two single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. C1004T leading to P335L change and T-461C in the 5'-upstream region. Among the 13 informative samples, 1 GH- and 1 TSH-secreting adenoma showed LOH at sst5 gene locus with the retention of Leu335 variant. By analyzing other polymorphic markers spanning from telomere to 16p13.3-13.2 boundaries, DNA deletion of at least 1 megabase was found in both tumors. LOH in thyrotroph adenoma was associated with unusual tumor aggressiveness that required a second surgery and resistance to SS analogs, while no obvious phenotype was identified in the case of the somatotroph adenoma. In conclusions, LOH at the sst5 gene locus is a rare phenomenon, occurring in about 10% of pituitary tumors, that seems to be associated with an aggressive phenotype, at least in thyrotroph adenomas. Further studies are required to confirm this association and to identify the genes, in addition to sst5, lost in these tumors.

  10. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases. PMID:27081236

  11. Overexpression of Id-1 is significantly associated with tumour angiogenesis in human pancreas cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Lee, Y W; Lee, J K; Choi, S H; Rhee, J C; Paik, S S; Kong, G

    2004-03-22

    It has been suggested that Id-1 has a critical role in the tumour progression and aggressiveness of several human cancers. However, the clinicopathological and biological significance of Id-1 overexpression remains unclear in human primary cancer. To investigate the association between Id-1 expression and cell proliferation or tumour angiogenesis, we examined the cell cycle kinetic indices (the proliferation and apoptotic indices, PI and AI) and intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) in 65 human pancreatic cancers. We also investigated the relationship between its expression and various clinicopathological factors to determine the clinical significance of Id-1 overexpression. Out of a total 65 cases, 32 (49.3%) showed overexpression of Id-1 vs normal tissues. Id-1 expression was found to be significantly associated with MVD (P=0.002). In further analysis of subgroups with higher and lower Id-1 expression, tumours with higher Id-1 expression (scores 4 and 5) showed significantly higher MVD than tumours with lower expression of Id-1 (scores 2 and 3) (111.18+/-57.14 vs 64.13+/-28.19, P<0.001). However, no significant association was found between Id-1 overexpression and patient survival rate. No significant association was also found between Id-1 expression and cell cycle kinetic indices (PI or AI) in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the overexpression of Id-1 protein was not correlated with any significant clinicopathologic factors. These findings indicate that Id-1 overexpression is closely related with tumour angiogenesis and a higher density of intratumoral vessel, but that it is not associated with a poorer prognosis of survival or a higher cell proliferative potential in human pancreatic cancer.

  12. Desmoid Tumours in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Review of 17 Patients from a Portuguese Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Anabela; Martins, Vilma; Santos, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Desmoid Tumours (DT) are benign tumours with an estimated incidence of 2-4 per million per year. Between 7-16% of them are associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and are mostly parietal or intra-abdominal. They are a challenge in relation to their unpredictable natural course, associated complications and difficult treatment. Aim The aim of the present study was to review the occurrence, management and follow-up of DT on FAP patients treated consecutively at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of clinical data from patients treated consecutively between 1993 and 2014. Patients’ data was gathered from clinical records. Data collection included the following variables: demographic data, genotype, FAP phenotype, data on FAP related surgery, DT diagnosis, location, size and number, DT treatment, patients’ status and follow-up data. Results The study population consisted of 17 patients from 9 families; with a mean age of 41 years, mostly women (59%) and most with a mutation either on codon 232 or 554. Most tumours had an intra-abdominal component (59%) with a mean size of 5cm. Fifteen patients were first treated with pharmacotherapy (Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and Tamoxifen). Five patients (29%) underwent surgery, 4 of them for complications of intra-abdominal tumours and 1 patient for abdominal wall tumours. Two patients underwent chemotherapy in relation to aggressive intra-abdominal disease. The mean follow-up time since diagnosis of DT was 123 months. Overall, 2 patients had remission, 11 patients had regression or stabilized disease, and 2 patients had progression. One patient died due to surgical complications. Conclusion Diagnosis of DT is based on clinical symptoms, without the need for screening, although imaging plays an important role once diagnosis is suspected. The treatment approach is conservative on most patients, leaving surgery for DT related complications. The follow

  13. Detection and Characterization of CD133+ Cancer Stem Cells in Human Solid Tumours

    PubMed Central

    d'Aquino, Riccardo; De Francesco, Francesco; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Galderisi, Umberto; Cavaliere, Carlo; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumour of bone. Solid tumours are made of heterogeneous cell populations, which display different goals and roles in tumour economy. A rather small cell subset can hold or acquire stem potentials, gaining aggressiveness and increasing expectancy of recurrence. The CD133 antigen is a pentaspan membrane glycoprotein, which has been proposed as a cancer stem cell marker, since it has been previously demonstrated to be capable of identifying a cancer initiating subpopulation in brain, colon, melanoma and other solid tumours. Therefore, our aim was to observe the possible presence of cells expressing the CD133 antigen within solid tumour cell lines of osteosarcoma and, then, understand their biological characteristics and performances. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, using SAOS2, MG63 and U2OS, three human sarcoma cell lines isolated from young Caucasian subjects, we were able to identify and characterize, among them, CD133+ cells showing the following features: high proliferation rate, cell cycle detection in a G2\\M phase, positivity for Ki-67, and expression of ABCG2 transporters. In addition, at the FACS, we were able to observe the CD133+ cell fraction showing side population profile and forming sphere-clusters in serum-free medium with a high clonogenic efficiency. Conclusions Taken together, our findings lead to the thought that we can assume that we have identified, for the first time, CD133+ cells within osteosarcoma cell lines, showing many features of cancer stem cells. This can be of rather interest in order to design new therapies against the bone cancer. PMID:18941626

  14. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival.

  15. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  16. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  17. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  18. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  19. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  20. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  1. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P

    2016-08-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT). Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirectly, at the presence and position of the adenoma. The first aim of this retrospective study was to compare findings of a multiple slice dynamic scanning protocol with those of a single slice dynamic protocol using a single slice CT scanner. The second aim was to compare the CT findings with surgical findings, and surgical findings with histopathological findings. Computed tomography with single and multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols was performed in 86 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Thirty dogs underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and pituitary specimens were collected as tumor, normal, mixed and neurohypophyseal samples and processed for histology. The pituitary flush was not detected more frequent in multiple slice dynamic scanning series than in single slice dynamic scanning series. However, in non-enlarged pituitaries, the flush was seen significantly more frequently than in enlarged pituitaries. Prediction of the nature of the tissue during hypophysectomy by the surgeon was inconclusive. In conclusion, when using a single slice CT scanner, both single or multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols can be used for localization of the neurohypophyseal flush, and, indirectly, the adenoma. However, based on this study, the aim of surgery in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism remains total adenohypophysectomy, and when the neurophypophysis is recognized, it may be left in situ.

  2. [An immobilising malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast].

    PubMed

    Fritsche, E; Hug, U; Winterholer, D

    2015-04-01

    Phyllodes tumours of the breast are rare occurrences, but they can reach huge dimensions. Descriptions of tumours whereby the women are immobilised as a consequence of the size of the tumour, are hard to find in the literature. In this presentation we show a case of a woman in otherwise healthy condition with a giant phyllodes tumour of her left breast. Because of the weight of the tumour, the patient could not leave her bed for more than 6 months.

  3. Association between sleep disordered breathing and aggressiveness markers of malignant cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Nagore, Eduardo; Valero, Irene; Selma, Maria Jose; Chiner, Eusebi; Landete, Pedro; Montserrat, Josep-Maria; Carrera, Cristina; Pérez-Gil, Amalia; Campos-Rodríguez, Francisco; Farré, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    Some recent studies have shown an association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and cancer mortality and incidence but no study has focused on a specific type of cancer. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between the severity of SDB and factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) aggressiveness. We performed a multicentre observational study in 82 consecutive patients diagnosed with CMM. 56 patients in whom melanoma measurements were available were finally included in the study. Melanoma measurements of aggressiveness included: tumour mitotic rate, Breslow index, presence of ulceration, stage of disease and growth rate of melanoma. A sleep study was performed in all the included patients. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the independent relationship between SDB severity (apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nocturnal oxygen desaturation indexes (ODI3% and ODI4%)) and measures of CMM aggressiveness. 60.7% of patients had SDB (AHI ≥ 5) and 14.3% severe obstructive sleep apnoea (AHI ≥ 30). In fully adjusted multivariate analyses, AHI (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14), ODI3% (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) and ODI4% (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02-1.2) were independently associated with an increased melanoma growth rate. Furthermore, AHI, ODI4% and ODI3% were significantly correlated with other aggressiveness factors of CMM, such as Breslow index, presence of ulceration and mitotic index. SDB severity markers are associated with some aggressiveness markers of CMM.

  4. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses

    A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  5. Moebius syndrome associated with pituitary dwarfism and hypoplastic optic disc.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, N; Sakakihara, Y; Miki, Y; Kagawa, J; Egi, S; Kamoshita, S

    1993-04-01

    A 17 year old male patient with Moebius syndrome with pituitary dwarfism and unilateral hypoplastic optic disc is presented. Although there have been several reports of an association of Moebius syndrome and pituitary dysfunction, growth hormone deficiency has not been reported previously. These associations may give some insight into the pathogenesis of Moebius syndrome.

  6. Pituitary-Brain Vascular Relations: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergland, Richard M.; Page, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the vascular anatomy of the pituitary and discusses a series of 14 questions concerning the functional implications of these anatomical observations. Together these questions attempt to identify whether pituitary hormones are transported directly to the brain to modify brain function. (HM)

  7. Pituitary Volume Prospectively Predicts Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Whittle, Sarah; Yucel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wood, Stephen J.; Lubman, Dan I.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early adolescence is a critical time for the development of both internalizing and externalizing disorders. We aimed to investigate whether pituitary volume, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, represents a vulnerability factor for the emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence…

  8. Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas: CT appearance in diffuse invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Virapongse, C.; Bhimani, S.; Sarwar, M.; Greenberg, A.; Jung, K.

    1984-08-01

    The authors describe 2 diffusely invasive prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas which produced marked destruction of the base of the skull thought to be diagnostic of chordoma on computed tomography (CT). Failure to recognize this pattern led to biopsy, which was diagnostic. The authors emphasize the need to recognize this rare growth pattern of diffusely invasive pituitary adenoma on CT.

  9. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  10. Giant cell tumour of bone in the denosumab era.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Lizz; Dijkstra, P D Sander; Blay, Jean-Yves; Gelderblom, Hans

    2017-03-30

    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an intermediate locally aggressive primary bone tumour, occurring mostly at the meta-epiphysis of long bones. Overexpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by mononuclear neoplastic stromal cells promotes recruitment of numerous reactive multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, causing lacunar bone resorption. Preferential treatment is curettage with local adjuvants such as phenol, alcohol or liquid nitrogen. The remaining cavity may be filled with bone graft or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement; benefits of the latter are a lower risk of recurrence, possibility of direct weight bearing and early radiographic detection of recurrences. Reported recurrence rates are comparable for the different local adjuvants (27-31%). Factors increasing the local recurrence risk include soft tissue extension and anatomically difficult localisations such as the sacrum. When joint salvage is impossible, en-bloc resection and endoprosthetic joint replacement may be performed. Local tumour control on the one hand and maintenance of a functional native joint and quality of life on the other hand are the main pillars of surgical treatment for this disease. Current knowledge and development in the fields of imaging, functional biology and systemic therapy are forcing us into a paradigm shift from a purely surgical approach towards a multidisciplinary approach. Systemic therapy with denosumab (RANKL inhibitor) or zoledronic acid (bisphosphonates) blocks, respectively inhibits, bone resorption by osteoclast-like giant cells. After use of zoledronic acid, stabilisation of local and metastatic disease has been reported, although the level of evidence is low. Denosumab is more extensively studied in two prospective trials, and appears effective for the optimisation of surgical treatment. Denosumab should be considered in the standard multidisciplinary treatment of advanced GCTB (e.g. cortical destruction, soft

  11. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  12. Accuracy of Various MRI Sequences in Determining the Tumour Margin in Musculoskeletal Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Putta, Tharani; Gibikote, Sridhar; Madhuri, Vrisha; Walter, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background It is imperative that bone tumour margin and extent of tumour involvement are accurately assessed pre-operatively in order for the surgeon to attain a safe surgical margin. In this study, we comprehensively assessed each of the findings that influence surgical planning, on various MRI sequences and compared them with the gold standard – pathology. Material/Methods In this prospective study including 21 patients with extremity bone tumours, margins as seen on various MRI sequences (T1, T2, STIR, DWI, post-gadolinium T1 FS) were measured and biopsies were obtained from each of these sites during the surgical resection. The resected tumour specimen and individual biopsy samples were studied to assess the true tumour margin. Margins on each of the MRI sequences were then compared with the gold standard – pathology. In addition to the intramedullary tumour margin, we also assessed the extent of soft tissue component, neurovascular bundle involvement, epiphyseal and joint involvement, and the presence or absence of skip lesions. Results T1-weighted imaging was the best sequence to measure tumour margin without resulting in clinically significant underestimation or overestimation of the tumour extent (mean difference of 0.8 mm; 95% confidence interval between −0.9 mm to 2.5 mm; inter-class correlation coefficient of 0.998). STIR and T1 FS post-gadolinium imaging grossly overestimated tumour extent by an average of 16.7 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively (P values <0.05). Post-gadolinium imaging was better to assess joint involvement while T1 and STIR were the best to assess epiphyseal involvement. Conclusions T1-weighted imaging was the best sequence to assess longitudinal intramedullary tumour extent. We suggest that osteotomy plane 1.5 cm beyond the T1 tumour margin is safe and also limits unwarranted surgical bone loss. However, this needs to be prospectively proven with a larger sample size. PMID:28058070

  13. The role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu Juan; Xu, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary tumors, the most common intracranial tumors, lead to serious morbidity through the inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones. The anomalous expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), which have a crucial status in the development and function of pituitary gland, promotes the tumorigenesis of hypothalamic-pituitary axis-related pituitary tumors. This mainly leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone. In the tumorigenesis of pituitary tumors, miRNAs have complex roles. They can induce cell cycle arrest, inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via different pathways; however, they also promote the occurrence of pituitary tumors through direct interactions with transcription factors. This review summarizes recent progress in the study of miRNAs on the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  14. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones: pathophysiology and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Inaba, Hidefumi; Takei, Masahiro; Takeda, Teiji; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid hormone secretion suppresses the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), both of which are strictly controlled by a negative feedback loop between the hypothalamus-pituitary and thyroid. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (PRTH) is defined as resistance to the action of thyroid hormone that is more severe in the pituitary than at the peripheral tissue level. Although the molecular basis of PRTH is not well understood, the clinical issue mainly involves imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral thyroid hormone responsivity, which may induce peripheral thyrotoxic phenomena. Here, we review the pathogenesis and molecular aspects of PRTH, present a single case with inappropriate TSH secretion suffering from thyrotoxicosis treated with PTU, and discuss the possible choice of therapeutic options to correct the imbalance of thyroid hormone responsivity in both the hypothalamus-pituitary and peripheral tissues.

  15. Thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma accompanying a silent somatotropinoma.

    PubMed

    Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Aydin, Yusuf; Tutuncu, Yasemin; Akdemir, Gokhan; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Guler, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting pituitary adenomas are rare tumors manifested as hyperthyroidism with goiter in the presence of elevated TSH. We present a case with pituitary adenoma secreting both TSH and growth hormone (GH) with the prominent clinical findings of hyperthyroidism but without clinical findings of acromegaly. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a macroadenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed twice. The immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly reactive to GH and relatively mildly reactive to TSH. Control pituitary imaging revealed a residual macroadenoma, and long acting octreotide treatment was administered. After two years of the treatment, tumor size remained the same while thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) values returned to normal ranges. In conclusion, we always recommend hormonal examinations for all patients who have pituitary adenoma without signs and symptoms of acromegaly.

  16. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  17. Identification of DLK1 variants in pituitary- and neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Altenberger, T; Bilban, M; Auer, M; Knosp, E; Wolfsberger, S; Gartner, W; Mineva, I; Zielinski, C; Wagner, L; Luger, A

    2006-02-17

    In a gene chip analysis of common pituitary tumor types, one of the genes with the most impressive tissue-specific expression regulation was delta-like 1 (DLK1), which was strongly expressed in GH-secreting (GH-S) pituitary tumors. In addition to pituitary adenomas, various endocrine tumors were subjected to real-time-quantitative PCR revealing high expression of DLK1 in normal pituitary tissue, in GH-S-, in one prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma and in pheochromocytomas. Additionally, three DLK1 gene-derived subvariants were identified. The first, lacking 204 bp--coding for epidermal growth factor-like domain 6 and parts of the juxtamembrane region--was named Secredeltin. In the other two splice variants (named Brevideltin and Brevideltinin), a stop codon is introduced due to a frame-shift, leading to truncated proteins of 204 and 213 aas, respectively.

  18. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  19. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  20. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells release a range of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors to attract macrophages, and these in turn release numerous factors (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9 and EGF) that are implicated in invasion-promoting processes such as tumour cell growth, flicking of the angiogenic switch and immunosuppression. TAM density has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, there are currently no agents that specifically target TAM's available for clinical use. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid, are anti-resorptive agents approved for treatment of skeletal complication associated with metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents act on osteoclasts, key cells in the bone microenvironment, to inhibit bone resorption. Over the past 30 years this has led to a great reduction in skeletal-related events (SRE's) in patients with advanced cancer and improved the morbidity associated with cancer-induced bone disease. However, there is now a growing body of evidence, both from in vitro and in vivo models, showing that zoledronic acid can also target tumour cells to increase apoptotic cell death and decrease proliferation, migration and invasion, and that this effect is significantly enhanced in combination with chemotherapy agents. Whether macrophages in the peripheral tumour microenvironment are exposed to sufficient levels of bisphosphonate to be affected is currently unknown. Macrophages belong to the same cell lineage as osteoclasts, the major target of BPs, and are highly phagocytic cells shown to be sensitive to