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Sample records for aggressive response generation

  1. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-09-30

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  2. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  3. Mothers' Responses to Preschoolers' Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…

  4. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  5. Differences in cortisol response affect the distinction of observed reactive and proactive aggression in children with aggressive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Kempes, M; de Vries, H; Matthys, W; van Engeland, H; van Hooff, J

    2008-01-01

    Various researchers distinguished two categories of aggressive behaviour, namely reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is an aggressive response to a perceived threat or provocation, whereas proactive aggression is behaviour that anticipates a reward. In the present study, including both a sample of disruptive behaviour disordered (DBD) and normal control (NC) children, we observed reactive and proactive aggressive behaviour during an experimental dyadic play session. DBD children showed more observed reactive and proactive aggression. Subsequently, we investigated whether the observed measures correlated with parent-rated measures of reactive and proactive aggression in. We distinguished in both NC and DBD children a subgroup showing a rise in cortisol level, i.e. responders, and a subgroup who did not show a rise in cortisol, i.e. non-responders. Results suggest that differences in the cortisol response affects the correspondence between observed and parent-rated reactive and proactive aggression since only DBD non-responders showed the expected correlations.

  6. Targeted drug induces responses in aggressive lymphomas

    Cancer.gov

    Preliminary results from clinical trials in a subtype of lymphoma show that for a number of patients whose disease was not cured by other treatments, the drug ibrutinib can provide significant anti-cancer responses with modest side effects.

  7. Aggression Questionnaire hostility scale predicts anger in response to mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Felsten, G; Hill, V

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the hostility and anger scales of the Buss and Perry (1992) [Buss, A. H. & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459.] Aggression Questionnaire would predict anger in college students in response to mistreatment. We found low and high hostility groups did not differ in anger at baseline or after completing a task without provocation, but the high hostility group reported greater anger than the low group after the onset of provocation, which required all students to redo completed tasks because some students (confederates) were observed cheating. Hostility also influenced anxiety and depression, but only anger was greater as a result of the provocation in the high than in the low hostility group. The anger scale did not predict anger in response to provocation, but anger was higher in the high than the low anger group before the provocation. These findings support the construct validity of the Aggression Questionnaire hostility scale as a measure of suspicion, resentment and sensitivity to mistreatment.

  8. Aggressive Periodontitis: microbes and host response, who to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Nibali, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift several decades ago elucidated that aggressive periodontitis (AgP) was not a degenerative disorder but a rapid progressive form of plaque-induced inflammatory periodontal disease. Ensuing years of research have led to linkage analysis identification of specific genetic defects responsible for AgP in some families and to the finding that subgingival detection of A. actinomycet-emcomitans JP2 clone is a predictive factor for disease onset and progression. However, rather disappointingly, these ‘proven’ risk factors are only detected in a small subset of AgP cases. Recent advances are leading to a new paradigm shift, with the realization that genetically-driven dysbiotic changes in the subgingival microbiota may predispose to a cascade of events leading to the rapid periodontal tissue destruction seen in AgP. This review tries to dissect the existing literature on the host response-microbial axis of AgP and to propose possible pathogenic pathways in line with current theories. PMID:25654663

  9. Types of aggressiveness and catecholamine response in essential hypertensives and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Netter, P; Neuhäuser-Metternich, S

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between plasma catecholamine responses, and levels and types of aggression in hyper- and normotensives were investigated by analyses of data obtained in a large psychophysiological experiment on 97 hypertensives (EH) and 98 normotensives (CO) each. Subjects were divided according to levels (high vs low) and types (repressed vs manifest) of aggressiveness according to self rating questionnaire scores. Their plasma catecholamine responses to defined stressors indicating sympathetic arousability were compared by four factor analyses of covariance adjusting for age. Repressed aggression was significantly more frequent among male EH, whereas manifest aggression was significantly more frequent among the male COs. High as compared to low hostility was associated with significantly elevated values of plasma epinephrine in EH but not in CO. The immediate norepinephrine stress response was blunted but showed a delayed increase during the subsequent period of rest in high aggressives of both the EH and CO group, a pattern particularly pronounced in repressed aggressive hypertensives. Neither cardiovascular reactions nor speed of performance were observed to be substantially different in subjects of repressed and of manifest hostility. It was concluded that aggression in general is characterized by a delayed norepinephrine stress response and that an association with high epinephrine is typical for aggressiveness in hypertensives. Repressed hostility, however, does not produce a sympathomedullary pattern substantially different from that of manifest aggression thus casting doubt on the physiological significance of repression claimed by Alexander.

  10. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression.

  11. College Professors' Perceptions of and Responses to Relational Aggression in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Andrea Owens

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of selected factors on professors' responses to relational aggression in college students. Specifically, this study explored the relationships between professors' gender, class size, level of empathy, ratings of seriousness of a relationally aggressive scenario, the gender of the perpetrator…

  12. Favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy in a patient with primary plasma cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lishner, M; Lang, R; Jutrin, I; Ravid, M

    1985-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia was diagnosed in a previously healthy 58-year-old man. The unusual presentation with concomitant multiple osteolytic lesions and hepatosplenomegaly, the favorable response to aggressive chemotherapy with COAP, and the relatively long survival of 22 months prompted this report. This and several other cases recently reported should encourage an aggressive therapeutic approach to this disease.

  13. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-04-07

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  14. Reciprocal Relations between the Trajectories of Mothers' Harsh Discipline, Responsiveness and Aggression in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Akcinar, Berna

    2017-02-18

    Theoretical advances in the study of the development of aggressive behaviors indicate that parenting behaviors and child aggression mutually influence one another. This study contributes to the body of empirical research in this area by examining the development of child aggression, maternal responsiveness, and maternal harsh discipline, using 5-year longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of Turkish children (n = 1009; 469 girls and 582 boys). Results indicated that: (i) maternal responsiveness and harsh discipline at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectory of aggression; (ii) reciprocally, aggressive behaviors at age 3 were associated with the subsequent linear trajectories of these two types of parenting behaviors; (iii) deviations from the linear trajectories of the child and mother behaviors tended to be short lived; and, (iv) the deviations of child behaviors from the linear trajectories were associated with the subsequent changes in mother behaviors after age 5. These findings are discussed in the cultural context of this study.

  15. Cyberbullying: Responses of Adolescents and Parents toward Digital Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Lo, Mickie

    2009-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a category of bullying that occurs in the digital realm which affects our students at astonishing rates. Unlike traditional bullying, where displays of aggression may be evident to bystanders, the ramification of cyberbullying occurs through unconventional ways (e.g., text messaging; online weblogs; video sharing), which results…

  16. When power shapes interpersonal behavior: Low relationship power predicts men's aggressive responses to low situational power.

    PubMed

    Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D; McNulty, James K; Finkel, Eli J

    2016-08-01

    When does power in intimate relationships shape important interpersonal behaviors, such as psychological aggression? Five studies tested whether possessing low relationship power was associated with aggressive responses, but (a) only within power-relevant relationship interactions when situational power was low, and (b) only by men because masculinity (but not femininity) involves the possession and demonstration of power. In Studies 1 and 2, men lower in relationship power exhibited greater aggressive communication during couples' observed conflict discussions, but only when they experienced low situational power because they were unable to influence their partner. In Study 3, men lower in relationship power reported greater daily aggressive responses toward their partner, but only on days when they experienced low situational power because they were either (a) unable to influence their partner or (b) dependent on their partner for support. In Study 4, men who possessed lower relationship power exhibited greater aggressive responses during couples' support-relevant discussions, but only when they had low situational power because they needed high levels of support. Study 5 provided evidence for the theoretical mechanism underlying men's aggressive responses to low relationship power. Men who possessed lower relationship power felt less manly on days they faced low situational power because their partner was unwilling to change to resolve relationship problems, which in turn predicted greater aggressive behavior toward their partner. These results demonstrate that fully understanding when and why power is associated with interpersonal behavior requires differentiating between relationship and situational power. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children.

  18. Aggression: the dominant psychological response in children with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Kvist, S B; Rajantie, J; Kvist, M; Siimes, M A

    1991-06-01

    During the 11-yr. period of 1976 to 1986 leukemia or lymphoma treatment at the Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki was electively discontinued for the children in 90 different families. Of the 53 (59%) patients (mean age 6.4 yr. at diagnosis and 12.8 yr. at completion of questionnaires) who agreed to participate in the present study, 48 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and five nonHodgkin lymphoma. Patients' and parents' impressions of the patients' psychological reactions during patients' prior chemotherapy were evaluated on parental and self-ratings. Also, knowledge of and presumed causes of the malignancy were studied. Patients' reactions of aggression, depression, eating disorders, hypersensitivity, phobic anxiety, death anxiety, and night terror were examined using factor analysis. Aggression, in the form of irritation and anger, was displayed more often by girls than by boys. Patients of families suffering from stress were prone to exhibit aggression in the form of mood changes, irritation, and anger. Patients with disease-related knowledge, as opposed to those less well informed, were less depressed. Discrepancies between parents' and patients' thoughts about the origin of the malignancy were noted.

  19. Neo-epitopes on methylglyoxal modified human serum albumin lead to aggressive autoimmune response in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jyoti; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Habib, Safia; Siddiqui, Sheelu Shafiq; Ali, Asif; Moinuddin

    2016-05-01

    Glyco-oxidation of proteins has implications in the progression of diabetes type 2. Human serum albumin is prone to glyco-oxidative attack by sugars and methylglyoxal being a strong glycating agent may have severe impact on its structure and consequent role in diabetes. This study has probed the methylglyoxal mediated modifications of HSA, the alterations in its immunological characteristics and possible role in autoantibody induction. We observed an exposure of chromophoric groups, loss in the fluorescence intensity, generation of AGEs, formation of cross-linked products, decrease in α-helical content, increase in hydrophobic clusters, FTIR band shift, attachment of methylglyoxal to HSA and the formation of N(ε)-(carboxyethyl) lysine in the modified HSA, when compared to the native albumin. MG-HSA was found to be highly immunogenic with additional immunogenicity invoking a highly specific immune response than its native counterpart. The binding characteristics of circulating autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients showed the generation of anti-MG-HSA auto-antibodies in the these patients, that are preferentially recognized by the modified albumin. We propose that MG induced structural perturbations in HSA, result in the generation of neo-epitopes leading to an aggressive auto-immune response and may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of diabetes type 2 associated complications.

  20. [Relationships among empathy, prosocial behavior, aggressiveness, self-efficacy and pupils' personal and social responsibility].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.

  1. Experiential and Psychological Responses Associated with Anger and Aggression in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frodi, Ann

    1978-01-01

    The study examines emotional and cognitive processes associated with a response to provocation, using the "stream of consciousness" technique, as well as mood and attitude questionnaires. Physiological processes (heart rate, electrodermal responses, and blood pressure) and sex differences in a display of aggressive behavior are also…

  2. Relationship of delay aversion and response inhibition to extinction learning, aggression, and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Filip; Spronk, Marjolein; Ferreira, Leila; Bloemarts, Emilie; Groenink, Lucianne; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald

    2006-11-25

    Impulsivity is an important symptom of many psychiatric disorders, and can be divided into two subtypes: response inhibition deficits and delay aversion. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between delay aversion and response inhibition, both to each other and to locomotion, extinction of conditioned responses, sexual behaviour, and aggressive behaviour. To that end, we quantified the behaviour of 24 rats in several tests. To measure response inhibition, rats were trained in a stop-signal task. In this operant task, rats were rewarded food if they inhibited execution of a response after presentation of an audible stop-signal. Delay aversion was measured in an operant task in which rats made a choice between a small, immediately available reward and a large reward available after a delay. The results showed that delay aversion and response inhibition were independent. Responses during extinction and various measures of aggressive behaviour were positively correlated to delay aversion. The speed of go-trials in the stop-task was correlated to non-aggressive behaviour. We conclude that the role of response inhibition in various behaviours is small, but delay aversion in particular contributes to several other behaviours, such as aggressive behaviour and extinction.

  3. Impulsivity and aggression mediate regional brain responses in Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Abraham, Kristy; Burgess, Ashley; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Chowdury, Asadur; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2017-02-28

    Fronto-limbic brain networks involved in regulation of impulsivity and aggression are abnormal in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However, it is unclear whether, or to what extent, these personality traits actually modulate brain responses during cognitive processing. Using fMRI, we examined the effects of trait impulsivity, aggression, and depressed mood on regional brain responses in 31 female BPD and 25 control subjects during a Go No-Go task using Ekman faces as targets. First-level contrasts modeled effects of negative emotional context. Second-level regression models used trait impulsivity, aggression and depressed mood as predictor variables of regional brain activations. In BPD, trait impulsivity was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), basal ganglia (BG), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with no areas of negative correlation. In contrast, aggression was negatively correlated with activation in OFC, hippocampus, and BG, with no areas of positive correlation. Depressed mood had a generally dampening effect on activations. Effects of trait impulsivity on healthy controls differed from effects in BPD, suggesting a disorder-specific response. Negative emotional context and trait impulsivity, but not aggression or depression, diminished task performance across both groups. Negative emotional context may interfere with cognitive functioning in BPD through interaction with the neurobiology of personality traits.

  4. Emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in preschoolers: the mediating role of social information processing.

    PubMed

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-02-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision) was measured from children's responses to hypothetical social conflicts. Findings revealed that the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was direct and not mediated by SIP biases (i.e., aggressive response generation, aggressive response evaluation and decision). Results are discussed from a theoretical and methodological perspective.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  6. Effects of Competition upon the Aggressive Responses of College Basketball Players and Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lawrence A.

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of winning and losing competition upon the aggressive responses of intercollegiate basketball players and wrestlers. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study was administered to 32 Springfield College undergraduates (1) during a normal emotional state, (2) after winning a content, and after losing…

  7. Depressive and aggressive responses to frustration: development of a questionnaire and its validation in a sample of male alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Baars, M Y; Müller, M J; Gallhofer, B; Netter, P

    2011-01-01

    Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.

  8. Metastatic Microenvironments Alter Breast Cancer Aggressiveness and Response to Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Figure 7 . For all sites of relapse, ER/PR negativity was associated with 7 increased metastases, except for bone , in which both ER+ and ER- tumors...a dataset of 779 tumors. Based on the site of first relapse data for liver, lung, brain and bone , Kaplan-Meier plots were generated, and subtype...Important findings included that: 1) bone metastasis was the most common—regardless of subtype (Table 1) , 2) brain relapse occurred most frequently in

  9. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  10. Individual responsiveness to shock and colony-level aggression in honey bees: evidence for a genetic component.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Arian; Rodríguez-Cruz, Yoselyn; Giray, Tugrul

    2014-05-01

    The phenotype of the social group is related to phenotypes of individuals that form that society. We examined how honey bee colony aggressiveness relates to individual response of male drones and foraging workers. Although the natural focus in colony aggression has been on the worker caste, the sterile females engaged in colony maintenance and defense, males carry the same genes. We measured aggressiveness scores of colonies and examined components of individual aggressive behavior in workers and haploid sons of workers from the same colony. We describe for the first time, that males, although they have no stinger, do bend their abdomen (abdominal flexion) in a posture similar to stinging behavior of workers in response to electric shock. Individual worker sting response and movement rates in response to shock were significantly correlated with colony scores. In the case of drones, sons of workers from the same colonies, abdominal flexion significantly correlated but their movement rates did not correlate with colony aggressiveness. Furthermore, the number of workers responding at increasing levels of voltage exhibits a threshold-like response, whereas the drones respond in increasing proportion to shock. We conclude that there are common and caste-specific components to aggressive behavior in honey bees. We discuss implications of these results on social and behavioral regulation and genetics of aggressive response.

  11. Individual responsiveness to shock and colony-level aggression in honey bees: evidence for a genetic component

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Arian; Rodríguez-Cruz, Yoselyn; Giray, Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of the social group is related to phenotypes of individuals that form that society. We examined how honey bee colony aggressiveness relates to individual response of male drones and foraging workers. Although the natural focus in colony aggression has been on the worker caste, the sterile females engaged in colony maintenance and defense, males carry the same genes. We measured aggressiveness scores of colonies and examined components of individual aggressive behavior in workers and haploid sons of workers from the same colony. We describe for the first time, that males, although they have no stinger, do bend their abdomen (abdominal flexion) in a posture similar to stinging behavior of workers in response to electric shock. Individual worker sting response and movement rates in response to shock were significantly correlated with colony scores. In the case of drones, sons of workers from the same colonies, abdominal flexion significantly correlated but their movement rates did not correlate with colony aggressiveness. Furthermore, the number of workers responding at increasing levels of voltage exhibits a threshold-like response, whereas the drones respond in increasing proportion to shock. We conclude that there are common and caste-specific components to aggressive behavior in honey bees. We discuss implications of these results on social and behavioral regulation and genetics of aggressive response. PMID:25729126

  12. Predictors of aggressive response towards simulated intruders depend on context and sex in Crimson Finches (Neochmia phaeton).

    PubMed

    Young, Catherine Mary; Cain, Kristal Elaine; Svedin, Nina; Backwell, Patricia Ruth Yvonne; Pryke, Sarah Rosalind

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying differences in aggressive behaviour across contexts can be useful in developing an understanding of life histories and breeding systems, as well as the relative costs and benefits of such behaviour. We investigated whether age, relative body size and colouration, sex, and breeding stage influenced levels of aggressive behaviour in two contexts, towards conspecific and heterospecific intruders (mounts) around active nests of group living Crimson Finches (Neochmia phaeton). We found that when responding to a conspecific mount, relative body size, and age were important in predicting the aggressive response of males toward a conspecific, with older males and those close in size to their opponent showing a higher aggressive response. On the other hand, factors relating to female aggression were not as clear. In contrast, response to a heterospecific mount was unrelated to age, colour or size in either sex. Additionally, although birds were equally aggressive to conspecific and heterospecific mount types, we found no evidence that individuals are consistent in their level of aggression across these contexts. This suggests that aggressive behaviour in Crimson Finches is at least partially plastic and that individuals may be capable of assessing and responding to situations independently.

  13. Bidirectional associations between perceived parental support for violent and nonviolent responses and early adolescent aggressive and effective nonviolent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri N; Larsen, Ross A

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined bidirectional relations between early adolescents' perceptions of parental support for violent and nonviolent responses to conflict and their aggressive and effective nonviolent behaviors six months later. Data was collected across the sixth and seventh grades for 520 adolescents at three middle schools in the southeastern United States. At baseline, participants were ages 10-14 (M = 11.29). Longitudinal path models showed that perceived parental support for violent responses was negatively associated with effective nonviolent behaviors and positively associated with aggressive behaviors across sixth and seventh grades. Across seventh grade, reciprocal negative relations were found between perceived parental support of nonviolent responses and aggressive behaviors. Effective nonviolent behaviors were positively associated with perceived parental support for nonviolent responses. Study implications include the importance of adolescent perceptions of parental support of violent and nonviolent responses in influencing early adolescents' effective nonviolent and aggressive behavior.

  14. Novel roles of the unfolded protein response in the control of tumor development and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Dejeans, Nicolas; Barroso, Kim; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Samali, Afshin; Chevet, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The hallmarks of cancer currently define the molecular mechanisms responsible for conferring specific tumor phenotypes. Recently, these characteristics were also connected to the status of the secretory pathway, thereby linking the functionality of this cellular machinery to the acquisition of cancer cell features. The secretory pathway ensures the biogenesis of proteins that are membrane-bound or secreted into the extracellular milieu and can control its own homeostasis through an adaptive signaling pathway named the unfolded protein response (UPR). In the present review, we discuss the specific features of the UPR in various tumor types and the impact of the selective activation of this pathway on cell transformation, tumor development and aggressiveness.

  15. Bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying: The role of empathy and normative beliefs about aggression.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Contagion of Aggression in Day Care Classrooms as a Function of Peer and Teacher Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Naomi E.; Arnold, David H.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Stowe, Rebecca M.; Ortiz, Camilo

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether aggression is contagious in day care classrooms. In a low-income, urban day care center, it was hypothesized that aggression was more likely to occur immediately following an aggressive act than when no aggression occurred. The prediction was tested using a newly developed randomization process and the hypothesis was…

  17. The Effects of Aggression on Symptom Severity and Treatment Response in a Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R.; Anakwenze, Ujunwa; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.; Shear, M. Katherine; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that patients with panic disorder exhibit higher levels of aggression than patients with other anxiety disorders. This aggression is associated with more severe symptomatology and interpersonal problems. However, few studies have examined whether higher levels of aggression are associated with a worse treatment response in this population. Methods The present study sought to examine the association of aggression with panic disorder symptom severity in a sample of 379 patients who participated in a trial examining long-term strategies for the treatment of panic disorder. Results We found that aggression was significantly associated with higher baseline levels of panic disorder symptoms, anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. Further, we found that patients higher in aggression did not achieve the same level of improvement in general anxiety symptoms during treatment compared to patients lower in aggression, even when controlling for baseline anxiety symptom severity. Conclusion These results suggest that more research is needed concerning patients with anxiety disorders with higher aggression, as they may be a group in need of additional treatment considerations. PMID:25987198

  18. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795

  19. Paths across Generations: Academic Competence and Aggressive Behaviors in Young Mothers and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Robert B.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Xie, Hongling; Leung, Man-Chi; Hearne, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    Followed the development of 57 women from childhood to adulthood and the development of their children from infancy through the early school years. The academic competence of the mothers, when they were children, was related to their children's academic competence. Correlations between measures of the aggression of the mothers, when they were…

  20. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  1. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  2. Fifth generation, an American response

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenbaum, E.; Mccorduck, P.

    1983-05-16

    The Japanese are at present developing a revolutionary generation of computers to be known as knowledge information processing systems, or KIPs. The real power of such systems lies in their capacity to reason with enormous amounts of information. The Japanese expect them to be in general worldwide use by the 1990s. The authors examine the heart of this fifth generation, the applied side of artificial intelligence called knowledge-based systems. They trace their history and describe the applications of expert systems in fields such as medicine, chemistry, and defence. The authors stress that it is unacceptable for the usa to have to depend on Japan for vital defence technology, and summarise the options open to Americans. They examine in detail one proposal for action-a national centre for knowledge technology.

  3. Identification of a novel BET bromodomain inhibitor-sensitive, gene regulatory circuit that controls Rituximab response and tumour growth in aggressive lymphoid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Emadali, Anouk; Rousseaux, Sophie; Bruder-Costa, Juliana; Rome, Claire; Duley, Samuel; Hamaidia, Sieme; Betton, Patricia; Debernardi, Alexandra; Leroux, Dominique; Bernay, Benoit; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Combes, Florence; Ferri, Elena; McKenna, Charles E; Petosa, Carlo; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Ferro, Myriam; Gressin, Rémy; Callanan, Mary B; Khochbin, Saadi

    2013-01-01

    Immuno-chemotherapy elicit high response rates in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma but heterogeneity in response duration is observed, with some patients achieving cure and others showing refractory disease or relapse. Using a transcriptome-powered targeted proteomics screen, we discovered a gene regulatory circuit involving the nuclear factor CYCLON which characterizes aggressive disease and resistance to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab, in high-risk B-cell lymphoma. CYCLON knockdown was found to inhibit the aggressivity of MYC-overexpressing tumours in mice and to modulate gene expression programs of biological relevance to lymphoma. Furthermore, CYCLON knockdown increased the sensitivity of human lymphoma B cells to Rituximab in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, this effect could be mimicked by in vitro treatment of lymphoma B cells with a small molecule inhibitor for BET bromodomain proteins (JQ1). In summary, this work has identified CYCLON as a new MYC cooperating factor that autonomously drives aggressive tumour growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism is amenable to next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition, thereby providing a new combination therapy rationale for high-risk lymphoma. The nuclear factor CYCLON is a new MYC cooperating factor that drives tumor growth and Rituximab resistance in lymphoma. This resistance mechanism can be targeted by next-generation epigenetic therapy by BET bromodomain inhibition downstream of MYC. PMID:23828858

  4. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

    2009-11-01

    Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been

  5. Trait modulation of alcohol-induced laboratory aggression.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Matthew D; King, Alan R

    2006-06-15

    Modest alcohol and aggressive trait effects on laboratory-induced aggression among men have been reported with some consistency in the literature. Relationships between aggressive personality traits and laboratory-induced aggression appear to become less consistent under the influence of alcohol. Several research teams have found suggestions that the effects of alcohol on laboratory aggression may be reduced or even reversed among individuals with aggressive personality traits. This study examined the effects of alcohol on the aggressive responding on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) of eight undergraduate men who generated evidence on the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) of sadistic-aggressive personality disorder features. This sample was compared with a group of 18 undergraduate male peers without MCMI-II elevations described in a previous study. Neither alcohol ingestion (0.8 ml/kg) nor aggressive personality traits predicted laboratory behavior in isolation, but alcohol was found to selectively attenuate (d = 0.75) PSAP responding for the sadistic-aggressive as opposed to the control subjects (i.e., a significant aggressive trait by alcohol interaction). The possible value of this counterintuitive response tendency in identifying men at elevated risk for alcohol-related aggression was discussed. Large, immediate reductions in laboratory-based aggressive responding while under the influence of alcohol might provide a paradoxical high risk indicator that has not been previously identified.

  6. Post-weaning social isolation induces abnormal forms of aggression in conjunction with increased glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Mikics, Eva; Tulogdi, Aron; Aliczki, Mano; Haller, Jozsef

    2011-06-01

    We showed earlier that social isolation from weaning (a paradigm frequently used to model social neglect in children) induces abnormal forms of attack in rats, and assumed that these are associated with hyperarousal. To investigate this hypothesis, we deprived rats of social contacts from weaning and studied their behavior, glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses in the resident-intruder paradigm at the age of 82 days. Social isolation resulted in abnormal attack patterns characterized by attacks on vulnerable targets, deficient social communication and increased defensive behaviors (defensive upright, flight, freezing). During aggressive encounters, socially deprived rats rapidly switched from one behavior to another, i.e. showed an increased number of behavioral transitions as compared to controls. We tentatively term this behavioral feature "behavioral fragmentation" and considered it a form of behavioral arousal. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone regularly assessed by radioimmunoassay between 27 and 78 days of age were not affected. In contrast, aggression-induced glucocorticoid responses were approximately doubled by socially isolation. Diurnal oscillations in heart rate assessed by in vivo biotelemetry were not affected by social isolation. In contrast, the aggression-induced increase in heart rate was higher in socially isolated than in socially housed rats. Thus, post-weaning social isolation induced abnormal forms of aggression that developed on the background of increased behavioral, endocrine and autonomic arousal. We suggest that this paradigm may be used to model aggression-related psychopathologies associated with hyperarousal, particularly those that are triggered by adverse rearing conditions.

  7. Responsibility and Generativity in Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beth, Alicia D.; Jordan, Michelle E.; Schallert, Diane L.; Reed, JoyLynn H.; Kim, Minseong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how students enact "responsibility" and "generativity" through their comments in asynchronous online discussions. "Responsibility" referred to discourse markers indicating participants' sense that their contributions are required in order to uphold their…

  8. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…

  9. Responsibilities to future generations: environmental ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, E.

    1980-01-01

    The moral question of our responsibilities to future generations, which have no voice in the decision, is addressed in this anthology of 25 essays. The essays focus on such issues as our duty to posterity and our motivation to provide for future generations, the rights of future generations, and how policies relating to food, energy, population, and eugenics should apply to these issues. The authors note that we know and can monitor the threats to our world that are resulting from our activities. This obligates us to develop the historical consciousness and moral judgement to ensure future generations the necessities of life. 356 references. (DCK)

  10. You Smell Dangerous: Communicating Fight Responses Through Human Chemosignals of Aggression.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Parma, Valentina; Brünner, Yvonne F; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect conspecifics that represent a potential harm for an individual represents a high survival benefit. Humans communicate socially relevant information using all sensory modalities, including the chemosensory systems. In study 1, we investigated whether the body odor of a stranger with the intention to harm serves as a chemosignal of aggression. Sixteen healthy male participants donated their body odor while engaging in a boxing session characterized by aggression-induction methods (chemosignal of aggression) and while performing an ergometer session (exercise chemosignal). Self-reports on aggression-related physical activity, motivation to harm and angry emotions selectively increased after aggression induction. In study 2, we examined whether receivers smelling such chemosignals experience emotional contagion (e.g., anger) or emotional reciprocity (e.g., anxiety). The aggression and exercise chemosignals were therefore presented to 22 healthy normosmic participants in a double-blind, randomized exposure during which affective/cognitive processing was examined (i.e., emotion recognition task, emotional stroop task). Behavioral results indicate that chemosignals of aggression induce an affective/cognitive modulation compatible with an anxiety reaction in the recipients. These findings are discussed in light of mechanisms of emotional reciprocity as a way to convey not only affective but also motivational information via chemosensory signals in humans.

  11. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  12. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  13. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  14. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14-16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms.

  15. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Dweck, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages 14–16, n = 230) tested the impact of a 6-session intervention that taught an incremental theory (a belief in the potential for personal change). Compared to no-treatment and coping skills control groups, the incremental theory group behaved significantly less aggressively and more prosocially 1 month postintervention and exhibited fewer conduct problems 3 months postintervention. The incremental theory and the coping skills interventions also eliminated the association between peer victimization and depressive symptoms. PMID:23106262

  16. Teacher Personality and Pupil Control Ideology: Associations with Response to Relational Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllborg, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between teacher personality and pupil control ideology and the way in which these variables impact the methods used by Midwestern teachers (n = 123) to respond to and intervene in hypothetical instances of relational aggression, presented via vignette. Regression analyses indicated that aspects of…

  17. Effects of Early Serotonin Programming on Fear Response, Memory and Aggression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter development of serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, including memory, fear and aggression. The present study was desi...

  18. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  19. Violent Content in Television: Effect of Cognitive Style and Age in Mediating Children's Aggressive Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sally A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the impact certain cognitive styles or structures have in mediating the influence of aggressive television on young boys. Ss were 143 white middle class boys: 36 were 5 1/2-year-old kindergarteners; 30 were 6 1/2-year-old first graders; 36 were 7 1/2-year-old second graders; and 41 were 8 1/2-year-old third…

  20. Differential Tomato Transcriptomic Responses Induced by Pepino Mosaic Virus Isolates with Differential Aggressiveness1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Inge M.; Peter van Esse, H.; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Hogewoning, Sander W.; Parra, Nelia Ortega; Paeleman, Anneleen; Lievens, Bart; Bovy, Arnaud G.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a highly infectious potexvirus and a major disease of greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops worldwide. Damage and economic losses caused by PepMV vary greatly and can be attributed to differential symptomatology caused by different PepMV isolates. Here, we used a custom-designed Affymetrix tomato GeneChip array with probe sets to interrogate over 22,000 tomato transcripts to study transcriptional changes in response to inoculation of tomato seedlings with a mild and an aggressive PepMV isolate that share 99.4% nucleotide sequence identity. The two isolates induced a different transcriptomic response, despite accumulating to similar viral titers. PepMV inoculation resulted in repression of photosynthesis. In addition, defense responses were stronger upon inoculation with the aggressive isolate, in both cases mediated by salicylic acid signaling rather than by jasmonate signaling. Our results furthermore show that PepMV differentially regulates the RNA silencing pathway, suggesting a role for a PepMV-encoded silencing suppressor. Finally, perturbation of pigment biosynthesis, as shown by differential regulation of the flavonoid and lycopene biosynthesis pathways, was monitored. Metabolite analyses on mature fruits of PepMV-infected tomato plants, which showed typical fruit marbling, revealed a decrease in carotenoids, likely responsible for the marbled phenotype, and an increase in alkaloids and phenylpropanoids that are associated with pathogen defense in the yellow sectors of the fruit. PMID:21427280

  1. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  2. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  3. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  4. Truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 confers aggressive features (proliferation, invasion and reduced octreotide response) to somatotropinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Raúl M.; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Taboada, Giselle F.; Hormaechea-Agulla, Daniel; Kasuki, Leandro; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Gálvez, María Ángeles; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Culler, Michael D.; Gahete, Manuel D.; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Castaño, Justo P.

    2015-01-01

    The GH/IGF1 response of somatotropinomas to somatostatin analogues (SSA) is associated with their pattern of somatostatin receptor (sst1–sst5) expression. Recently, we demonstrated that expression of a truncated sst5-variant (sst5TMD4) can influence the secretory response of somatotropinomas to SSA-therapy; however, its potential relationship with aggressive features (e.g. invasion/proliferation) is still unknown. Here, we show that sst5TMD4 is present in 50% of non-functioning pituitary-adenomas (NFPA) (n = 30) and 89% of somatotropinomas (n = 36), its expression levels being highest in somatotropinomas > > NFPAs > > > normal pituitaries (negligible expression; n = 8). In somatotropinomas, sst5TMD4 mRNA and protein levels correlated positively, and its expression was directly associated with tumor invasiveness (cavernous/sphenoid sinus), and inversely correlated with age and GH/IGF1 reduction after 3–6 months with octreotide-LAR therapy. GNAS+ somatotropinomas expressed lower sst5TMD4 levels. ROC analysis revealed sst5TMD4 expression as the only marker, within all sst-subtypes, capable to predict tumor invasiveness in somatotropinomas. sst5TMD4 overexpression increased cell viability in cultured somatotropinoma (n = 5). Hence, presence of sst5TMD4 associates with increased aggressive features and worse prognosis in somatotropinomas, thereby providing a potentially useful tool to refine somatotropinoma diagnosis, predict outcome of clinical response to SSA-therapy and develop new therapeutic targets. PMID:25637790

  5. The Temperature Response and Aggressiveness of Peyronellaea pinodes Isolates Originating from Wild and Domesticated Pisum sp. in Israel.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Abbo, S; Sherman, A; Frenkel, O; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Domesticated pea fields are grown in relatively close proximity to wild pea species in Israel. Despite the major role attributed to ascochyta blight in causing yield losses in domesticated pea, very limited information is available on the pathogens prevailing in natural ecosystems. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species causing ascochyta blight symptoms on leaves, stems, and petioles of domesticated pea and wild Pisum plants in Israel, and (ii) to quantify the temperature response(s) and aggressiveness of such pathogens originating from Pisum plants growing in sympatric and allopatric contexts. Eighteen fungal isolates were examined and identified; three of them were sampled from Pisum sativum, 11 from Pisum fulvum, and four from Pisum elatius. All isolates were identified as Peyronellaea pinodes. Spore germination and mycelial growth took place over a wide range of temperatures, the lower and upper cardinal temperatures being 2 to 9 and 33 to 38°C, respectively; the optimal temperatures ranged from 22 to 26°C. At an optimal temperature, disease severity was significantly higher for plants maintained under moist conditions for 24 h postinoculation than for those exposed to humidity for 5 or 10 h. Analyses of the data revealed that temperature responses, spore germination rates, and aggressiveness of isolates sampled from domesticated pea plants did not differ from those of isolates sampled from adjacent or distant wild populations. Host specificity was not observed. These observations suggest that Israel may be inhabited by a single metapopulation of P. pinodes.

  6. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  7. Response of an aggressive periosteal aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the radius to denosumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Chantal; Fuchs, Bruno; Pfirrmann, Christian; Bridge, Julia A; Hofer, Silvia; Bode, Beata

    2014-01-20

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), once considered a reactive lesion, has been proven to be a neoplasia characterized by rearrangements of the USP6-gene. Aggressive local growth and recurrences are common and therapeutic options may be limited due to the vicinity of crucial structures. We describe a case of a locally aggressive, multinucleated giant cell-containing lesion of the forearm of a 21-year old woman, treated with denosumab for recurrent, surgically uncontrollable disease. Under the influence of this RANKL inhibitor, the tumor showed a marked reduction of the content of the osteoclastic giant cells and an extensive metaplastic osteoid production leading to the bony containment, mostly located intracortically in the proximal radius. The diagnosis of a periosteal ABC was confirmed by FISH demonstrating USP6 gene rearrangement on the initial biopsy. Function conserving surgery could be performed, enabling reconstruction of the affected bone. Inhibition of RANKL with denosumab may offer therapeutic option for patients not only with giant cell tumors but also with ABCs.

  8. Enhancing Social Responsibility and Prosocial Leadership to Prevent Aggression, Peer Victimization, and Emotional Problems in Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2016-12-01

    Testing the theories that form the basis of prevention programs can enhance our understanding of behavioral change and inform the development, coordination, and adaptation of prevention programs. However, theories of change showing the linkages from intervention program components to risk or protective factors to desired outcomes across time are rarely specified or tested. In this 2-year longitudinal study, we test the theory that increases in two protective factors (i.e., children's prosocial leadership and their teachers' expectations of social responsibility) targeted by the WITS Programs (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk it Out, and Seek Help) would be associated with declines in peer victimization, aggression, and emotional problems. Participants included Canadian students, in grades 1-4 at baseline (n = 1329) and their parents and teachers. Consistent with our theory of change, variability in program implementation (adherence and integration) and in children's use of program skills (child responsiveness) are related to increases in both protective factors. Increases in these protective factors are associated with subsequent declines in children's aggression, victimization, and emotional problems. We discuss how enhancement of these protective factors may operate to improve child outcomes and the need for theory-based research to refine and improve the effectiveness of intervention strategies and to improve program scale-up.

  9. Quantitative Genomics of Aggressive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Alexis C; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Morgan, Theodore J; Mackay, Trudy F. C

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is important for animal survival and reproduction, and excessive aggression is an enormous social and economic burden for human society. Although the role of biogenic amines in modulating aggressive behavior is well characterized, other genetic mechanisms affecting this complex behavior remain elusive. Here, we developed an assay to rapidly quantify aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, and generated replicate selection lines with divergent levels of aggression. The realized heritability of aggressive behavior was approximately 0.10, and the phenotypic response to selection specifically affected aggression. We used whole-genome expression analysis to identify 1,539 probe sets with different expression levels between the selection lines when pooled across replicates, at a false discovery rate of 0.001. We quantified the aggressive behavior of 19 mutations in candidate genes that were generated in a common co-isogenic background, and identified 15 novel genes affecting aggressive behavior. Expression profiling of genetically divergent lines is an effective strategy for identifying genes affecting complex traits. PMID:17044737

  10. Cue Set Stimulation as a Factor in Human Response Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petelle, John L.

    The hypotheses that there will be a significant difference (1) in the number of responses generated according to economic issues, (2) in the number of responses generated according to social issues, (3) in the number of responses generated between the category of economic issues and the category of social issues, (4) in cue ranking by response…

  11. Is Aggression the Same for Boys and Girls? Assessing Measurement Invariance with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Kim, Seock-Ho; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in aggression have typically been based on studies utilizing a mean difference method. From a measurement perspective, this method is inherently problematic unless an aggression measure possesses comparable validity across gender. Stated differently, establishing measurement invariance on the measure of aggression is…

  12. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  13. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current.

  14. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  15. Oncogenic miR-181a/b affect the DNA damage response in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bisso, Andrea; Faleschini, Michela; Zampa, Federico; Capaci, Valeria; De Santa, Jacopo; Santarpia, Libero; Piazza, Silvano; Cappelletti, Vera; Daidone, Mariagrazia; Agami, Reuven; Del Sal, Giannino

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous tumor type characterized by a complex spectrum of molecular aberrations, resulting in a diverse array of malignant features and clinical outcomes. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that fuel breast cancer development and act as determinants of aggressiveness is a primary need to improve patient management. Among other alterations, aberrant expression of microRNAs has been found in breast cancer and other human tumors, where they act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors by virtue of their ability to finely modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we describe a new role for miR-181a/b as negative regulators of the DNA damage response in breast cancer, impacting on the expression and activity of the stress-sensor kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We report that miR-181a and miR-181b were overexpressed in more aggressive breast cancers, and their expression correlates inversely with ATM levels. Moreover we demonstrate that deregulated expression of miR-181a/b determines the sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells to the poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase1 (PARP1) inhibition. These evidences suggest that monitoring the expression of miR-181a/b could be helpful in tailoring more effective treatments based on inhibition of PARP1 in breast and other tumor types. PMID:23656790

  16. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-04-10

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression.

  17. Long-term consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage during the growth period promotes social aggression in adult mice with proinflammatory responses in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Park, Mi-Na; Kim, Chong-Su; Lee, Young-Kwan; Choi, Eun Young; Chun, Woo Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is known to be a key contributor to the obesity epidemic; however, its effects on behavioral changes are yet to be fully studied. In the present study, we examined the long-term effects of SSB on social aggression in mice. Three-week-old weaned mice started to drink either a 30 w/v% sucrose solution (S30), plain water (CT), or an aspartame solution with sweetness equivalent to the sucrose solution (A30) and continued to drink until they were 11-week-old adults. Aggressive behaviors were assessed by the resident-intruder test. We found that SSB significantly promoted social aggression, accompanied by heightened serum corticosterone and reduced body weight. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses of brain. The profiles of mice on S30 were dramatically different from those on CT or A30. Transcriptional networks related to immunological function were significantly dysregulated by SSB. FACS analysis of mice on S30 revealed increased numbers of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Interestingly, the artificial sweetener failed to mimic the effects of sugar on social aggression and inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate that SSB promotes aggressive behaviors and provide evidence that sugar reduction strategies may be useful in efforts to prevent social aggression. PMID:28393871

  18. Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression

    PubMed Central

    Passamonti, Luca; Rowe, James B.; Ewbank, Michael; Hampshire, Adam; Keane, Jill; Calder, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    For some people facial expressions of aggression are intimidating, for others they are perceived as provocative, evoking an aggressive response. Identifying the key neurobiological factors that underlie this variation is fundamental to our understanding of aggressive behaviour. The amygdala and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied how the interaction between these regions is influenced by the drive to obtain reward (reward–drive or appetitive motivation), a personality trait consistently associated with aggression. Two distinct techniques showed that the connectivity between the ventral ACC and the amygdala was strongly correlated with personality, with high reward–drive participants displaying reduced negative connectivity. Furthermore, the direction of this effect was restricted from ventral ACC to the amygdala but not vice versa. The personality-mediated variation in the pathway from the ventral anterior cingulate cortex to the amygdala provides an account of why signals of aggression are interpreted as provocative by some individuals more than others. PMID:18722533

  19. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  20. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  1. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  2. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  3. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  4. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  5. The Relationship Between the Level of Program Integrity and Pre- and Post-Test Changes of Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoogsteder, Larissa M; van Horn, Joan E; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Wissink, Inge B; Hendriks, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Responsive-Aggression Regulation Therapy (Re-ART) Outpatient is a cognitive behavioral-based intervention for adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with severe aggressive behavioral problems. This pilot study (N = 26) examined the level of program integrity (PI; that is, the delivery of the intervention as it is originally intended) of Re-ART. We also investigated the pre- and post-test changes in several outcome variables, and the relation between the level of PI and these changes. Participants were recruited from three different outpatient forensic settings. Results showed that the PI of half of the treatments was not sufficient (e.g., the intensity of the program was too low and some standard modules were not offered). In addition, this pilot study demonstrated that sufficient PI was related to positive changes in aggression, cognitive distortions, social support, coping (reported by therapist), and distrust (responsiveness to treatment).

  6. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  7. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  8. Impact of involved field radiotherapy in partial response after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Elizabeth C. . E-mail: e.c.moser@lumc.nl; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Carde, Patrice; Meerwaldt, Jacobus H.; Tirelli, Umberto; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Baars, Joke; Thomas, Jose; Glabbeke, Martine van; Noordijk, Evert M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Whether salvage therapy in patients with advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in partial remission (PR) should consist of radiotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is debatable. We evaluated the impact of radiotherapy on outcome in PR patients treated in four successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials for aggressive NHL. Patients and Methods: Records of 974 patients (1980-1999) were reviewed regarding initial response, final outcome, and type and timing of salvage treatment. After 8 cycles of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, 227 NHL patients were in PR and treated: 114 received involved field radiotherapy, 16 ASCT, 93 second-line chemotherapy, and 4 were operated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after radiotherapy were estimated (Kaplan-Meier method) and compared with other treatments (log-rank). Impact on survival was evaluated by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Results: The median PFS in PR patients was 4.2 years and 48% remained progression-free at 5 years. Half of the PR patients converted to a complete remission. After conversion, survival was comparable to patients directly in complete remission. Radiotherapy resulted in better OS and PFS compared with other treatments, especially in patients with low to intermediate International Prognostic Index score, bulky disease, or nodal disease only. Correction by multivariate analysis for prognostic factors such as stage, bulky disease, and number of extranodal locations showed that radiotherapy was clearly the most significant factor affecting both OS and PFS. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that radiotherapy can be effective for patients in PR after fully dosed chemotherapy; assessment in a randomized trial (radiotherapy vs. ASCT) is justified.

  9. Behavioral emergency in the elderly: a descriptive study of patients referred to an Aggression Response Team in an acute hospital

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, Daniel; Peisah, Carmelle; Boyatzis, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Aim The management of severely agitated elderly patients is not easy, and limited guidelines are available to assist practitioners. At a Sydney hospital, an Aggression Response Team (ART) comprising clinical and security staff can be alerted when a staff member has safety concerns. Our aims were to describe the patient population referred for ART calls, reasons for and interventions during ART calls, and complications following them. Methods Patients 65 years and older referred for ART calls in the emergency department or wards during 2014 were identified using the Incident Information Management System database and medical records were reviewed. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Results Of 43 elderly patients with ART calls, 30 had repeat ART calls. Thirty-one patients (72%) had underlying dementia, and 22 (51%) were agitated at the time of admission. The main reasons for ART calls were wandering and physical aggression. Pharmacological sedation was used in 88% of the ART calls, with a range of psychotropics, doses, and routes of administration, including intravenous (19%) and, most commonly, midazolam (53%). Complications were documented in 14% of cases where sedation was used. Conclusion We observed a high frequency of pharmacological sedation among the severely agitated elderly, with significant variance in the choice and dose of sedation and a high rate of complications arising from sedation, which may be an underestimate given the lack of post-sedation monitoring. We recommend the development of guidelines on the management of behavioral emergency in the elderly patients, including de-escalation strategies and standardized psychotropic guidelines. PMID:27826189

  10. Rates and Durability of Response to Salvage Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Ng, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response rate (RR) and time to local recurrence (TTLR) among patients who received salvage radiation therapy for relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and investigate whether RR and TTLR differed according to disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed for all patients who completed a course of salvage radiation therapy between January 2001 and May 2011 at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Separate analyses were conducted for patients treated with palliative and curative intent. Predictors of RR for each subgroup were assessed using a generalized estimating equation model. For patients treated with curative intent, local control (LC) and progression-free survival were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method; predictors for TTLR were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Salvage radiation therapy was used to treat 110 patients to 121 sites (76 curative, 45 palliative). Salvage radiation therapy was given as part of consolidation in 18% of patients treated with curative intent. Median dose was 37.8 Gy, with 58% and 36% of curative and palliative patients, respectively, receiving 39.6 Gy or higher. The RR was high (86% curative, 84% palliative). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years among living patients, 5-year LC and progression-free survival for curative patients were 66% and 34%, respectively. Refractory disease (hazard ratio 3.3; P=.024) and lack of response to initial chemotherapy (hazard ratio 4.3; P=.007) but not dose (P=.93) were associated with shorter TTLR. Despite doses of 39.6 Gy or higher, 2-year LC was only 61% for definitive patients with refractory disease or disease that did not respond to initial chemotherapy. Conclusions: Relapsed or refractory aggressive NHL is responsive to salvage radiation therapy, and durable LC can be achieved in some cases. However, refractory disease is associated with a shorter

  11. Identification of Potential Aggressive Behavior in Rural At-Risk Minority Youth: A Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand; Rodriguez, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    New Mexico ranks high in youth violence, substance abuse, poverty, teen pregnancies, and school dropout rates. In response, Western New Mexico University developed a special master's program in bilingual special education, attended primarily by minority-group school personnel, and implemented a program to address the cycle of poverty by training…

  12. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Misir Krpan, Ana; Dusek, Tina; Rakusic, Zoran; Solak, Mirsala; Kraljevic, Ivana; Bisof, Vesna; Ozretic, David; Kastelan, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma.

  13. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma. PMID:28357143

  14. Performing aggressive code optimization with an ability to rollback changes made by the aggressive optimizations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-07-23

    Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.

  15. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Annegret L; Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Lin, Dayu

    2016-04-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat-provoking cues. Although several brain areas have been implicated in the generation of attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or 'voluntary' aggression-seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilized an aggression-seeking task in which male mice self-initiated aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they could attack. In males that exhibited rapid task learning, we found that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, was essential for aggression-seeking. Using both single-unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we found that VMHvl neurons became active during aggression-seeking and that their activity tracked changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduced aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerated moment-to-moment aggression-seeking and intensified future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack.

  16. Hypothalamic control of male aggression-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Davidson, Thomas J.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species, certain individuals will seek out opportunities for aggression, even in the absence of threat provoking cues. While several brain areas have been implicated in generating attack in response to social threat, little is known about the neural mechanisms that promote self-initiated or “voluntary” aggression seeking when no threat is present. To explore this directly, we utilize an aggression-seeking task wherein male mice can self-initiate aggression trials to gain brief and repeated access to a weaker male that they attack. In males that exhibit rapid task learning, we find that the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl), an area with a known role in attack, is essential for aggression seeking. Using both single unit electrophysiology and population optical recording, we find that VMHvl neurons become active during aggression seeking and their activity tracks changes in task learning and extinction. Inactivation of the VMHvl reduces aggression-seeking behavior, whereas optogenetic stimulation of the VMHvl accelerates moment-to-moment aggression seeking and intensifies future attack. These data demonstrate that the VMHvl can mediate both acute attack and flexible seeking actions that precede attack. PMID:26950005

  17. Good response of an aggressive rare variant of signet ring cell carcinoma of prostate with hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Deviprasad; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Seth, Amlesh

    2017-03-08

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the prostate is a rare entity, characterised by its aggressive nature and dismal prognosis. We report a case of an advanced SRCC of the prostate presenting as a large pelvic mass with obstructive uropathy and rectal involvement managed by complete androgen blockade. At 24 months follow-up, the patient has no evidence of progression or metastasis. Aggressive management with multimodality approach combining surgery, radiation and hormonal ablation can result in long disease-free survival in some patients, despite the aggressive nature of this disease.

  18. Expression of EGFR Under Tumor Hypoxia: Identification of a Subpopulation of Tumor Cells Responsible for Aggressiveness and Treatment Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Hoogen, Franciscus J.A. van den

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor hypoxia have been shown to correlate with worse outcome in several types of cancer including head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Little is known about the combination and possible interactions between the two phenomena. Methods and Materials: In this study, 45 cases of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were analyzed. All patients received intravenous infusions of the exogenous hypoxia marker pimonidazole prior to biopsy. Presence of EGFR, pimonidazole binding, and colocalization between EGFR and tumor hypoxia were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Of all biopsies examined, respectively, 91% and 60% demonstrated EGFR- and pimonidazole-positive areas. A weak but significant association was found between the hypoxic fractions of pimonidazole (HFpimo) and EGFR fractions (F-EGFR) and between F-EGFR and relative vascular area. Various degrees of colocalization between hypoxia and EGFR were found, increasing with distance from the vasculature. A high fraction of EGFR was correlated with better disease-free and metastasis-free survival, whereas a high degree of colocalization correlated with poor outcome. Conclusions: Colocalization of hypoxia and EGFR was demonstrated in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas, predominantly at longer distances from vessels. A large amount of colocalization was associated with poor outcome, which points to a survival advantage of hypoxic cells that are also able to express EGFR. This subpopulation of tumor cells might be indicative of tumor aggressiveness and be partly responsible for treatment resistance.

  19. Lack of Effect of Stimulant Combination with Second-Generation Antipsychotics on Weight Gain, Metabolic Changes, Prolactin Levels, and Sedation in Youth with Clinically Relevant Aggression or Oppositionality

    PubMed Central

    Penzner, Julie B.; Dudas, Melissa; Saito, Ema; Olshanskiy, Vladimir; Parikh, Umesh H.; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; Gadaleta, Dominick; Avedon, Jennifer; Sheridan, Eva M.; Randell, Jane; Malhotra, Anil K.; Kane, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, sedation/sleep disturbance, and prolactin abnormalities, especially in youths. Although stimulants have opposing dopamine receptor and adverse effects, it is unclear whether stimulant co-treatment counteracts the therapeutic or side effects of antipsychotics. Methods This was a naturalistic cohort study including 153 antipsychotic trials in youths aged 4–19 (mean, 11.3 ± 3.0) years, started on an SGA for clinically significant aggression or oppositionality associated with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), impulse control disorder NOS, intermittent explosive disorder, Tourette's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder NOS. Patients underwent fasting assessments of body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, prolactin, sedation, and general efficacy at baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 12, comparing patients co-prescribed stimulants (n = 71) with those not co-prescribed stimulants (n = 82). Results Patients received risperidone (33.3%), aripiprazole (29.4%), quetiapine (18.4%), olanzapine (11.8%), ziprasidone (5.9%), or clozapine (0.7%). With and without adjustment for differences in baseline variables (sex, prior stimulant use, primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] disorders, co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], present in 46.3% of youths not receiving stimulants, and some body composition parameters), patients on versus off stimulants did not differ on any of the assessed outcomes (all p values ≥ 0.1). Conclusions In contrast to guidelines, stimulant use did not precede or accompany antipsychotic use during the current episode of aggression/oppositionality in almost half of those youths who had aggressive/oppositional behavior and a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. At the

  20. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  1. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  2. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  3. Hostility, aggression, and anxiety levels of divorce and nondivorce children as manifested in their responses to projective tests.

    PubMed

    Spigelman, G; Spigelman, A; Englesson, I

    1991-06-01

    The effects of parental divorce on the levels of aggression, hostility, and anxiety in children, as measured by the Rorschach test, together with the type and direction of aggression, as measured by the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) Study, were studied. The Rorschach and the Rosenzweig P-F study were administered to a nonclinical sample of 108 Swedish children ranging in age from 10 to 12 years old. The subjects constituted a divorce and a nondivorce group of 27 girls and 27 boys each. Children of divorced parents (hereafter referred to as divorce children, divorce boys, or divorce girls) showed significantly higher levels of hostility, aggression, and anxiety than children of married parents (hereafter referred to as nondivorce children, nondivorce boys, nondivorce girls). There were significant differences found in the type and direction of aggression between divorce girls and boys. Divorce boys showed more extraggression and ego defensive reactions, whereas divorce girls tended to evade aggression. The differences between divorce and nondivorce groups and the diversity of reactions between divorce boys and girls are discussed.

  4. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an…

  5. Identification of microRNAs associated with invasive and aggressive phenotype in cutaneous melanoma by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Babapoor, Sankhiros; Wu, Rong; Kozubek, James; Auidi, Donna; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Dadras, Soheil S

    2017-02-20

    A comprehensive repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be involved in early melanoma invasion into the dermis remains unknown. To this end, we sequenced small RNAs (18-30 nucleotides) isolated from an annotated series of invasive melanomas (average invasive depth, 2.0 mm), common melanocytic nevi, and matched normal skin (n=28). Our previously established bioinformatics pipeline identified 765 distinct mature known miRNAs and defined a set of top 40 list that clearly segregated melanomas into thin (0.75 mm) and thick (2.7 mm) groups. Among the top, miR-21-5p, let-7b-5p, let-7a-5p, miR-424-5p, miR-423-5p, miR-21-3p, miR-199b-5p, miR-182-5p, and miR-205-5p were differentially expressed between thin and thick melanomas. In a validation cohort (n=167), measured expression of miR-21-5p and miR-424-5p, not previously reported in melanoma, were significantly increased in invasive compared with in situ melanomas (P<0.0001). Increased miR-21-5p levels were significantly associated with invasive depth (P=0.038), tumor mitotic index (P=0.038), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.0036), and AJCC stage (P=0.038). In contrast, let-7b levels were significantly decreased in invasive and in situ melanomas compared with common and dysplastic nevi (P<0.0001). Decreased let-7b levels were significantly associated with invasive depth (P=0.011), Clark's level (P=0.013), ulceration (P=0.0043), and AJCC stage (P=0.011). These results define a distinct set of miRNAs associated with invasive and aggressive melanoma phenotype.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 20 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.5.

  6. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  7. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  8. Measured responsivities of generation II and hybrid image intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.; Thomas, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    We have measured the absolute and coupled system responsivities of several image intensifier types at several wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Intensifiers characterized include microchannel plate (MCP) generation II proximity-focused and hybrid generation I/generation II electrostatic-focused designs. Configurations including single plate, double plate, nominal and high strip current MCPs, and standard S20 and super generation II enhanced S-20 photocathodes were evaluated. Absolute responsivity measurements were performed using NIST-traceable radiometry instrumentation. The normalized relative sensitivities and overall optical luminous gain performance provided by individual intensifiers when similarly coupled to either high resolution 10-bit RS-170 CCD or FPS cameras are presented along with their radiometric data.

  9. Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-01-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.

  10. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media. PMID:26738962

  11. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Alex J; Cook, Rebecca S; Sanders, Melinda E; Arteaga, Carlos L; Skala, Melissa C

    2016-01-07

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media.

  12. OPRM1 genotype interacts with serotonin system dysfunction to predict alcohol-heightened aggression in primates.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Lindell, Stephen G; Schwandt, Melanie L; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee; Heilig, Markus; Barr, Christina S

    2016-08-03

    Although the notion that alcohol promotes violence is widespread, not all individuals are aggressive while intoxicated. Genetic variation could be a contributing factor to individual differences in alcohol-heightened aggression. The present study examines the effects of OPRM1C77G genotype on responses to threat in rhesus macaques under normal conditions and following alcohol administration. Prior studies have shown that a low CSF level of 5-HIAA is a trait marker for individuals prone to escalated aggression. We wanted to examine whether the predictive value for this marker on aggression was moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Animals were administered alcohol (BAC 100-200 mg%), were provoked by a human intruder, and aggressive responses were recorded. Factor analysis was performed to generate aggressive response factors, which were then used as dependent variables for ANOVA, with OPRM1 genotype and CSF 5-HIAA as independent variables. Factor analysis generated three factors ('Threatening', 'Distance Decreasing' and 'High Intensity'). We found that High Intensity aggression was increased among carriers of the OPRM1 G allele, especially among individuals with low CSF levels of 5-HIAA. Aggression in the non-intoxicated state was predicted by 5-HIAA, but not by genotype. This study demonstrates that OPRM1 genotype predicts alcohol-heightened aggression in rhesus macaques with low CSF levels of 5-HIAA. Because OPRM1 variation predicts similar effects on alcohol response and behavior in humans and macaques, this study could suggest a role for OPRM1 genotype in alcohol-heightened aggression in humans. If so, it may be that compounds that block this receptor could reduce alcohol-associated violence in selected patient populations.

  13. Mediation of the Relationship Between Callous-Unemotional Traits and Proactive Aggression by Amygdala Response to Fear Among Children With Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lozier, Leah M.; Cardinale, Elise M.; VanMeter, John W.; Marsh, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Among youths with conduct problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits are known to be an important determinant of symptom severity, prognosis, and treatment responsiveness. But positive correlations between conduct problems and CU traits result in suppressor effects that may mask important neurobiological distinctions among subgroups of children with conduct problems. Objective To assess the unique neurobiological covariates of CU traits and externalizing behaviors in youths with conduct problems and determine whether neural dysfunction linked to CU traits mediates the link between callousness and proactive aggression. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional case-control study involved behavioral testing and neuroimaging that were conducted at a university research institution. Neuroimaging was conducted using a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance imaging scanner. It included 46 community-recruited male and female juveniles aged 10 to 17 years, including 16 healthy control participants and 30 youths with conduct problems with both low and high levels of CU traits. Main Outcomes and Measures Blood oxygenation level–dependent signal as measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging during an implicit face-emotion processing task and analyzed using whole-brain and region of interest–based analysis of variance and multiple-regression analyses. Results Analysis of variance revealed no group differences in the amygdala. By contrast, consistent with the existence of suppressor effects, multiple-regression analysis found amygdala responses to fearful expressions to be negatively associated with CU traits (x = 26, y = 0, z = −12; k = 1) and positively associated with externalizing behavior (x = 24, y = 0, z = −14; k = 8) when both variables were modeled simultaneously. Reduced amygdala responses mediated the relationship between CU traits and proactive aggression. Conclusions and Relevance The results linked proactive aggression in youths with

  14. Generation of a Dual-Functioning Antitumor Immune Response in the Peritoneal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Abigail L.; Gerber, Scott A.; Randall, Troy D.; van Rooijen, Nico; Frelinger, John G.; Lord, Edith M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell metastasis to the peritoneal cavity is observed in patients with tumors of peritoneal organs, particularly colon and ovarian tumors. Following release into the peritoneal cavity, tumor cells rapidly attach to the omentum, a tissue consisting of immune aggregates embedded in adipose tissue. Despite their proximity to potential immune effector cells, tumor cells grow aggressively on these immune aggregates. We hypothesized that activation of the immune aggregates would generate a productive antitumor immune response in the peritoneal cavity. We immunized mice i.p. with lethally irradiated cells of the colon adenocarcinoma line Colon38. Immunization resulted in temporary enlargement of immune aggregates, and after challenge with viable Colon38 cells, we did not detect tumor growth on the omentum. When Colon38-immunized mice were challenged with cells from the unrelated breast adenocarcinoma line E0771 or the melanoma line B16, these tumors also did not grow. The nonspecific response was long-lived and not present systemically, highlighting the uniqueness of the peritoneal cavity. Cellular depletions of immune subsets revealed that NK1.1+ cells were essential in preventing growth of unrelated tumors, whereas NK1.1+ cells and T cells were essential in preventing Colon38 tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the peritoneal cavity has a unique environment capable of eliciting potent specific and nonspecific antitumor immune responses. PMID:23933065

  15. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  16. Coupling of dispersal and aggression facilitates the rapid range expansion of a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Renée A.; Badyaev, Alexander V.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviors can facilitate colonization of a novel environment, but the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. On one hand, behavioral flexibility allows for an immediate response of colonizers to novel environments, which is critical to population establishment and persistence. On the other hand, integrated sets of behaviors that display limited flexibility can enhance invasion success by coupling behaviors with dispersal strategies that are especially important during natural range expansions. Direct observations of colonization events are required to determine the mechanisms underlying changes in behavior associated with colonization, but such observations are rare. Here, we studied changes in aggression on a large temporal and spatial scale across populations of two sister taxa of bluebirds (Sialia) to show that coupling of aggression and dispersal strongly facilitated the range expansion of western bluebirds across the northwestern United States over the last 30 years. We show that biased dispersal of highly aggressive males to the invasion front allowed western bluebirds to displace less aggressive mountain bluebirds. However, once mountain bluebirds were excluded, aggression of western bluebirds decreased rapidly across consecutive generations in concordance with local selection on highly heritable aggressive behavior. Further, the observed adaptive microevolution of aggression was accelerated by the link between dispersal propensity and aggression. Importantly, our results show that behavioral changes among populations were not caused by behavioral flexibility and instead strongly implicate adaptive integration of dispersal and aggression in facilitating the ongoing and rapid reciprocal range change of these species in North America. PMID:17827278

  17. Demand response, behind-the-meter generation and air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyue; Zhang, K Max

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the implications of behind-the-meter (BTM) generation participating in demand response (DR) programs. Specifically, we evaluated the impacts of NOx emissions from BTM generators enrolled in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO)'s reliability-based DR programs. Through analyzing the DR program enrollment data, DR event records, ozone air quality monitoring data, and emission characteristics of the generators, we found that the emissions from BTM generators very likely contribute to exceedingly high ozone concentrations in the Northeast Corridor region, and very likely account for a substantial fraction of total NOx emissions from electricity generation. In addition, a companion study showed that the emissions from BTM generators could also form near-source particulate matter (PM) hotspots. The important policy implications are that the absence of up-to-date regulations on BTM generators may offset the current efforts to reduce the emissions from peaking power plants, and that there is a need to quantify the environmental impacts of DR programs in designing sound policies related to demand-side resources. Furthermore, we proposed the concept of "Green" DR resources, referring to those that not only provide power systems reliability services, but also have verifiable environmental benefits or minimal negative environmental impacts. We argue that Green DR resources that are able to maintain resource adequacy and reduce emissions at the same time are key to achieving the cobenefits of power system reliability and protecting public health during periods with peak electricity demand.

  18. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  19. Superoxide generation and cytotactic response of irradiated neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Eastlund, D.T.; Charbonneau, T.T.

    1988-07-01

    Irradiation of blood components has been used to prevent transfusion-related graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in immunocompromised patients. This study was designed to determine the effect of irradiation on neutrophil aggregation, chemotaxis, and superoxide generation. Purified neutrophils were irradiated with a Cesium source at four doses ranging from 0 to 17,500 rads. Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and zymosan-treated serum (ZTS) cytotaxin-induced chemotaxis and migration were determined in the agarose assay. Neutrophil aggregation to FMLP was determined by aggregometry. Superoxide generation and random migration were not affected by irradiation at doses up to 17,500 rads. When compared to nonirradiated controls, the chemotactic response to ZTS remained normal, with an insignificant decline from 174 +/- 31.0 to 150 +/- 42.3 (mean +/- SD) units. The chemotactic response to FMLP declined insignificantly, from 228 +/- 31.3 at 0 rad to 207 +/- 26.4 at 17,500 rads. The aggregation response to FMLP remained within the normal range but declined from 0.78 +/- 0.11 to 0.61 +/- 0.18. At the radiation doses currently used to reduce the risk of transfusion-related GVHD, neutrophil superoxide generation and chemotactic response remain essentially normal.

  20. Effects of social isolation on neuromuscular excitability and aggressive behaviors in Drosophila: Altered responses by Hk and gsts1, two mutations implicated in redox regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Social deprivation is known to trigger a variety of behavioral and physiological modifications in animal species but the underlying genetic and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood. As we described previously, adult female flies reared in isolation show increased frequency of aggressive behaviors than those reared in group. Here we report that isolated rearing also caused significantly altered nerve and muscle excitability and enhanced synaptic transmission at larval neuromuscular junctions. We found that mutations of two genes, Hyperkinetic (Hk) and glutathione S-transferase-S1 (gsts1) alter the response to social isolation in Drosophila. Hk and gsts1 mutations increased adult female aggression and larval neuromuscular hyperexcitability even when reared in group. Unlike wild type, these behavioral and electrophysiological phenotypes were not further enhanced in these mutants by isolated rearing. Products of these two genes have been implicated in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. We previously reported in these mutants increased signals from a ROS probe at larval neuromuscular junctions and this study revealed distinct effects of isolation rearing on these mutants compared to the control larvae in ROS-probe signals. Our data further demonstrated modified nerve and muscle excitability by a reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that altered cellular ROS regulation can exert pleiotropic effects on nerve, synapse, and muscle functions and may involve different redox mechanisms in different cell types to modify behavioral expressions. Therefore, ROS regulation may take part in the cellular responses to social isolation stress, underlying an important form of neural and behavioral plasticity. PMID:19863269

  1. The next generation of metastatic melanoma: uncovering the genetic variants for anti-BRAF therapy response

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rosamaria; De Summa, Simona; Strippoli, Sabino; Pilato, Brunella; Azzariti, Amalia; Guida, Gabriella; Guida, Michele; Tommasi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma (MM) is a highly aggressive cancer with a median overall survival of 6–9 months, notwithstanding the numerous efforts in development of new therapeutic approaches. To this aim we tested the clinical applicability of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine to simultaneously screen MM patients in order to individuate new or already known SNPs and mutations able to predict the duration of response to BRAF inhibitors. An Ampliseq Custom Panel, including 11 crucial full length genes involved in melanoma carcinogenesis and therapy response pathways, was created and used to analyze 25 MM patients. We reported BRAFV600 and NRASQ61 mutations in 68% and 24% of samples, respectively. Moreover, we more frequently identified the following alterations related to BRAF status: PIK3CAI391M (44%) and KITD737N (36%) mutations, CTLA4T17A (52%), MC1RV60L (32%) and MITFS473A (60%) polymorphisms. Considering the progression free survival (PFS), statistical analyses showed that BRAFV600 patients without any of these more frequent alterations had a higher median PFS. Protein structure changes seem to be due to these variants by in silico analysis. In conclusion, a Next-Generation Sequencing approach with custom panel may provide new information to evaluate tumor-specific therapeutic susceptibility and individual prognosis to improve the care of MM patients. PMID:26863566

  2. Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language. PMID:23814374

  3. Divergent in vitro/in vivo responses to drug treatments of highly aggressive NIH-Ras cancer cells: a PET imaging and metabolomics-mass-spectrometry study

    PubMed Central

    Gaglio, Daniela; Valtorta, Silvia; Ripamonti, Marilena; Bonanomi, Marcella; Damiani, Chiara; Todde, Sergio; Negri, Alfredo Simone; Sanvito, Francesca; Mastroianni, Fabrizia; Campli, Antonella Di; Turacchio, Gabriele; Di Grigoli, Giuseppe; Belloli, Sara; Luini, Alberto; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Colangelo, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic K-ras is capable to control tumor growth and progression by rewiring cancer metabolism. In vitro NIH-Ras cells convert glucose to lactate and use glutamine to sustain anabolic processes, but their in vivo environmental adaptation and multiple metabolic pathways activation ability is poorly understood. Here, we show that NIH-Ras cancer cells and tumors are able to coordinate nutrient utilization to support aggressive cell proliferation and survival. Using PET imaging and metabolomics-mass spectrometry, we identified the activation of multiple metabolic pathways such as: glycolysis, autophagy recycling mechanism, glutamine and serine/glycine metabolism, both under physiological and under stress conditions. Finally, differential responses between in vitro and in vivo systems emphasize the advantageous and uncontrolled nature of the in vivo environment, which has a pivotal role in controlling the responses to therapy. PMID:27409831

  4. Generation of Black-Dominant Responses in V1 Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chun-I; Shapley, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with human perceptual data, we found many more black-dominant than white-dominant responses in layer 2/3 neurons of the macaque primary visual cortex (V1). Seeking the mechanism of this black dominance of layer 2/3 neurons, we measured the laminar pattern of population responses (multiunit activity and local field potential) and found that a small preference for black is observable in early responses in layer 4Cβ, the parvocellular-input layer, but not in the magnocellular-input layer 4Cα. Surprisingly, further analysis of the dynamics of black-white responses in layers 4Cβ and 2/3 suggested that black-dominant responses in layer 2/3 were not generated simply because of the weak black-dominant inputs from 4Cβ. Instead, our results indicated the neural circuitry in V1 is wired with a preference to strengthen black responses. We hypothesize that this selective wiring could be due to (1) feedforward connectivity from black-dominant neurons in layer 4C to cells in layer 2/3 or (2) recurrent interactions between black-dominant neurons in layer 2/3, or a combination of both. PMID:20926676

  5. Evoked brain responses are generated by feedback loops

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Marta I.; Kilner, James M.; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2007-01-01

    Neuronal responses to stimuli, measured electrophysiologically, unfold over several hundred milliseconds. Typically, they show characteristic waveforms with early and late components. It is thought that early or exogenous components reflect a perturbation of neuronal dynamics by sensory input bottom-up processing. Conversely, later, endogenous components have been ascribed to recurrent dynamics among hierarchically disposed cortical processing levels, top-down effects. Here, we show that evoked brain responses are generated by recurrent dynamics in cortical networks, and late components of event-related responses are mediated by backward connections. This evidence is furnished by dynamic causal modeling of mismatch responses, elicited in an oddball paradigm. We used the evidence for models with and without backward connections to assess their likelihood as a function of peristimulus time and show that backward connections are necessary to explain late components. Furthermore, we were able to quantify the contribution of backward connections to evoked responses and to source activity, again as a function of peristimulus time. These results link a generic feature of brain responses to changes in the sensorium and a key architectural component of functional anatomy; namely, backward connections are necessary for recurrent interactions among levels of cortical hierarchies. This is the theoretical cornerstone of most modern theories of perceptual inference and learning. PMID:18087046

  6. Identification of neuronal loci involved with displays of affective aggression in NC900 mice.

    PubMed

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Sheikh, Atif; Ghashghaei, H Troy

    2013-07-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that is essential for survival. Of the various forms of aggression, impulsive violent displays without prior planning or deliberation are referred to as affective aggression. Affective aggression is thought to be caused by aberrant perceptions of, and consequent responses to, threat. Understanding the neuronal networks that regulate affective aggression is pivotal to development of novel approaches to treat chronic affective aggression. Here, we provide a detailed anatomical map of neuronal activity in the forebrain of two inbred lines of mice that were selected for low (NC100) and high (NC900) affective aggression. Attack behavior was induced in male NC900 mice by exposure to an unfamiliar male in a novel environment. Forebrain maps of c-Fos+ nuclei, which are surrogates for neuronal activity during behavior, were then generated and analyzed. NC100 males rarely exhibited affective aggression in response to the same stimulus, thus their forebrain c-Fos maps were utilized to identify unique patterns of neuronal activity in NC900s. Quantitative results indicated robust differences in the distribution patterns and densities of c-Fos+ nuclei in distinct thalamic, subthalamic, and amygdaloid nuclei, together with unique patterns of neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens and the frontal cortices. Our findings implicate these areas as foci regulating differential behavioral responses to an unfamiliar male in NC900 mice when expressing affective aggression. Based on the highly conserved patterns of connections and organization of neuronal limbic structures from mice to humans, we speculate that neuronal activities in analogous networks may be disrupted in humans prone to maladaptive affective aggression.

  7. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  8. Comorbid Anxiety and Social Avoidance in Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression: Response to Adding Risperidone to Stimulant and Parent Training; Mediation of Disruptive Symptom Response

    PubMed Central

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Farmer, Cristan A.; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Brown, Nicole V.; Li, Xiaobai; Rundberg-Rivera, E. Victoria; Bangalore, Srihari; Buchan-Page, Kristin; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Rice, Robert; McNamara, Nora K.; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). Methods: A total of 168 children ages 6–12 with severe aggression (physical harm), DBD, and ADHD were randomized to parent training plus stimulant plus placebo (basic treatment) or parent training plus stimulant plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for 9 weeks. All received only parent training plus stimulant for the first 3 weeks, then those with room for improvement received a second drug (placebo or risperidone) for 6 weeks. CASI-4R category item means at baseline and week 9 were entered into linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures to evaluate group differences in changes. Mediation of the primary DBD outcome was explored. Results: Parent ratings were nonsignificant with small/negligible effects, but teacher ratings (n=46 with complete data) showed significant augmented treatment advantage for symptoms of anxiety (p=0.013, d=0.71), schizophrenia spectrum (p=0.017, d=0.45), and impairment in these domains (p=0.02, d=0.26), all remaining significant after false discovery rate correction for multiple tests. Improvement in teacher-rated anxiety significantly (p=0.001) mediated the effect of risperidone augmentation on the primary outcome, the Disruptive-total of the parent-rated Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. Conclusions: Addition of risperidone to parent training plus stimulant improves not only parent-rated DBD as previously reported, but also teacher-rated anxiety–social avoidance. Improvement in anxiety mediates improvement in DBD, suggesting anxiety-driven fight-or-flight disruptive behavior with aggression, with implications for potential

  9. Public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-08-01

    The authors examine the nature of the public response to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Generating Station located in San Luis Obispo, California, from the early 1960s to the present. Four distinct phases of public intervention were discerned, based on change in both plant-related issues and in the nature of the antinuclear constituencies in the region. The level of public concern varied both geographically and temporally and is related to the area's social structure, environmental predispositions, and distribution of plant-related economic benefits. External events, such as the prolonged debate over the risk assessment of the seismic hazard and the Three Mile Island accident were found to be important factors in explaining variation in public concern and political response.

  10. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  11. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  12. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  13. Neural control of predatory aggression in wild and domesticated animals.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, E M

    1991-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in laboratory animals were investigated in a variety of rodents and members of the order Carnivora. Experimental enhancement of brain serotonin (5-HT) blocked killing behavior in rats, mice, mink and silver foxes, indicating that there is a 5-HT inhibiting mechanism of predatory aggression in animals of different species. Suppressed killing behavior, at least in some strains of mice, does not depend for expression on the inhibitory effect of the brain 5-HT system, but is caused by the low tonus of the system activating predatory behavior. Long-term satiation of mink increased the level of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala and enhanced the latency of predatory aggression. It is suggested that 5-HT represents a dietary responsive endogenous factor regulating predatory behavior in carnivores. Selection of Norway rats over many generations for tamed behavior towards man (domestication) leads to an increase in level and turnover of 5-HT in the midbrain and hypothalamus, but does not change predatory aggression. Substantially reduced defensive behavior of domesticated rats is thus unconnected with the neural mechanism of predatory aggression.

  14. Honey bee aggression supports a link between gene regulation and behavioral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Alaux, Cédric; Sinha, Saurabh; Hasadsri, Linda; Hunt, Greg J.; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Uribe-Rubio, José Luis; Southey, Bruce R.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Robinson, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    A prominent theory states that animal phenotypes arise by evolutionary changes in gene regulation, but the extent to which this theory holds true for behavioral evolution is not known. Because “nature and nurture” are now understood to involve hereditary and environmental influences on gene expression, we studied whether environmental influences on a behavioral phenotype, i.e., aggression, could have evolved into inherited differences via changes in gene expression. Here, with microarray analysis of honey bees, we show that aggression-related genes with inherited patterns of brain expression are also environmentally regulated. There were expression differences in the brain for hundreds of genes between the highly aggressive Africanized honey bee compared with European honey bee (EHB) subspecies. Similar results were obtained for EHB in response to exposure to alarm pheromone (which provokes aggression) and when comparing old and young bees (aggressive tendencies increase with age). There was significant overlap of the gene lists generated from these three microarray experiments. Moreover, there was statistical enrichment of several of the same cis regulatory motifs in promoters of genes on all three gene lists. Aggression shows a remarkably robust brain molecular signature regardless of whether it occurs because of inherited, age-related, or environmental (social) factors. It appears that one element in the evolution of different degrees of aggressive behavior in honey bees involved changes in regulation of genes that mediate the response to alarm pheromone. PMID:19706434

  15. Preschoolers' Normative and Prescriptive Judgments about Relational and Overt Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.; Boxer, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' judgments about responses to hypothetical relational and overt aggressive provocation. The 99 participants reported that overtly aggressive responses would happen more often than they should. For both overt and relational provocation, participants felt that relational aggression was more acceptable than verbal or physical…

  16. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  17. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  18. Social Information Processing by Aggressive and Nonaggressive Men with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Carola; Benson, Betsey A.

    1995-01-01

    The social information-processing skills of 16 aggressive and 19 nonaggressive men with borderline-to-moderate mental retardation were examined. The two groups did not differ in their ability to generate multiple solutions or provide appropriate responses. K. Dodge's social information-processing model is considered. (Author/SW)

  19. Timing and causality in the generation of learned eyelid responses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum-red nucleus-facial motoneuron (Mn) pathway has been reported as being involved in the proper timing of classically conditioned eyelid responses. This special type of associative learning serves as a model of event timing for studying the role of the cerebellum in dynamic motor control. Here, we have re-analyzed the firing activities of cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) neurons and orbicularis oculi (OO) Mns in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. The aim was to revisit the hypothesis that the IP neurons (IPns) can be considered a neuronal phase-modulating device supporting OO Mns firing with an emergent timing mechanism and an explicit correlation code during learned eyelid movements. Optimized experimental and computational tools allowed us to determine the different causal relationships (temporal order and correlation code) during and between trials. These intra- and inter-trial timing strategies expanding from sub-second range (millisecond timing) to longer-lasting ranges (interval timing) expanded the functional domain of cerebellar timing beyond motor control. Interestingly, the results supported the above-mentioned hypothesis. The causal inferences were influenced by the precise motor and pre-motor spike timing in the cause-effect interval, and, in addition, the timing of the learned responses depended on cerebellar-Mn network causality. Furthermore, the timing of CRs depended upon the probability of simulated causal conditions in the cause-effect interval and not the mere duration of the inter-stimulus interval. In this work, the close relation between timing and causality was verified. It could thus be concluded that the firing activities of IPns may be related more to the proper performance of ongoing CRs (i.e., the proper timing as a consequence of the pertinent causality) than to their generation and/or initiation.

  20. Neurobiological stress responses predict aggression in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder: a 1-year follow-up intervention study.

    PubMed

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-02-08

    To improve outcome for children with antisocial and aggressive behavior, it is important to know which individual characteristics contribute to reductions in problem behavior. The predictive value of a parent training (Parent Management Training Oregon; PMTO), parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, and punishment), and child neurobiological function (heart rate, cortisol) on the course of aggression was investigated. 64 boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (8-12 years) participated; parents of 22 boys took part in PMTO. All data were collected before the start of the PMTO, and aggression ratings were collected three times, before PMTO, and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Parent training predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Child neurobiological variables, i.e., higher cortisol stress reactivity and better cortisol recovery, also predicted a decline in aggression at 6 and 12 months. Heart rate and parenting practices were not related to the course of aggression. These results indicate that child neurobiological factors can predict persistence or reduction of aggression in boys with ODD/CD, and have unique prognostic value on top of the parent training effects.

  1. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  2. The role of alcohol and steroid hormones in human aggression.

    PubMed

    von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.

  3. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  4. Alteration of secondary metabolites' profiles in potato leaves in response to weakly and highly aggressive isolates of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Maria A; Adam, Lorne R; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-08-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight, a devastating disease in potato and tomato. Many of the mechanisms underlying P. infestans pathogenesis and defense responses in potato are still unclear. We investigated the effects of P. infestans on the changes in the accumulation of secondary metabolites in potato cultivars using whole plants. Four preformed flavonoids and one terpenoid compound produced in potato tissues were differentially affected by the P. infestans inoculation. In Russet Burbank, the accumulation of catechin and rutin was suppressed by both P. infestans isolates US-11 and US-8, while the flavanone P3 was associated with susceptibility to this pathogen. On the other hand, catechin, flavonol-glycoside P2, and an unidentified terpenoid (T1), may be involved in the defense of cultivar Defender to both tested P. infestans isolates, providing new evidence that different preformed flavonoids and terpenoids in potato may play important roles in its defense or susceptibility to P. infestans. These results add to the pool of data showing the involvement of other phenolics and terpenes in potato resistance to microbial pathogens.

  5. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression.

  6. Impulsive-aggressive traits, serotonin function, and alcohol-enhanced aggression.

    PubMed

    Fulwiler, Carl; Eckstine, Joy; Kalsy, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is involved in most acts of violence, most people do not become violent when they drink. Individuals also respond differently to alcohol on laboratory measures of aggression. The objective of this study was to determine whether individual differences in the effects of alcohol on a laboratory measure of aggression are related to specific personality traits and/or serotonin function, as measured by prolactin response to pharmacochallenge. Psychometric scales for impulsiveness, aggression, and anger, as well as a probe for suspiciousness, were administered to 10 healthy male social drinkers. Trait serotonin function was determined by citalopram challenge. The effect of alcohol on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm was determined by comparing aggression scores with and without 1 g/kg alcohol. Impulsivity scores were significantly correlated with the change in aggressive responding after alcohol. Aggression, anger, and suspiciousness scores were not. Prolactin response did not predict the effect of alcohol on aggressive responding. The results suggest that trait impulsiveness may mediate the effects of alcohol on aggression in normal males.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations and Generation of the SPI Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, S. J.; Shrader, C. R.; Weidenspointner, G.; Teegarden, B. J.; Attie, D.; Diehl, R.; Ferguson, C.; Jean, P.; vonKienlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the methods developed for the production of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. The response files were produced using a suite of Monte Carlo simulation software developed at NASA/GSFC based on the GEANT-3 package available from CERN. The production of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response also required the development of a detailed computer mass model for SPI. We discuss our extensive investigations into methods to reduce both the computation time and storage requirements for the SPI response. We also discuss corrections to the simulated response based on our comparison of ground and inflight calibration data with MGEANT simulation.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulations and Generation of the SPI Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, S. J.; Shrader, C. R.; Weidenspointner, G.; Teegarden, B. J.; Attie, D.; Cordier, B.; Diehl, R.; Ferguson, C.; Jean, P.; vonKienlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the methods developed for the production of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. The response files were produced using a suite of Monte Carlo simulation software developed at NASA/GSFC based on the GEANT-3 package available from CERN. The production of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response also required the development of a detailed computer mass model for SPI. We discuss ow extensive investigations into methods to reduce both the computation time and storage requirements for the SPI response. We also discuss corrections to the simulated response based on our comparison of ground and infiight Calibration data with MGEANT simulations.

  9. Maternal defense: breast feeding increases aggression by reducing stress.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M; Lawson, E Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress.

  10. Design of energy storage system to improve inertial response for large scale PV generation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yue, Meng

    2016-07-01

    With high-penetration levels of renewable generating sources being integrated into the existing electric power grid, conventional generators are being replaced and grid inertial response is deteriorating. This technical challenge is more severe with photovoltaic (PV) generation than with wind generation because PV generation systems cannot provide inertial response unless special countermeasures are adopted. To enhance the inertial response, this paper proposes to use battery energy storage systems (BESS) as the remediation approach to accommodate the degrading inertial response when high penetrations of PV generation are integrated into the existing power grid. A sample power system was adopted and simulated usingmore » PSS/E software. Here, impacts of different penetration levels of PV generation on the system inertial response were investigated and then BESS was incorporated to improve the frequency dynamics.« less

  11. Design of energy storage system to improve inertial response for large scale PV generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yue, Meng

    2016-07-01

    With high-penetration levels of renewable generating sources being integrated into the existing electric power grid, conventional generators are being replaced and grid inertial response is deteriorating. This technical challenge is more severe with photovoltaic (PV) generation than with wind generation because PV generation systems cannot provide inertial response unless special countermeasures are adopted. To enhance the inertial response, this paper proposes to use battery energy storage systems (BESS) as the remediation approach to accommodate the degrading inertial response when high penetrations of PV generation are integrated into the existing power grid. A sample power system was adopted and simulated using PSS/E software. Here, impacts of different penetration levels of PV generation on the system inertial response were investigated and then BESS was incorporated to improve the frequency dynamics.

  12. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  13. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  14. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  15. Unbalance response analysis and experimental validation of an ultra high speed motor-generator for microturbine generators considering balancing.

    PubMed

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Chan-Woo

    2014-08-29

    The objective of the present study was to deal with the rotordynamics of the rotor of an ultra-high speed PM type synchronous motor-generator for a 500 W rated micro gas turbine generator. This paper introduces dynamic analysis, and experiments on the motor-generator. The focus is placed on an analytical approach considering the mechanical dynamic problems. It is essential to deal with dynamic stability at ultra-high speeds. Unbalance response analysis is performed by calculating the unbalance with and without balancing using a balancing machine. Critical speed analysis is performed to determine the operating speed with sufficient separation margin. The unbalance response analysis is compared with the experimental results considering the balancing grade (ISO 1940-1) and predicted vibration displacement with and without balancing. Based on these results, a high-speed motor-generator was successfully developed.

  16. Unbalance Response Analysis and Experimental Validation of an Ultra High Speed Motor-Generator for Microturbine Generators Considering Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Do-Kwan; Joo, Dae-Suk; Woo, Byung-Chul; Koo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Chan-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to deal with the rotordynamics of the rotor of an ultra-high speed PM type synchronous motor-generator for a 500 W rated micro gas turbine generator. This paper introduces dynamic analysis, and experiments on the motor-generator. The focus is placed on an analytical approach considering the mechanical dynamic problems. It is essential to deal with dynamic stability at ultra-high speeds. Unbalance response analysis is performed by calculating the unbalance with and without balancing using a balancing machine. Critical speed analysis is performed to determine the operating speed with sufficient separation margin. The unbalance response analysis is compared with the experimental results considering the balancing grade (ISO 1940-1) and predicted vibration displacement with and without balancing. Based on these results, a high-speed motor-generator was successfully developed. PMID:25177804

  17. Moraxella Species Are Primarily Responsible for Generating Malodor in Laundry

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a “wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor” or an “acidic or sweaty odor.” In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

  18. Beyond Clickers, Next Generation Classroom Response Systems for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Web-based classroom response systems offer a variety of benefits versus traditional clicker technology. They are simple to use for students and faculty and offer various question types suitable for a broad spectrum of chemistry classes. They facilitate active learning pedagogies like peer instruction and successfully engage students in the…

  19. Educating for Political Activity: A Younger Generational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to Professor Chitty's "Educational Review" Guest Lecture article, "Educating for political activity". I address the three sections of his paper: a global and national-based politics of war, corporate manipulation and parliamentary scandals. This provides a basis to draw upon empirical material from a…

  20. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  1. Turning the other cheek. Agreeableness and the regulation of aggression-related primes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2006-02-01

    Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.

  2. Fitness on Facebook: Advertisements Generated in Response to Profile Content

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide

  3. Fitness on facebook: advertisements generated in response to profile content.

    PubMed

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide relevant and

  4. A Comparison of Family Care Responsibilities of First-Generation and Non-First-Generation Female Administrators in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2010-01-01

    Greater numbers of women are entering and working in higher education. Some of these women are the first in their families to attain academic degrees. They are known as first-generation students, and the care of children and others is often responsible for their withdrawal from academic study. This study addressed the void of information…

  5. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  6. Generating color terrain images in an emergency response system

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric release of radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of graphical images of the terrain surface in the vicinity of the accident site. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data. This data is then used as input to a collection of graphics programs which create and display realistic color images of the terrain. The graphics system currently has the capability of generating color shaded relief images from both overhead and perspective viewpoints within minutes. These images serve to quickly familiarize ARAC assessors with the terrain near the release location, and thus permit them to make better informed decisions in modeling the behavior of the released material. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  7. AGU's response to the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm; Passow, Michael; Asher, Pranoti

    2012-06-01

    A team of expert writers and lead states, headed by the nonproft education reform organization Achieve (http://www.achieve.org), is in the process of developing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). As a critical stakeholder with a strategic interest in talent pool development, AGU has been interested and involved in the development of the standards since early in the process. AGU members such as Michael Wysession and Ramon Lopez are on the writing team. AGU members and the public are encouraged to read and comment on the standards at http://www.nextgenscience.org/. The frst draft comment period recently closed; however, a comment period on the second draft will open in fall 2012.

  8. Effect of naloxone on food competition aggression in food-restricted high and low aggression pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Torrecillas, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    2004-03-01

    We determined the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high and low aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. Pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high aggression (total time spent in offensive aggression exceeding 60 s/5 min; N=6 pairs) and low aggression females (time spent in offensive aggression less than 10 s/5 min; N=6 pairs). A pigeon in each pair received an s.c. dose of naloxone (1 mg kg(-1) ml saline(-1)) and the other animal received the vehicle. Trials (10 min) were performed 30 min after the naloxone/vehicle administration. The naloxone group of high aggression pigeons showed lower scores of total time spent in offensive aggression (control: 98.6 +/- 12.0; naloxone: 46.8 +/- 6.6 s; P<0.05) and higher scores of time spent in emotional responses (control: 3.5 +/- 0.6; naloxone: 10.8 +/- 2.4 s; P<0.05) than controls. The other behaviors scored, feeder control and eating behavior, were not affected in this group. The naloxone group of low aggression pigeons, however, showed higher scores of offensive aggression than their controls (5.3 +/- 1.3; naloxone: 28.7 +/- 8.0 s; P<0.05). The present results suggest that opiate receptor mechanisms are implicated in offensive aggression responses in high and low aggression pigeons. However, as reported for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine manipulation and GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor manipulation, the effect of the opiate receptor antagonist on food competition aggression in pigeons was related to their pretreatment level of aggression.

  9. Too real for comfort? Uncanny responses to computer generated faces

    PubMed Central

    MacDorman, Karl F.; Green, Robert D.; Ho, Chin-Chang; Koch, Clinton T.

    2014-01-01

    As virtual humans approach photorealistic perfection, they risk making real humans uncomfortable. This intriguing phenomenon, known as the uncanny valley, is well known but not well understood. In an effort to demystify the causes of the uncanny valley, this paper proposes several perceptual, cognitive, and social mechanisms that have already helped address riddles like empathy, mate selection, threat avoidance, cognitive dissonance, and psychological defenses. In the four studies described herein, a computer generated human character’s facial proportions, skin texture, and level of detail were varied to examine their effect on perceived eeriness, human likeness, and attractiveness. In Study I, texture photorealism and polygon count increased human likeness. In Study II, texture photorealism heightened the accuracy of human judgments of ideal facial proportions. In Study III, atypical facial proportions were shown to be more disturbing on photorealistic faces than on other faces. In Study IV, a mismatch in the size and texture of the eyes and face was especially prone to make a character eerie. These results contest the depiction of the uncanny valley as a simple relation between comfort level and human likeness. This paper concludes by introducing a set of design principles for bridging the uncanny valley. PMID:25506126

  10. Too real for comfort? Uncanny responses to computer generated faces.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Karl F; Green, Robert D; Ho, Chin-Chang; Koch, Clinton T

    2009-05-01

    As virtual humans approach photorealistic perfection, they risk making real humans uncomfortable. This intriguing phenomenon, known as the uncanny valley, is well known but not well understood. In an effort to demystify the causes of the uncanny valley, this paper proposes several perceptual, cognitive, and social mechanisms that have already helped address riddles like empathy, mate selection, threat avoidance, cognitive dissonance, and psychological defenses. In the four studies described herein, a computer generated human character's facial proportions, skin texture, and level of detail were varied to examine their effect on perceived eeriness, human likeness, and attractiveness. In Study I, texture photorealism and polygon count increased human likeness. In Study II, texture photorealism heightened the accuracy of human judgments of ideal facial proportions. In Study III, atypical facial proportions were shown to be more disturbing on photorealistic faces than on other faces. In Study IV, a mismatch in the size and texture of the eyes and face was especially prone to make a character eerie. These results contest the depiction of the uncanny valley as a simple relation between comfort level and human likeness. This paper concludes by introducing a set of design principles for bridging the uncanny valley.

  11. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  12. Generation and Characterization of Novel Magnetic Field-Responsive Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Lopez, Modesto T.; Scionti, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Ana C.; Duran, Juan D. G.; Campos, Antonio; Alaminos, Miguel; Rodriguez, Ismael A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of novel magnetic field-responsive tissue substitutes based on biocompatible multi-domain magnetic particles dispersed in a fibrin–agarose biopolymer scaffold. We characterized our biomaterials with several experimental techniques. First we analyzed their microstructure and found that it was strongly affected by the presence of magnetic particles, especially when a magnetic field was applied at the start of polymer gelation. In these samples we observed parallel stripes consisting of closely packed fibers, separated by more isotropic net-like spaces. We then studied the viability of oral mucosa fibroblasts in the magnetic scaffolds and found no significant differences compared to positive control samples. Finally, we analyzed the magnetic and mechanical properties of the tissue substitutes. Differences in microstructural patterns of the tissue substitutes correlated with their macroscopic mechanical properties. We also found that the mechanical properties of our magnetic tissue substitutes could be reversibly tuned by noncontact magnetic forces. This unique advantage with respect to other biomaterials could be used to match the mechanical properties of the tissue substitutes to those of potential target tissues in tissue engineering applications. PMID:26207995

  13. Dicarbonyl Induced Structural Perturbations Make Histone H1 Highly Immunogenic and Generate an Auto-Immune Response in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mir, Abdul Rouf; Uddin, Moin; Khan, Farzana; Alam, Khursheed; Ali, Asif

    2015-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress under hyperglycemic conditions, through the interaction of AGEs with RAGE receptors and via activation of interleukin mediated transcription signalling, has been reported in cancer. Proteins modifications are being explored for their roles in the development and progression of cancer and autoantibody response against them is gaining interest as a probe for early detection of the disease. This study has analysed the changes in histone H1 upon modification by methylglyoxal (MG) and its implications in auto-immunopathogenesis of cancer. Modified histone showed modifications in the aromatic residues, changed tyrosine microenvironment, intermolecular cross linking and generation of AGEs. It showed masking of hydrophobic patches and a hypsochromic shift in the in ANS specific fluorescence. MG aggressively oxidized histone H1 leading to the accumulation of reactive carbonyls. Far UV CD measurements showed di-carbonyl induced enhancement of the alpha structure and the induction of beta sheet conformation; and thermal denaturation (Tm) studies confirmed the thermal stability of the modified histone. FTIR analysis showed amide I band shift, generation of a carboxyethyl group and N-Cα vibrations in the modified histone. LCMS analysis confirmed the formation of Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine and electron microscopic studies revealed the amorphous aggregate formation. The modified histone showed altered cooperative binding with DNA. Modified H1 induced high titre antibodies in rabbits and the IgG isolated form sera of rabbits immunized with modified H1 exhibited specific binding with its immunogen in Western Blot analysis. IgG isolated from the sera of patients with lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and cancer of head and neck region showed better recognition for neo-epitopes on the modified histone, reflecting the presence of circulating autoantibodies in cancer. Since reports suggest a link between AGE-RAGE axis and carcinogenesis

  14. Tickling, Punching, and Poking: Mock Aggressive Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Green, Shavonda

    Several hypotheses have been generated about the functions of mock aggression, including its association with dominance. This paper describes a study that expanded this line of research by interviewing college students about a broad array of mock aggressive behaviors and their contexts, targets, benefits, and functions. The hypotheses were that:…

  15. Roles of outcome expectations and self-efficacy in preschoolers' aggression.

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, M; Yuzawa, M

    2001-06-01

    The present study examined preschool boys' beliefs for the outcome of aggression and their perceptions of self-efficacy for aggressive behaviors. 23 preschoolers (mean age 6.3 yr.; 12 aggressive boys and 11 nonaggressive boys) were presented stories about provocative situations and asked about three expectations for aggression: positive outcomes, peer rejection, and morality. Another 18 preschoolers (mean age 6.3 yr.; 9 aggressive boys and 9 nonaggressive boys) rated their self-efficacy for four strategies: aggression, verbal persuasion, seeking help from a teacher, and withdrawal. Aggressive preschoolers did not expect a negative outcome in the form of peer-rejection in response to aggression as much as nonaggressive boys, although the groups did not differ in their expectations of positive outcomes and morality. Also, aggressive preschoolers were more confident about aggression in situations including teasing or criticism but less confident about verbal persuasion than nonaggressive preschoolers.

  16. Attenuation of Responses to Self-Generated Sounds in Auditory Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rummell, Brian P; Klee, Jan L; Sigurdsson, Torfi

    2016-11-23

    Many of the sounds that we perceive are caused by our own actions, for example when speaking or moving, and must be distinguished from sounds caused by external events. Studies using macroscopic measurements of brain activity in human subjects have consistently shown that responses to self-generated sounds are attenuated in amplitude. However, the underlying manifestation of this phenomenon at the cellular level is not well understood. To address this, we recorded the activity of neurons in the auditory cortex of mice in response to sounds generated by their own behavior. We found that the responses of auditory cortical neurons to these self-generated sounds were consistently attenuated, compared with the same sounds generated independently of the animals' behavior. This effect was observed in both putative pyramidal neurons and in interneurons and was stronger in lower layers of auditory cortex. Downstream of the auditory cortex, we found that responses of hippocampal neurons to self-generated sounds were almost entirely suppressed. Responses to self-generated optogenetic stimulation of auditory thalamocortical terminals were also attenuated, suggesting a cortical contribution to this effect. Further analyses revealed that the attenuation of self-generated sounds was not simply due to the nonspecific effects of movement or behavioral state on auditory responsiveness. However, the strength of attenuation depended on the degree to which self-generated sounds were expected to occur, in a cell-type-specific manner. Together, these results reveal the cellular basis underlying attenuated responses to self-generated sounds and suggest that predictive processes contribute to this effect.

  17. Marginal copper deficiency impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation responses across two generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generational effects of marginal copper (Cu) deficiency on vascular function have not been characterized.In this study, the vascular consequences of marginal Cu deficiency were determined by relaxation responses in mesenteric arteries of dams and two generations of offspring. Pups from dams (fir...

  18. Reflections on Generativity and Flourishing: A Response to Snow's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John

    2015-01-01

    In his response to Nancy's Snow's "Generativity and Flourishing" (EJ1077701), John Snarey proposes that during the first seasons of one's life one is nurtured by one's parents, but during the latter seasons of life, one is nurtured by one's children. Generative parents interact with their offspring in ways that offer valuable support for…

  19. Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also examined. Additionally,…

  20. Plasma adrenocorticotropin responses to opioid blockade with naloxone: generating a dose-response curve in a single session.

    PubMed

    Mangold, D; McCaul, M E; Ali, M; Wand, G S

    2000-08-15

    We examined two methods of generating a dose-response curve to the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. In 15 healthy male subjects (18-25 years) plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) responses to five doses of naloxone studied over 5 separate days were compared to plasma ACTH responses to five incremental doses of naloxone studied within a single session. There was a statistically significant positive correlation in ACTH responses (area under the curve and peak) between dosing methods. Furthermore, the doses of naloxone that produced half-maximal and maximal ACTH response were similar. The comparability of ACTH responses between the two naloxone dosing techniques, combined with the safety and ease associated with the single-session methodology, underscores the usefulness of the single-session technique for future investigations.

  1. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  2. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  3. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  4. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  5. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  6. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  7. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  8. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  9. Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11-14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression.

  10. In Search of the Roots of Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Although eliminating school violence is no easy task, understanding the biological basis of aggressive adolescent behavior and discussing it with colleagues is essential. Societal influences can trigger a predisposition for aggressive response in alienated, testosterone-elevated teens. Early-intervention programs that stress social and coping…

  11. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  12. Adolescents' Experience with Workplace Aggression: School Health Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…

  13. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  14. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  15. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors.

  16. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  17. Executive (Dys)Functioning and Impulsivity as Possible Vulnerability Factors for Aggression in Forensic Patients.

    PubMed

    Tonnaer, Franca; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated whether executive dysfunction and impulsivity are both predictors of reactive aggression and is the first to use behavioral assessment of aggression in response to provocation by means of a personalized boxing body opponent bag giving harassing feedback. Aggressive behavior, self-reported aggression, executive functioning (ie, working memory, flexibility, and divided attention), and impulsivity dimensions (i.e., Sensation Seeking, Impulsive Decision Making, and [inadequate] Response Inhibition) were measured in 44 incarcerated psychiatric patients. Results show that both executive functioning (working memory) and impulsivity (Impulsive Decision Making) predicted self-reported reactive aggression, whereas Response Inhibition was the only predictor for reactive aggressive behavioral responses. The study suggests that Response Inhibition is a stronger predictor of reactive aggressive behavior than executive capacities of working memory, flexibility, and divided attention. Therefore, future research should investigate whether (inadequate) Response Inhibition could also be a valuable predictor for violent recidivism.

  18. Aggression: tachykinin is all the rage.

    PubMed

    Pavlou, Hania J; Neville, Megan C; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2014-03-17

    Animals are constantly receiving information about their environment that must be filtered to ensure that they respond in the appropriate manner. New data have revealed how neurons in male Drosophila promote a heightened state of aggression in response to a rival male.

  19. [A Generator of Mono-energetic Electrons for Response Test of Charged Particle Detectors.].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Katsuhide; Maruyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a generator of mono-energetic electrons for the response test of charged particle detectors, which is used to measure fragmented particles of the carbon beam for cancer therapy. Mono-energetic electrons are extracted from (90)Sr by analyzing the energy of beta rays in the generator with a magnetic field. We evaluated performance parameters of the generator such as the absolute energy, the energy resolution and the counting rates of extracted electrons. The generator supplies mono-energetic electrons from 0.5MeV to 1.7MeV with the energy resolution of 20% in FWHM at higher energies than 1.0MeV. The counting rate of electrons is 400cpm at the maximum when the activity of (90)Sr is 298kBq. The generator was used to measure responses of fragmented-particle detectors and to determine the threshold energy of the detectors. We evaluated the dependence of pulse height variation on the detector position and the threshold energy by using the generator. We concluded this generator is useful for the response test of general charged particle detectors.

  20. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  1. Knowledge of response location alone is not sufficient to generate social inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Manzone, Joseph; McDougall, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has revealed that the inhibition of return (IOR) effect emerges when individuals respond to a target at the same location as their own previous response or the previous response of a co-actor. The latter social IOR effect is thought to occur because the observation of co-actor's response evokes a representation of that action in the observer and that the observation-evoked response code subsequently activates the inhibitory mechanisms underlying IOR. The present study was conducted to determine if knowledge of the co-actor's response alone is sufficient to evoke social IOR. Pairs of participants completed responses to targets that appeared at different button locations. Button contact generated location-contingent auditory stimuli (high and low tones in Experiment 1 and colour words in Experiment 2). In the Full condition, the observer saw the response and heard the auditory stimuli. In the Auditory Only condition, the observer did not see the co-actor's response, but heard the auditory stimuli generated via button contact to indicate response endpoint. It was found that, although significant individual and social IOR effects emerged in the Full conditions, there were no social IOR effects in the Auditory Only conditions. These findings suggest that knowledge of the co-actor's response alone via auditory information is not sufficient to activate the inhibitory processes leading to IOR. The activation of the mechanisms that lead to social IOR seems to be dependent on processing channels that code the spatial characteristics of action.

  2. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  3. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2011-11-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of aggression in many species, especially via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways. To investigate heritable differences in this regulation, 2 high aggressive strains [Dekalb XL (DXL) and low group egg productivity and survivability (LGPS)] and one low aggressive strain (low group egg productivity and survivability; HGPS) of laying hens were used in the study. The HGPS and LGPS lines were diversely selected using group selection for high and low group production and survivability. The DXL line is a commercial line selected through individual selection based on egg production. Heritable differences in aggressive propensity between the strains have been previously assessed. The birds were pair housed within the same strain and labeled as dominant or subordinate based on behavioral observation. For both experiments 1 and 2, behavioral analysis was performed on all 3 strains whereas neurotransmitter analysis was performed only on the most aggressive (DXL) and least aggressive (HGPS) strains. In experiment 1, the subordinate birds were treated with D1 agonist, D2 agonist, or saline controls (n = 12). In experiment 2, the dominant birds from a separate flock were treated with D1 antagonist, D2 antagonist, or saline controls (n = 12). Treatment-associated changes in aggressive behaviors and central neurotransmitters were measured. Aggression was increased in all strains in response to D1 agonism but increased only in the less aggressive HGPS birds with D2 agonism. Aggression was decreased and hypothalamic serotonin and epinephrine were increased in birds from all strains treated with D2 receptor antagonist. The D1 receptor antagonism elicited different behavioral and neurotransmitter responses based on the aggressive phenotype of the genetic strains. Aggressive strains DXL and LGPS but not the HGPS strain decreased aggressiveness following antagonism of the D1 receptor. The data show evidence for distinct

  4. Nursing management of aggression in a Singapore emergency department: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mei Fen; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    In Singapore, anecdotal evidence suggests that nurses are concerned about managing aggressive incidents in the emergency department. In this study, registered nurses' perceptions of managing aggressive patients in an emergency department were explored. Ten registered nurses from the emergency department of an acute public hospital in Singapore were interviewed. Four overarching themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) impact of aggressive patients on nurses; (ii) nursing assessment of aggressive behaviors; (iii) nursing management of aggressive behaviors; and (iv) organizational support and responsiveness. Further research is required to better support nurses to deliver optimal care for aggressive patients and achieve positive and effective outcomes.

  5. Multivariate Behavior Genetic Analyses of Aggressive Behavior Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental architecture underlying aggressive behavior measured by the Life History of Aggression Questionnaire (LHA; Coccaro et al. 1997a). Following preliminary phenotypic factor analysis procedures, multivariate behavioral genetics models were fit to responses from 2,925 adult twins from the PennTwins cohort on five LHA items assessing lifetime frequency of temper tantrums, indirect aggression, verbal aggression, fighting, and physical assault. The best-fitting model was a 2-factor common pathway model, indicating that these five aggressive behaviors are underpinned by two distinct etiological factors with different genetic and nonshared environmental influences. Although there was evidence of significant sex differences, the structure of the two factors appeared to be quite similar in males and females, where General Aggression and Physical Aggression factors emerged. Heritability of these factors ranged from .37 to .57, and nonshared environmental effects ranged from .43 to .63. The results of this study highlight the heterogeneous nature of the aggression construct and the need to consider differences in genetic and environmental influences on individual aggressive behaviors in a multivariate context. PMID:20432061

  6. Immune Complexes Indirectly Suppress the Generation of Th17 Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nidhi; Haasken, Stefanie; Pecli e Silva, Cyntia; Benjamim, Claudia F.; Sadler, Jeffrey J.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Cassel, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    The precise context in which the innate immune system is activated plays a pivotal role in the subsequent instruction of CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. Th1 responses are downregulated when antigen is encountered in the presence of antigen-IgG immune complexes. To assess if Th17 responses to antigen are subject to similar influences in the presence of immune complexes we utilized an inflammatory airway disease model in which immunization of mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) and ovalbumin (Ova) induces a powerful Ova-specific Th1 and Th17 response. Here we show that modification of that immunization with CFA to include IgG-Ova immune complexes results in the suppression of CFA-induced Th17 responses and a concurrent enhancement of Ova-specific Th2 responses. Furthermore, we show the mechanism by which these immune complexes suppress Th17 responses is through the enhancement of IL-10 production. In addition, the generation of Th17 responses following immunization with CFA and Ova were dependent on IL-1α but independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Together these data represent a novel mechanism by which the generation of Th17 responses is regulated. PMID:26978520

  7. Polymorphism and division of labour in a socially complex ant: neuromodulation of aggression in the Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

    PubMed Central

    Kamhi, J. Frances; Nunn, Kelley; Robson, Simon K. A.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Complex social structure in eusocial insects can involve worker morphological and behavioural differentiation. Neuroanatomical variation may underscore worker division of labour, but the regulatory mechanisms of size-based task specialization in polymorphic species are unknown. The Australian weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, exhibits worker polyphenism: larger major workers aggressively defend arboreal territories, whereas smaller minors nurse brood. Here, we demonstrate that octopamine (OA) modulates worker size-related aggression in O. smaragdina. We found that the brains of majors had significantly higher titres of OA than those of minors and that OA was positively and specifically correlated with the frequency of aggressive responses to non-nestmates, a key component of territorial defence. Pharmacological manipulations that effectively switched OA action in major and minor worker brains reversed levels of aggression characteristic of each worker size class. Results suggest that altering OA action is sufficient to produce differences in aggression characteristic of size-related social roles. Neuromodulators therefore may generate variation in responsiveness to task-related stimuli associated with worker size differentiation and collateral behavioural specializations, a significant component of division of labour in complex social systems. PMID:26136448

  8. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  9. Development of Species-Specific Ah Receptor-Responsive Third Generation CALUX Cell Lines with Increased Sensitivity and Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jennifer C.; He, Guochun; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Zhao, Jing; Wirth, Ed; Fulton, Michael H.; Denison, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The Ah receptor (AhR)-responsive CALUX (chemically-activated luciferase expression) cell bioassay is commonly used for rapid screening of samples for the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin), dioxin-like compounds, and AhR agonists/antagonists. By increasing the number of AhR DNA recognition sites (dioxin responsive elements), we previously generated a novel third generation (G3) recombinant AhR-responsive mouse CALUX cell line (H1L7.5c3) with significantly enhanced sensitivity and response to DLCs compared to existing AhR-CALUX cell bioassays. However, the elevated background luciferase activity of these cells and the absence of comparable G3 cell lines derived from other species have limited their utility for screening purposes. Here, we describe the development and characterization of species-specific G3 recombinant AhR-responsive CALUX cell lines (rat, human, and guinea pig) that exhibit significantly improved sensitivity and dramatically increased TCDD induction response. The low background luciferase activity, low minimal detection limit (0.1 pM TCDD) and enhanced induction response of the rat G3 cell line (H4L7.5c2) over the H1L7.5c3 mouse G3 cells, identifies them as a more optimal cell line for screening purposes. The utility of the new G3 CALUX cell lines were demonstrated by screening sediment extracts and a small chemical compound library for the presence of AhR agonists. The increased sensitivity and response of these new G3 CALUX cell lines will facilitate species-specific analysis of DLCs and AhR agonists in samples with low levels of contamination and/or in small sample volumes. PMID:26366531

  10. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  11. High-order harmonic generation from gapped graphene: Perturbative response and transition to nonperturbative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    We consider the interaction of gapped graphene in the two-band approximation using an explicit time-dependent approach. In addition to the full high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum, we also obtain the perturbative harmonic response using the time-dependent method at photon energies covering all the significant features in the responses. The transition from the perturbative to the fully nonperturbative regime of HHG at these photon energies is studied in detail.

  12. Preschool Children's Beliefs about the Acceptability of Relational and Physical Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swit, Cara S.; McMaugh, Anne; Warburton, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined differences in beliefs about the acceptability of aggression and behavioral responses to aggression of preschool-aged children. Two groups, identified from teacher ratings, participated in the research. One group of children exhibited relationally aggressive behaviors, and a comparison group was identified with…

  13. Is It Bad to Be Good? An Exploration of Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior Subtypes in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Tisak, Marie S.; Goldstein, Sara E.

    2004-01-01

    Research in aggressive behavior development has distinguished between proactive (i.e., intended to achieve an instrumental goal) and reactive (i.e., emitted as an emotional response to provocation) subtypes of aggression. A similar distinction has not been made with regard to prosocial behavior. In this study, subtypes of both aggressive and…

  14. Status Struggles: Network Centrality and Gender Segregation in Same- and Cross-Gender Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Robert; Felmlee, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Literature on aggression often suggests that individual deficiencies, such as social incompetence, psychological difficulties, or troublesome home environments, are responsible for aggressive behavior. In this article, by contrast, we examine aggression from a social network perspective, arguing that social network centrality, our primary measure…

  15. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  16. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Groheux, David; Mankoff, David; Espié, Marc; Hindié, Elif

    2016-05-01

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of (18)F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned.

  17. Reinforcing Obligations and Responsibilities between Generations: Policy Options from Cross-National Comparisons. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Maureen

    This discussion paper addresses two policy questions: (1) Can Canada afford to maintain its income security programs and social services, given the higher costs expected with an aging population? and (2) Do generous social programs discourage family responsibility or reinforce expectations of assistance within and between generations? The paper…

  18. Aggressive responding in abstinent heroin addicts: neuroendocrine and personality correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Moi, Gabriele; Bussandri, Monica; Bubici, Cristina; Mossini, Matteo; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Brambilla, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Objective measures of experimentally induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, in comparison with 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were preliminarily submitted to DSM-IV interviews, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participant. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response). Money-earning responses were not different in drug-free heroin addicts and controls during the first two sessions and significantly lower during the third session in heroin-dependent subjects (t=2.99, P<.01). Aggressive responses were significantly higher (F=4.9, P<.01) in heroin addicted individuals, in comparison with controls. During the experimentally induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) concentrations increased less significantly, and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), increased more significantly in abstinent heroin-dependent subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamine changes, BDHI "direct" and "irritability" scores, MMPI "psychopathic deviate" scores in heroin-dependent subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between heroin-exposure extent (substance abuse history duration) and aggressiveness levels. The present findings suggest that heroin-dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relation with monoamine hyperreactivity, after long-term opiate discontinuation. Aggressiveness in heroin addicts seems to be related more to the

  19. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  20. Trends in Susceptibility to Aggressive Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, Nishat; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Lally, Edward T

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative microbe involved in periodontitis. Strains with varying degrees of virulence have been identified, in healthy and periodontally compromised individuals alike. Hosts mount differential immune responses to its various serotypes and virulence factors. Studies have explored host immune response in terms of antibody titers, leukocyte responses, and specific inflammatory mediators, questioning the ways in which the infectious microorganism survives. This mini-review will identify the key themes in immune response patterns of individuals both affected by and free from aggressive periodontal disease, thereby using it to understand various forms of periodontitis. PMID:28008419

  1. How the location of superoxide generation influences the β-cell response to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Oleson, Bryndon J; McGraw, Jennifer; Naatz, Aaron; Mathews, Clayton E; Corbett, John A

    2015-03-20

    Cytokines impair the function and decrease the viability of insulin-producing β-cells by a pathway that requires the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and generation of high levels of nitric oxide. In addition to nitric oxide, excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, has been shown to cause β-cell damage. Although the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide results in the formation of peroxynitrite, we have shown that β-cells do not have the capacity to produce this powerful oxidant in response to cytokines. When β-cells are forced to generate peroxynitrite using nitric oxide donors and superoxide-generating redox cycling agents, superoxide scavenges nitric oxide and prevents the inhibitory and destructive actions of nitric oxide on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and β-cell viability. In this study, we show that the β-cell response to nitric oxide is regulated by the location of superoxide generation. Nitric oxide freely diffuses through cell membranes, and it reacts with superoxide produced within cells and in the extracellular space, generating peroxynitrite. However, only when it is produced within cells does superoxide attenuate nitric oxide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, gene expression, and toxicity. These findings suggest that the location of radical generation and the site of radical reactions are key determinants in the functional response of β-cells to reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Although nitric oxide is freely diffusible, its biological function can be controlled by the local generation of superoxide, such that when this reaction occurs within β-cells, superoxide protects β-cells by scavenging nitric oxide.

  2. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  3. The generation of shared cryptographic keys through channel impulse response estimation at 60 GHz.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Derek P.; Forman, Michael A.; Dowdle, Donald Ryan

    2010-09-01

    Methods to generate private keys based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed as an alternative to standard key-management schemes. In this work, we discuss past work in the field and offer a generalized scheme for the generation of private keys using uncorrelated channels in multiple domains. Proposed cognitive enhancements measure channel characteristics, to dynamically change transmission and reception parameters as well as estimate private key randomness and expiration times. Finally, results are presented on the implementation of a system for the generation of private keys for cryptographic communications using channel impulse-response estimation at 60 GHz. The testbed is composed of commercial millimeter-wave VubIQ transceivers, laboratory equipment, and software implemented in MATLAB. Novel cognitive enhancements are demonstrated, using channel estimation to dynamically change system parameters and estimate cryptographic key strength. We show for a complex channel that secret key generation can be accomplished on the order of 100 kb/s.

  4. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  5. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  6. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-07-28

    We tested a model that children's tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children's chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child's chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior.

  7. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T.; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26170281

  8. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  9. CheY’s acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Afanzar, Oshri; Cassidy, C. Keith; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Schulten, Klaus; Levin, Yishai; Eisenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stimulation of Escherichia coli with acetate elevates the acetylation level of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY. This elevation, in an unknown mechanism, activates CheY to generate clockwise rotation. Here, using quantitative selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and high-resolution targeted mass spectrometry, we identified K91 and K109 as the major sites whose acetylation level in vivo increases in response to acetate. Employing single and multiple lysine replacements in CheY, we found that K91 and K109 are also the sites mainly responsible for acetate-dependent clockwise generation. Furthermore, we showed that clockwise rotation is repressed when residue K91 is non-modified, as evidenced by an increased ability of CheY to generate clockwise rotation when K91 was acetylated or replaced by specific amino acids. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that K91 repression is manifested in the conformational dynamics of the β4α4 loop, shifted towards an active state upon mutation. Removal of β4α4 loop repression may represent a general activation mechanism in CheY, pertaining also to the canonical phosphorylation activation pathway as suggested by crystal structures of active and inactive CheY from Thermotoga maritima. By way of elimination we further suggest that K109 acetylation is actively involved in generating clockwise rotation. PMID:25388160

  10. Managing aggression in the emergency department: promoting an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Rintoul, Yvonne; Wynaden, Dianne; McGowan, Sunita

    2009-04-01

    Incidents of aggression are frequent occurrences in hospitals, particularly the emergency department. Aggression creates instability in the environment, impacts on patient care outcomes and leads to increased levels of stress in staff. Regular exposure to aggression in the workplace can have detrimental effects on health professionals' ongoing quality of life. The emergency department is a gateway to care and is heavily populated 24h a day. Therefore, it is essential that all health professionals are confident and well prepared to manage aggression. Based upon a review of the literature this paper outlines the causes of aggression and provides an interdisciplinary action plan for intervening with aggressive patients in the emergency department. The importance of interdisciplinary ownership and the well planned management of aggression are outlined. When well managed, the impact of aggression can be limited. Stability in the emergency department ensures that health professionals can be responsive to the community's needs for emergency care. This leads to the provision of effective and timely care and a stable work environment for all health professionals.

  11. Experience influences aggressive behaviour in the Argentine ant

    PubMed Central

    Van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Clémencet, Johanna; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    All animals interact with conspecifics during their life, and nearly all also display some form of aggression. An enduring challenge, however, is to understand how the experiences of an individual animal influence its later behaviours. Several studies have shown that prior winning experience increases the probability of initiating fights in later encounters. Using behavioural assays in the laboratory, we provide evidence that, in Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), the mere exposure to an opponent, without the encounter escalating to a fight, also increases the probability that it will display aggression in later encounters. Argentine ant workers differ in their propensity to attack non-colonymates, with some ants repeatedly aggressive and others consistently more docile. Although 78 per cent of the workers were consistent in their behaviour from one encounter to the next, workers that did change their behaviour after an encounter with a non-colonymate more often changed from non-aggressive to aggressive, rather than the reverse. Surprisingly, a single encounter with a non-colonymate increased a worker's propensity to fight in encounters up to a week later. An encounter with a non-colonymate also increased the probability that a worker would attack ants from a colony that it had not previously encountered. Thus, these interactions lowered the overall aggression threshold, rather than stimulating a specific aggressive response to a particular foreign colony. Finally, our data suggest that aggression towards non-colonymates increases with age. PMID:19793741

  12. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior.

  13. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  14. Enhanced third-harmonic generation in silicon nanoparticles driven by magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Neshev, Dragomir N; Hopkins, Ben; Shorokhov, Alexander S; Staude, Isabelle; Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Decker, Manuel; Ezhov, Alexander A; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Brener, Igal; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2014-11-12

    We observe enhanced third-harmonic generation from silicon nanodisks exhibiting both electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. Experimental characterization of the nonlinear optical response through third-harmonic microscopy and spectroscopy reveals that the third-harmonic generation is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of the magnetic dipole resonances. The field localization at the magnetic resonance results in two orders of magnitude enhancement of the harmonic intensity with respect to unstructured bulk silicon with the conversion efficiency limited only by the two-photon absorption in the substrate.

  15. Anger under Control: Neural Correlates of Frustration as a Function of Trait Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression. PMID:24205247

  16. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  17. Alcohol and aggression: a social information processing analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayette, M A; Wilson, G T; Elias, M J

    1993-07-01

    The present study represents a preliminary exploration of the effects of alcohol on aggression (a hypothetical response to a videotaped provocation), using a social information processing model. Subjects were male social drinkers who received either a control beverage (ginger ale), placebo, .45 g/kg alcohol or .85 g/kg alcohol. Subjects observed a series of videotaped scenes of potential conflict occurring in the lounge of a college dormitory. In these scenes, an intruder switched the channel on a television set without asking the person watching for permission. The four groups were similar in their ability to encode and interpret social cues. Subjects in the 0.85 g/kg group were less able to generate competent (nonaggressive) solutions and were less likely than controls to select adaptive (nonaggressive) solutions. Subjects in the .85 g/kg group were more likely than control subjects to respond aggressively after being frustrated by the intruder's negative reaction to the initial attempt to resolve the conflict.

  18. Mreg Activity in Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judith; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid regulatory cells (Mregs) are, together with regulatory T cells (Tregs), a dominant effector population responsible for restriction of the duration and strength of antitumor immune response. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and cancer vaccines generated by PDT are modalities whose effectiveness in tumor destruction is closely dependent on the associated antitumor immune response. The present study investigated whether the immunodepletion of granulocytic Mregs in host mice by anti-GR1 antibody would improve the response of tumors to PDT or PDT vaccines in these animals. Anti-GR1 administration immediately after Temoporfin-PDT of mouse SCCVII tumors abrogated curative effect of PDT. The opposite effect, increasing PDT-mediated tumor cure-rates was attained by delaying anti-GR1 treatment to 1 h post PDT. With PDT vaccines, multiple anti-GR1 administrations (days 0, 4, and 8 post vaccination) improved the therapy response with SCCVII tumors. The results with PDT suggest that neutrophils (boosting antitumor effect of this therapy) that are engaged immediately after photodynamic light treatment are within one hour replaced with a different myeloid population, presumably Mregs that hampers the therapy-mediated antitumor effect. Anti-GR1 antibody, when used with optimal timing, can improve the efficacy of both PDT of tumors in situ and PDT-generated cancer vaccines. PMID:27754452

  19. Bi-directional actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and aggression in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    There is a well-established positive relationship between gonadal steroids and aggression. In some seasonally breeding species, however, aggression often persists or is increased during short "winter-like" days when the gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal steroids are relatively low. Although the mechanisms underlying short-day increases in aggression are not fully known, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been suggested as an alternative neuroendocrine mechanism regulating seasonal aggression. We used two complementary experimental approaches to examine the bi-directional actions of DHEA and aggression in female Siberian hamsters, a seasonal rodent that displays increased aggression concomitant with elevated circulating DHEA in short days. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of aggressive interactions on DHEA concentrations before and after an aggressive encounter in long- and short-day hamsters. Serum DHEA was altered in a photoperiod-dependent manner, with decreased DHEA levels in response to aggression in short- but not long-day hamsters. Next, we experimentally induced adrenal DHEA release via injections of exogenous ACTH and assessed changes in aggressive behavior across photoperiods. We show a robust increase in aggression in short compared with long days during baseline aggression trials; however, aggression was not significantly increased further in response to ACTH in either photoperiod during post-ACTH aggression trials. These findings suggest that DHEA plays a role in the regulation of short-day aggression, while also highlighting the need for additional studies addressing the causal relationship between DHEA and aggression in this and others species.

  20. pH-responsive silica nanoparticles for controllable 1O2 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaobo; Wang, Jianguang; Chen, Jingrong; Lei, Wanhua; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Baowen

    2010-03-01

    pH-responsive 1O2 photosensitizing systems may serve as selective photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents by targeting the acidic interstitial fluid of many kinds of tumors. In this work, we present a pH-responsive nanoparticle-based platform for controllable 1O2 generation, in which a hydrophobic 1O2 photosensitizer (meso-tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP) and a pH indicator (Bromocresol Purple, BCP, or Bromothymol Blue, BTB) are simultaneously encapsulated in organically modified silica nanoparticles (OSNP). In basic conditions, the pH indicator absorbs light competitively and thus restricts sensitizer excitation. In acidic solution, the blue shifted absorption of the pH indicator allows the efficient excitation of the sensitizer. The pH indicator serves as an 'inner filter' to modulate effectively the excitation of the sensitizer and thus the 1O2 generation efficiency.

  1. The elastic-plastic response of metal films subjected to ultrafast laser-generated shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, Von; McGrane, Shawn; Bolme, Cynthia; Moore, David

    2011-06-01

    We have measured the free-surface response of metal films with nominal thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 8 μm to shocks generated from chirped ultrafast lasers. We launch a single laser generated stress wave into the metal film, but measure two stress waves on the free surface separated in time. The two waves correspond to the elastic and plastic response of the thin metal films. Using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry, we have measured the separation of the elastic and plastic waves to times as short as 20 picoseconds and measured peak elastic free surface velocities as high as 1.4 km/s in aluminum. We will discuss the experimental results we have measured for aluminum, copper and other metals.

  2. Interaction effect of response medium and working memory capacity on creative idea generation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning; Yuan, Huan; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Qing; Runco, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the interaction effect of response medium (i.e., write down ideas and orally report ideas) and working memory capacity (WMC) on creative idea generation. Participants (N = 90) with higher or lower WMC were asked to solve Alternative Uses Task (AUT) problems in the condition of writing down or speaking out ideas. The results showed that fluency of AUT performance was higher in the writing than in the speaking condition. Additionally, participants with higher WMC performed better on AUT fluency than those with lower WMC in the writing condition, while they showed no difference in the speaking condition. Moreover, level of cognitive demand fully mediated the effect of response medium on AUT fluency. Theoretically, these findings indicated the importance of WMC in creative idea generation, which supported the controlled-attention theory of creativity. Practical implications and future directions were discussed. PMID:26528227

  3. Frequency-dependent fine structure in the frequency-following response: The byproduct of multiple generators.

    PubMed

    Tichko, Parker; Skoe, Erika

    2017-01-28

    The frequency-following response (FFR) is an auditory-evoked response recorded at the scalp that captures the spectrotemporal properties of tonal stimuli. Previous investigations report that the amplitude of the FFR fluctuates as a function of stimulus frequency, a phenomenon thought to reflect multiple neural generators phase-locking to the stimulus with different response latencies. When phase-locked responses are offset by different latencies, constructive and destructive phase interferences emerge in the volume-conducted signals, culminating in an attenuation or amplification of the scalp-recorded response in a frequency-specific manner. Borrowing from the literature on the audiogram and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), we refer to this frequency-specific waxing and waning of the FFR amplitude as fine structure. While prior work on the human FFR was limited by small sets of stimulus frequencies, here, we provide the first systematic investigation of FFR fine structure using a broad stimulus set (90 + frequencies) that spanned the limits of human pitch perception. Consistent with predictions, the magnitude of the FFR response varied systematically as a function of stimulus frequency between 16.35 and 880 Hz. In our dataset, FFR high points (local maxima) emerged at ∼44, 87, 208, and 415 Hz with FFR valleys (local minima) emerging ∼62, 110, 311, and 448 Hz. To investigate whether these amplitude fluctuations are the result of multiple neural generators with distinct latencies, we created a theoretical model of the FFR that included six putative generators. Based on the extant literature on the sources of the FFR, our model adopted latencies characteristic of the cochlear microphonic (0 ms), cochlear nucleus (∼1.25 ms), superior olive (∼3.7 ms), and inferior colliculus (∼5 ms). In addition, we included two longer latency putative generators (∼13 ms, and ∼25 ms) reflective of the characteristic latencies of primary and non-primary auditory

  4. Mesospheric, Thermospheric, and Ionospheric Responses to Acoustic and Gravity Waves Generated by Transient Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Strong acoustic waves with periods ~1-4 minutes have been confirmed to perturb the ionosphere following their generation by earthquakes [e.g., Garcia et al., GRL, 40(5), 2013] and volcanic eruption events [e.g., Heki, GRL, 33, L14303, 2006]. Clear acoustic and gravity wave signatures have also been reported in ionospheric data above strong tropospheric convection [Nishioka, GRL, 40(21), 2013], and prior modeling results suggest that convectively-generated acoustic waves with ~3-4 minute periods are readily detectable above their sources in TEC [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. These observations have provided quantitative insight into the coupling of processes occurring near Earth's surface with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere over short time-scales. Here, we investigate acoustic waves and short-period gravity waves generated by sources near ground level, and the observable responses of the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI) systems. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model, in cylindrically-axisymmetric coordinates, to investigate wave generation, upward propagation, steepening, and dissipation. Acoustic waves may produce observable signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013], and can strongly perturb the lower-thermosphere and E- and F-region ionosphere, prior to the arrival of simultaneously-generated gravity waves. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for mid and low latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013], we investigate its response to realistic acoustic wave perturbations. In particular, we demonstrate that the MLT and ionospheric responses are significantly and nonlinearly determined by the acoustic wave source geometry, spectrum, and amplitude, in addition to the local ambient state of the

  5. Mapping Polyclonal HIV-1 Antibody Responses via Next-Generation Neutralization Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Roark, Ryan S.; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Sutton, Matthew S.; Louder, Mark K.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Bailer, Robert T.; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Wang, Felicia; Binley, James M.; Connors, Mark; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.; Morris, Lynn; Overbaugh, Julie; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.

    2017-01-01

    Computational neutralization fingerprinting, NFP, is an efficient and accurate method for predicting the epitope specificities of polyclonal antibody responses to HIV-1 infection. Here, we present next-generation NFP algorithms that substantially improve prediction accuracy for individual donors and enable serologic analysis for entire cohorts. Specifically, we developed algorithms for: (a) selection of optimized virus neutralization panels for NFP analysis, (b) estimation of NFP prediction confidence for each serum sample, and (c) identification of sera with potentially novel epitope specificities. At the individual donor level, the next-generation NFP algorithms particularly improved the ability to detect multiple epitope specificities in a sample, as confirmed both for computationally simulated polyclonal sera and for samples from HIV-infected donors. Specifically, the next-generation NFP algorithms detected multiple specificities in twice as many samples of simulated sera. Further, unlike the first-generation NFP, the new algorithms were able to detect both of the previously confirmed antibody specificities, VRC01-like and PG9-like, in donor CHAVI 0219. At the cohort level, analysis of ~150 broadly neutralizing HIV-infected donor samples suggested a potential connection between clade of infection and types of elicited epitope specificities. Most notably, while 10E8-like antibodies were observed in infections from different clades, an enrichment of such antibodies was predicted for clade B samples. Ultimately, such large-scale analyses of antibody responses to HIV-1 infection can help guide the design of epitope-specific vaccines that are tailored to take into account the prevalence of infecting clades within a specific geographic region. Overall, the next-generation NFP technology will be an important tool for the analysis of broadly neutralizing polyclonal antibody responses against HIV-1. PMID:28052137

  6. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  7. A Qualitative Study of Individual and Peer Factors Related to Effective Nonviolent versus Aggressive Responses to Problem Situations among Adolescents with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Bettencourt, Amie F.; Sutherland, Kevin; Lotze, Geri M.; Mays, Sally; Wright, Stephen; Farrell, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the positive adjustment of youths with high incidence disabilities, a better understanding of the factors that influence their use of effective responses in challenging situations is needed. In this qualitative study, adolescents described individual and peer factors that would influence their use of effective nonviolent or aggressive…

  8. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  9. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  10. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F; Stolberg, Tara; Kulkarni, Praveen; Murugavel, Murali; Blanchard, Robert; Blanchard, D Caroline; Febo, Marcelo; Brevard, Mathew; Simon, Neal G

    2008-01-01

    Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus), emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex) and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding. Drugs that block vasopressin

  11. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  13. Effect of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Allsop, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Swearing produces a pain lessening (hypoalgesic) effect for many people; an emotional response may be the underlying mechanism. In this paper, the role of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance and pain perception is assessed. In a repeated-measures design, pain outcomes were assessed in participants asked to play for 10 minutes a first-person shooter video game vs a golf video game. Sex differences were explored. After playing the first-person shooter video game, aggressive cognitions, aggressive affect, heart rate, and cold pressor latency were increased, and pain perception was decreased. These data indicate that people become more pain tolerant with raised state aggression and support our theory that raised pain tolerance from swearing occurs via an emotional response.

  14. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  15. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrea W.U.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25618582

  16. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrea W U; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.

  17. Analytical ultrasonics for evaluation of composite materials response. Part 2: Generation and detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the response of composite materials, it is imperative that the input excitation as well as the observed output be well characterized. This characterization ideally should be in terms of displacements as a function of time with high spatial resolution. Additionally, the ability to prescribe these features for the excitation is highly desirable. Various methods for generating and detecting ultrasound in advanced composite materials are examined. Characterization and tailoring of input excitation is considered for contact and noncontact, mechanical, and electromechanical devices. Type of response as well as temporal and spatial resolution of detection methods are discussed as well. Results of investigations at Virginia Tech in application of these techniques to characterizing the response of advanced composites are presented.

  18. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  19. Perinatal factors, parenting behavior, and reactive aggression: does cortisol reactivity mediate this developmental risk process?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stacy R; Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this developmental risk process. In a community sample of 99 elementary school-aged children, prenatal risk was measured by a count of minor physical anomalies (MPAs), reactive aggression was measured by laboratory observations of aggression in response to provocation, and general aggression was measured by parent report. Cortisol reactivity was not found to mediate the association between MPAs and reactive aggression or general aggression. However, MPAs were found to interact with parenting behaviors to predict reactive aggression and general aggression, as well as cortisol reactivity. Specifically, as the deficits in parenting increased, MPAs became more strongly and positively associated with reactive aggressive and general aggressive outcomes. Similarly, in cases of poor parenting behaviors, MPAs were positively associated with higher cortisol reactivity. Implications for theory and prevention are discussed.

  20. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  1. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  2. Prozac impacts lateralization of aggression in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    HedayatiRad, Maryam; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Brown, Culum

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, preferentially use right-eye during the aggressive displays. However, administration of antidepressant drugs may disrupt eye-use preference in association with a reduction in aggression; a phenomena that has not been explored in fish. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of exposure to the antidepressant drug, fluoxetine, on lateralization in eye-use during aggressive displays in male Siamese fighting fish. Baseline aggression and lateralization in eye use of thirty fish were assessed toward live conspecifics, following which experimental subjects (n=15) were then exposed to fluoxetine (540ng/L) in a static renewal water system. Behavior was quantified again after 9 days of exposure. All of the subjects preferentially used the right-eye during aggressive responses before the exposure experiments. Fluoxetine exposed subjects showed a reduction in the time spent gill flaring as has previously been reported, indicative of a reduction in the level of aggression. Fluoxetine also had a significant effect on the lateralization in preferred eye-use while looking at their opponent. Fish exposed to fluoxetine switched from a preferential use of the right-eye during aggressive encounters prior to exposure to using their left-eye after exposure to fluoxetine. The results are discussed with regard to asymmetrical distribution of serotonin between the two brain hemispheres.

  3. Filament generation off the Strait of Gibraltar in response to Gap winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliz, Álvaro; Teles-Machado, Ana; Marchesiello, Patrick; Dubert, Jesus; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study of the generation of a cold filament rooted off the southwestern edge of the Strait of Gibraltar (Atlantic side) during the summer of 2000. The event is successfully simulated using high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic numerical models. It is shown that a sharp filament may develop oceanwards with little modification of the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean, contrary to usual expectations. The filament is essentially driven by the surface layer response to Gap winds occurring during Levanter conditions. The easterly wind funnelling in the Strait generates a strong wind jet and intense wind curl which impacts the oceanic surface layer through Ekman pumping and mixing processes. The generation and fate of the filament is very similar to the Gulf of Tehuantepec case, where strong Gap wind events produce asymmetric deformation and erosion of the thermocline that tends to favour anticyclonic mesoscale circulations. Our observations and model results from both realistic and idealized experiments suggest that similar phenomena are present in the Gulf of Cadiz, but they are altered by the persisting Atlantic inflow, so that the response to Gap winds is not as dramatic.

  4. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1985-04-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  5. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  6. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  7. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  8. Are American College of Rheumatology 50% response criteria superior to 20% criteria in distinguishing active aggressive treatment in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials reported since 1997? A meta‐analysis of discriminant capacities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, C P; Thompson, J L; Koch, G G; Amara, I; Strand, V; Pincus, T

    2006-01-01

    Objective To carry out a meta‐analysis designed to compare the discriminant capacities of American College of Rheumatology 50% (ACR50) with 20% (ACR20) responses in clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported after 1997 and to analyse whether ACR50 can be as informative as ACR20 in distinguishing active from control treatments in more recent trials. Methods Clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported since 1997 were identified, which included aggressive combinations of disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, as well as powerful new agents—leflunomide, etanercept, infliximab, anakinra, adalimumab, abatacept, tacrolimus and rituximab. A meta‐analysis of ACR20 compared with ACR50 responses for 21 clinical trials was carried out on differences in proportions of responders for active and control treatments and corresponding odds ratios (ORs). Results In all but one clinical trial on rheumatoid arthritis published since 1997 with data available on ACR20 and ACR50, more than 50% of patients who were ACR20 responders among those randomised to active treatment were also ACR50 responders. This phenomenon was seen for control groups in 38% of trials, many of which included treatment with methotrexate. A meta‐analysis of the clinical trials indicated a slight advantage to ACR50 for quantifying treatment comparisons, not significant for differences in proportions but significant for ORs. Conclusion ACR20 and ACR50 seem to be similar in distinguishing active from control treatments in clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis reported since 1997. As ACR50 represents a considerably stronger clinical response, ACR50 may be a preferred end point for contemporary clinical trials on rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:16504992

  9. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  10. Sight of a Predator Induces a Corticosterone Stress Response and Generates Fear in an Amphibian

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Edward J.; Cockrem, John F.; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, like other animals, generate corticosterone or cortisol glucocorticoid responses to stimuli perceived to be threatening. It is generally assumed that the corticosterone response of animals to capture and handling reflects the corticosterone response to stimuli such as the sight of a predator that are thought to be natural stressors. Fijian ground frogs (Platymantisvitiana) are preyed upon by the introduced cane toads (Rhinellamarina), and we used ground frogs to test the hypothesis that the sight of a predator will induce a corticosterone stress response in an amphibian. Urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male ground frogs exposed to the sight of a toad for 1, 3 or 6 h, whereas corticosterone did not change in frogs exposed to another male ground frog, a ball, or when no stimulus was present in the test compartment. The frogs exposed to a toad initially moved towards the stimulus then moved away, whereas frogs exposed to another frog moved towards the test frog and remained closer to the frog than at the start of the test. Tonic immobility (TI) was measured as an index of fearfulness immediately after the test exposure of the frogs to a stimulus. The duration of TI was longer in frogs exposed to a toad than to another frog or to a ball. The results provide novel evidence that the sight of a predator can induce a corticosterone response and lead to increased fearfulness in amphibians. In addition, they show that endemic frogs can recognise an introduced predator as a threat. PMID:24009756

  11. Motor cortex activation in Parkinson's disease: dissociation of electrocortical and peripheral measures of response generation.

    PubMed

    Praamstra, P; Plat, E M; Meyer, A S; Horstink, M W

    1999-09-01

    This study investigated characteristics of motor cortex activation and response generation in Parkinson's disease with measures of electrocortical activity (lateralized readiness potential [LRP]), electromyographic activity (EMG), and isometric force in a noise-compatibility task. When presented with stimuli consisting of incompatible target and distractor elements asking for responses of opposite hands, patients were less able than control subjects to suppress activation of the motor cortex controlling the wrong response hand. This was manifested in the pattern of reaction times and in an incorrect lateralization of the LRP. Onset latency and rise time of the LRP did not differ between patients and control subjects, but EMG and response force developed more slowly in patients. Moreover, in patients but not in control subjects, the rate of development of EMG and response force decreased as reaction time increased. We hypothesize that this dissociation between electrocortical activity and peripheral measures in Parkinson's disease is the result of changes in motor cortex function that alter the relation between signal-related and movement-related neural activity in the motor cortex. In the LRP, this altered balance may obscure an abnormal development of movement-related neural activity.

  12. Different Gene Expressions of Resistant and Susceptible Hop Cultivars in Response to Infection with a Highly Aggressive Strain of Verticillium albo-atrum.

    PubMed

    Cregeen, Sara; Radisek, Sebastjan; Mandelc, Stanislav; Turk, Boris; Stajner, Natasa; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka

    Verticillium wilt has become a serious threat to hop production in Europe due to outbreaks of lethal wilt caused by a highly virulent strain of Verticillium albo-atrum. In order to enhance our understanding of resistance mechanisms, the fungal colonization patterns and interactions of resistant and susceptible hop cultivars infected with V. albo-atrum were analysed in time course experiments. Quantification of fungal DNA showed marked differences in spatial and temporal fungal colonization patterns in the two cultivars. Two differential display methods obtained 217 transcripts with altered expression, of which 84 showed similarity to plant proteins and 8 to fungal proteins. Gene ontology categorised them into cellular and metabolic processes, response to stimuli, biological regulation, biogenesis and localization. The expression patterns of 17 transcripts with possible implication in plant immunity were examined by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results showed strong expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in susceptible plants and strong upregulation of genes implicated in ubiquitination and vesicle trafficking in the incompatible interaction and their downregulation in susceptible plants, suggesting the involvement of these processes in the hop resistance reaction. In the resistant cultivar, the RT-qPCR expression patterns of most genes showed their peak at 20 dpi and declined towards 30 dpi, comparable to the gene expression pattern of in planta detected fungal protein and coinciding with the highest fungal biomass in plants at 15 dpi. These expression patterns suggest that the defence response in the resistant cultivar is strong enough at 20 dpi to restrict further fungus colonization.

  13. Quality control procedures for dose-response curve generation using nanoliter dispense technologies.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Catherine; Rosenstein, Craig; Hughes, Bethany; Middleton, Richard; Kariv, Ilona

    2007-09-01

    With the advancement of high-throughput biomolecular screening techniques to the lead optimization stage, there is a critical need to quality control (QC) dose-response curves generated by robotic liquid handlers to ensure accurate affinity determinations. One challenge in evaluating the performance of liquid handlers is identifying and validating a robust method for testing dispense volumes across different instruments. Although traditional automated liquid handlers are still considered the standard platform in many laboratories, nanoliter dispensers are becoming more common and pose new challenges for routine quality control procedures. For example, standard gravimetric measurements are unreliable for testing the accuracy of nanoliter liquid dispenses. However, nanoliter dispensing technology allows for the conservation of compound, reduces compound carryover from well to well through discrete dispenses, and eliminates the need for intermediate compound dilution steps to achieve a low final DMSO assay concentration. Moreover, an intermediate dilution step in aqueous solution might result in compound precipitation at high concentrations. This study compared representative automation procedures done on a variety of liquid dispensers, including manual, traditional, and nanodispense volumes. The data confirmed the importance of establishing robust QC procedures for dose-response generation in addition to accuracy and precision determinations for each instrument, and they validated the use of nanoliter pipettors for dose-response testing. The results of this study also support the requirement for thorough mixing during serial compound dilutions prepared for high-throughput lead optimization strategies using traditional liquid handlers.

  14. Asbestos and multi-walled carbon nanotubes generate distinct oxidative responses in inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Satomi; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Ito, Daiki; Asakawa, Atsushi; Nagai, Hirotaka; Tajima, Masafumi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is considered a social burden by causing mesothelioma. Despite the use of synthetic materials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are similar in dimension to asbestos and produce mesothelioma in animals. The role of inflammatory cells in mesothelial carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the differences in inflammatory cell responses following exposure to these fibrous materials using a luminometer and L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rat peripheral blood or RAW264.7 cells were used to assess the effects on neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Crocidolite and amosite induced significant ROS generation by neutrophils with a peak at 10 min, whereas that of chrysotile was ~25% of the crocidolite/amosite response. MWCNTs with different diameters (~15, 50, 115 and 145 nm) and different carcinogenicity did not induce significant ROS in peripheral blood. However, the MWCNTs induced a comparable amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells to that following asbestos treatment. The peaks for MWCNTs (0.5–1.5 h) were observed earlier than those for asbestos (1–5 h). Apocynin and superoxide dismutase significantly inhibited ROS generation for each fiber, suggesting an involvement of NADPH oxidase and superoxide. Thus, asbestos and MWCNTs induce different oxidative responses in inflammatory cells, indicating the importance of mesothelial cell evaluation for carcinogenesis. PMID:25759516

  15. Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations exposed to mercury for multiple generations

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, C.P.; Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish were examined after multiple generations of exposure to mercury. Previous studies of acute lethal exposures of mosquitofish to either mercury or arsenic demonstrated a consistent correlation between time to death and genotype at the glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) locus. A mesocosm study involving mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d showed significant female sexual selection and fecundity selection at the Gpi-2 locus. Here the mesocosm study was extended to populations exposed to mercury for several (approx. four) generations. After 2 years, control and mercury-exposed populations met Hardy-Weinberg expectations and showed no evidence of genetic bottlenecks. The mean number of heterozygous loci did not differ significantly between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Significant differences in allele frequencies at the Gpi-2 locus were observed between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Relative to the initial and control allele frequencies, the GPI-2{sup 100} allele frequency was lower, the Gpi-2{sup 66} allele frequency increased, but the Gpi-2{sup 38} allele frequency did not change in mercury-exposed populations. No significant differences were found in standard length, weight, sex ratio, or age class ratio between the control and mercury-exposed populations. Allele frequency changes at the Gpi-2 locus suggest population-level response to chronic mercury exposure. Changes in allele frequency may be useful as indicators of population response to contaminants, provided that the population in question is well understood.

  16. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  17. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  18. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  19. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  20. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Markers of Response to PD-1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Douglas B; Frampton, Garrett M; Rioth, Matthew J; Yusko, Erik; Xu, Yaomin; Guo, Xingyi; Ennis, Riley C; Fabrizio, David; Chalmers, Zachary R; Greenbowe, Joel; Ali, Siraj M; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Sun, James X; He, Yuting; Frederick, Dennie T; Puzanov, Igor; Balko, Justin M; Cates, Justin M; Ross, Jeffrey S; Sanders, Catherine; Robins, Harlan; Shyr, Yu; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Sullivan, Ryan J; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Lovly, Christine M

    2016-11-01

    Therapeutic antibodies blocking programmed death-1 and its ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) induce durable responses in a substantial fraction of melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether the number and/or type of mutations identified using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel available in the clinic was correlated with response to anti-PD-1 in melanoma. Using archival melanoma samples from anti-PD-1/PD-L1-treated patients, we performed hybrid capture-based NGS on 236-315 genes and T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing on initial and validation cohorts from two centers. Patients who responded to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 had higher mutational loads in an initial cohort (median, 45.6 vs. 3.9 mutations/MB; P = 0.003) and a validation cohort (37.1 vs. 12.8 mutations/MB; P = 0.002) compared with nonresponders. Response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival were superior in the high, compared with intermediate and low, mutation load groups. Melanomas with NF1 mutations harbored high mutational loads (median, 62.7 mutations/MB) and high response rates (74%), whereas BRAF/NRAS/NF1 wild-type melanomas had a lower mutational load. In these archival samples, TCR clonality did not predict response. Mutation numbers in the 315 genes in the NGS platform strongly correlated with those detected by whole-exome sequencing in The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, but was not associated with survival. In conclusion, mutational load, as determined by an NGS platform available in the clinic, effectively stratified patients by likelihood of response. This approach may provide a clinically feasible predictor of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(11); 959-67. ©2016 AACR.

  1. The Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale: A New Multidimensional Measure of Technology-Based Intimate Partner Aggression.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to develop and provide initial validation for a measure of adult cyber intimate partner aggression (IPA): the Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale (CARS). Drawing on recent conceptual models of cyber IPA, items from previous research exploring general cyber aggression and cyber IPA were modified and new items were generated for inclusion in the CARS. Two samples of adults 18 years or older were recruited online. We used item factor analysis to test the factor structure, model fit, and invariance of the measure structure across women and men. Results confirmed that three-factor models for both perpetration and victimization demonstrated good model fit, and that, in general, the CARS measures partner cyber aggression similarly for women and men. The CARS also demonstrated validity through significant associations with in-person IPA, trait anger, and jealousy. Findings suggest the CARS is a useful tool for assessing cyber IPA in both research and clinical settings.

  2. What motivates hate crimes based on sexual orientation? Mediating effects of anger on antigay aggression.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of anger in response to gay men within three theoretical models of antigay aggression. Participants were 135 exclusively heterosexual men who completed a structured interview designed to assess sexual prejudice, anger in response to a vignette depicting a nonerotic male-male intimate relationship (i.e. partners saying "I love you", holding hands, kissing), and past perpetration of antigay aggression. Among identified antigay assailants, motivations for one earlier assault (i.e. sexual prejudice, peer dynamics, thrill seeking) were also assessed. Results indicated that anger fully mediated the relationship between sexual prejudice and antigay aggression, partially mediated the effect of peer dynamics on antigay aggression, and did not account for the relationship between thrill seeking and antigay aggression. These findings indicate that anger in response to gay men facilitates antigay aggression among some, but not all, antigay perpetrators.

  3. Generating Targeted Gene Knockout Lines in Physcomitrella patens to Study Evolution of Stress-Responsive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Maronova, Monika; Kalyna, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens possesses highly efficient homologous recombination allowing targeted gene manipulations and displays many features of the early land plants including high tolerance to abiotic stresses. It is therefore an invaluable model organism for studies of gene functions and comparative studies of evolution of stress responses in plants. Here, we describe a method for generating targeted gene knockout lines in P. patens using a polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of protoplasts including basic in vitro growth, propagation, and maintenance techniques. PMID:26867627

  4. Analytical procedures for estimating structural response to acoustic fields generated by advanced launch systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Lin, Y. K.; Zhu, Li-Ping; Fang, Jian-Jie; Cai, G. Q.

    1994-01-01

    This report supplements a previous report of the same title submitted in June, 1992. It summarizes additional analytical techniques which have been developed for predicting the response of linear and nonlinear structures to noise excitations generated by large propulsion power plants. The report is divided into nine chapters. The first two deal with incomplete knowledge of boundary conditions of engineering structures. The incomplete knowledge is characterized by a convex set, and its diagnosis is formulated as a multi-hypothesis discrete decision-making algorithm with attendant criteria of adaptive termination.

  5. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sam A.; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Dan J.; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L.; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E.; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J.; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive aggressive behavior is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders1 and is thought to partly result from inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli2. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus3–5, extended amygdala6 and limbic7 circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behavior8. To address this, we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors (AGG) develop a CPP, while non-aggressors (NON) develop a conditioned place aversion (CPA), to the intruder-paired context. Further, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of AGG with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of NON with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Lastly, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behavior. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit plays a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behavior and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing. PMID:27357796

  6. Parenting responsibility expectations of senior Australian dental students: do the next generations' family responsibilities impact workforce planning?

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Ala'a; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, there has been a substantial increase in work-based demands, thought to be due to an intensifying, competitive work environment. However, more recently, the question of work-life balance is increasingly attracting attention. The purpose of this study was to discover the attitudes of the next generation of dentists in Australia to parenting responsibility and work-life balance perceptions. Questionnaires on work-life balance were distributed to all fourth-year students at three dental schools in Australia. A total of 137 (76 percent) surveys were completed and returned. Most respondents indicated that they would take time off to focus on childcare, and just over half thought childcare should be shared by both parents. Thirty-seven percent felt that a child would have a considerable effect on their careers. Differences were seen in responses when compared by gender. The application of sensitivity analysis to workforce calculations based around changing societal work-life expectations can have substantial effects on predicting workforce data a decade into the future. It is not just the demographic change to a more feminized workforce in Australia that can have substantial effect, but also the change in social expectations of males in regards to parenting.

  7. Dynamic response improvement of doubly fed induction generator-based wind farm using fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanien, Hany M.; Al-Ammar, Essam A.

    2012-11-01

    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm is today the most widely used concept. This paper presents dynamic response enhancement of DFIG based wind farm under remote fault conditions using the fuzzy logic controller. The goal of the work is to improve the dynamic response of DFIG based wind farm during and after the clearance of fault using the proposed controller. The stability of wind farm during and after the clearance of fault is investigated. The effectiveness of the fuzzy logic controller is then compared with that of a PI controller. The validity of the controllers in restoring the wind farms normal operation after the clearance of fault is illustrated by the simulation results which are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results are analyzed under different fault conditions.

  8. Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Wang, Zhiguo; Prange, Micah P.; Wu, Dangxin

    2014-12-01

    This Final Report presents work carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators” (Project number: PL10-Scin-theor-PD2Jf) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project was divided into four tasks: 1) Electronic response functions (ab initio data model) 2) Electron-hole yield, variance, and spatial distribution 3) Ab initio calculations of information carrier properties 4) Transport of electron-hole pairs and scintillation efficiency Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the four tasks is provided in this Final Report. Furthermore, published peer-reviewed articles based on the work carried under this project are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. [Calcium modulation of the release kinetics of the acetylcholine quanta generating multiquantal postsynaptic response].

    PubMed

    Khuzakhmetova, V F; Fatikhov, N F; Bukharaeva, E A; Nikol'skiĭ, E E

    2011-10-01

    The effects of calcium on the quantal content of nerve-evoked endplate currents (EPC) and on the temporal parameters of quantal release were studied in the frog neuromuscular synapse using the method of "subtractions". It was shown that under physiological conditions quanta generating multiquantal postsynaptic responses were released nonsynchronously because of a considerable variability of latencies of the uniquantal responses forming multiquantal EPC. Different calcium dependences for EPCs quantal content and time course of the quantal release were revealed. The average quantal content grew exponentially with the increase in calcium concentration from 0.4 to 1.8 mmol/L, whereas the release synchronicity reached the maximum at 1 mmol/L calcium. It was suggested that the changes in the synchronicity of the evoked release were one of the mechanisms of the synaptic plasticity.

  10. Periodic Wnt1 expression in response to ecdysteroid generates twin-spot markings on caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junichi; Banno, Yutaka; Mita, Kazuei; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ando, Toshiya; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Among various pigmentation patterns on caterpillars, sequential spot markings are often observed and used for aposematic colouration. In contrast to adult wings, caterpillar cuticle markings are repeatedly generated at each moult, but little is known about how the patterns are formed and maintained periodically. Here we focus on a silkworm mutant, multi lunar (L), with twin-spot markings on sequential segments. Positional cloning of L and expression analyses reveal that cis-regulatory change in Wnt1 is responsible for the spot patterning. The periodical upregulation of Wnt1 in response to ecdysteroid is detected only in epidermis within spot marking area. We verify by transgenic expression that the ectopic Wnt1 induces the additional pigmentation. Furthermore, the association of Wnt1 expression with spot markings is observed in the wild Bombyx species and swallowtail butterfly Papilio machaon. Taken together, we anticipate that periodic Wnt1 expression may contribute to natural variations of spot patterning on caterpillar cuticle.

  11. Factors influencing the temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and experiences with aggression among college women.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Bradizza, Clara M; Romosz, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    The authors assessed temporal relationships among alcohol use, aggression, and mood using daily data from 179 college women. Participants called an interactive voice response system over an 8-week period. The odds of experiencing verbal, sexual, and physical aggression (odd ratios = 2.25, 19.44, and 11.84, respectively) were significantly higher on heavy drinking days (M = 7.46 drinks) compared to nondrinking days. Both a history of victimization and greater psychological symptom severity influenced the odds of involvement in verbal aggression. The odds of alcohol consumption were 3 times higher during the 24 hr following verbal aggression compared with days in which verbal aggression did not occur. On the day immediately following involvement in either verbal or physical aggression, positive mood decreased and negative mood increased. During the week (2-7 days) following sexual aggression, women's positive mood was decreased. These findings reinforce the need for interventions aimed at reducing heavy episodic drinking on college campuses.

  12. Methotrexate-Loaded Four-Arm Star Amphiphilic Block Copolymer Elicits CD8+ T Cell Response against a Highly Aggressive and Metastatic Experimental Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hira, Sumit Kumar; Ramesh, Kalyan; Gupta, Uttam; Mitra, Kheyanath; Misra, Nira; Ray, Biswajit; Manna, Partha Pratim

    2015-09-16

    We have synthesized a well-defined four-arm star amphiphilic block copolymer [poly(DLLA)-b-poly(NVP)]4 [star-(PDLLA-b-PNVP)4] that consists of D,L-lactide (DLLA) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) via the combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and xanthate-mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Synthesis of the polymer was verified by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The amphiphilic four-arm star block copolymer forms spherical micelles in water as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Pyrene acts as a probe to ascertain the critical micellar concentration (cmc) by using fluorescence spectroscopy. Methotrexate (MTX)-loaded polymeric micelles of star-(PDLLA15-b-PNVP10)4 amphiphilic block copolymer were prepared and characterized by fluorescence and TEM studies. Star-(PDLLA15-b-PNVP10)4 copolymer was found to be significantly effective with respect to inhibition of proliferation and lysis of human and murine lymphoma cells. The amphiphilic block copolymer causes cell death in parental and MTX-resistant Dalton lymphoma (DL) and Raji cells. The formulation does not cause hemolysis in red blood cells and is tolerant to lymphocytes compared to free MTX. Therapy with MTX-loaded star-(PDLLA15-b-PNVP10)4 amphiphilic block copolymer micelles prolongs the life span of animals with neoplasia by reducing the tumor load, preventing metastasis and augmenting CD8+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses.

  13. Response-adapted therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas based on early [18F] FDG-PET scanning: ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group study (E3404).

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Lode J; Li, Hailun; Quon, Andrew; Gascoyne, Randy; Hong, Fangxin; Ranheim, Erik A; Habermann, Thomas M; Kahl, Brad S; Horning, Sandra J; Advani, Ranjana H

    2015-07-01

    A persistently positive positron emission tomography (PET) scan during therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is predictive of treatment failure. A response-adapted strategy consisting of an early treatment change to four cycles of R-ICE (rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide) was studied in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E3404 trial. Previously untreated patients with DLBCL stage III, IV, or bulky II, were eligible. PET scan was performed after three cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and scored as positive or negative by central review during the fourth cycle. PET-positive patients received four cycles of R-ICE, PET-negative patients received two more cycles of R-CHOP. A ≥ 45% 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) for mid-treatment PET-positive patients was viewed as promising. Of 74 patients, 16% were PET positive, 79% negative. The PET positivity rate was much lower than the 33% expected. Two-year PFS was 70%; 42% [90% confidence interval (CI), 19-63%] for PET-positives and 76% (90% CI 65-84%) for PET-negatives. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 69% (90% CI 43-85%) and 93% (90% CI 86-97%) for PET-positive and -negative cases, respectively. The 2-year PFS for mid-treatment PET-positive patients intensified to R-ICE was 42%, with a wide confidence interval due to the low proportion of positive mid-treatment PET scans. Treatment modification based on early PET scanning should remain confined to clinical trials.

  14. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-30

    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment.

  15. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  16. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  17. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  18. Synaptic Basis for the Generation of Response Variation in Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Sumei; Zhang, Li I; Zhou, Yi; Xiong, Ying

    2016-08-03

    Cortical neurons can exhibit significant variation in their responses to the same sensory stimuli, as reflected by the reliability and temporal precision of spikes. However the synaptic mechanism underlying response variation still remains unclear. Here, in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of excitatory neurons revealed variation in the amplitudes as well as the temporal profiles of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs evoked by the same sound stimuli in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex. Synaptic inputs were reliably induced by repetitive stimulation, although with large variation in amplitude. The variation in the amplitude of excitation was much higher than that of inhibition. In addition, the temporal jitter of the synaptic onset latency was much smaller than the jitter of spike response. We further demonstrated that the amplitude variation of excitatory inputs can largely account for the spike variation, while the jitter in spike timing can be primarily attributed to the temporal variation of excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the spike reliability of excitatory but not inhibitory neurons is dependent on tone frequency. Our results thus revealed an inherent cortical synaptic contribution for the generation of variation in the spike responses of auditory cortical neurons.

  19. Synaptic Basis for the Generation of Response Variation in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Sumei; Zhang, Li I.; Zhou, Yi; Xiong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cortical neurons can exhibit significant variation in their responses to the same sensory stimuli, as reflected by the reliability and temporal precision of spikes. However the synaptic mechanism underlying response variation still remains unclear. Here, in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of excitatory neurons revealed variation in the amplitudes as well as the temporal profiles of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs evoked by the same sound stimuli in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex. Synaptic inputs were reliably induced by repetitive stimulation, although with large variation in amplitude. The variation in the amplitude of excitation was much higher than that of inhibition. In addition, the temporal jitter of the synaptic onset latency was much smaller than the jitter of spike response. We further demonstrated that the amplitude variation of excitatory inputs can largely account for the spike variation, while the jitter in spike timing can be primarily attributed to the temporal variation of excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the spike reliability of excitatory but not inhibitory neurons is dependent on tone frequency. Our results thus revealed an inherent cortical synaptic contribution for the generation of variation in the spike responses of auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27484928

  20. A next generation electronic triage to aid mass casualty emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tia; White, D

    2006-01-01

    For years, emergency medical response communities have relied upon paper triage tags, clipboards of notes, and voice communications to share information during medical emergencies. This workflow, however, has proven labor intensive, time consuming, and prone to human error [1]. In collaboration with three EMS groups in the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, we have developed a next generation triage system to improve the effectiveness of emergency response. This system includes: 1) electronic triage tags, 2) wearable vital sign sensors, 3) base stations laptops to monitor and manage patients, 4) pervasive tracking software to locate patients at all stages of the disaster response process, and 5) PDAs to support documentation and communication. Our system has evolved through three iterations of rapid-development, field-studies, usability reviews, and focus-group interview. This paper summarizes engineering considerations for technologies that must operate under constraints of medical emergencies. It is our hope that the lessons reported in this paper will help technologists in developing future emergency response systems.

  1. Neural correlates of impulsive aggressive behavior in subjects with a history of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity.

  2. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  3. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  4. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  5. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  6. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  7. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  8. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  9. Nonlinear ionospheric responses to large-amplitude infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by undersea earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of nonlinear, dissipating acoustic waves. Thermospheric acoustic compressional velocities are ˜±250-300 m/s, superposed with downward flows of similar amplitudes, and temperature perturbations are ˜300 K, while the dominant wave periodicity in the thermosphere is ˜3-4 min. Results capture acoustic wave processes including reflection, onset of resonance, and nonlinear steepening and dissipation—ultimately leading to the formation of ionospheric TEC depletions "holes"—that are consistent with reported observations. Three additional simulations illustrate the dependence of atmospheric acoustic wave and subsequent ionospheric responses on the surface displacement amplitude, which is varied from the Tohoku case study by factors of 1/100, 1/10, and 2. Collectively, results suggest that TEC depletions may only accompany very-large amplitude thermospheric acoustic waves necessary to induce a nonlinear response, here with saturated compressional velocities ˜200-250 m/s generated by sea surface displacements exceeding ˜1 m occurring over a 3 min time period.

  10. Engrafted human cells generate adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting human fetal liver, thymus, and hematopoietic stem cells in severely immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ-/- (NSG) mice, have shown potential to model human immunity to infection. We engrafted HLA-A2-positive fetal tissues into NSG mice transgenically expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 (NSG-A2) to generate NSG-A2-BLT mice and characterized their human immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection to assess the utility of this model for investigating human TB. Results NSG-A2-BLT mice were infected intravenously with BCG and the immune response of engrafted human immune cells was characterized. After ex vivo antigenic stimulation of splenocytes, interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells were detected by ELISPOT from infected, but not uninfected NSG-A2-BLT mice. However, the levels of secreted IFN-γ, determined by ELISA, were not significantly elevated by antigenic stimulation. NSG-A2-BLT mice were susceptible to BCG infection as determined by higher lung bacillary load than the non-engrafted control NSG-A2 mice. BCG-infected NSG-A2-BLT mice developed lung lesions composed mostly of human macrophages and few human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The lesions did not resemble granulomas typical of human TB. Conclusions Engrafted human immune cells in NSG-A2-BLT mice showed partial function of innate and adaptive immune systems culminating in antigen-specific T cell responses to mycobacterial infection. The lack of protection was associated with low IFN-γ levels and limited numbers of T cells recruited to the lesions. The NSG-A2-BLT mouse is capable of mounting a human immune response to M. tuberculosis in vivo but a quantitatively and possibly qualitatively enhanced effector response will be needed to improve the utility of this

  11. Aggression as positive reinforcement in mice under various ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

  12. AGGRESSION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN MICE UNDER VARIOUS RATIO- AND TIME-BASED REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES

    PubMed Central

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident–intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules. PMID:19794833

  13. Clarifying Inconclusive Functional Analysis Results: Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Valdeep; Greer, Brian D.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies in which multiple strategies were used to clarify the inconclusive results of one boy’s functional analysis of aggression. Specifically, we (a) evaluated individual response topographies to determine the composition of aggregated response rates, (b) conducted a separate functional analysis of aggression after high rates of disruption masked the consequences maintaining aggression during the initial functional analysis, (c) modified the experimental design used during the functional analysis of aggression to improve discrimination and decrease interaction effects between conditions, and (d) evaluated a treatment matched to the reinforcer hypothesized to maintain aggression. An effective yet practical intervention for aggression was developed based on the results of these analyses and from data collected during the matched-treatment evaluation. PMID:25891269

  14. Clarifying inconclusive functional analysis results: Assessment and treatment of automatically reinforced aggression.

    PubMed

    Saini, Valdeep; Greer, Brian D; Fisher, Wayne W

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies in which multiple strategies were used to clarify the inconclusive results of one boy's functional analysis of aggression. Specifically, we (a) evaluated individual response topographies to determine the composition of aggregated response rates, (b) conducted a separate functional analysis of aggression after high rates of disruption masked the consequences that maintained aggression during the initial functional analysis, (c) modified the experimental design used during the functional analysis of aggression to improve discrimination and decrease interaction effects between conditions, and (d) evaluated a treatment matched to the reinforcer hypothesized to maintain aggression. An effective yet practical intervention for aggression was developed based on the results of these analyses and from data collected during the matched-treatment evaluation.

  15. "Teaching them a lesson?" A qualitative exploration of underlying motivations for driver aggression.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety.

  16. Ventral premammillary nucleus as a critical sensory relay to the maternal aggression network

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Simone C.; Guimarães, Cibele Carla; Furigo, Isadora Clivatti; Sukikara, Marcia Harumi; Baldo, Marcus V. C.; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Canteras, Newton S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal aggression is under the control of a wide variety of factors that prime the females for aggression or trigger the aggressive event. Maternal attacks are triggered by the perception of sensory cues from the intruder, and here we have identified a site in the hypothalamus of lactating rats that is highly responsive to the male intruder—the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv). The PMv is heavily targeted by the medial amygdalar nucleus, and we used lesion and immediate-early gene studies to test our working hypothesis that the PMv signals the presence of a male intruder and transfers this information to the network organizing maternal aggression. PMv-lesioned dams exhibit significantly reduced maternal aggression, without affecting maternal care. The Fos analysis revealed that PMv influences the activation of hypothalamic and septal sites shown to be mobilized during maternal aggression, including the medial preoptic nucleus (likely to represent an important locus to integrate priming stimuli critical for maternal aggression), the caudal two-thirds of the hypothalamic attack area (comprising the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent tuberal region of the lateral hypothalamic area, critical for the expression of maternal aggression), and the ventral part of the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (presently discussed as being involved in controlling neuroendocrine and autonomic responses accompanying maternal aggression). These findings reveal an important role for the PMv in detecting the male intruder and how this nucleus modulates the network controlling maternal aggression. PMID:23918394

  17. Aggressive behavior and change in salivary testosterone concentrations predict willingness to engage in a competitive task.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-08-01

    The current study investigated relationships among aggressive behavior, change in salivary testosterone concentrations, and willingness to engage in a competitive task. Thirty-eight male participants provided saliva samples before and after performing the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (a laboratory measure that provides opportunity for aggressive and defensive behavior while working for reward; all three involve pressing specific response keys). Baseline testosterone concentrations were not associated with aggressive responding. However, aggressive responding (but not point reward or point protection responding) predicted the pre- to post-PSAP change in testosterone: Those with the highest aggressive responding had the largest percent increase in testosterone concentrations. Together, aggressive responding and change in testosterone predicted willingness to compete following the PSAP. Controlling for aggression, men who showed a rise in testosterone were more likely to choose to compete again (p=0.03) and controlling for testosterone change, men who showed the highest level of aggressive responding were more likely to choose the non-competitive task (p=0.02). These results indicate that situation-specific aggressive behavior and testosterone responsiveness are functionally relevant predictors of future social behavior.

  18. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  19. Recent advances in understanding the role of the hypothalamic circuit during aggression

    PubMed Central

    Falkner, Annegret L.; Lin, Dayu

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus was first implicated in the classic “fight or flight” response nearly a century ago, and since then, many important strides have been made in understanding both the circuitry and the neural dynamics underlying the generation of these behaviors. In this review, we will focus on the role of the hypothalamus in aggression, paying particular attention to recent advances in the field that have allowed for functional identification of relevant hypothalamic subnuclei. Recent progress in this field has been aided by the development of new techniques for functional manipulation including optogenetics and pharmacogenetics, as well as advances in technology used for chronic in vivo recordings during complex social behaviors. We will examine the role of the hypothalamus through the complimentary lenses of (1) loss of function studies, including pharmacology and pharmacogenetics; (2) gain of function studies, including specific comparisons between results from classic electrical stimulation studies and more recent work using optogenetics; and (3) neural activity, including both immediate early gene and awake-behaving recordings. Lastly, we will outline current approaches to identifying the precise role of the hypothalamus in promoting aggressive motivation and aggressive action. PMID:25309351

  20. Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-08-01

    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.

  1. Aggressive behavior and performance in the Tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Andrade, Denis V; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Brito, Ananda; Abe, Augusto; Navas, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is an important component of behavior in many animals and may be crucial to providing individuals with a competitive advantage when resources are limited. Although much is known about the effects of catecholamines and hormones on aggression, relatively few studies have examined the effects of physical performance on aggression. Here we use a large, sexually dimorphic teiid lizard to test whether individuals that show high levels of physical performance (bite force) are also more aggressive toward a potential threat (i.e., a human approaching the lizard). Our results show that independent of their sex, larger individuals with higher bite forces were indeed more aggressive. Moreover, our data show that individuals with higher bite forces tend to show decreased escape responses and are slower, providing evidence for a trade-off between fight and flight abilities. As bite force increased dramatically with body size, we suggest that large body size and bite force may reduce the threshold for an individual to engage in an aggressive encounter, allowing it to potentially gain or maintain resources and fight off predators while minimizing the risk of injury.

  2. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  3. Generation of a reference transcriptome for evaluating rainbow trout responses to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fish under intensive culture conditions are exposed to a variety of acute and chronic stressors, including high rearing densities, sub-optimal water quality, and severe thermal fluctuations. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production and can induce physiological responses with adverse effects on traits important to producers and consumers, including those associated with growth, nutrition, reproduction, immune response, and fillet quality. Understanding and monitoring the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses will facilitate alleviating their negative effects through selective breeding and changes in management practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. Results Physiological responses to five treatments associated with stress were characterized by measuring plasma lysozyme activity, glucose, lactate, chloride, and cortisol concentrations, in addition to stress-associated transcripts by quantitative PCR. Results indicate that the fish had significant stressor-specific changes in their physiological conditions. Sequencing of a pooled normalized transcriptome library created from gill, brain, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle RNA of control and stressed fish produced 3,160,306 expressed sequence tags which were assembled and annotated. SNP discovery resulted in identification of ~58,000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms including 24,479 which were predicted to fall within exons. Of these, 4907 were predicted to occupy the first position of a codon and 4110 the second, increasing the probability to impact amino acid sequence variation and potentially gene function. Conclusion We have generated and characterized a reference transcriptome for rainbow trout that represents multiple tissues responding to multiple stressors common to aquaculture production environments. This resource compliments existing public transcriptome data and will facilitate approaches aiming to evaluate gene expression

  4. Cue Attendance and Hypothesis Generation as Two Procedures of Training for Producing Subjective Response Uncertainity in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    This experiment studied the extent to which training of two behaviors affects subjective response uncertainity and information seeking. The two behaviors were cue attendance, i.e., analyzing a complex stimulus and identifying its discrete components, and hypotheses generation, i.e., the generation of numerous alternative hypothetical explanations…

  5. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingaggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation.

  6. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  7. The elastic-plastic response of aluminum films to ultrafast laser-generated shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, V. H.; McGrane, S. D.; Eakins, D. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Moore, D. S.; Bingert, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present the free surface response of 2, 5, and 8 μm aluminum films to shocks generated from chirped ultrafast lasers. We find two distinct steps to the measured free surface velocity that indicate a separation of the faster elastic wave from the slower plastic wave. We resolve the separation of the two waves to times as short as 20 ps. We measured peak elastic free surface velocities as high as 1.4 km/s corresponding to elastic stresses of 12 GPa. The elastic waves rapidly decay with increasing sample thickness. The magnitude of both the elastic wave and the plastic wave and the temporal separation between them was strongly dependent on the incident laser drive energy.

  8. Nanosecond Response Found in Photoexcited Surface Carriers Generated by CoSix Nanoparticles on Si Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takanari; Nakanishi, Hirokazu; Makino, Takayuki; Takagi, Yoshihiro

    2007-12-01

    We have found photovoltaic carriers generated by CoSix nanoparticles (about 10 nm in radius) fabricated on a Si substrate when the illuminated spot was separated by 1 mm from the anode. The CoSix/Si system provided a sensitivity of 420 mA/W under CW laser excitation at 635 nm with an incident power of 1.8 mW. The carrier’s response time of <10 ns was observed under pulsed (picosecond) laser excitation. These high-speed carriers were isolated from the Si substrate, as observed from the ˜15 ns delayed peak. These results suggest that the carriers photoinduced from the CoSix nanoparticles are surface conductive and have high mobility comparable to that of thermal emission electrons.

  9. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  10. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    PubMed

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  11. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-09-05

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111-140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581-604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour.

  12. Targeting brain serotonin synthesis: insights into neurodevelopmental disorders with long-term outcomes related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Araragi, Naozumi; Waider, Jonas; van den Hove, Daniel; Gutknecht, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Aggression, which comprises multi-faceted traits ranging from negative emotionality to antisocial behaviour, is influenced by an interaction of biological, psychological and social variables. Failure in social adjustment, aggressiveness and violence represent the most detrimental long-term outcome of neurodevelopmental disorders. With the exception of brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), which generates serotonin (5-HT) in raphe neurons, the contribution of gene variation to aggression-related behaviour in genetically modified mouse models has been previously appraised (Lesch 2005 Novartis Found Symp. 268, 111–140; Lesch & Merschdorf 2000 Behav. Sci. Law 18, 581–604). Genetic inactivation of Tph2 function in mice led to the identification of phenotypic changes, ranging from growth retardation and late-onset obesity, to enhanced conditioned fear response, increased aggression and depression-like behaviour. This spectrum of consequences, which are amplified by stress-related epigenetic interactions, are attributable to deficient brain 5-HT synthesis during development and adulthood. Human data relating altered TPH2 function to personality traits of negative emotionality and neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in cognitive control and emotion regulation are based on genetic association and are therefore not as robust as the experimental mouse results. Mouse models in conjunction with approaches focusing on TPH2 variants in humans provide unexpected views of 5-HT's role in brain development and in disorders related to negative emotionality, aggression and antisocial behaviour. PMID:22826343

  13. The Consistency of Aggressive Behavior across Time and Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.

    Results of a longitudinal study conducted over a 21-year period indicated that aggressive behavior remains stable across time, situations, and generations within families. Data were first collected by a survey of all third-grade schoolchildren in a semirural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870 children (with a modal age…

  14. How actin crosslinking and bundling proteins cooperate to generate an enhanced cell mechanical response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Yiider; Kole, Thomas P.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Fedorov, Elena; Almo, Steven C.; Schafer, Benjamin W.; Wirtz, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Actin-crosslinking proteins organize actin filaments into dynamic and complex subcellular scaffolds that orchestrate important mechanical functions, including cell motility and adhesion. Recent mutation studies have shown that individual crosslinking proteins often play seemingly non-essential roles, leading to the hypothesis that they have considerable redundancy in function. We report live-cell, in vitro, and theoretical studies testing the mechanical role of the two ubiquitous actin-crosslinking proteins, alpha-actinin and fascin, which co-localize to stress fibers and the basis of filopodia. Using live-cell particle tracking microrheology, we show that the addition of alpha-actinin and fascin elicits a cell mechanical response that is significantly greater than that originated by alpha-actinin or fascin alone. These live-cell measurements are supported by quantitative rheological measurements with reconstituted actin filament networks containing pure proteins that show that alpha-actinin and fascin can work in concert to generate enhanced cell stiffness. Computational simulations using finite element modeling qualitatively reproduce and explain the functional synergy of alpha-actinin and fascin. These findings highlight the cooperative activity of fascin and alpha-actinin and provide a strong rationale that an evolutionary advantage might be conferred by the cooperative action of multiple actin-crosslinking proteins with overlapping but non-identical biochemical properties. Thus the combination of structural proteins with similar function can provide the cell with unique properties that are required for biologically optimal responses.

  15. Goal-independent mechanisms for free response generation: creative and pseudo-random performance share neural substrates.

    PubMed

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-02

    To what extent free response generation in different tasks uses common and task-specific neurocognitive processes has remained unclear. Here, we investigated overlap and differences in neural activity during musical improvisation and pseudo-random response generation. Brain activity was measured using fMRI in a group of professional classical pianists, who performed musical improvisation of melodies, pseudo-random key-presses and a baseline condition (sight-reading), on either two, six or twelve keys on a piano keyboard. The results revealed an extensive overlap in neural activity between the two generative conditions. Active regions included the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and pre-SMA. No regions showed higher activity in improvisation than in pseudo-random generation. These findings suggest that the activated regions fulfill generic functions that are utilized in different types of free generation tasks, independent of overall goal. In contrast, pseudo-random generation was accompanied by higher activity than improvisation in several regions. This presumably reflects the participants' musical expertise as well as the pseudo-random generation task's high load on attention, working memory, and executive control. The results highlight the significance of using naturalistic tasks to study human behavior and cognition. No brain activity was related to the size of the response set. We discuss that this may reflect that the musicians were able to use specific strategies for improvisation, by which there was no simple relationship between response set size and neural activity.

  16. Replicating Single-Cycle Adenovirus Vectors Generate Amplified Influenza Vaccine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Catherine M.; Matchett, William E.; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie S.; Parks, Christopher A.; Weaver, Eric A.; Pease, Larry R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Head-to-head comparisons of conventional influenza vaccines with adenovirus (Ad) gene-based vaccines demonstrated that these viral vectors can mediate more potent protection against influenza virus infection in animal models. In most cases, Ad vaccines are engineered to be replication-defective (RD-Ad) vectors. In contrast, replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vaccines are markedly more potent but risk causing adenovirus diseases in vaccine recipients and health care workers. To harness antigen gene replication but avoid production of infectious virions, we developed “single-cycle” adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors. Previous work demonstrated that SC-Ads amplify transgene expression 100-fold and produce markedly stronger and more persistent immune responses than RD-Ad vectors in Syrian hamsters and rhesus macaques. To test them as potential vaccines, we engineered RD and SC versions of adenovirus serotype 6 (Ad6) to express the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. We show here that it takes approximately 33 times less SC-Ad6 than RD-Ad6 to produce equal amounts of HA antigen in vitro. SC-Ad produced markedly higher HA binding and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers than RD-Ad in Syrian hamsters. SC-Ad-vaccinated cotton rats had markedly lower influenza titers than RD-Ad-vaccinated animals after challenge with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. These data suggest that SC-Ads may be more potent vaccine platforms than conventional RD-Ad vectors and may have utility as “needle-free” mucosal vaccines. IMPORTANCE Most adenovirus vaccines that are being tested are replication-defective adenoviruses (RD-Ads). This work describes testing newer single-cycle adenovirus (SC-Ad) vectors that replicate transgenes to amplify protein production and immune responses. We show that SC-Ads generate markedly more influenza virus hemagglutinin protein and require substantially less vector to generate the same immune responses as RD-Ad vectors. SC-Ads therefore hold

  17. Ionospheric response to infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements of GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) reveal acoustic wave periods of ˜1-4 min in the F region ionosphere following natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, severe weather, and volcanoes. Here we simulate the ionospheric responses to infrasonic-acoustic waves, generated by vertical accelerations at the Earth's surface or within the lower atmosphere, using a compressible atmospheric dynamics model to perturb a multifluid ionospheric model. Response dependencies on wave source geometry and spectrum are investigated at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. Results suggest constraints on wave amplitudes that are consistent with observations and that provide insight on the geographical variability of TEC signatures and their dependence on the geometry of wave velocity field perturbations relative to the ambient geomagnetic field. Asymmetries of responses poleward and equatorward from the wave sources indicate that electron perturbations are enhanced on the equatorward side while field aligned currents are driven principally on the poleward side, due to alignments of acoustic wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to field lines, respectively. Acoustic-wave-driven TEC perturbations are shown to have periods of ˜3-4 min, which are consistent with the fraction of the spectrum that remains following strong dissipation throughout the thermosphere. Furthermore, thermospheric acoustic waves couple with ion sound waves throughout the F region and topside ionosphere, driving plasma disturbances with similar periods and faster phase speeds. The associated magnetic perturbations of the simulated waves are calculated to be observable and may provide new observational insight in addition to that provided by GPS TEC measurements.

  18. Transient Stability and Frequency Response of the US Western Interconnection under conditions of High Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kara; Miller, Nicholas W.; Shao, Miaolei; Pajic, Slobodan; D'Aquila, Robert

    2015-04-15

    Adding large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. Our paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrations of wind and solar generation. Moreover, the main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.

  19. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies.

  20. Prediction and Prevention of Aggression and Seclusion by Early Screening and Comprehensive Seclusion Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Jack; Konrad, S. Shane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identification and skilled management of aggressive patients are a continued safety concern for inpatient psychiatric settings. We studied aggression reduction and the use of seclusion and restraints on our inpatient unit by developing aggression management tools. Our objectives were to systematically identify potential aggressors among admitted patients within 24 to 48 hours of admission and develop a seclusion documentation form that simultaneously trains staff to use less restrictive interventions while collecting data on its use. Methods: Prior to patient assessment and data collection, we systematically trained all medical staff on interviewing patients using the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool. We prospectively screened 229 consecutive admissions using the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool and determined its inter-rater reliability and predictive validity. We systematically recorded the use of a variety of interventions, including seclusion, when applicable. We also documented details of acts of aggression on a comprehensive form and collected demographics, casemix severity, and outcomes. Results: Twenty-two acutely ill patients were responsible for 68 violent acts, all identified by the Phipps Aggression Screening Tool. There were highly significant differences between aggressive and nonaggressive groups for length-ofstay, cost of hospitalization, and illness complexity. With the use of the new form, seclusion decreased from 32 percent to 22.4 percent in 2007. Our current use of seclusion is 0.1/1000 patient hours in 2011. Conclusion: The seclusion documentation form appropriately guides aggression management with less restrictive alternatives to seclusion, once potentially aggressive patients have been identified by screening. PMID:22984650

  1. The influence of alcohol expectancies and intoxication on men's aggressive unprotected sexual intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue

    2010-10-01

    An experiment tested the pathways through which alcohol expectancies and intoxication influenced men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions during an unprotected sexual encounter. After a questionnaire session, male social drinkers (N = 124) were randomly assigned to either an alcohol condition (target peak BAC = .08%) or a control condition. Upon completion of beverage consumption, participants read a description of a sexual encounter in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Participants then rated their emotional state, their intentions to have unprotected sex with the unwilling partner, and their postincident perceptions of the encounter. Structural equation modeling indicated that intoxicated men reported feeling stronger sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations such as arousal and anger; however, this effect was moderated by alcohol expectancies. Intoxicated participants with stronger alcohol-aggression expectancies reported greater sexual aggression congruent emotions/motivations than did intoxicated participants with weaker alcohol-aggression expectancies. For sober participants, alcohol-aggression expectancies did not influence emotions/motivations. In turn, stronger sexual assault congruent emotions/motivations predicted greater sexual aggression intentions. Men with greater sexual aggression intentions were less likely to label the situation as a sexual assault and reported less concern about their intended actions. These findings underscore the relevance of both alcohol expectancies and alcohol intoxication to sexual aggression perpetration and highlight the importance of including information about alcohol's influence on both emotional and cognitive responses in sexual aggression prevention work.

  2. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  3. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  4. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  5. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  6. Demographic responses to multi-generation cadmium exposure in two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    SciTech Connect

    Salice, Christopher J.; Miller, Thomas J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-20

    A life table response experiment (LTRE) was used to quantify the population-level effects of continuous, multi-generation cadmium exposure on two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata; the parasite resistant BS90 and parasite susceptible NMRI strains. Snails were exposed to waterborne cadmium for three consecutive generations. Survival, growth and reproduction were measured empirically and incorporated into a stage-based, deterministic population model. Cadmium significantly affected hatching success, time to maturity and juvenile and adult survival in both strains. There were significant effects of generation on fecundity, hatching success time to maturity and juvenile survival in NMRI and time to maturity and adult survival in BS90. Cadmium significantly affected the population growth rate, lambda (λ), in BS90. Cadmium, generation and the cadmium x generation interaction had significant effects on λ in NMRI. At the high cadmium exposure, λ for NMRI showed a decrease from generation 1 to generation 2 followed by and increase from generation 2 to 3. Lambda in high cadmium BS90 steadily decreased over the three generations while NMRI at this same concentration was similar to the controls. The results indicated that strain-specific differences in response to multi-generation cadmium exposure are evident in B. glabrata. Moreover, effects seen in the first generation are not necessarily indicative of effects in subsequent generations. Changes in λ over the course of the three-generation exposure suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to cadmium may have occurred, particularly in NMRI at the high cadmium exposure level.

  7. Gender differences in aggression and cortisol levels in zebrafish subjected to unpredictable chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Marcon, Matheus; Villanova, Débora; Koakoski, Gessi; de Abreu, Murilo S; Oliveira, Thiago A; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Piato, Angelo L; Bonan, Carla D

    2017-03-15

    Chronic stress may cause physical, behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes, affecting the health condition of an individual. Aggression is a universal behavior with great relevance on human and animal social systems. Despite studies showing the influence of chronic stress on aggression, the effects of unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) on aggressive behavior in male and female zebrafish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of UCS on the aggressive behavior and cortisol levels in adult zebrafish of both sexes. Our results showed that UCS increased aggression in males, but not in females, which displayed more aggressive behavior at baseline than control males. Increased whole-body cortisol levels were observed in stressed males; however, no differences were found between female groups. In conclusion, we reported for the first time gender differences on behavioral parameters and cortisol levels in response to UCS in zebrafish. These results highlight the relevance of studying behavioral and physiological parameters in both sexes separately.

  8. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  9. The interactive effect of social pain and executive functioning on aggression: an fMRI experiment.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pond, Richard S; Richman, Stephanie B; Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Social rejection often increases aggression, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. This experiment tested whether neural activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula in response to social rejection predicted greater subsequent aggression. Additionally, it tested whether executive functioning moderated this relationship. Participants completed a behavioral measure of executive functioning, experienced social rejection while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and then completed a task in which they could aggress against a person who rejected them using noise blasts . We found that dACC activation and executive functioning interacted to predict aggression. Specifically, participants with low executive functioning showed a positive association between dACC activation and aggression, whereas individuals with high executive functioning showed a negative association. Similar results were found for the left anterior insula. These findings suggest that social pain can increase or decrease aggression, depending on an individual's regulatory capability.

  10. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R; Lynam, Donald R; Jiang, Yang

    2015-04-15

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype's established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect.

  11. Treatment of human aggression with major tranquilizers, antidepressants, and newer psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Wadud, A

    1975-02-01

    Most of the drugs used in the treatment of aggressive syndromes have originally been developed for other clinical applications. Despite significant differences in the pathogenesis of various aggressive disorders, the frequently used "antiaggression" drugs are the major tranquilizers (neuroleptics). If the aggresstion is associated with psychosis, chlorpromazine or haloperidol are the drugs of choice. Aggressive disorders within the acute and chronic brain syndromes are best treated with pericyazine, thioridazine, and thiothixene. In aggressive symptoms of mentally retarded patients, particularly with epileptic syndromes, a new benzazepine (SCH12,679)was found to be very effective. Aggression associated with alcoholism or narcotic addiction showed best response to chlorpormazine and haloperidol. As a general rule, in aggressive patients with clinically known epilepsy, or with abnormal electroencephalographic findings, the major tranquilizers with potent sedative properties should be given with great caution.

  12. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  13. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children.

  14. Defining the next generation modeling of coastal ecotone dynamics in response to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Teh, Su-Y; Krauss, Ken W.; Wang, Hongqing; Haidong, Li; Smith, Thomas; Koh, Hock L.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are especially vulnerable to global change; e.g., sea level rise (SLR) and extreme events. Over the past century, global change has resulted in salt-tolerant (halophytic) plant species migrating into upland salt-intolerant (glycophytic) dominated habitats along major rivers and large wetland expanses along the coast. While habitat transitions can be abrupt, modeling the specific drivers of abrupt change between halophytic and glycophytic vegetation is not a simple task. Correlative studies, which dominate the literature, are unlikely to establish ultimate causation for habitat shifts, and do not generate strong predictive capacity for coastal land managers and climate change adaptation exercises. In this paper, we first review possible drivers of ecotone shifts for coastal wetlands, our understanding of which has expanded rapidly in recent years. Any exogenous factor that increases growth or establishment of halophytic species will favor the ecotone boundary moving upslope. However, internal feedbacks between vegetation and the environment, through which vegetation modifies the local microhabitat (e.g., by changing salinity or surface elevation), can either help the system become resilient to future changes or strengthen ecotone migration. Following this idea, we review a succession of models that have provided progressively better insight into the relative importance of internal positive feedbacks versus external environmental factors. We end with developing a theoretical model to show that both abrupt environmental gradients and internal positive feedbacks can generate the sharp ecotonal boundaries that we commonly see, and we demonstrate that the responses to gradual global change (e.g., SLR) can be quite diverse.

  15. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

    2005-09-01

    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  16. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  17. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  18. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  19. Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun…

  20. Violence and Aggression in Children and Youth. ERIC/OSEP Digest E572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Mary K.

    This digest discusses the need for troubled students to receive habilitative services instead of haphazard punishment, then outlines sources of frustration for aggressive students and stages of frustration (anxiety, stress, defensiveness, physical aggression, and tension reduction), and appropriate responses. Teachers are advised to prevent…

  1. The Impact of Teachers' Aggressive Management Techniques on Students' Attitudes to Schoolwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Riley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that teachers' aggressive classroom management impacts negatively on students. The authors compared student reaction to teachers' use of aggressive management techniques in Australia, China, and Israel. Reactions included distraction negativity toward teachers and perceptions that teachers' responses were unjustified,…

  2. A single social defeat reduces aggression in a highly aggressive strain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Jill K. M.; Zito, Michael F.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and prior experience both influence the behavior of animals, but the relative contribution of each to fighting behavior in Drosophila remains unclear. To address this issue, we bred hyperaggressive flies by selecting winners of fights over 34–37 generations. Males of this strain initiate fights sooner, retaliate more often, and regularly defeat opponents from the nonselected parent Canton-S strain. After a defeat, however, these highly aggressive flies lose their second fights against socially naïve counterparts. Defeated flies also lunge and retaliate less after experiencing a loss, suggesting that the subsequent losses result from flies becoming less aggressive. Remarkably, flies that were once capable of engaging in high-intensity boxing and tussling patterns of behavior for extended periods of time often do not even engage in mid-intensity lunging after a single defeat. Furthermore, these formerly highly aggressive flies lose all competitive advantage over nonselected Canton-S after experiencing a loss. Lastly, females were more likely to copulate with males from the nonselected parent line than with the hyperaggressive strain. PMID:20616023

  3. Arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid generate oxidative stress response in human bladder cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Eblin, K.E. . E-mail: eblin@pharmacy.arizona.edu; Bowen, M.E.; Cromey, D.W.; Bredfeldt, T.G.; Mash, E.A.; Lau, S.S.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2006-11-15

    Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the effects of arsenicals on the human bladder, a site of arsenical bioconcentration and carcinogenesis. Biotransformation of As(III) by UROtsa cells has been shown to produce methylated species, namely monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], which has been shown to be 20 times more cytotoxic. Confocal fluorescence images of UROtsa cells treated with arsenicals and the ROS sensing probe, DCFDA, showed an increase of intracellular ROS within five min after 1 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M As(III) treatments. In contrast, 50 and 500 nM MMA(III) required pretreatment for 30 min before inducing ROS. The increase in ROS was ameliorated by preincubation with either SOD or catalase. An interesting aspect of these ROS detection studies is the noticeable difference between concentrations of As(III) and MMA(III) used, further supporting the increased cytotoxicity of MMA(III), as well as the increased amount of time required for MMA(III) to cause oxidative stress. These arsenical-induced ROS produced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) with either 50 nM or 5 {mu}M MMA(III) exposure. These findings provide support that MMA(III) cause a genotoxic response upon generation of ROS. Both As(III) and MMA(III) were also able to induce Hsp70 and MT protein levels above control, showing that the cells recognize the ROS and respond. As(III) rapidly induces the formation of ROS, possibly through it oxidation to As(V) and further metabolism to MMA(III)/(V). These studies provide evidence for a different mechanism of MMA(III) toxicity, one that MMA(III) first interacts with cellular components before an ROS response is generated, taking longer

  4. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  5. Designing responsive pattern generators: stable heteroclinic channel cycles for modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Horchler, Andrew D; Daltorio, Kathryn A; Chiel, Hillel J; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-02-25

    A striking feature of biological pattern generators is their ability to respond immediately to multisensory perturbations by modulating the dwell time at a particular phase of oscillation, which can vary force output, range of motion, or other characteristics of a physical system. Stable heteroclinic channels (SHCs) are a dynamical architecture that can provide such responsiveness to artificial devices such as robots. SHCs are composed of sequences of saddle equilibrium points, which yields exquisite sensitivity. The strength of the vector fields in the neighborhood of these equilibria determines the responsiveness to perturbations and how long trajectories dwell in the vicinity of a saddle. For SHC cycles, the addition of stochastic noise results in oscillation with a regular mean period. In this paper, we parameterize noise-driven Lotka-Volterra SHC cycles such that each saddle can be independently designed to have a desired mean sub-period. The first step in the design process is an analytic approximation, which results in mean sub-periods that are within 2% of the specified sub-period for a typical parameter set. Further, after measuring the resultant sub-periods over sufficient numbers of cycles, the magnitude of the noise can be adjusted to control the mean period with accuracy close to that of the integration step size. With these relationships, SHCs can be more easily employed in engineering and modeling applications. For applications that require smooth state transitions, this parameterization permits each state's distribution of periods to be independently specified. Moreover, for modeling context-dependent behaviors, continuously varying inputs in each state dimension can rapidly precipitate transitions to alter frequency and phase.

  6. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  7. Sex Differences in Autonomic Correlates of Conduct Problems and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hong, James; Marsh, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate group differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding between males and females with conduct problems and determine whether aggression accounts for variance in ANS responding over the effects of conduct problems. The results indicated marked differences in psycho-physiological responses between males and females.

  8. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  9. Does Dampened Physiological Reactivity Protect Youth in Aggressive Family Environments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Baucom, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Is an attenuated physiological response to family conflict, seen in some youth exposed to early adversity, protective or problematic? A longitudinal study including 54 youth (average age 15.2 years) found that those with higher cumulative family aggression exposure showed lower cortisol output during a laboratory-based conflict discussion with…

  10. Social Anxiety as a Predictor of Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanby, Michelle S. R.; Fales, Jessica; Nangle, Douglas W.; Serwik, Agnieszka K.; Hedrich, Uriah J.

    2012-01-01

    By far, most research on the behavior of socially anxious individuals has focused on the "flight" rather than the "fight" response described in the traditional conceptualization of anxiety. More recently, however, there has been some speculation and emerging evidence suggesting that social anxiety and aggression may be related. The present study…

  11. Aggression, Social Cognitions, Anger and Sadness in Bullies and Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camodeca, Marina; Goossens, Frits A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they select, how they evaluate their responses and…

  12. Effects of diazepam and flumazenil on food competition behavior in high- and low-aggression pigeons.

    PubMed

    Fachinelli, C; Ison, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    2003-02-01

    The food competition interaction test performed with food-restricted pigeons with previously consolidated dominance is a useful tool for the study of offensive and defensive social aggression. In the present study, we examined the effect of GABA-A-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor manipulation on aggression, emotion, feeder control, and eating behavior in high- and low-aggression female pigeons maintained at 80% of their normal weight and exposed to food competition interactions. The pigeons were divided into pairs by previously ranked high-aggression females (total time spent in aggression over 60 s/5 min; n=6 pairs) and low-aggression females (time spent in aggression less than 10 s/5 min; n=6 pairs). In Experiment 1, a pigeon in each pair of high- and low-aggression subjects were treated daily with an oral dose of diazepam (DZP, 0.6 mg/kg/0.3 ml) for 8 days. The other animal received the vehicle. On Day 8, food competition trials (10 min) were performed 30 min after treatments. In Experiment 2, pigeons were injected subcutaneously with flumazenil (FZL, 0.1 mg/kg/1 ml) or saline and exposed to a food competition trial 30 min after injections. In Experiment 3, one animal in each pair received DZP for 8 days. The other animal received the vehicle. On Day 8, the DZP-treated subjects were injected subcutaneously with FZL (0.1 mg/ kg/1 ml) 30 min before the oral dose of DZP. Trials were performed 30 min after DZP or vehicle administration. In Experiment 1, it was found that the DZP group of high-aggression pigeons showed lower scores of aggression (P<.05) and emotional responses (P<.05) than controls. The other group-scored behaviors were not affected. The DZP low-aggressions, however, showed scores of aggression eightfold higher than their controls (P<.05) but the other scored behaviors were not changed. In Experiment 2, FZL injection did not induce intrinsic effects on aggression either in the high- or in the low-aggression group. Experiment 3 showed that the emotional

  13. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  14. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  15. Magnetic domain response to strain generated by focused surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Uday; Adenwalla, Shireen

    The effects of strain on magnetostrictive ferromagnets include changes in the magnetization, anisotropy and domain wall velocities. A ferromagnet (FM) on the surface of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is subjected to periodic compressive and tensile strain that has resulted in coherent rotation of the magnetization, as well as inducing ferromagnetic resonance in FM films. We describe the response of magnetic domains in Co/Pt multilayers when subjected to the high strains generated by a focused SAW. Annular interdigital transducers (AIDT) patterned on LiNbO3 form a SAW standing wave pattern with large strain amplitude at the focal center. Domains in [Co(3A)/Pt(8A)]x5 with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were observed using a MOKE microscope within this focal region. Controlled magnetic pulses steered a magnetic domain boundary to the large strain region after nucleation.Excitation of the AIDT resulted in a reversible change in the domain wall boundary in the high strain region. We attribute this to magnetic anisotropy changes in the presence of RF strain, which results in changes in the domain configuration to minimize the free energy. We will present results showing both slow and fast magnetization changes in Co/Pt occurring in the presence of high frequency strain. This work is supported by NSF (DMR 1409622) and Nebraska MRSEC (DMR-1420645). This work is supported by NSF (DMR 1409622) and Nebraska MRSEC (DMR-1420645).

  16. Computer-assisted mesh generation based on hydrological response units for distributed hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.; Gironás, J.

    2013-08-01

    Distributed hydrological models rely on a spatial discretization composed of homogeneous units representing different areas within the catchment. Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) typically form the basis of such a discretization. HRUs are generally obtained by intersecting raster or vector layers of land uses, soil types, geology and sub-catchments. Polylines maps representing ditches and river drainage networks can also be used. However this overlapping may result in a mesh with numerical and topological problems not highly representative of the terrain. Thus, a pre-processing is needed to improve the mesh in order to avoid negative effects on the performance of the hydrological model. This paper proposes computer-assisted mesh generation tools to obtain a more regular and physically meaningful mesh of HRUs suitable for hydrologic modeling. We combined existing tools with newly developed scripts implemented in GRASS GIS. The developed scripts address the following problems: (1) high heterogeneity in Digital Elevation Model derived properties within the HRUs, (2) correction of concave polygons or polygons with holes inside, (3) segmentation of very large polygons, and (4) bad estimations of units' perimeter and distances among them. The improvement process was applied and tested using two small catchments in France. The improvement of the spatial discretization was further assessed by comparing the representation and arrangement of overland flow paths in the original and improved meshes. Overall, a more realistic physical representation was obtained with the improved meshes, which should enhance the computation of surface and sub-surface flows in a hydrologic model.

  17. HIV-1 neutralizing antibody response and viral genetic diversity characterized with next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Christoph C.; Wagner, Gabriel A.; Hightower, George K.; Caballero, Gemma; Phung, Pham; Richman, Douglas D.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Smith, Davey M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the dynamics of HIV-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb), we examined associations between viral genetic diversity and the NAb response against a multi-subtype panel of heterologous viruses in a well-characterized, therapy-naïve primary infection cohort. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we computed sequence-based measures of diversity within HIV-1 env, gag and pol, and compared them to NAb breadth and potency as calculated by a neutralization score. Contemporaneous env diversity and the neutralization score were positively correlated (p=0.0033), as were the neutralization score and estimated duration of infection (EDI) (p=0.0038), and env diversity and EDI (p=0.0005). Neither early env diversity nor baseline viral load correlated with future NAb breadth and potency (p>0.05). Taken together, it is unlikely that neutralizing capability in our cohort was conditioned on viral diversity, but rather that env evolution was driven by the level of NAb selective pressure. PMID:25463602

  18. Parameter on aggressive periodontitis. American Academy of Periodontology.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The American Academy of Periodontology has developed the following parameter on the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. Patients should be informed of the disease process, therapeutic alternatives, potential complications, expected results, and their responsibility in treatment. Consequences of no treatment should be explained. Failure to treat aggressive periodontitis appropriately can result in progressive and often rapid loss of periodontal supporting tissues. This may have an adverse effect upon prognosis and could result in tooth loss. Given this information, patients (or their parents or guardians, as appropriate) should then be able to make informed decisions regarding their periodontal therapy.

  19. Generation of a specific immunological response to FGF-2 does not affect wound healing or reproduction.

    PubMed

    Plum, Stacy M; Vu, Hong A; Mercer, Bobby; Fogler, William E; Fortier, Anne H

    2004-02-01

    in two models of pulmonary metastatic disease. In the present studies, we further characterize the immunological and physiological responses to this vaccine. Vaccinated animals generated a specific anti-FGF-2 antibody (titer of 1:5000) that was able to inhibit FGF-2 binding to heparin sulfate in a dose dependent fashion. Cell mediated immunity was evidenced by a delayed type hypersensitivity response following challenge with the heparin binding domain peptide. Despite an immune response toward FGF-2, vaccination with L(HBD) did not result in alterations in mean time to wound healing when compared to unvaccinated animals or those treated with a liposome control. In reproductive studies, vaccinated females were not impaired in their ability to: 1) become pregnant, 2) support the growth and development of their embryos, and 3) deliver viable offspring. Furthermore, when assessed histologically, these offspring did not demonstrate any alterations in organogenesis when compared to pups born to untreated or liposome control treated females. Thus, while vaccination against FGF-2 induces a specific FGF-2 antibody response, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor development in a pathological setting, it does not adversely alter normal physiological events dependent on FGF-2.

  20. Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: the role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pornari, Chrisa D; Wood, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying.

  1. Strain-transcending immune response generated by chimeras of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Andrew, Dean; MacRaild, Christopher A.; Morales, Rodrigo A. V.; Beeson, James G.; Anders, Robin F.; Richards, Jack S.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    MSP2 is an intrinsically disordered protein that is abundant on the merozoite surface and essential to the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Naturally-acquired antibody responses to MSP2 are biased towards dimorphic sequences within the central variable region of MSP2 and have been linked to naturally-acquired protection from malaria. In a phase IIb study, an MSP2-containing vaccine induced an immune response that reduced parasitemias in a strain-specific manner. A subsequent phase I study of a vaccine that contained both dimorphic forms of MSP2 induced antibodies that exhibited functional activity in vitro. We have assessed the contribution of the conserved and variable regions of MSP2 to the generation of a strain-transcending antibody response by generating MSP2 chimeras that included conserved and variable regions of the 3D7 and FC27 alleles. Robust anti-MSP2 antibody responses targeting both conserved and variable regions were generated in mice, although the fine specificity and the balance of responses to these regions differed amongst the constructs tested. We observed significant differences in antibody subclass distribution in the responses to these chimeras. Our results suggest that chimeric MSP2 antigens can elicit a broad immune response suitable for protection against different strains of P. falciparum. PMID:26865062

  2. Strain-transcending immune response generated by chimeras of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 2.

    PubMed

    Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Andrew, Dean; MacRaild, Christopher A; Morales, Rodrigo A V; Beeson, James G; Anders, Robin F; Richards, Jack S; Norton, Raymond S

    2016-02-11

    MSP2 is an intrinsically disordered protein that is abundant on the merozoite surface and essential to the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Naturally-acquired antibody responses to MSP2 are biased towards dimorphic sequences within the central variable region of MSP2 and have been linked to naturally-acquired protection from malaria. In a phase IIb study, an MSP2-containing vaccine induced an immune response that reduced parasitemias in a strain-specific manner. A subsequent phase I study of a vaccine that contained both dimorphic forms of MSP2 induced antibodies that exhibited functional activity in vitro. We have assessed the contribution of the conserved and variable regions of MSP2 to the generation of a strain-transcending antibody response by generating MSP2 chimeras that included conserved and variable regions of the 3D7 and FC27 alleles. Robust anti-MSP2 antibody responses targeting both conserved and variable regions were generated in mice, although the fine specificity and the balance of responses to these regions differed amongst the constructs tested. We observed significant differences in antibody subclass distribution in the responses to these chimeras. Our results suggest that chimeric MSP2 antigens can elicit a broad immune response suitable for protection against different strains of P. falciparum.

  3. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if ..mu..eq l/sup -1/. The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means.

  4. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  5. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  6. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  7. Transient response to three-phase faults on a wind turbine generator. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    In order to obtain a measure of its responses to short circuits a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator was modeled and its performance was simulated on a digital computer. Simulation of short circuit faults on the synchronous alternator of a wind turbine generator, without resort to the classical assumptions generally made for that analysis, indicates that maximum clearing times for the system tied to an infinite bus are longer than the typical clearing times for equivalent capacity conventional machines. Also, maximum clearing times are independent of tower shadow and wind shear. Variation of circuit conditions produce the modifications in the transient response predicted by analysis.

  8. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  9. Vocalization toward conspecifics in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tame or aggressive behavior toward humans.

    PubMed

    Gogoleva, S S; Volodin, I A; Volodina, E V; Kharlamova, A V; Trut, L N

    2010-06-01

    We examined the production of different vocalizations in three strains of silver fox (unselected, aggressive, and tame) attending three kinds of behavior (aggressive, affiliative, and neutral) in response to their same-strain conspecifics. This is a follow-up to previous experiments which demonstrated that in the presence of humans, tame foxes produced cackles and pants but never coughed or snorted, whilst aggressive foxes produced coughs and snorts but never cackled or panted. Thus, cackle/pant and cough/snort were indicative of the tame and aggressive fox strains respectively toward humans. Wild-type unselected foxes produced cough and snort toward humans similarly to aggressive foxes. Here, we found that vocal responses to conspecifics were similar in tame, aggressive and unselected fox strains. Both cackle/pant and cough/snort occurred in foxes of all strains. The difference in the use of cackle/pant and cough/snort among these strains toward humans and toward conspecifics suggest that silver foxes do not perceive humans as their conspecifics. We speculate that these vocalizations are produced in response to a triggering internal state, affiliative or aggressive, that is suppressed by default in these fox strains toward humans as a result of their strict selection for tame or aggressive behavior, whilst still remaining flexible toward conspecifics.

  10. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  11. Natalizumab in aggressive multiple sclerosis after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Marco; Motuzova, Y; Frau, J; Cocco, E; Mamusa, E; Marrosu, M G; Bertolotto, A

    2012-08-01

    High-dose cyclophosphamide followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC-AHSCT) is a treatment option for aggressive and refractory multiple sclerosis (MS). Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS unresponsive to immunomodulating drugs. Nothing is known about the use of natalizumab in patients after HDC-AHSCT. We describe five female RR-MS patients with incomplete response to HDC-AHSCT. Natalizumab was then administered with abolition of both MRI and clinical activity. No severe adverse events, in particular opportunistic infections such as Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), were observed. Our results suggest that the use of natalizumab in aggressive RR-MS after HDC-AHSCT could be effective and safe. The very long-term risk of adverse events due to sequential aggressive immunosuppression has to be established.

  12. Response to five generations of selection for growth performance traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pedigreed rainbow trout population (~100 families per generation) was selected for five generations to improve growth performance to the standard ~500-gram US market weight and beyond (greater than 1 kg). Body weights (BW) were recorded each generation at 5, 8, 10, and 13 months post-hatch. Selec...

  13. The response of runoff generation to urban development: modelling and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The urbanisation process strongly changes natural catchment by increasing the impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems, resulting in a significant change of catchment hydrology from extreme floods to low flows. Thus, it is becoming important to quantify the impacts of urbanisation on runoff generation and to investigate the possibility of restoring pre-development flows in urban catchments for integrated urban stormwater management. Urban hydrological modelling emphasising on urbanisation effects has received substantial attention. However, the lack of good quality monitoring data in a same developing catchment limits model calibration for many of previous studies. In this concern, this study aims to describe and better understand the effects of urbanisation on catchment hydrology through modelling of a series of scenarios in a developing urban catchment of Saunalahdenranta (SR). The catchment is located at Espoo, southern Finland and has an area of about 13.2 ha. The catchment was developed rapidly from a rural area to a residential area during 2001-2006. Hydrological data were measured in two minutes intervals during the development period, when the imperviousness of the catchment changed from 1.5% to 37%. Precipitation-runoff relationship is simulated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) that is firstly parameterised, calibrated, and validated for the scenario of highly developed residential catchment in 2006. The hydrological impacts of spatial resolution and model parameters, such as the delineation of subcatchment, flow width as well as Manning's roughness are evaluated and discussed. The calibrated model is then used to investigate, how the hydrological response to urbanisation was changing in the scenarios for the previous years (2001-2005) with different levels of urban development (represented by impervious surfaces). The predictions for the several scenarios provide a quantification of the hydrological impacts of

  14. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  15. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    PubMed

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2016-07-22

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.

  16. Increased aggressive responding in male volunteers following the administration of gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate.

    PubMed

    Kouri, E M; Lukas, S E; Pope, H G; Oliva, P S

    1995-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on aggressive responding in a controlled laboratory setting. Eight male subjects received gradually increasing doses of testosterone cypionate (150 mg/week for two weeks, 300 mg/week for two weeks, and 600 mg/week for two weeks) or placebo using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Subjects were tested both before and after the series of injections. During the experimental session subjects could press a button to accumulate points exchangeable for money (non-aggressive response) or press another button to subtract points from a fictitious opponent (aggressive response). Aggressive responding was instigated by subtracting points from the subject which was attributable to the fictitious opponent. Testosterone administration resulted in a significantly higher number of aggressive responding compared to placebo.

  17. Aggressive responding of male heroin addicts under methadone treatment: psychometric and neuroendocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Raggi, M A; Giusti, F; Delsignore, R; Bertacca, S; Brambilla, F

    2001-12-01

    Objective measures of experimentally-induced aggressiveness were evaluated in 20 methadone-treated heroin addicts, in comparison to 20 normal healthy male subjects. All the subjects were submitted to preliminary DSM IV interviews, Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI II). During a laboratory task, the point subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP), subjects earned monetary reinforcers with repeated button presses, and were provoked by the subtraction of money, which was attributed to a fictitious other participants. Subjects could respond by ostensibly subtracting money from the fictitious subject (the aggressive response), or protecting their counter (escape response). Money-earning responses were significantly lower (t=4.38, P<0.001) and aggressive responses significantly higher (t=5.45; P<0.001) in methadone patients in comparison to controls. During the experimentally-induced aggressiveness, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations increased significantly less and norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, together with heart rate (HR), significantly more in methadone subjects than in healthy subjects. PSAP aggressive responses positively correlated with catecholamines changes, BDHI 'direct' and 'irritability' scores, MMPI 'psychopathic deviate' scores both in methadone subjects and controls, and with CORT responses only in healthy subjects. No correlation was found between methadone doses, or exposure extent, and aggressiveness levels. Our findings suggest that heroin dependent patients have higher outward-directed aggressiveness than healthy subjects, in relationship with monoamines hyper-reactivity, also under methadone medication. Aggressiveness in methadone patients seems to be related more to the personality traits than to drug effects. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses, unexpectedly dissociated from catecholamines rise

  18. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  19. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  20. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  1. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie D.; McCauley, Spencer A.; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. Results: PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. Conclusions: PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation. PMID:26745682

  2. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Lauren M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short ‘winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a ‘seasonal switch’ from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands. PMID:26582025

  3. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.

  4. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    PubMed Central

    Moran, James K.; Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated “appetitive” aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N = 50) presented with an imaginative listening task involving a murderer describing a kill. We manipulated motivational context in a between-subjects design to evoke appetitive or reactive aggression, against a neutral control, measuring activity with Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results show differences in left frontal regions in delta (2–5 Hz) and alpha band (8–12 Hz) for aggressive conditions and right parietal delta activity differentiating appetitive and reactive aggression. These results validate the distinction of reward-driven appetitive aggression from reactive aggression in ordinary populations at the level of functional neural brain circuitry. PMID:25538590

  5. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Rudolph, Lauren M; Sengelaub, Dale R; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-11-22

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short 'winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a 'seasonal switch' from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands.

  6. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday (PRAISE) Program. PRAISE is a 20-session classroom-based universal prevention program, designed to be appropriate and responsive to the needs of youth within the urban school context. Results suggest strong acceptability for the program and feasibility of implementation. Further, the program was especially beneficial for girls. For instance, girls in classrooms randomly assigned to the PRAISE Program demonstrated higher levels of knowledge for social information processing and anger management techniques and lower levels of relational aggression following treatment as compared to similar girls randomly assigned to a no-treatment control condition. Further, relationally aggressive girls exhibited similar benefits from the program (greater knowledge and lower levels of relational aggression) plus lower levels of overt aggression following treatment as compared to relationally aggressive girls within the control classrooms. In contrast, the program was not associated with improvements for boys across most measures. The significance and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21686034

  7. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  8. The role of executive functions in the control of aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Ulrike M; Kopyciok, Robert P J; Richter, Sylvia; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e., increased tendencies toward aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task, and Tower of London (TOL). High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the TOL, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the less aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people.

  9. Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of pediatric ADHD with associated aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bianca D; Barzman, Drew H

    2013-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with symptoms of aggression in children and adolescents. Clinically, this is complex because aggression can be from hyperactivity and impulsivity, or could be a distinct symptom from a comorbid diagnosis. Past research has recommended first treating the primary disorder of ADHD. Stimulants are the most common treatment for pediatric ADHD, which can be helpful in decreasing aggressive behaviors. Alpha-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine (ATX) are non-stimulant medications for ADHD and aggression, but more research is necessary to compare these drugs to stimulants. If aggressive symptoms do not improve from treating the primary disorder, aggression can be treated separately. Risperidone, lithium, valproic acid, clonidine, and guanfacine have shown positive results in reducing aggression, but studies including children with aggression and ADHD are limited. The variability in treatment tolerability in patients has stimulated research in pharmacogenetics for ADHD. Although this field is still emerging, research has found evidence supporting a link between the response rate of methylphenidate and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and a link between the metabolism rate of atomoxetine and hepatic cytochrome 450 isozymes. Pharmacogenetics may be relevant to ADHD and associated aggression. Further research in pharmacogenetics will strive to identify patterns of genetic variations that can tailor individual treatments.

  10. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements’ bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

  11. Principal component analysis of the CT density histogram to generate parametric response maps of COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, N.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Pike, D.; McCormack, D. G.; Cunningham, I. A.; Parraga, G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary x-ray computed tomography (CT) may be used to characterize emphysema and airways disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One analysis approach - parametric response mapping (PMR) utilizes registered inspiratory and expiratory CT image volumes and CT-density-histogram thresholds, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold values used, or their clinical meaning. Principal-component-analysis (PCA) of the CT density histogram can be exploited to quantify emphysema using data-driven CT-density-histogram thresholds. Thus, the objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration was to develop a PRM approach using PCA-derived thresholds in COPD patients and ex-smokers without airflow limitation. Methods: Fifteen COPD ex-smokers and 5 normal ex-smokers were evaluated. Thoracic CT images were also acquired at full inspiration and full expiration and these images were non-rigidly co-registered. PCA was performed for the CT density histograms, from which the components with the highest eigenvalues greater than one were summed. Since the values of the principal component curve correlate directly with the variability in the sample, the maximum and minimum points on the curve were used as threshold values for the PCA-adjusted PRM technique. Results: A significant correlation was determined between conventional and PCA-adjusted PRM with 3He MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (p<0.001), with CT RA950 (p<0.0001), as well as with 3He MRI ventilation defect percent, a measurement of both small airways disease (p=0.049 and p=0.06, respectively) and emphysema (p=0.02). Conclusions: PRM generated using PCA thresholds of the CT density histogram showed significant correlations with CT and 3He MRI measurements of emphysema, but not airways disease.

  12. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  13. Anticancer DNA vaccine based on human telomerase reverse transcriptase generates a strong and specific T cell immune response

    PubMed Central

    Thalmensi, Jessie; Pliquet, Elodie; Liard, Christelle; Escande, Marie; Bestetti, Thomas; Julithe, Marion; Kostrzak, Anna; Pailhes-Jimenez, Anne-Sophie; Bourges, Emanuèle; Loustau, Maria; Caumartin, Julien; Lachgar, Abderrahim; Huet, Thierry; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Langlade-Demoyen, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is overexpressed in more than 85% of human cancers regardless of their cellular origin. As immunological tolerance to hTERT can be overcome not only spontaneously but also by vaccination, it represents a relevant universal tumor associated antigen (TAA). Indeed, hTERT specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors are present within the peripheral T-cell repertoire. Consequently, hTERT vaccine represents an attractive candidate for antitumor immunotherapy. Here, an optimized DNA plasmid encoding an inactivated form of hTERT, named INVAC-1, was designed in order to trigger cellular immunity against tumors. Intradermal injection of INVAC-1 followed by electrogene transfer (EGT) in a variety of mouse models elicited broad hTERT specific cellular immune responses including high CD4+ Th1 effector and memory CD8+ T‑cells. Furthermore, therapeutic INVAC‑1 immunization in a HLA-A2 spontaneous and aggressive mouse sarcoma model slows tumor growth and increases survival rate of 50% of tumor-bearing mice. These results emphasize that INVAC-1 based immunotherapy represents a relevant cancer vaccine candidate. PMID:27141336

  14. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  15. “Blurred Lines?”1 Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Background Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. The present study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. Methods We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets’ responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were used to account for nesting on incidents in evening and bars. Results 90% of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion to end the incident. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. Initiators’ level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Conclusions Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male

  16. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  19. Auditory evoked responses to binaural beat illusion: stimulus generation and the derivation of the Binaural Interaction Component (BIC).

    PubMed

    Ozdamar, Ozcan; Bohorquez, Jorge; Mihajloski, Todor; Yavuz, Erdem; Lachowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological indices of auditory binaural beats illusions are studied using late latency evoked responses. Binaural beats are generated by continuous monaural FM tones with slightly different ascending and descending frequencies lasting about 25 ms presented at 1 sec intervals. Frequency changes are carefully adjusted to avoid any creation of abrupt waveform changes. Binaural Interaction Component (BIC) analysis is used to separate the neural responses due to binaural involvement. The results show that the transient auditory evoked responses can be obtained from the auditory illusion of binaural beats.

  20. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  1. Analysis of response to 20 generations of selection for body composition in mice: fit to infinitesimal model assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor; Bünger, Lutz; Hill, William G

    2000-01-01

    Data were analysed from a divergent selection experiment for an indicator of body composition in the mouse, the ratio of gonadal fat pad to body weight (GFPR). Lines were selected for 20 generations for fat (F), lean (L) or were unselected (C), with three replicates of each. Selection was within full-sib families, 16 families per replicate for the first seven generations, eight subsequently. At generation 20, GFPR in the F lines was twice and in the L lines half that of C. A log transformation removed both asymmetry of response and heterogeneity of variance among lines, and so was used throughout. Estimates of genetic variance and heritability (approximately 50%) obtained using REML with an animal model were very similar, whether estimated from the first few generations of selection, or from all 20 generations, or from late generations having fitted pedigree. The estimates were also similar when estimated from selected or control lines. Estimates from REML also agreed with estimates of realised heritability. The results all accord with expectations under the infinitesimal model, despite the four-fold changes in mean. Relaxed selection lines, derived from generation 20, showed little regression in fatness after 40 generations without selection. PMID:14736404

  2. Multi-generational responses of a marine polychaete to a rapid change in seawater pCO2.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Jarrold, Michael D; Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Spicer, John I; Calosi, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Little is known of the capacity that marine metazoans have to evolve under rapid p CO 2 changes. Consequently, we reared a marine polychaete, Ophryotrocha labronica, previously cultured for approximately 33 generations under a low/variable pH regime, under elevated and low p CO 2 for six generations. The strain used was found to be tolerant to elevated p CO 2 conditions. In generations F1 and F2 females' fecundity was significantly lower in the low p CO 2 treatment. However, from generation F3 onwards there were no differences between p CO 2 treatments, indicating that trans-generational effects enabled the restoration and maintenance of reproductive output. Whilst the initial fitness recovery was likely driven by trans-generational plasticity (TGP), the results from reciprocal transplant assays, performed using F7 individuals, made it difficult to disentangle between whether TGP had persisted across multiple generations, or if evolutionary adaptation had occurred. Nonetheless, both are important mechanisms for persistence under climate change. Overall, our study highlights the importance of multi-generational experiments in more accurately determining marine metazoans' responses to changes in p CO 2, and strengthens the case for exploring their use in conservation, by creating specific p CO 2 tolerant strains of keystone ecosystem species.

  3. The effects of relationship aversive female partner behavior on attributions and physiological reactivity of verbally aggressive and non-aggressive males.

    PubMed

    Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Eisler, Richard M; Franchina, Joseph J

    2003-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of aversive female partner behavior on cognitive attributions and physiological reactivity in verbally aggressive and non-aggressive college males (N = 39). Participants were presented four audiotaped vignettes which depicted hypothetical dating situations in which the female's behavior was relationship aversive or non-relationship aversive. Participants' physiological reactivity (i.e., systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was obtained before and after hearing each vignette. Attributional responses were obtained following the presentation of all vignettes. Relationship aversive partner behavior was expected to produce greater increases in attributional and physiological reactivity than non-relationship aversive partner behavior. Additionally, verbally aggressive males were expected to demonstrate greater negative intent and responsibility attributions and evidence greater physiological reactivity for situations involving relationship aversive partner behavior than were non-aggressive males.As hypothesized, results showed that relationship aversive partner behavior produced greater increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than did non-relationship aversive partner behavior. Results also showed that verbally aggressive males evidenced significantly greater negative attributions to relationship aversive partner behavior than did non-aggressive males. The potential interaction between physiological reactivity and attributions in explaining males' verbally aggressive behavior toward their female partners is discussed.

  4. Saccade generation and suppression in schizophrenia: effects of response switching and perseveration.

    PubMed

    Franke, Cosima; Arndt, Doris; Ploner, Christoph J; Heinz, Andreas; Reuter, Benedikt

    2008-09-01

    Poor antisaccade performance is a reliable index of action control deficits in schizophrenia. To further elucidate the underlying cognitive impairments, the current study aimed to confirm effects of switching the response direction on saccadic performance and to investigate whether response switch effects relate to perseveration. Fourteen schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy controls performed sequences of 1 to 3 simple volitional saccades to one direction and a subsequent volitional saccade with distractor to the same or the opposite direction. Response switches increased error rates in schizophrenia if they followed 3 saccades to the opposite side, suggesting that response switching affects performance on conditions of strong persisting response programs. The increase of response switch error rates with multiple repetitions of the prior response points to a relationship between perseveration and response selection.

  5. MAOA-uVNTR genotype predicts interindividual differences in experimental aggressiveness as a function of the degree of provocation.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Yvonne; Grant, Phillip; Wielpuetz, Catrin; Hennig, Juergen

    2013-06-15

    The MAOA-uVNTR has been suggested to play a role regarding aggression, however, results are inconsistent. We aimed at further elucidating potential effects of the MAOA-uVNTR on aggressiveness with respect to potential modulators: sex, experimental vs. trait aggressiveness and type of aggressiveness (proactive vs. reactive aggressiveness). We tested 239 healthy young adults (88 men/151 women). Participants were genotyped for the MAOA-uVNTR and performed a modified version of a competitive reaction time task - a commonly used and well established tool to elicit and measure aggressiveness. Furthermore, they completed a self-report scale measuring trait aggressiveness. We found a main effect of MAOA-uVNTR on a measure of reactive aggressiveness for both men and women, whereby the low-activity alleles of the MAOA-uVNTR were associated with substantially increased aggressive reactions (p<.05). This effect was unique for reactive aggressiveness. Measures of proactive aggressiveness or self reports were not associated with the MAOA-uVNTR-genotype. Our data are in line with earlier studies and indicate the MAOA-uVNTR-genotype to be specifically associated with measures of reactive impulsive experimental aggressiveness in healthy men and women. Furthermore the association between the MAOA-uVNTR genotype and aggressive responses increases in a fashion linear to the degree of provocation. This indicates that the low-functional alleles of the MAOA-uVNTR are not associated with increased aggressive behavior per se, but rather with an increased aggressive reactivity to provocation.

  6. Ease of counterfactual thought generation moderates the relationship between need for cognition and punitive responses to crime.

    PubMed

    Petrocelli, John V; Dowd, Keith

    2009-09-01

    Punitive responses to crime have been linked to a relatively low need for cognition (NFC). Sargent's (2004) findings suggest that this relationship is due to a relatively complex attributional system, employed by high-NFC individuals, which permits them to recognize potential external or situational causes of crime. However, high-NFC individuals may also be more likely to engage in counterfactual thinking, which has been linked to greater judgments of blame and responsibility. Three studies examine the relationship between trait and state NFC and punitiveness in light of counterfactual thinking. Results suggest that the ease of generating upward counterfactuals in response to an unfortunate crime moderates the NFC-punitiveness relationship, such that high-NFC individuals are less punitive than low-NFC individuals only when counterfactual thoughts are relatively difficult to generate. These findings are discussed in light of punishment theory and their possible implications with regard to the legal system.

  7. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  8. Study of the ionospheric response to surface waves generated by large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L.; Lognonné, Ph.; Occhipinti, G.; Kherani, E. A.; Munekane, H.

    2009-04-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful technique for monitoring the ionosphere. The quantity measured is the Total Electronic Content (TEC), that is the integrated quantity of the electronic density along the satellite - beacon ray path. Dense GPS networks like the Japanese network GEONET provide the proper sampling (~ 10 km) for imaging seismogenic ionospheric waves (whose wavelengths are hundreds of kilometers) finely. In instrumented regions, changes in the surrounding GPS-TEC map are observed for almost all the large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 6) within ten minutes after the rupture. This time corresponds to the propagation delay needed by the forced atmospheric waves to reach the ionospheric altitudes. In some favourable configurations, an integrated, a "seismo-ionospheric" radiative pattern is visualized. In the vicinity of a large earthquake the measured ionospheric seismic waves are two kinds : a slow wave at near field and a faster one at near and far field. They are easily identified by their group velocity, about 1 km/s and 3.4 km/s respectively. The first kind is directly relied to the acoustic pulse generated by the vertical displacements of the source. It takes the form of a plume, easily modelled by a ray tracing technique. Following this model, source informations like the fault spatial distribution can be extracted as illustrated by the case of the Sumatra giant earthquake of 200,4 December, 26th [Heki et al., 2006]. The wave trains of the second kind are excited by the Rayleigh surface waves up to teleseismic distance. We are aiming here to investigate the potential of extracting informations on the source from this last type of waves. Their coupling with the atmosphere is very efficient and we observed at ionospheric level an overlap of the sound wave by the surface waves signal just after the Tokachi-Oki - 2003, September 25th Mw=8.1 earthquake. 3D synthetics of the atmospheric waves generated by surface waves are modelled by a

  9. The effect of humor on aggression catharsis in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ziv, A

    1987-07-01

    Two studies were designed to measure the cathartic effects of humor on aggressive responses. In the first study, two versions (easy and difficult) of Raven's intelligence test were administered to two groups of high school students. Only the easy version could be solved in the alloted time. Rosenzweig's (1951) Picture Frustration test was then administered and the students' aggressive responses were scored. Results showed that those who did not solve the problems had significantly higher scores on aggressivity than did the others. The second study, using four different groups, was planned according to a modified Solomon design. Two of the four groups of students completed the difficult part of the Raven test, and then two video-tapes were presented: a humorous one to two groups and a neutral one to the others. Finally, the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration test was administered to all four groups. An analysis of variance computed on the aggressivity scores showed one significant difference: frustrated students who viewed the humorous videotape had lower scores than those viewing the neutral one.

  10. Can Impact-generated Plasmas be Responsible for Magnetization on Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Rona; Shprits, Yuri; Weiss, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Although the Moon presently does not have a core dynamo magnetic field, spacecraft measurements have revealed the presence of remanent magnetization in the lunar crust. The source of the crustal magnetic anomalies remains uncertain. A key question is whether the crustal magnetization is a record of ancient intrinsic fields, or whether they were created by external fields. In the latter case, an ancient dynamo field is not needed in order to explain the anomalies. This carries broad implications to our understanding of the Moon's thermal history and current internal structure. Furthermore, the lunar crustal field serves as a test case for understanding magnetization of other solar system bodies, such as Mars, Mercury, and asteroids. Strong anomalies were identified at the antipodes of young large impact craters, which has led to the theory that meteor impacts may be responsible for the magnetization of the crust. In this picture ionized vapor clouds, generated by the impacts, interact and compress the surrounding solar wind. These transient field amplifications would subsequently be recorded by heated or shocked lunar rocks. Although this hypothesis has been studied for several decades using hydrodynamic and impact simulations, all simulations thus far did not include the magnetic field, and magnetic field amplification was only estimated from general geometric arguments. To address this gap, we coducted the first magnetohydrodynamic simulations of this process. We systematically explore the role of magnetic field reconnection, variable solar wind conditions, friction between the vapor and molten ejecta, and the finite resistivity of the lunar mantle and crust. Our preliminary results show that vapor expansion and magnetic field reconnection would cause large amounts of solar wind magnetic flux to be removed, leading to only moderate field amplification at the antipodes, several orders of magnitude below the required value. We propose that the compression of the

  11. Persistent conditioned place preference to aggression experience in adult male sexually-experienced CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Golden, S A; Aleyasin, H; Heins, R; Flanigan, M; Heshmati, M; Takahashi, A; Russo, S J; Shaham, Y

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, commonly used to study rewarding drug effects, to demonstrate that dominant sexually-experienced CD-1 male mice form CPP to contexts previously associated with defeating subordinate male C57BL/6J mice. Here we further characterized conditioned and unconditioned aggression behavior in CD-1 mice. In Exp. 1 we used CD-1 mice that displayed a variable spectrum of unconditioned aggressive behavior toward younger subordinate C57BL/6J intruder mice. We then trained the CD-1 mice in the CPP procedure where one context was intruder-paired, while a different context was not. We then tested for aggression CPP 1 day after training. In Exp. 2, we tested CD-1 mice for aggression CPP 1 day and 18 days after training. In Exp. 3-4, we trained the CD-1 mice to lever-press for palatable food and tested them for footshock punishment-induced suppression of food-reinforced responding. In Exp. 5, we characterized unconditioned aggression in hybrid CD-1 × C57BL/6J D1-Cre or D2-Cre F1 generation crosses. Persistent aggression CPP was observed in CD-1 mice that either immediately attacked C57BL/6J mice during all screening sessions or mice that gradually developed aggressive behavior during the screening phase. In contrast, CD-1 mice that did not attack the C57BL/6J mice during screening did not develop CPP to contexts previously paired with C57BL/6J mice. The aggressive phenotype did not predict resistance to punishment-induced suppression of food-reinforced responding. CD-1 × D1-Cre or D2-Cre F1 transgenic mice showed strong unconditioned aggression. Our study demonstrates that aggression experience causes persistent CPP and introduces transgenic mice for circuit studies of aggression.

  12. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  13. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, G.; Swinnen, L.; Bayer, R.; Rosenfeld, S.; Salzman, D.; Paleologos, N.; Kaminer, L.; Forsyth, P.; Stewart, D.; Peterson, K.; Hu, W.; Macdonald, D.; Ramsay, D.; Smith, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the duration of tumor control and the toxicities of dose-intense myeloablative chemotherapy for patients with recurrent oligodendrogliomas. Patients with previously irradiated oligodendrogliomas, either pure or mixed, that were contrast enhancing, measurable, and behaving aggressively at recurrence were eligible for this study. Only complete responders or major partial responders (75 % reduction in tumor size) to induction chemotherapy--either intensive-dose procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or cisplatin plus etoposide-could receive high-dose thiotepa (300 mg/m2/day for 3 days) followed by hematopoietic reconstitution using either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Thirty-eight patients began induction chemotherapy and 20 (10 men, 10 women; median age 46 years; median Karnofsky score 80) received high-dose thiotepa. For the high-dose group, the median event-free, progression-free, and overall survival times from recurrence were 17, 20, and 49 months, respectively. Tumor control in excess of 2 years was observed in 6 patients (30%). Four patients (20%) are alive and tumor free 27 to 77 months (median, 42 months) from the start of induction therapy; however, fatal treatment-related toxicities also occurred in 4 patients (20%). Three patients died as a result of a progressive encephalopathy which, in 2 instances, was accompanied by a wasting syndrome; 1 patient died as a consequence of an intracerebral (intratumoral) hemorrhage. Fatal toxicities occurred in patients with pretreatment Karnofsky scores of 60 or 70. High-dose thiotepa to consolidate response was a disappointing treatment strategy for patients with recurrent aggressive oligodendroglial neoplasms, although several patients had durable responses. Moreover, as prescribed, high-dose thiotepa had significant toxic effects in previously irradiated patients, especially those with poorer performance status. PMID:11303620

  14. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  15. Undernutrition in the parental and first generation provokes an organ-specific response to oxidative stress on neonates of second filial generation of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Baños-Gómez, R; Cruz-Cansino, N S; Suarez-Diéguez, T; Valadez-Vega, C; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Alanís-García, E; Ariza-Ortega, J A; Manríquez-Torres, J J; Zamora-Romo, E; Delgado-Olivares, L

    2016-08-26

    Undernutrition induces an increase of the oxidative stress that can predispose offspring to various diseases in adulthood through epigenetic reprogramming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intergenerational undernutrition on protein oxidation and antioxidant defence response on liver, heart and brain of the second-generation neonates (F2 ) of undernourished rats. For this purpose, both parents in parental (F0 ) and first generation (F1 ) were fed with a low-nutrient diet. Body mass and length decreased (p < 0.05) in F0 , F1 and F2 being the F1 males who exhibited a greater mass loss. A decrease in plasma albumin concentration was observed in F2 neonates (p < 0.05) and also a mass loss of liver, heart and brain (p < 0.05), although proportionally to body length reduction. Undernutrition increased levels of protein oxidation in liver and heart (p < 0.05) but not in brain (p > 0.05) while catalase activity increased only in brain (p < 0.05). In summary, intergenerational undernutrition modifies the antioxidant status through an organ-specific response, on F2 neonate rats, where the brain increased catalase activity to prevent a severe oxidative damage and support the vital functions of this key organ to maintain vital functions.

  16. Effects of sounds generated by a dental turbine and a stream on regional cerebral blood flow and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Riho; Kudo, Takumu; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yamamura, Chie; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-01

    Effects of sound generated by a dental turbine and a small stream (murmur) and the effects of no sound (null, control) on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemodynamic changes (oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations) in the frontal cortex were measured in 18 young volunteers. Questionnaires completed by the volunteers were also evaluated. Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Finapres technique were employed to measure hemodynamic and vascular responses, respectively. The subjects assessed the murmur, null, and turbine sounds as "pleasant," "natural," and "unpleasant," respectively. Blood pressures changed in response to the murmur, null, and turbine sound stimuli as expected: lower than the control level, unchanged, and higher than the control level, respectively. Mean blood pressure values tended to increase gradually over the recording time even during the null sound stimulation, possibly because of the recording environment. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations decreased drastically in response to the dental turbine sound, while deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations remained unchanged and thus total hemoglobin concentrations decreased (due to the decreased oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations). Hemodynamic responses to the murmuring sound and the null sound were slight or unchanged, respectively. Surprisingly, heart rate measurements remained fairly stable in response to the stimulatory noises. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that sound generated by a dental turbine may affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism as well as autonomic responses.

  17. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870

  18. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  19. Moderating effects of autism on parent views of genetic screening for aggression.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E; Brandt, Rachel C; Bohannan, Joseph K

    2012-10-01

    Advances in gene-environment interaction research have revealed genes that are associated with aggression. However, little is known about parent perceptions of genetic screening for behavioral symptoms like aggression as opposed to diagnosing disabilities. These perceptions may influence future research endeavors involving genetic linkage studies to behavior, including proactive approaches for parents to avoid events leading to aggression. The purpose of this study was to solicit the perspectives of parents who have children with autism about screening for genes associated with aggression, compared to responses from those who have children without disabilities and those planning to have children. Parents of children with autism were more likely to support screening and the use of the results to seek treatment if necessary. Results are discussed in the context of surveillance screening and systematic early intervention for behavioral symptoms related to autism. The results may provide insight for clincians, researchers, policymakers, and advocacy groups related to diagnosing and treating aggression in people with autism.

  20. A brief functional analysis of aggressive and alternative behavior in an outclinic setting.

    PubMed Central

    Northup, J; Wacker, D; Sasso, G; Steege, M; Cigrand, K; Cook, J; DeRaad, A

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a brief functional analysis to identify maintaining variable for aggressive behavior and an alternative replacement response during a 90-min outpatient evaluation of 3 individuals with severe handicaps. During the initial analogue assessment, which focused on identifying maintaining contingencies for aggressive behavior, each participant displayed a substantially greater frequency of aggressive behavior during one condition than during any other. The contingency that produced the highest percentage of aggressive behavior was then presented for the occurrence of a specific alternative behavior (a mand). During this contingency reversal phase, each participant displayed a substantial reduction in aggressive behavior and a substantial increase in alternative behavior, thus providing a direct analysis of the equivalency of the contingency for maintaining either behavior. PMID:1752840

  1. MAOA-VNTR polymorphism modulates context-dependent dopamine release and aggressive behavior in males.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Thorben; Winz, Oliver; Henkel, Karsten; Eggermann, Thomas; Mohammadkhani-Shali, Siamak; Dietrich, Claudia; Heinzel, Alexander; Decker, Michel; Cumming, Paul; Zerres, Klaus; Piel, Markus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2016-01-15

    A recent [(18)F]FDOPA-PET study reports negative correlations between dopamine synthesis rates and aggressive behavior. Since dopamine is among the substrates for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), this investigation examines whether functional allelic variants of the MAOA tandem repeat (VNTR) promotor polymorphism, which is known to modulate aggressive behavior, influences dopamine release and aggression in response to violent visual stimuli. We selected from a genetic prescreening sample, strictly case-matched groups of 2×12 healthy male subjects with VNTRs predictive of high (MAOA-High) and low (MAOA-Low) MAOA expression. Subjects underwent pairs of PET sessions (dopamine D2/3 ligand [(18)F]DMFP) while viewing a movie of neutral content, versus violent content. Directly afterwards, aggressive behavior was assessed by the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). Finally, PET data of 23 participants and behavioral data of 22 participants were analyzed due to post hoc exclusion criteria. In the genetic prescreening sample MAOA-Low carriers had significantly increased scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. In the PET-study-group, aggressive behavior under the emotional neutral condition was significantly higher in the MAOA-Low group. Interestingly, the two MAOA-groups showed inverse dopaminergic and behavioral reactions to the violent movie: The MAOA-High group showed higher dopamine release and increased aggression after the violent movie; MAOA-Low subjects showed decreases in aggressive behavior and no consistent dopamine release. These results indicate a possible impact of the MAOA-promotor polymorphism on the neurobiological modulation of aggressive behavior. However, the data do not support approaches stating that MAOA-Low fosters aggression by a simple pro-dopaminergic mechanism.

  2. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2013-01-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression (Robinson et al., 2008). In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat (Alaux & Robinson, 2007, Couvillon et al., 2008, Hunt et al., 2003). Previous research has demonstrated social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype (Alaux et al., 2009b). For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles (Alaux et al., 2009b, Guzmán-Novoa et al., 2004). We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results demonstrate that bee aggression, and associated molecular processes, are subject to complex social influences. PMID:24034579

  3. Differential serotonergic modulation of two types of aggression in weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Zubizarreta, Lucía; Perrone, Rossana; Stoddard, Philip K.; Costa, Gustavo; Silva, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    Agonistic aggression has provided an excellent framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control species-specific and context-dependent behavior. The principal inhibitory control upon aggression is serotonin (5-HT) dependent, and the activation of 5-HT1A receptors is involved in its action. To address whether the serotonergic system differentially regulates different types of aggression, we used two species of weakly electric fish: the solitary Gymnotus omarorum and the gregarious Brachyhypopomus gauderio, which display distinctive types of aggression as part of each species' natural behavioral repertoire. We found that in the reproduction-related aggression displayed by B. gauderio after conflict resolution, the serotonergic activity follows the classic pattern in which subordinates exhibit higher 5-HT levels than controls. After the territorial aggression displayed by G. omarorum, however, both dominants and subordinates show lower 5-HT levels than controls, indicating a different response of the serotonergic system. Further, we found interspecific differences in basal serotonin turnover and in the dynamic profile of the changes in 5-HT levels from pre-contest to post-contest. Finally, we found the expected reduction of aggression and outcome shift in the territorial aggression of G. omarorum after 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A receptor agonist) administration, but no effect in the reproduction-related aggression of B. gauderio. Our results demonstrate the differential participation of the serotonergic system in the modulation of two types of aggression that we speculate may be a general strategy of the neuroendocrine control of aggression across vertebrates. PMID:23181014

  4. Thermal-hydraulic response and iodine transport during a steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    Recent reanalyses of the offsite dose consequences following a steam generator tube rupture have identified a possible non-conservatism in original FSAR analyses. Post-trip uncovery of the top of the steam generator U-tubes, in conjunction with a break near the U-tube top, could lead to increased iodine release due to a reduced ''scrubbing'' of the iodine in the primary break fluid by the steam generator secondary liquid. To evaluate this issue, analyses were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The RELAP5 computer code was used to conduct an analysis of the Surry plant to determine whether the post-trip steam generator secondary mixture level was sufficient to maintain continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The results indicated continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The RELAP5 result was supported by a hand calculation. Additional RELAP5 analyses were conducted to determine magnitudes of iodine release for a steam generator tube rupture. Two sensitivity studies were conducted. The amount of iodine released to the atmosphere was strongly dependent on the assumed value of the partition coefficient. The assumption of steam generator U-tube uncovery, on a collapsed liquid level basis, following reactor trip had a minor effect on the amount of released iodine. 17 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Neuromodulation and Strategic Action Choice in Drosophila Aggression.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Kenta

    2017-03-24

    In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes. I suggest a consensus effect of each neuromodulatory molecule on Drosophila aggression, as well as effects of receptor proteins where relevant data are available. Lastly, I consider neuromodulation in the context of strategic action choices during agonistic interactions. Genetic components of neuromodulatory systems are highly conserved across animals, suggesting that molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling Drosophila aggression can shed light on neural principles governing action choice during social interactions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. Synergies Between Wind and Solar Generation and Demand Response: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Sheila; Burke, Daniel; Wajahat Qazi, Hassan; Flynn, Damian; O'Malley, Mark; Kiviluoma, Juha; Hummon, Marissa; Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    Recent years have seen the interest in demand response increase, in academia and in industry, for both large scale demands and aggregated domestic demands. A number of power systems have established demand response programs in energy, ancillary services and capacity markets, while many are currently undertaking system specific customizations. One of the key reasons for the burgeoning interest in demand response lies in its ability to enhance variable renewable penetration levels, through the provision of flexibility, wind/solar curtailment reduction and other system ancillary services. This paper will review and evaluate various demand response studies, projects and programs from different countries, examining the synergies with renewables integration, also identify some of the main barriers which exist to the deployment of such demand response at greater scale.

  7. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  8. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  9. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  10. Influence of school-level variables on aggression and associated attitudes of middle school students.

    PubMed

    Henry, David B; Farrell, Albert D; Schoeny, Michael E; Tolan, Patrick H; Dymnicki, Allison B

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to understand school-level influences on aggressive behavior and related social cognitive variables. Participants were 5106 middle school students participating in a violence prevention project. Predictors were school-level norms opposing aggression and favoring nonviolence, interpersonal climate (positive student-teacher relationships and positive student-student relationships), and school responsiveness to violence (awareness and reporting of violence and school safety problems). Outcomes were individual-level physical aggression, beliefs supporting aggression, and self-efficacy for nonviolent responses. School norms and both interpersonal climate variables had effects on all three outcomes in theorized directions. Only one of the responsiveness measures, awareness and reporting of violence, had theoretically consistent effects on all outcomes. The other, school safety problems, affected self-efficacy later in middle school. Evidence of gender moderation was generally consistent with greater influence of school-level factors on female adolescents. Discussion focuses on implications in light of previous research and intervention possibilities.

  11. Teachers' victimization-related beliefs and strategies: associations with students' aggressive behavior and peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ladd, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    Although teachers are often called upon to reduce children's bullying and aggression, little is known regarding teachers' responses to students' harassment of peers or the beliefs which may inform their response strategies. To address this limitation, data were collected from 170 6th- and 7th-grade teachers (33 men; 137 women) and 2,938 (1,413 girls; 1,525 boys) of their students. Teachers beliefs regarding peer victimization were predictive of their efforts to advice victims how to cope with peer harassment. In particular, teachers who held more normative views of peer victimization were less likely to report reprimanding aggressive students and were more likely to utilize passive response strategies. Specific links emerged between teachers' beliefs and strategies and classroom-levels of aggression and peer victimization in the fall and in the spring, as well as changes in students' aggressive behavior and victimization over the course of the school year. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  12. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    PubMed Central

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA), the invertebrate analog of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS) alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display). The efficacy of AS as an aggression releasing stimulus was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR) agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5HT). In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA's natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here. PMID:25954171

  13. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Lorant, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.

  14. Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

    2010-12-20

    Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

  15. Social cognition in aggressive offenders: Impaired empathy, but intact theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Winter, Korina; Spengler, Stephanie; Bermpohl, Felix; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp

    2017-04-06

    Aggressive, violent behaviour is a major burden and challenge for society. It has been linked to deficits in social understanding, but the evidence is inconsistent and the specifics of such deficits are unclear. Here, we investigated affective (empathy) and cognitive (Theory of Mind) routes to understanding other people in aggressive individuals. Twenty-nine men with a history of legally relevant aggressive behaviour (i.e. serious assault) and 32 control participants were tested using a social video task (EmpaToM) that differentiates empathy and Theory of Mind and completed questionnaires on aggression and alexithymia. Aggressive participants showed reduced empathic responses to emotional videos of others' suffering, which correlated with aggression severity. Theory of Mind performance, in contrast, was intact. A mediation analysis revealed that reduced empathy in aggressive men was mediated by alexithymia. These findings stress the importance of distinguishing between socio-affective and socio-cognitive deficits for understanding aggressive behaviour and thereby contribute to the development of more efficient treatments.

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  17. The impact of rumination on aggressive thoughts, feelings, arousal, and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, William C; Denson, Thomas F; Goss, R Justin; Vasquez, Eduardo A; Kelley, Nicholas J; Miller, Norman

    2011-06-01

    Although rumination following a provocation can increase aggression, no research has examined the processes responsible for this phenomenon. With predictions derived from the General Aggression Model, three experiments explored the impact of two types of post-provocation rumination on the processes whereby rumination augments aggression. In Experiment 1, relative to distraction, self-focused rumination uniquely increased the accessibility of arousal cognition, whereas provocation-focused rumination uniquely amplified the accessibility of aggressive action cognition. In Experiment 2, provocation-focused rumination uniquely increased systolic blood pressure. In Experiment 3, both types of rumination increased aggressive behaviour relative to a distraction condition. Angry affect partially mediated the effects of both provocation- and self-focused rumination on aggression. Self-critical negative affect partially mediated the effect of self-focused rumination but not provocation-focused rumination. These findings suggest that provocation-focused rumination influences angry affect, aggressive action cognition, and cardiovascular arousal, whereas self-focused rumination increases self-critical negative affect, angry affect, and arousal cognition. These studies enhance our understanding of why two types of post-provocation rumination increase aggressive behaviour.

  18. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  19. Impulsivity and Aggression in Schizophrenia: A Neural Circuitry Perspective with Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I will discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors, but more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy. PMID:25900066

  20. Impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia: a neural circuitry perspective with implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Elevations of impulsive behavior have been observed in a number of serious mental illnesses. These phenomena can lead to harmful behaviors, including violence, and thus represent a serious public health concern. Such violence is often a reason for psychiatric hospitalization, and it often leads to prolonged hospital stays, suffering by patients and their victims, and increased stigmatization. Despite the attention paid to violence, little is understood about its neural basis in schizophrenia. On a psychological level, aggression in schizophrenia has been primarily attributed to psychotic symptoms, desires for instrumental gain, or impulsive responses to perceived personal slights. Often, multiple attributions can coexist during a single aggressive incident. In this review, I discuss the neural circuitry associated with impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, with an emphasis on implications for treatment. Impulsivity appears to account for a great deal of aggression in schizophrenia, especially in inpatient settings. Urgency, defined as impulsivity in the context of strong emotion, is the primary focus of this article. It is elevated in several psychiatric disorders, and in schizophrenia, it has been related to aggression. Many studies have implicated dysfunctional frontotemporal circuitry in impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia, and pharmacological treatments may act via that circuitry to reduce urgency and aggressive behaviors; however, more mechanistic studies are critically needed. Recent studies point toward manipulable neurobehavioral targets and suggest that cognitive, pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurofeedback treatment approaches can be developed to ameliorate urgency and aggression in schizophrenia. It is hoped that these approaches will improve treatment efficacy.

  1. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  2. Too (mentally) busy to chill: Cognitive load and inhibitory cues interact to moderate triggered displaced aggression.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Howard-Field, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Inhibitory information can be expected to reduce triggered displaced aggression by signaling the potential for negative consequences as a result of acting aggressively. We examined how cognitive load might interfere with these aggression-reducing effects of inhibitory cues. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to a condition in a 2 (cognitive load: high/low) × 2 (inhibiting cues: yes/no) between-subjects design. Following procedures in the TDA paradigm, participants received an initial provocation from the experimenter and a subsequent triggering annoyance from another individual. In the inhibitory cue condition, participants were told, before they had the opportunity to aggress, that others would learn of their aggressive responses. In the high cognitive load condition, participants rehearsed a 10-digit number while aggressing. Those in the low cognitive load condition rehearsed a three digit number. We found significant main effects of cognitive load and inhibitory cue, which were qualified by the expected load × inhibitory cue interaction. Thus, inhibitory cues reduced displaced aggression under low-cognitive load. However, when participants in the inhibitory cue condition were under cognitive load, aggression increased, suggesting that mental busyness interfered with the full use of inhibitory information. Aggr. Behav. 42:598-604, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Photoperiodic regulation of adrenal hormone secretion and aggression in female Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Gutzler, Stephanie J.; Karom, Mary; Erwin, W. Daniel; Albers, H. Elliott

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the length of the daily photoperiod induce significant changes in social behavior. Hamsters housed in winter-like short photoperiods (SP) can express significantly higher levels of aggression than hamsters housed in long photoperiods (LP) that mimic summer. The mechanisms responsible for increasing aggressiveness in SP-exposed female hamsters are not well understood but may involve seasonal changes in the endocrine system. In experiment 1, the effects of SP exposure on the circulating levels of three adrenal hormones were determined. Short photoperiod exposure was found to significantly depress the circulating levels of cortisol and the adrenal androgen dehydropiandrosterone (DHEA) but significantly increased the circulating levels of the sulfated form of DHEA, DHEAS. Experiment 2 examined the effects of gonadal hormones on several different measures of aggression including its intensity in females housed in both long and short photoperiod. Exposure to SP resulted in high levels of aggression regardless of the endocrine state of the animal or the measure used to quantify aggression. In contrast, administration of estradiol to hamsters housed in LP significantly reduced aggression. The data of the present study support the hypothesis that SP-housed females are more aggressive than LP-housed females because SP exposure renders females insensitive to the aggression-reducing effects of ovarian hormones. PMID:19716370

  4. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  5. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  6. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kaat, Aaron; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6–12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample. PMID:26504369

  7. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  8. The Age Related Prevalence of Aggression and Self-Injury in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Louise; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse statistically published data regarding the age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with intellectual disability. Studies including prevalence data for aggression and/or self-injury broken down by age band were identified and relative risk analyses conducted to generate indices of age…

  9. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  10. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-11-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  11. Multi Station Frequency Response and Polarization of ELF/VLF Signals Generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, Ashanthi; Golkowski, Mark; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    ELF/VLF wave generation via HF modulated ionospheric heating has been practiced for many years as a unique way to generate waves in the ELF/VLF band (3 Hz - 30 kHz). This paper presents experimental results and associated theoretical modeling from work performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. An experiment was designed to investigate the modulation frequency dependence of the generated ELF/VLF signal amplitudes and polarization at multiple sites at distances of 37 km, 50 km and 99 km from the facility. While no difference is observed for X mode versus O mode modulation of the heating wave, it is found that ELF/VLF amplitude and polarization as a function of modulated ELF/VLF frequency is different for each site. An ionospheric heating code is used to determine the primary current sources leading to the observations.

  12. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  14. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  15. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  16. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  17. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  18. Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression.

    PubMed

    Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed.

  19. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

  20. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Rice, Robert H; Vidrio, Edgar A; Kumfer, Benjamin M; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H; Kennedy, Ian M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-10-30

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate-buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate-buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an antioxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals.

  1. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  2. Reasons for prescribing second generation antihistamines to treat allergic rhinitis in real-life conditions and patient response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Second generation H1 antihistamines (H1A) are currently recommended as first choice medications for allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. However, little is known about what influences the choice of prescription of one second generation (H1A) as opposed to another in real-life conditions. Objective The aim of the study was to identify the main criteria determining the choice of a second generation H1A by allergy specialists in mainland France. Methods Consecutive patients suffering from allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis were included and followed prospectively for 30 days from the prescription of a second generation H1A in monotherapy. Patients were asked to fill in auto-questionnaires at baseline, daily during the first 10 days of the new treatment, and at the end of follow-up. Data on efficacy, tolerance, safety, rate and type of response to treatment, as well as patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed. Results 1,080 patients were included between March 2011 and October 2012, mostly suffering from moderate to severe rhinitis (82.0%). The most frequently cited reason for choosing a specific H1A was the expected efficacy (85.3%). The mean time to nasal and ocular recovery was 6 days and 78.2% of patients responded to treatment within this interval. The presence of conjunctivitis was significantly associated with a more rapid response. At the end of follow-up, the satisfaction rate was higher for patients who were switched from a previous treatment (87.5%), compared to those receiving their first treatment (78.8%). Conclusion and clinical relevance The main reason for choosing a specific second generation H1A was its expected efficacy. Concomitant conjunctivitis is associated with a more rapid response to treatment. Symptom recovery necessitates a mean of 6 days. PMID:24944561

  3. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  4. Aggressive and prosocial children's emotion attributions and moral reasoning.

    PubMed

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Buchmann, Marlis

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive and prosocial children's emotion attributions and moral reasoning were investigated. Participants were 235 kindergarten children (M=6.2 years) and 136 elementary-school children (M=7.6 years) who were selected as aggressive or prosocial based on (kindergarten) teacher ratings. The children were asked to evaluate hypothetical rule violations, attribute emotions they would feel in the role of the victimizer, and justify their responses. Compared with younger prosocial children, younger aggressive children attributed fewer negative emotions and were more likely to provide sanction-oriented justifications when evaluating rule violations negatively. Furthermore, age-, gender- and context-effects in moral development occurred. The context-effects included both effects of transgression type (i.e., prosocial morality vs. fairness) on emotion attributions and moral reasoning and the effects of the context of moral evaluation and emotion attribution on moral reasoning. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of emotion attributions and moral reasoning as antecedents of children's aggressive and prosocial behavior.

  5. Serotonin and the search for the anatomical substrate of aggression.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Kravitz, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    All species of animals display aggression in order to obtain resources such as territories, mates, or food. Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the correct identification of a potential competitor, an evaluation of the environmental signals, and the physiological state of the animal. With a hard-wired circuitry involving fixed numbers of neurons, neuromodulators like serotonin offer adaptive flexibility in behavioral responses without changing the "hard-wiring". In a recent report, we combined intersectional genetics, quantitative behavioral assays and morphological analyses to identify single serotonergic neurons that modulate the escalation of aggression. We found anatomical target areas within the brain where these neurons appear to form synaptic contacts with 5HT1A receptor-expressing neurons, and then confirmed the likelihood of those connections on a functional level. In this Extra View article, we offer an extended discussion of these recent findings and elaborate on how they can link a cellular and functional mapping of an aggression-regulating circuit at a single-cell resolution level.

  6. Trans-generational responses to low pH depend on parental gender in a calcifying tubeworm.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ackley; Campanati, Camilla; Dupont, Sam; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-06-03

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by oceans has started decreasing pH and carbonate ion concentrations of seawater, a process called ocean acidification (OA). Occurring over centuries and many generations, evolutionary adaptation and epigenetic transfer will change species responses to OA over time. Trans-generational responses, via genetic selection or trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, differ depending on species and exposure time as well as differences between individuals such as gender. Males and females differ in reproductive investment and egg producing females may have less energy available for OA stress responses. By crossing eggs and sperm from the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) raised in ambient (8.1) and low (7.8) pH environments, we observed that paternal and maternal low pH experience had opposite and additive effects on offspring. For example, when compared to offspring with both parents from ambient pH, growth rates of offspring of fathers or mothers raised in low pH were higher or lower respectively, but there was no difference when both parents were from low pH. Gender differences may result in different selection pressures for each gender. This may result in overestimates of species tolerance and missed opportunities of potentially insightful comparisons between individuals of the same species.

  7. Improvement of polypyrrole nanowire devices by plasmonic space charge generation: high photocurrent and wide spectral response by Ag nanoparticle decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, Jaw-Won

    In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times, by the Ag NP decoration onto the PPy NW (PPyAgNPs NW) under blue light illumination. In addition, the PPyAgNPs NW shows a photocurrent decay time twice that of PPy NW, as well as an improved spectral response of the photocurrent. The improved photocurrent efficiency, decay time, and spectral response resulted from the space charges generated by the LSPR of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the increasing exponent (m) of the photocurrent (JPC ~Vm) and finite-differential time domain (FDTD) simulation straightforwardly indicate relatively large plasmonic space charge generation. Supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (no. 2013K1A3A1A32035429 and 2015R1A1A1A05027681).

  8. Improvement of polypyrrole nanowire devices by plasmonic space charge generation: high photocurrent and wide spectral response by Ag nanoparticle decoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Bae, J; Lee, S W; Jang, J-W

    2015-11-07

    In this study, improvement of the opto-electronic properties of non-single crystallized nanowire devices with space charges generated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is demonstrated. The photocurrent and spectral response of single polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire (NW) devices are increased by electrostatically attached Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). To take advantage of plasmon-exciton coupling in the photocurrent of the device, 80 nm of Ag NPs (454 nm = λmax) were chosen for matching the maximum absorption with PPy NWs (442 nm = λmax). The photocurrent density is remarkably improved, up to 25.3 times (2530%), by the Ag NP decoration onto the PPy NW (PPyAgNPs NW) under blue light (λ = 425-475 nm) illumination. In addition, the PPyAgNPs NW shows a photocurrent decay time twice that of PPy NW, as well as an improved spectral response of the photocurrent. The improved photocurrent efficiency, decay time, and spectral response resulted from the space charges generated by the LSPR of Ag NPs. Furthermore, the increasing exponent (m) of the photocurrent (JPC ∼ V(m)) and finite-differential time domain (FDTD) simulation straightforwardly indicate relatively large plasmonic space charge generation under blue light illumination. These results prove that the performance of non-single crystallized polymer nanowire devices can also be improved by plasmonic enhancement.

  9. Trans-generational responses to low pH depend on parental gender in a calcifying tubeworm

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Ackley; Campanati, Camilla; Dupont, Sam; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-01-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by oceans has started decreasing pH and carbonate ion concentrations of seawater, a process called ocean acidification (OA). Occurring over centuries and many generations, evolutionary adaptation and epigenetic transfer will change species responses to OA over time. Trans-generational responses, via genetic selection or trans-generational phenotypic plasticity, differ depending on species and exposure time as well as differences between individuals such as gender. Males and females differ in reproductive investment and egg producing females may have less energy available for OA stress responses. By crossing eggs and sperm from the calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans (Haswell, 1883) raised in ambient (8.1) and low (7.8) pH environments, we observed that paternal and maternal low pH experience had opposite and additive effects on offspring. For example, when compared to offspring with both parents from ambient pH, growth rates of offspring of fathers or mothers raised in low pH were higher or lower respectively, but there was no difference when both parents were from low pH. Gender differences may result in different selection pressures for each gender. This may result in overestimates of species tolerance and missed opportunities of potentially insightful comparisons between individuals of the same species. PMID:26039184

  10. Visual perception of texture in aggressive behavior of Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bando, T

    1991-07-01

    In order to elucidate the role of texture in fish vision, the agonistic behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) was tested in a response to models composed by means of image processing techniques. Using the models with the contour shape of a side view of Betta splendens in an aggressive state, the responses were vigorous when there was a fine distribution of brightness and naturalistic color, producing textures like a scale pattern. Reactions became weaker as the brightness and color distribution reverted to more homogeneous levels and the scale pattern disappeared. When the artificial models with the circular contour shape were used, models with the scale pattern evoked more aggressive behaviors than those without it, while the existence of spherical gradation affected the behavior slightly. These results suggest that texture plays an important role in fish visual perception.

  11. Retrofitting genetic-economic indexes to demonstrate responses to selection across 2 generations of Holsteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three U.S. genetic-economic indexes for dairy cattle were retrofitted to demonstrate the progress that would have been made for currently evaluated traits if selection had been based on those indexes across 2 generations. Holstein bulls were categorized by quintile for each index, and 25 cow groups ...

  12. Cochlear Implant Stimulation of a Hearing Ear Generates Separate Electrophonic and Electroneural Responses

    PubMed Central

    Baumhoff, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Electroacoustic stimulation in subjects with residual hearing is becoming more widely used in clinical practice. However, little is known about the properties of electrically induced responses in the hearing cochlea. In the present study, normal-hearing guinea pig cochleae underwent cochlear implantation through a cochleostomy without significant loss of hearing. Using recordings of unit activity in the midbrain, we were able to investigate the excitation patterns throughout the tonotopic field determined by acoustic stimulation. With the cochlear implant and the midbrain multielectrode arrays left in place, the ears were pharmacologically deafened and electrical stimulation was repeated in the deafened condition. The results demonstrate that, in addition to direct neuronal (electroneuronal) stimulation, in the hearing cochlea excitation of the hair cells occurs (“electrophonic responses”) at the cochlear site corresponding to the dominant temporal frequency components of the electrical stimulus, provided these are < 12 kHz. The slope of the rate–level functions of the neurons in the deafened condition was steeper and the firing rate was higher than in the hearing condition at those sites that were activated in the two conditions. Finally, in a monopolar stimulation configuration, the differences between hearing status conditions were smaller than in the narrower (bipolar) configurations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stimulation with cochlear implants and hearing aids is becoming more widely clinically used in subjects with residual hearing. The neurophysiological characteristics underlying electroacoustic stimulation and the mechanism of its benefit remain unclear. The present study directly demonstrates that cochlear implantation does not interfere with the normal mechanical and physiological function of the cochlea. For the first time, it double-dissociates the electrical responses of hair cells (electrophonic responses) from responses of the auditory nerve

  13. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  14. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  15. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…

  17. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  18. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  19. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  20. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in