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Sample records for aggressive risk factor

  1. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  2. Ethnicity, culture, and sexual aggression: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Teten, Andra L; DeGarmo, David S; Sue, Stanley; Stephens, Kari A

    2005-10-01

    Explanatory models of sexual aggression were examined among mainland Asian American (n=222), Hawaiian Asian American (n=127), and European American men (n=399). The Malamuth et al. (N. M. Malamuth, D. Linz, C. L. Heavey, G. Barnes, & M. Acker, 1995; N. M. Malamuth, R. J. Sockloskie, M. P. Koss, & J. S. Tanaka, 1991) confluence model of sexual aggression, which posits impersonal sex and hostile masculinity as paths to sexual aggression, was consistently supported. Culture-specific moderators of sexual aggression were also identified. Whereas loss of face was a protective factor against sexual aggression in the Asian American samples, it generally was not a protective factor among European Americans. These findings are not a function of actual or perceived minority status. An implication is that theoretical models may need to be augmented with cultural constructs for optimal application in certain ethnic group contexts.

  3. Chronic and Acute Relational Risk Factors for Dating Aggression in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.

  4. Identification of Early Child and Family Risk Factors for Aggressive Victim Status in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Park, Jong-hyo; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective investigation sought to discriminate children who were both aggressive towards and victimized by peers in the first grade, from those who were only aggressive, only victimized, or neither (i.e., socially adjusted), using early child and family risk factors. Two hundred thirty-eight children, their mothers, and teachers…

  5. The Dark Side of Girlhood: Recent Trends, Risk Factors and Trajectories to Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Catchpole, Rosalind E.H.; Odgers, Candice

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Over the past two decades, rates of aggressive behavior have increased disproportionately for girls as compared to boys. However research on aggressive and violent behavior has focused primarily on boys and consequently we know relatively little about what places girls at risk, what protects them, and how those who become involved in aggressive behavior navigate a path toward adulthood. Method In this paper we review recent trends on girls’ involvement in aggressive behavior, briefly discuss risk and protective factors, and summarize current thinking on developmental trajectories. Results Although much progress has been made in the past decade, we still know relatively little about the pathways, causes and correlates of aggressive behavior in girls and young women. Discussion We emphasize the need for research that is guided by developmental theory and an appreciation of the complex interplay of risk and protective factors over the course of development. PMID:19030497

  6. Aggressive behaviors and treatable risk factors of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Yi-Dong; Xun, Guang-Lei; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Shi, Li-Juan; Xiao, Lu; Wu, Ren-Rong; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Ou, Jian-Jun

    2017-03-07

    Aggressive behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common. We conducted this study to describe the aggressive mode of preschool children with ASD and examine the associations between specific aggressive behaviors and two treatable factors: sleep problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In total, 577 typically developing (TD) children and 490 children with ASD were investigated in this study. The Institute for Basic Research - Modified Overt Aggression Scale (IBR-MOAS) was used to assess aggressive behaviors. Children's social impairments, sleep problems and ADHD symptoms were also measured with specific scales. The total IBR-MOAS score was significantly higher (worse) in the TD group [4.47 (5.36)] than in the ASD group [3.47 (5.63), P = 0.004]. The aggressive modes differed between groups: when compared with each other, the TD group received higher scores on Verbal and Physical Aggression Toward Others (all P < 0.01), while the ASD group had higher scores on Physical Aggression Against Self (P = 0.006). The linear regression model demonstrated that the aggressive behaviors of children with ASD were significantly associated with two treatable factors: sleep problems and ADHD symptoms. These findings have substantial clinical implications: treatment of these two risk factors may be helpful in managing aggressive behavior in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Time-varying Risk Factors and Sexual Aggression Perpetration among Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J.B. (Kip); Zinzow, Heidi; Swartout, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Preventing sexual aggression can be informed by determining if time-varying risk factors differentiate men who follow different sexual aggression risk trajectories. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with 795 college males surveyed at the end of each of their four years of college in 2008–2011. Repeated measures general linear models tested if changes in risk factors corresponded with sexual aggression trajectory membership. Results Changes in the risk factors corresponded with SA trajectories. Men who came to college with a history of SA but decreased their perpetration likelihood during college showed concurrent decreases in sexual compulsivity, impulsivity, hostile attitudes toward women, rape supportive beliefs, perceptions of peer approval of forced sex, and perceptions of peer pressure to have sex with many different women, and smaller increases in pornography use over their college years. Conversely, men who increased levels of SA over time demonstrated larger increases in risk factors in comparison to other trajectory groups. Conclusions The odds that males engaged in sexual aggression corresponded with changes in key risk factors. Risk factors were not static and interventions designed to alter them may lead to changes in sexual aggression risk. PMID:26592333

  8. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    PubMed

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  9. An Investigation of Relational Risk and Promotive Factors Associated with Adolescent Female Aggression.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-11-29

    Despite growing trends in adolescent female aggression, much adolescent aggression research has focused on males to the exclusion of their female counterparts. Using relational-cultural and social role theories, the current study identifies the risk and promotive factors associated with adolescent female aggression. Using data from the Rural Adaptation Project (a 5 year longitudinal panel study of youth from two rural, ethnically diverse, low income counties in North Carolina), a 2-level hierarchical linear model was estimated (N = 3580). Internalizing symptoms, association with delinquent friends, peer pressure, and parent-child conflict emerged as risk factors whereas teacher support was a significant promotive factor. Results suggest that interventions should focus on negative relationships in both the parent and peer domains and underscore the need for mental health services for aggressive girls.

  10. Ethnicity, Culture, and Sexual Aggression: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Teten, Andra L.; DeGarmo, David S.; Sue, Stanley; Stephens, Kari A.

    2005-01-01

    Explanatory models of sexual aggression were examined among mainland Asian American (n = 222), Hawaiian Asian American (n = 127), and European American men (n = 399). The Malamuth et al. (N. M. Malamuth, D. Linz, C. L. Heavey, G. Barnes, & M. Acker, 1995; N. M. Malamuth, R. J. Sockloskie, M. P. Koss, & J. S. Tanaka, 1991) confluence model…

  11. Gender and Military Contextual Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Loneliness and aggressive behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 243–252. Chief of Naval Operations. (2006, December 29). Office of...A. W., & Russell , M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171, 627–631

  12. Risk Factor Models for Adolescent Verbal and Physical Aggression toward Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Linda S.; Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel; Zoccolillo, Mark; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Contributing to the family violence and conflict literature, we examine prospective and concurrent risk factors associated with verbal and physical aggression toward mothers by 15/16 year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children is used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors,…

  13. Acculturation and aggression in Latino adolescents: a structural model focusing on cultural risk factors and assets.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L

    2006-10-01

    The specific aim of this investigation was to map cultural factors associated with aggressive behavior in Latino adolescents. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 481 foreign- and U.S.-born Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona. Structural Equation Modeling was used to validate a conceptual model linking adolescent and parent culture-of-origin and U.S. cultural involvement, acculturation conflicts, and perceived discrimination to family processes (familism and parent-adolescent conflict) and adolescent aggression. Parent-adolescent conflict was the strongest cultural risk factor followed by perceived discrimination. Familism and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement were key cultural assets associated with less aggressive behavior. Exploratory mediation analyses suggested that familism and parent-adolescent conflict mediated the effects of acculturation conflicts, parent and adolescent culture-of-origin involvement, and parent U.S. cultural involvement on adolescent aggression. Implications for prevention programming were discussed.

  14. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains.

  15. Risk factors for aggressive recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in adults and juveniles.

    PubMed

    Omland, Turid; Akre, Harriet; Lie, Kathrine A; Jebsen, Peter; Sandvik, Leiv; Brøndbo, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    In this cohort study we examined whether gender, age at onset, observation time or human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype are risk factors for an aggressive clinical course in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP). Clinical data from patient records comprised gender, age at onset, date of first endolaryngeal procedure with biopsy, date of last follow-up, total number of endolaryngeal procedures, and complications during the observation period. Disease was defined as juvenile (JoRRP) or adult onset (AoRRP) according to whether the disease was acquired before or after the age of 18. Aggressive disease was defined as distal spread, tracheostomy, four surgical operations annually or >10 surgeries in total. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. HPV genotyping was performed by quantitative PCR assay identifying 15 HPV genotypes. The study included 224 patients. The majority were males (141/174 in AoRRPs and 31/50 in JoRRPs; p = 0.005). The median follow-up from initial diagnosis was 12.0 years (IQR 3.7-32.9) for JoRRPs and 4.0 years (IQR 0.8-11.7) for AoRRPs. The disease was more aggressive in juveniles than adults (p<0.001), a difference that disappeared after 10 years' observation. JoRRPs with aggressive disease were younger at onset (mean difference 4.6 years, 95%CI [2.4, 6.8], p = 0.009). HPV6 or -11 was present in all HPV-positive papillomas. HPV11 was more prevalent in aggressive disease, and HPV6 in non-aggressive disease (p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that only age at onset (OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.53, 0.88], p = 0.003) was associated with aggressive disease in juveniles, while HPV11 (OR = 3.74, 95% CI [1.40, 9.97], p = 0.008) and observation time >10 years (OR = 13.41, 95% CI [5.46, 32.99[, p<001) were risk factors in adults. In conclusion, the only significant risk factor for developing aggressive disease in JoRRPs was age at onset, but both HPV11 and observation time >10 years were risk factors for an aggressive

  16. Perinatal Factors, Parenting Behavior, and Reactive Aggression: Does Cortisol Reactivity Mediate This Developmental Risk Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stacy R.; Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this…

  17. Callous-unemotional traits and social information processing: multiple risk-factor models for understanding aggressive behavior in antisocial youth.

    PubMed

    Stickle, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Neil M; Brush, Lauren N

    2009-12-01

    This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research, results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted for unique variance in aggression above and beyond effects of more established risk factors of early onset of antisocial behavior, social information processing, and impulsivity. These findings add to recent research showing that callous-unemotional traits are a unique risk factor associated with aggression and criminal offending and suggest that targeting both affective and cognitive vulnerabilities may enhance clinical intervention with antisocial youth.

  18. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  19. Perinatal factors, parenting behavior, and reactive aggression: does cortisol reactivity mediate this developmental risk process?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stacy R; Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this developmental risk process. In a community sample of 99 elementary school-aged children, prenatal risk was measured by a count of minor physical anomalies (MPAs), reactive aggression was measured by laboratory observations of aggression in response to provocation, and general aggression was measured by parent report. Cortisol reactivity was not found to mediate the association between MPAs and reactive aggression or general aggression. However, MPAs were found to interact with parenting behaviors to predict reactive aggression and general aggression, as well as cortisol reactivity. Specifically, as the deficits in parenting increased, MPAs became more strongly and positively associated with reactive aggressive and general aggressive outcomes. Similarly, in cases of poor parenting behaviors, MPAs were positively associated with higher cortisol reactivity. Implications for theory and prevention are discussed.

  20. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated with mental, substance use, and personality disorders. The scheme may be distinguished from other violence risk instruments because of its inclusion of 20 dynamic factors that are rated in terms of both vulnerability and strength. This study examined the reliability and validity of START assessments in predicting inpatient aggression. Research assistants completed START assessments for 120 male forensic psychiatric patients through review of hospital files. They additionally completed Historical-Clinical-Risk Management – 20 (HCR-20) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) assessments. Outcome data was coded from hospital files for a 12-month follow-up period using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). START assessments evidenced excellent interrater reliability and demonstrated both predictive and incremental validity over the HCR-20 Historical subscale scores and PCL:SV total scores. Overall, results support the reliability and validity of START assessments, and use of the structured professional judgment approach more broadly, as well as the value of using dynamic risk and protective factors to assess violence risk. PMID:22250595

  1. Do the same risk and protective factors influence aggression toward partners and same-sex others?

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Archer, John; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA. Study 2 (N = 395) investigated self-control, anxiety and empathy, finding that self-control strongly predicted both types of aggression in both sexes. Study 3 (N = 364) found that primary psychopathy (involving lack of anxiety) was associated with IPV for men and SSA in both sexes, whereas secondary psychopathy (involving lack of self-control) was associated with IPV and SSA in both sexes. Overall there were both similarities and differences in the risk factors associated with IPV and SSA, and for men and women. The implications of the findings for theoretical debates about the study of IPV are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:163-175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A comparison of risk factors for alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved sexual aggression perpetration.

    PubMed

    Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie

    2015-05-01

    Much research has found that alcohol use is associated with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration among male college students. To increase understanding of this association, the present study examined whether other established risk factors for SA perpetration in this population were associated differentially with incidents that were preceded by alcohol use and incidents that were not preceded by alcohol use. The sample included 638 male college students who completed self-report measures of seven risk factors and SA perpetration during their first and second years of enrollment at a large, public university in the southeastern United States. A multivariate, multinomial logistic regression model revealed none of the seven factors increased risk for both alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved SA perpetration. The model did identify binge drinking as a risk factor for alcohol-involved SA perpetration and impulsivity, rape myth attitudes, and hostility toward women as risk factors for alcohol-uninvolved perpetration. If these results can be replicated, then they would suggest that different risk factors should be targeted to optimize the effect of preventive interventions on the occurrence of the two types of SA perpetration.

  3. Fregoli Syndrome: An Underrecognized Risk Factor for Aggression in Treatment Settings

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Nauman; Antonius, Daniel; Sinkman, Arthur; Kleinhaus, Karine; Malaspina, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Fregoli syndrome (FS) is commonly associated with verbal threats and aggressive behavior. We present a case of Fregoli syndrome leading to an assault. We discuss the possible underdiagnosis of FS, associated risk for aggression, and strategies to reduce that risk. PMID:22937404

  4. Linking Social--Environmental Risk Factors with Aggression in Suburban Adolescents: The Role of Social--Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…

  5. Family and Cognitive Factors: Modeling Risk for Aggression in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Trampush, Joey; McKay, Kathleen E.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships of family and cognitive factors to aggression as reported by parents and teachers. Method: Data regarding different types of aggressive behavior were collected from parents and teachers of 165 school-age (7-11 years old) children referred to a study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive…

  6. Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables.

    PubMed

    Smith, Craig E; Fischer, Kurt W; Watson, Malcolm W

    2009-01-01

    Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.

  7. Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J

    2013-02-02

    Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (<15 per cent), suggesting that unmeasured factors mostly accounted for differences between groups. These results suggest general characteristics of dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors.

  8. Risk Factors for Self-Injury, Aggression, and Stereotyped Behavior Among Young Children At Risk for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Marquis, Janet G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; LeBlanc, Judith; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Johnson, Tiffany; Lawrence, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Before the 1990s, research on the early identification and prevention of severe behavior disorders (SBDs), such as aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior, among young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), was mostly done with children 3 years or older. More recent work suggests that signs of SBDs may occur as early as 6 months in some infants. The present study combined a cross-sectional and longitudinal approach to examine SBDs in 180 young children aged 4–48 months recruited through mass screening, then receiving an interdisciplinary evaluation and six-month follow-ups for one year. Twelve potential risk factors related to SBDs were examined. Eight of these risk factors, including age, gender, diagnosis, intellectual and communication levels, visual impairment, parent education, family income, were differentially related to scores for Aggression, SIB, and Stereotyped Behavior subscales on the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) at initial interdisciplinary evaluation. BPI-01 scores decreased over the year for 57% of the children and increased for 43%. The amount of decrease on each BPI-01 subscale varied with age, gender, and diagnosis. PMID:25007299

  9. Identifying component-processes of executive functioning that serve as risk factors for the alcohol-aggression relation.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Godlaski, Aaron J; Roth, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    The present investigation determined how different component-processes of executive functioning (EF) served as risk factors for intoxicated aggression. Participants were 512 (246 males and 266 females) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) that assesses nine EF components. After the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities and durations administered to the opponent. Although a general BRIEF-A EF construct consisting of all nine components predicted intoxicated aggression, the best predictor involved one termed the Behavioral Regulation Index that comprises component processes such as inhibition, emotional control, flexible thinking, and self-monitoring.

  10. Environmental factors and risk of aggressive prostate cancer among a population of New Zealand men - a genotypic approach.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Venkatesh; Naidu, Vijay; Kao, Chi Hsiu-Juei; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Bishop, Karen S; Wang, Alice; Pallati, Radha; Shepherd, Phillip; Masters, Jonathan; Zhu, Shuotun; Goudie, Megan; Krishnan, Mohanraj; Jabed, Anower; Marlow, Gareth; Narayanan, Ajit; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-03-28

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant health concerns for men worldwide. Numerous researchers carrying out molecular diagnostics have indicated that genetic interactions with biological and behavioral factors play an important role in the overall risk and prognosis of this disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly becoming strong biomarker candidates to identify susceptibility to prostate cancer. We carried out a gene × environment interaction analysis linked to aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) with a number of SNPs. By using this method, we identified the susceptible alleles in a New Zealand population, and examined the interaction with environmental factors. We have identified a number of SNPs that have risk associations both with and without environmental interaction. The results indicate that certain SNPs are associated with disease vulnerability based on behavioral factors. The list of genes with SNPs identified as being associated with the risk of PCa in a New Zealand population is provided in the graphical abstract.

  11. Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L

    2014-01-01

    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.

  12. Normative Beliefs and Self-Efficacy for Nonviolence as Moderators of Peer, School, and Parental Risk Factors for Aggression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four…

  13. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  14. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Lund, Jørgen Damkjaer

    2003-04-30

    The prevalence of behaviour problems is reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC). In total, 4359 dog owners were included in the analyses. With logistic regression, we analysed four behaviour problems: dominance towards the owner, interdog dominance aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had increased odds of interdog dominance aggression as compared to dogs living in other parts of Denmark. Dogs belonging to owners with limited knowledge of the breed before acquiring the dog had higher odds of interdog dominance aggression. Dogs attending obedience training classes had reduced odds of shooting phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems.

  15. Risk and protective factors for sexual aggression and dating violence: common themes and future directions.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Martie P

    2014-10-01

    The primary aims of this article are to expand on three themes from the conference articles on risk and protective factors for dating and sexual violence and to offer suggestions that can guide future research. The first theme is the co-occurrence of sexual and dating violence with other forms of violence and other campus health issues. A second topic is the value of prospective studies in revealing temporal patterns of victimization and perpetration. A third theme is the role of peer norms in violence among college students. Suggestions for translating these ideas into research and action are discussed and include the need for comprehensive prevention approaches, more longitudinal research spanning the years before, during, and after college, and the application of social media technology in our interventions strategies.

  16. Using Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Inpatient Aggression: Reliability and Validity of START Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Wilson, Catherine M.; Brink, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & S. L. Desmarais, 2009; C. D. Webster, M. L. Martin, J. Brink, T. L. Nicholls, & C. Middleton, 2004) is a relatively new structured professional judgment guide for the assessment and management of short-term risks associated…

  17. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Roche, Jessica S; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-09-01

    Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14-20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions.

  18. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression. PMID:24701010

  19. Risk Factors for Self-Injury, Aggression, and Stereotyped Behavior among Young Children at Risk for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Marquis, Janet G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; LeBlanc, Judith; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Johnson, Tiffany; Lawrence, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Before the 1990s, research on the early identification and prevention of severe behavior disorders (SBDs), such as aggression, self-injury, and stereotyped behavior, among young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), was mostly done with children 3 years or older. More recent work suggests that signs of SBDs may occur as…

  20. Technology-Delivered Dating Aggression: Risk and Promotive Factors and Patterns of Associations Across Violence Types Among High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Jessica S.; Walton, Maureen A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasingly, technology (text, e-mail, and social media) is being used in dating relationships to stalk, control, threaten, and harass dating partners. This study examines risk and promotive factors associated with technology-delivered dating aggression (TDA) and relations between types of violence (physical dating/nondating, community violence, and TDA). Participants (14–20 years old) self-administered a computerized survey as part of a larger study at an urban emergency department. The study includes 210 youth who reported having a dating partner in the past 2 months. About 48.1% of participants reported TDA in the past 2 months. Mindfulness was negatively associated with TDA. Youth reporting TDA were more likely to report physical dating violence and community violence exposure. TDA is not an isolated occurrence and is positively associated with in-person violence among adolescents. Associations between TDA, risk and promotive factors, and other forms of violence can help identify avenues for targeting interventions. PMID:27626036

  1. Verbal Aggression from Care Recipients as a Risk Factor among Nursing Staff: A Study on Burnout in the JD-R Model Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Viotti, Sara; Gilardi, Silvia; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Converso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Among nursing staff, the risk of experiencing violence, especially verbal aggression, is particularly relevant. The present study, developed in the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), has two main aims: (a) to examine the association between verbal aggression and job burnout in both nurses and nurse's aides and (b) to assess whether job content, social resources, and organizational resources lessen the negative impact of verbal aggression on burnout in the two professional groups. The cross-sectional study uses a dataset that consists of 630 workers (522 nurses and 108 nurse's aides) employed in emergency and medical units. High associations were found between verbal aggression and job burnout in both professional groups. Moderated hierarchical regressions showed that, among nurses, only the job content level resources moderated the effects of the verbal aggression on job burnout. Among nurse's aides, the opposite was found. Some resources on the social and organizational levels but none of the job content level resources buffered the effects of verbal aggression on workers burnout. The study highlights the crucial role of different types of resources in protecting nursing staff from the detrimental effects of verbal aggression on job burnout. PMID:26568956

  2. A Positive View of Peer Acceptance in Aggressive Youth: Risk for Future Peer Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Prasad-Gaur, Archna

    2001-01-01

    Uses longitudinal data to determine whether a positive view of perceived peer acceptance is a risk factor for continued aggression and social rejection for aggressive children. Results indicate that perceived peer acceptance did not predict aggression. However, children who reported higher levels of perceived peer acceptance received lower actual…

  3. School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the fast track prevention program.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1-4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7-10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes.

  4. Family and social environmental factors associated with aggression among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen

    2015-09-01

    Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school.

  5. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  6. Latent profiles of risk among a community sample of men: Implications for sexual aggression

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Davis, Kelly Cue

    2011-01-01

    Of the proposed theoretical explanations for the perpetration of sexual assault, Malamuth’s (1991) confluence theory remains one of the most widely tested. Further development of this theory has incorporated alcohol use into the original pathways of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity. This study uses data from a nationwide online survey (n = 289) to examine the relationship of these three risk factors to sexual aggression using person-oriented methods, specifically Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). Four statistically significant risk profiles were identified: Low Risk, Moderate Impersonal Sex, High Hostile Masculinity, and High on all Risk. All groups with elevated risk factors reported increased levels of sexual aggression. The High Hostile Masculinity and High on all Risk groups reported the highest levels of sexual aggression on all subscales. Implications for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:20587458

  7. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos.

    PubMed

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  8. Relationship separation for young, at-risk couples: prediction from dyadic aggression.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Owen, Lee D

    2006-12-01

    Dyadic physical aggression in the relationships of 158 young, at-risk couples was examined as a predictor of relationship separation over the course of 6 years. A high prevalence of physical aggression and a high rate of separation were found, with 80% of couples engaging in physical aggression (as reported by either partner or as observed) and 62% separating over time. As predicted, physical aggression significantly increased the likelihood of relationship dissolution, even after accounting for psychological aggression, prior relationship satisfaction, and relationship contextual factors (length of relationship, relationship type, and children in the household). Of the contextual factors, relationship type was predictive of relationship dissolution: Married couples were least likely to dissolve their relationships compared with cohabiting and dating couples.

  9. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  10. Factor structures for aggression and victimization among women who used aggression against male partners.

    PubMed

    Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Van Horn, M Lee; Snow, David L; Sullivan, Tami P

    2012-09-01

    Theories and measures of women's aggression in intimate relationships are only beginning to be developed. This study provides a first step in conceptualizing the measurement of women's aggression by examining how well three widely used measures (i.e., the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), the Sexual Experiences Survey [SES], and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory [PMWI]) perform in assessing women's perpetration of and victimization by aggression in their intimate relationships with men. These constructs were examined in a diverse sample of 412 African American, Latina, and White women who had all recently used physical aggression against a male intimate partner. The factor structures and psychometric properties of perpetration and victimization models using these measures were compared. Results indicate that the factor structure of women's perpetration differs from that of women's victimization in theoretically meaningful ways. In the victimization model, all factors performed well in contributing to the measurement of the latent victimization construct. In contrast, the perpetration model performed well in assessing women's physical and psychological aggression but performed poorly in assessing women's sexual aggression, coercive control, and jealous monitoring. Findings suggest that the power and control model of intimate partner violence (IPV) may apply well to women's victimization but not as well to their perpetration of violence.

  11. The Factor Structure of the Aggression Questionnaire With Violent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Cathrine; Nunes, Kevin L; Cortoni, Franca

    2017-02-01

    The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) is a self-report measure of aggressiveness commonly employed in nonforensic and forensic settings and is included in violent offender pre- and posttreatment assessment batteries. The aim of the current study was to assess the fit of the four-factor model of the AQ with violent offenders ( N = 271), a population for which the factor structure of the English version of the AQ has not previously been examined. Confirmatory factor analyses did not yield support for the four-factor model of the original 29-item AQ. Acceptable fit was obtained with the 12-item short form, but careful examination of the relationships between the latent factors revealed that the four subscales of the AQ may not represent distinct aspects of aggressiveness. Our findings call into question whether the AQ optimally measures trait aggressiveness among violent offenders.

  12. An examination of the relationship between personality and aggression using the general aggression and five factor models.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Julia; Gilbert, Flora; Simpson, Katrina; Daffern, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between personality and aggression using the general aggression (GAM, Anderson and Bushman [2002] Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51) and five factor models (FFMs) (Costa and McCrae [1992] Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources). Specifically, it examined Ferguson and Dyck's (Ferguson and Dyck [2012] Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228) criticisms that the GAM has questionable validity in clinical populations and disproportionately focuses on aggression-related knowledge structures to the detriment of other inputs, specifically personality variables. Fifty-five male offenders attending a community forensic mental health service for pre-sentence psychiatric and/or psychological evaluation were assessed for aggressive script rehearsal, aggression-supportive normative beliefs, FFM personality traits, trait anger and past aggressive behavior. With regard to relationships between five factor variables and aggression, results suggested that only agreeableness and conscientiousness were related to aggression. However, these relationships were: (1) weak in comparison with those between script rehearsal, normative beliefs and trait anger with aggression and (2) were not significant predictors in hierarchical regression analysis when all of the significant univariate predictors, including GAM-specified variables were regressed onto life history of aggression; normative beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and trait anger were significantly related to aggression in this regression analysis. These results provide further support for the application of the GAM to aggressive populations.

  13. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  14. Callous-Unemotional Features, Behavioral Inhibition, and Parenting: Independent Predictors of Aggression in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Frick, Paul J.; Boris, Neil W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Cornell, Amy H.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A behaviorally-uninhibited temperament, callous-unemotional (CU) features, and harsh parenting have been associated with specific patterns of aggressive behavior in older children and adolescents. We tested the additive and interactive effects of these factors in predicting different types of aggressive behavior in a high-risk preschool sample.…

  15. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards: Effect of the Use of a Structured Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Almvik, Roger; Bue Bjorner, Jakob

    2016-12-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated whether the routine use of the BVC could reduce the frequency of patient aggression. We conducted a study with a semi-random regression discontinuity design in 15 psychiatric wards. Baseline aggression risk was assessed using the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS) over three months. The BVC was implemented in seven intervention wards, and the risk of aggressive incidents over three months of follow-up was compared with the risk in eight control wards. The analysis was conducted at the ward level because each ward was allocated to the intervention and control groups. At baseline, the risk of aggression varied between wards, from one aggressive incident per patient per 1,000 shifts to 147 aggressive incidents per patient per 1,000 shifts. The regression discontinuity analysis found a 45% reduction in the risk of aggression (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-1.43). The study did not find a significant reduction in the risk of aggression after implementing a systematic short-term risk assessment with the BVC. Although our findings suggest that use of the BVC may reduce the risk of aggression, the results need to be confirmed in studies with more statistical power.

  16. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Kaat, Aaron; Farmer, Cristan; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.

  17. Factor Validity of a Proactive and Reactive Aggression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kaat, Aaron; Gadow, Kenneth; Findling, Robert L.; Bukstein, Oscar; Arnold, L. Eugene; Bangalore, Srihari; McNamara, Nora; Aman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6–12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample. PMID:26504369

  18. Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research reporting prevalence rates of self-injurious and aggressive behaviour in people with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is limited. No studies have compared rates of these behaviours in TSC with those in other syndrome groups matched for degree of disability or investigated risk markers for these behaviours in TSC. Methods Data from the Challenging Behaviour Questionnaire were collected for 37 children, aged 4 to 15 years, with TSC. Odds ratios were used to compare rates of self-injury and aggression in children with TSC with children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Down syndromes. Characteristics were measured using the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Activity Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire, the Wessex Behaviour Schedule and the revised Non-communicating Children Pain Checklist. Mann-Whitney U analyses were used to compare characteristics between individuals with self-injury and aggression and those not showing these behaviours. Results Rates of self-injury and aggression in TSC were 27% and 50%, respectively. These are high but not significantly different from rates in children with Down syndrome or other syndrome groups. Both self-injury and aggression were associated with stereotyped and pain-related behaviours, low mood, hyperactivity, impulsivity and repetitive use of language. Children who engaged in self-injury also had lower levels of interest and pleasure and showed a greater degree of ‘insistence on sameness’ than children who did not self-injure. Aggression was associated with repetitive behaviour. The majority of these associations remained significant when the association with level of adaptive functioning was controlled for. Conclusions Behavioural profiles can be used to identify those most at risk of developing self-injury and aggression. Further research is warranted to understand the influence of

  19. Risk of Total and Aggressive Prostate Cancer and Pesticide Use in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; DellaValle, Curt T.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lynch, Charles F.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Because pesticides may operate through different mechanisms, the authors studied the risk of prostate cancer associated with specific pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study (1993–2007). With 1,962 incident cases, including 919 aggressive prostate cancers among 54,412 applicators, this is the largest study to date. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using Poisson regression to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prostate cancer incidence. Three organophosphate insecticides were significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer: fonofos (rate ratio (RR) for the highest quartile of exposure (Q4) vs. nonexposed = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.17; Ptrend < 0.001); malathion (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88; Ptrend = 0.04); and terbufos (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.64; Ptrend = 0.03). The organochlorine insecticide aldrin was also associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.18; Ptrend = 0.02). This analysis has overcome several limitations of previous studies with the inclusion of a large number of cases with relevant exposure and detailed information on use of specific pesticides at 2 points in time. Furthermore, this is the first time specific pesticides are implicated as risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:23171882

  20. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  1. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  2. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  3. Assessing the risk of imminent aggression in institutionalized youth offenders using the dynamic appraisal of situational aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Hoo, Eric; Daffern, Michael; Tan, Jolie

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior in incarcerated youth presents a significant problem for staff, co-residents and the functioning of the institution. This study aimed to examine the predictive validity of an empirically validated measure, designed to appraise the risk of imminent aggression within institutionalized adult psychiatric patients (Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression; DASA), in adolescent male and female offenders. The supervising staff members on the residential units rated the DASA daily for 49 youth (29 males and 20 females) over two months. The results showed that DASA total scores significantly predicted institutional aggression in the following 24 and 48 hrs; however, the predictive validity of the DASA for institutional aggression was, at best, modest. Further analyses on male and female subsamples revealed that the DASA total scores only predicted imminent institutional aggression in the male subsample. Item analyses showed that negative attitudes, anger when requests are denied, and unwillingness to follow instructions predicted institutional aggression more strongly as compared with other behavioral manifestations of an irritable and unstable mental state as assessed by the DASA. PMID:25999797

  4. Distal and proximal factors associated with aggression towards partners and non-partners among patients in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M; Walton, Maureen A; Sanborn, Michelle; Kraus, Shane; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca; Chermack, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment.

  5. Reciprocating Risks of Peer Problems and Aggression for Children's Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Chisholm, Courtney A.

    2014-01-01

    Three complementary models of how peer relationship problems (exclusion and victimization) and aggressive behaviors relate to prospective levels of internalizing problems are examined. The additive risks model proposes that peer problems and aggression cumulatively increase risks for internalizing problems. The reciprocal risks model hypothesizes…

  6. Aggressive, Delinquent, and Violent Outcomes of School Bullying: Do Family and Individual Factors Have a Protective Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bender, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Bullying perpetration at school is a long-term predictor of aggression, delinquency, and violence. Most research concentrates on risk factors for such developments, whereas protective factors have been rarely addressed. Therefore, the present study investigates potentially protective effects of family and child characteristics in a prospective…

  7. Road Rage: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkin, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents of angry and aggressive driving, often referred to as "road rage," are becoming more and more commonplace in everyday driving. Many people might benefit from counseling interventions to help manage driving anger and aggression. This article provides a review of research on road rage risk factors, a description of inventories for…

  8. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence. PMID:19636754

  9. The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression.

    PubMed

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-03-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence.

  10. Too Calloused to Care: An Experimental Examination of Factors Influencing Youths' Displaced Aggression against Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Telch, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    People often displace their aggression against innocent targets. Notwithstanding the merits of previous research on displaced aggression, critical gaps remain. First, it is unclear whether and how situational and dispositional factors interact to influence displaced aggression. Moreover, it is unclear whether engaging in direct aggression…

  11. Aggression and risk of future violence in forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellström, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-05-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery 'The Pigeon'. The patients filled in the Aggression Questionnaire, and trained assessors performed the risk assessments using HCR-20 version 2. Patients with dyslexia self-reported more aggressive behaviour compared with those without dyslexia. There was only a nearly significant tendency (p = 0.06) for the patients with dyslexia to receive higher scores in the HCR-20 compared with the patients without dyslexia, and phonological processing skills did not significantly predict aggression or risk of future violence. However, regression analyses demonstrated that poor phonological processing skills are a significant predictor of anger, which in turn significantly predicts risk of future violence.

  12. Appetitive Aggression as a Resilience Factor against Trauma Disorders: Appetitive Aggression and PTSD in German World War II Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Roland; Huth, Sina; Knecht, Jasmin; Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. Methods and Findings To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8). War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS). Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = − .31, p = .014). The effect size and power were sufficient (f2 = 0.51, (1-β) = .99). The same was true for current PTSD (β = − .27, p = .030). Conclusions Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans. PMID:23251398

  13. The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Relations between Psychopathy Factors and Impulsive and Premeditated Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Long, Katherine; Felton, Julia W.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Given the high rates of aggressive behavior among highly psychopathic individuals, much research has sought to clarify the nature of the relation between psychopathy and aggression. The present study examined relations between Fearless Dominance (PPI FD), Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI SCI), and Coldheartedness (PPI CH) Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) and aggression dimensions (premeditated and impulsive aggression) in a sample of substance users receiving inpatient treatment. At the univariate level, PPI FD traits were significantly and positively related to premeditated aggression, but were not significantly related to impulsive aggression. PPI SCI traits were positively related to both forms of aggression, whereas PPI CH was not significantly related to either aggression dimension. Emotion regulation difficulties, as measured by the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004), were negatively related to PPI FD traits, positively related to PPI SCI traits, and negatively related to PPI CH traits. Both PPI SCI and PPI FD traits exerted significant indirect effects on impulsive aggression through the DERS. In contrast, the DERS did not mediate the relations between psychopathic traits and premeditated aggression. Results provide a more nuanced understanding of the psychopathy-aggression relations and suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may be an important mediator of the relations between psychopathy factors and impulsive aggression. PMID:25198433

  14. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E

    2012-08-01

    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  15. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients…

  16. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  17. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  18. Aggression and attitudes to time and risk in weapon-using violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Iain R; Moore, Simon C; Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2010-08-15

    The use of weapons in violence increases both the severity of harm to victims and the severity of legal consequences for offenders, but little is known of the characteristics of violent offenders who choose to use weapons. Levels of anger, attitude to risk, time discounting, and antisocial history among a sample of weapon-using violent offenders (n=15) were compared to violent offenders who had not used a weapon (n=10) and nonviolent offenders (n=15). Results showed that weapon-using violent offenders displayed greater trait aggression and were more risk seeking than other offender types. In addition, weapon-using violent offenders were first convicted at an earlier age and truanted from school more frequently compared to other offender types. The results indicate that weapon users are more aggressive and more risk taking, but no more present focused than other violent and nonviolent offenders. Further research into the cognitive and social factors that influence weapon use is required if this dangerous behavior is to be reduced.

  19. Acculturative Dissonance and Risks for Proactive and Reactive Aggression Among Latino/a Adolescents: Implications for Culturally Relevant Prevention and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williford, Anne; Fite, Paula J; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Frazer, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    There is a dearth of studies concerning the functions of aggression among Latino/a youth despite the fact they are one of the fastest growing youth populations in the United States. We examined individual, peer, cultural, and community level indicators of reactive and proactive aggression and determined whether these relationships were moderated by acculturative dissonance (e.g., culturally specific family conflicts arising from the acculturation process) among a sample of Latino/a adolescents who were predominantly of Mexican heritage. Consistent with prior evidence, results revealed that peer delinquency was uniquely associated with proactive aggression, whereas impulsivity was uniquely associated with reactive aggression. Further, acculturative dissonance was uniquely associated with proactive but not reactive aggression. No moderating effects for acculturative dissonance were found, indicating that the significant risk factors in our study were associated with proactive and reactive aggression regardless of the level of acculturative dissonance experienced. Notably, acculturative dissonance was a unique risk factor for proactive aggression and thus may be an important target for prevention and interventions among Latino/a youth. Consequently, interventions designed to prevent culturally specific family conflicts and promote family functioning may be particularly useful in mitigating the risk of aggression intended to achieve social and material awards among in this population.

  20. Motivational and situational factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Morrissey, Mark D; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2010-05-01

    Men engage in aggression at a cost to extrinsic reward, and this behaviour is associated with a rise in testosterone. To characterize the factors underlying aggression, men were assigned to one of the four experimental conditions of a computer game in which they were provoked (points were stolen from them or not) and/or received reward for aggression (received points for aggression or not). Men who were provoked but did not receive reward for aggression enjoyed the task the most, demonstrated an increase in salivary testosterone, and were more likely to choose a competitive versus non-competitive task than men in the other experimental conditions. Moreover, individual differences in aggressive behaviour among these men were positively correlated with the extent to which they enjoyed the task and with testosterone fluctuations. These results indicate that costly aggressive behaviour is intrinsically rewarding, perhaps to regulate future interactions, and that testosterone may be a physiological marker of such reward value.

  1. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  2. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  3. Factors Associated with Marital Aggression in Male Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher M.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    The stereotype of the "drunken bum" wife abuser has a long history in American culture. U.S. population surveys document a positive correlation between alcohol consumption levels and marital violence. In this study risk factors for marital violence among treatment seeking male alcoholics were examined. Subjects were couples (N=107) who had a newly…

  4. Aggression and the Risk for Suicidal Behaviors among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…

  5. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and risk of aggressive breast cancer in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-07-01

    Although breast cancer incidence in the US is highest for women of European ancestry (EA), women of African ancestry (AA) have higher incidence of cancer diagnosed before age 40 and tumors with more aggressive features (high grade and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)), which precludes targeted therapies and leads to poorer outcomes. It is unclear what underlies these disparities. It has been hypothesized that dark skin with high melanin content is the ancestral skin color of origin, with adaptation to northern environs resulting in lighter skin. Although intense sunlight in sub-Saharan Africa may compensate for low sun absorption through skin, an urban or western lifestyle may result in less synthesis of vitamin D with higher skin pigmentation. Laboratory and preclinical data indicate that vitamin D is involved in preventing breast carcinogenesis and progression. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knock-out mice are more likely to develop tumors that are ER-negative, and we have shown that serum levels of 25OHD are lowest among EA women with triple-negative tumors (negative for ER, PR and HER2); and among non-cancer patients, vitamin D levels are lower in AAs than in EAs. Thus, it is plausible to hypothesize that low vitamin D levels could be associated with the higher prevalence of more aggressive tumors among AA women. In this paper, we review the current literature on vitamin D and aggressive breast cancer subtypes, discuss vitamin D in AA women from a perspective of evolution and adaption, and examine the potential role of vitamin D in cancer racial disparities. We present our recently published data showing two single nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D catabolic enzyme CYP24A1 associated with higher risk of estrogen ER-negative risk in AA than in EA women. The relationship of vitamin D with breast cancer risk may be subtype-specific, with emerging evidence of stronger effects of vitamin

  6. The risk of CNS involvement in aggressive lymphomas in the rituximab era.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, Giulia; Chiappella, Annalisa; Vitolo, Umberto

    2013-12-01

    The risk of CNS dissemination and CNS prophylaxis strategies in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is still debated. CNS dissemination is a rare but fatal event. A CNS prophylaxis is common for Burkitt and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma; however, in other NHLs, prophylactic treatments are not systematically warranted. Current risk models showed low sensitivity in predicting CNS involvement, implying overtreatment in roughly 70% of high-risk patients. Risk models in the rituximab era were modulated for the detection of occult CNS disease at diagnosis using flow cytometry. The optimal regimen for CNS prophylaxis in aggressive lymphoma patients has not been established thus far and should be modulated at different levels of 'intensity' such as standard intrathecal chemotherapy, 'active' intrathecal chemotherapy with liposomal cytarabine or more aggressive systemic treatment with high doses of drugs having good CNS bioavailability reserved for patients who are truly at high risk of CNS dissemination.

  7. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  8. Aggression, hostility, and irritability in children at risk for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Farchione, Tiffany R; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Ehmann, Mary; Iyengar, Satish; Kupfer, David; Brent, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess aggression, irritability and hostility in children at risk for bipolar disorder (BP). Methods Using the parent and the child versions of the Children’s Hostility Inventory (CHI), we assessed aggression, hostility, and irritability in 300 offspring aged 6–18 years old of BP parents and 169 children of community controls. Results Children of BP parents have significantly higher scores on the total CHI and its subscales than do children of control parents. After adjusting for demographic variables, both parents’ non-BP psychopathology, child psychopathology, and within-family correlations, three factors remain significant: total CHI by parent rating, irritability subscale by parent rating, and irritability by child self-report. The hostility subscale by parent rating became a trend. Conclusions Children of BP parents score higher on ratings of hostility and irritability than children of community control parents, independent of child psychopathology and non-BP parental psychopathology. Follow-up of these children to evaluate whether these symptoms are markers for the development of BP or mood disorders is warranted. PMID:17680920

  9. Parent-Child Aggression Risk in Expectant Mothers and Fathers: A Multimethod Theoretical Approach.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    The current investigation evaluated whether cognitive processes characteristic of the Social Information Processing model predicted parent-child aggression (PCA) risk independent of personal vulnerabilities and resiliencies. This study utilized a multimethod approach, including analog tasks, with a diverse sample of 203 primiparous expectant mothers and 151 of their partners. Factors considered in this study included PCA approval attitudes, empathy, reactivity, negative child attributions, compliance expectations, and knowledge of non-physical discipline alternatives; additionally, vulnerabilities included psychopathology symptoms, domestic violence victimization, and substance use, whereas resiliencies included perceived social support, partner relationship satisfaction, and coping efficacy. For both mothers and fathers, findings supported the role of greater approval of PCA attitudes, lower empathy, more overreactivity, more negative attributions, and higher compliance expectations in relation to elevated risk of PCA. Moreover, personal vulnerabilities and resiliencies related to PCA risk for mothers; however, fathers and mothers differed on the nature of these relationships with respect to vulnerabilities as well as aspects of empathy and PCA approval attitudes. Findings provide evidence for commonalities in many of the factors investigated between mothers and fathers with some notable distinctions. Results are discussed in terms of how findings could inform prevention programs.

  10. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  11. Comparison of various risk indicators among patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis in davangere population

    PubMed Central

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Nadkarni, Rahul Dilip; Guddada, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare various risk indicators of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) among patients of Davangere population. Materials and Methods: Totally, 89 CP and 90 AP patients were selected from outpatient Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. Various clinical parameters proven to be risk indicators were determined for each patient such as age, gender, occupation, oral hygiene habits, personal habits, income, level of education, place of residence, frequency of dental visits, various oral hygiene indices, gingival status, wasting diseases, malocclusion, laboratory investigations, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that AP is manifested early in life in susceptible individuals. Proven risk indicators for AP and CP in the present study population included young age, place of residence, income and education levels, frequency of dental visits. Patients with AP had better oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index results than patients with CP. Paan chewing and smoking could be considered as risk factors, both in CP and AP cases. The similar association of plaque scores but higher bleeding tendency in AP patients supported the fact of higher susceptibility of AP patients to periodontal breakdown. Malocclusion being present in the majority of cases could also be put forth as a risk factor for AP and CP. Conclusion: This study identifies the different risk indicators for CP and AP and demonstrates the need for constructing nationwide oral health promotion programs to improve the level of oral health awareness and standards in Indian population. PMID:26392693

  12. Interpersonal Factors in the Risk for Sexual Victimization and Its Recurrence during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brennan J.; Furman, Wyndol

    2008-01-01

    Being a victim of sexual aggression from a peer is a common experience among adolescents and poses a significant risk for various forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little is known concerning specific interpersonal factors that increase an adolescent's risk for experiencing sexual aggression. The current study assessed the contribution made…

  13. RD3 loss dictates high-risk aggressive neuroblastoma and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faizan H; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Aravindan, Sheeja; Natarajan, Mohan; Azadi, Seifollah; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-11-03

    Clinical outcomes for high-risk neuroblastoma patients remains poor, with only 40-50% 5-Year overall survival (OS) and <10% long-term survival. The ongoing acquisition of genetic/molecular rearrangements in undifferentiated neural crest cells may endorse neuroblastoma progression. This study recognized the loss of Retinal Degeneration protein 3, RD3 in aggressive neuroblastoma, and identified its influence in better clinical outcomes and defined its novel metastasis suppressor function. The results showed ubiquitous expression of RD3 in healthy tissues, complete-loss and significant TNM-stage association of RD3 in clinical samples. RD3-loss was intrinsically associated with reduced OS, abridged relapse-free survival, aggressive stage etc., in neuroblastoma patient cohorts. RD3 was transcriptionally and translationally regulated in metastatic site-derived aggressive (MSDAC) cells (regardless of CSC status) ex vivo and in tumor manifolds from metastatic sites in reproducible aggressive disease models in vivo. Re-expressing RD3 in MSDACs reverted their metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely muting RD3 in neuroblastoma cells not only heightened invasion/migration but also dictated aggressive disease with metastasis. These results demonstrate the loss of RD3 in high-risk neuroblastoma, its novel, thus-far unrecognized metastasis suppressor function and further imply that RD3-loss may directly relate to tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcomes.

  14. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  15. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  16. "Reactivity to Stimuli” Is a Temperamental Factor Contributing to Canine Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that “reactivity to stimuli” was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: “sociability with humans,” “fear of sounds,” “chase proneness,” “reactivity to stimuli,” and “avoidance of aversive events.” By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, “reactivity to stimuli,” i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that “reactivity to stimuli” is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth

  17. Contributing factors to aggressive behaviors in high school students in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I

    2012-02-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing factors to this behavior among high school students. Sample was composed of 805 students of 14-18 ages attending five high schools in Istanbul. The most common aggressive behavior among the students was found to be "beating others," 34.5% (n = 278). Past experiences of violence of high school students (direct exposure to violence/witnessing violence/exposure to/witnessing attack with knife/gun) were determined as the most contributing factor to aggressive behavior. The present study investigated the nature of violent behaviors and associations between violent behaviors and contributing factors among high school students from Turkey.

  18. Factors influencing the aggressiveness elicited by marihuana in food-deprived rats

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, E. A.; Hamaoui, A.; Märtz, Regina M. W.

    1972-01-01

    1. Aggressive behaviour was elicited in rats that had been deprived of food for 20 h daily (starved), by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa extract or (-)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol. 2. The influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral glucose administration, cold environment, acidosis, and corn, and protein-free diets on this aggressiveness was studied. 3. Intraperitoneal injections of glucose (100-1,600 mg/kg) did not alter the aggressiveness induced by marihuana in starved rats; glucose given orally, however, blocked this behaviour. 4. Low temperature (14° C) strongly potentiated the aggressive behaviour induced by marihuana in the starved rats. 5. Lactic acid in doses capable of potentiating thiopental anaesthesia, failed to alter the marihuana-aggressiveness of starved rats or to facilitate this effect of marihuana in rats fed ad libitum. The same negative results were obtained with ammonium chloride. 6. In rats fed ad libitum with protein-free or corn diets, marihuana administered chronically did not elicit aggressive behaviour. However, aggressiveness appeared when rats were fed for only 2 h daily on those diets. 7. The results suggest that the stress of hunger (and not hypoglycaemia, acidosis or lack of specific nutrients due to starvation) is the factor that facilitates the development of aggressive behaviour by chronic administration of marihuana. PMID:5064930

  19. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  20. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. Adipocyte secreted factors enhance aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade.

  3. Adipocyte Secreted Factors Enhance Aggressiveness of Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S.; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade. PMID:25928422

  4. Factors associated with aggressive behavior between residents and staff in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Stutte, Karin; Hahn, Sabine; Fierz, Katharina; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this secondary data analysis of the cross-sectional Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP) study was to describe the prevalence of residents' verbal, physical and sexual aggression toward care workers in Swiss nursing homes and to explore their association with context and care worker factors. The study's sample incorporated data from 155 randomly selected nursing homes, including 402 units. Among care workers (n = 3919), 66% reported experiencing verbal, 42% physical and 15% sexual aggression. Logistic regression analyses indicated that non-special care units and care workers' higher perception of staffing and resources adequacy and higher age were associated with a decreased likelihood of aggression, whereas emotional exhaustion was associated with an increased likelihood. Our results suggest an association of aggressive resident behavior with modifiable context and care worker factors. Knowledge about this may contribute to a continuous improvement process, enhancing residents' well-being alongside care workers' safety and satisfaction.

  5. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  6. The relation of premorbid factors to aggressive physical behavior in dementia.

    PubMed

    Kolanowski, A M; Garr, M

    1999-10-01

    Aggressive physical behaviour (APB) is common in persons with dementia and often leads to negative consequences such as use of restraints and staff member burnout. For the past several years, a group of nurse researchers has collaborated to develop a model that views dementia behaviors as need-driven but dementia-compromised. The model posits that background variables of the demented person interact with proximal (or current situational) variables to produce APB. The purpose of this study was to test a part of that model by addressing the question: Which premorbid factors predict APB in a sample of 84 demented institutionalized elders? This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that obtained measures of the following characteristics of residents: (1) aggressive behavior as assessed by nursing home staff members using the Ryden Aggression Scale, (2) premorbid personality traits as assessed by a member of the resident's family using the NEO Five Factor Inventory and (3) history of psychosocial stress as assessed by a member of the residents' family using the modified Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Of the sample of 84 residents, 44% exhibited physical aggression. Background factors in the model were not predictive of aggressive behavior in late-stage dementia, although the relation between premorbid neuroticism and physical aggression was in the predicted direction.

  7. Screening and Brief Intervention for Substance Misuse: Does It Reduce Aggression and HIV-Related Risk Behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180

  8. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  9. Netrin-1 acts as a survival factor for aggressive neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Fitamant, Julien; Paradisi, Andrea; Cappellen, David; Douc-Rasy, Setha; Raquin, Marie-Anne; Stupack, Dwayne; Nakagawara, Akira; Rousseau, Raphaël; Combaret, Valérie; Puisieux, Alain; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Bénard, Jean; Bernet, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most frequent solid tumor of early childhood, is diagnosed as a disseminated disease in >60% of cases, and several lines of evidence support the resistance to apoptosis as a prerequisite for NB progression. We show that autocrine production of netrin-1, a multifunctional laminin-related molecule, conveys a selective advantage in tumor growth and dissemination in aggressive NB, as it blocks the proapoptotic activity of the UNC5H netrin-1 dependence receptors. We show that such netrin-1 up-regulation is a potential marker for poor prognosis in stage 4S and, more generally, in NB stage 4 diagnosed infants. Moreover, we propose that interference with the netrin-1 autocrine loop in malignant neuroblasts could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy, as disruption of this loop triggers in vitro NB cell death and inhibits NB metastasis in avian and mouse models. PMID:19349462

  10. Perpetration of aggressive behaviors against peers and teachers as predicted by student and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an ecological/contextual theory to explore how students' perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors is associated with individual factors such as gender, age, and perception of school climate, and contextual factors such as cultural affiliation, school climate, and teacher characteristics among 4th- through 6th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel. A questionnaire testing the use of aggressive behavior in school was completed by 120 homeroom teachers and 3,375 students. The results of the study show that levels of perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors vary between classes (15.20% directed against students and 7.33% directed against teachers). At the teacher-classroom level, higher levels of perpetration were found in classes with a lower percentage of girls and in classes with fewer or less clear and consistent policies to deal with aggressive behaviors. At the individual level, gender and perception of school climate were found to be associated with levels of perpetration of aggression. The "Discussion" section highlights the importance of improving school climate in order to deal more effectively with violence and aggressive behaviors in schools.

  11. Utility of the Aggressive Behavior Risk Assessment Tool in long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brigette; Young, Lori; Kim, Son Chae

    2017-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of the Aggressive Behavior Risk Assessment Tool (ABRAT) and the Aggressive Behavior Scale (ABS) for predicting aggressive incidents among newly-admitted and existing residents of two long-term care homes in Canada. Of 316 residents, 27 had at least one aggressive incident (8.5%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve for the ABRAT was 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.81-0.92) and that for the ABS was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64-0.85). Sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cutoff score of 2 for the ABRAT were 96.3% and 65.4%, respectively, and those for the ABS at the optimal cutoff score of 3 were 59.3% and 80.6%, respectively. The ABRAT appears to be promising for use in long-term care homes for identifying potentially aggressive residents. However, further studies are needed to test the utility of the ABRAT among newly-admitted residents.

  12. Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: trajectories of risk predict perpetration and victimization.

    PubMed

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Barber, Bonnie L; Vernon, Lynette; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-05-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of known correlates of cyber-aggression: problem behavior, (low) self-esteem, and depressed mood, in a large and diverse sample of youth (N = 1,364; 54.6% female; 12-14 years old at T1). Findings demonstrate that developmental increases in problem behavior across grades 8-10 predict both cyber-perpetration and victimization in grade 11. Developmental decreases in self-esteem also predicted both grade 11 perpetration and victimization. Finally, early depressed mood predicted both perpetration and victimization later on, regardless of developmental change in depressed mood in the interim. Our results reveal a clear link between risky developmental trajectories across the early high school years and later cyber-aggression and imply that mitigating trajectories of risk early on may lead to decreases in cyber-aggression at a later date.

  13. Predicting inpatient aggression using the InterRAI risk of harm to others clinical assessment protocol: a tool for risk assessment and care planning.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Eva; Perlman, Christopher M; Hirdes, John P

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the ability of a risk assessment algorithm, the Risk of Harm to Others Clinical Assessment Protocol (RHO CAP) to predict inpatient aggression within a mental health and addictions treatment facility in Ontario, Canada. Anonymized patient records were retrospectively reviewed from April 1, 2004 to July 31, 2009 (N = 6,425). Survival analysis using Cox's regression was used to predict time to inpatient aggression using the RHO CAP. Approximately 10% of inpatients were at moderate risk of harm to others, and 2% were considered high risk. The pattern of survival curves revealed that within the first month of admission, approximately 10% of inpatients at high risk of harm to others displayed physical aggression. Patients at high risk were also two times more likely to display physical aggression. Clinical teams can use the RHO CAP to implement preventive safety measures, reduce the incidence of inpatient aggression and improve quality of care.

  14. Multimethod Prediction of Physical Parent-Child Aggression Risk in Expectant Mothers and Fathers with Social Information Processing Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Smith, Tamika L.; Silvia, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants’ own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model. PMID:26631420

  15. Multimethod prediction of physical parent-child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. OBJECTIVE An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. PARTICIPANTS Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. METHODS Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. RESULTS Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm – 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am – 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. CONCLUSION Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients. PMID:24894691

  17. Sensitivity of the Predictive Hypoglycemia Minimizer System to the Algorithm Aggressiveness Factor

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Daniel A.; Dassau, Eyal; Breton, Marc D.; Patek, Stephen D.; McCann, Thomas W.; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Doyle, Francis J.; Levy, Brian L.; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Predictive Hypoglycemia Minimizer System (“Hypo Minimizer”), consisting of a zone model predictive controller (the “controller”) and a safety supervision module (the “safety module”), aims to mitigate hypoglycemia by preemptively modulating insulin delivery based on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) measurements. The “aggressiveness factor,” a pivotal variable in the system, governs the speed and magnitude of the controller’s insulin dosing characteristics in response to changes in CGM levels. Methods: Twelve adults with type 1 diabetes were studied in closed-loop in a clinical research center for approximately 24 hours. This analysis focused primarily on the effect of the aggressiveness factor on the automated insulin-delivery characteristics of the controller, and secondarily on the glucose control results. Results: As aggressiveness increased from “conservative” to “medium” to “aggressive,” the controller recommended less insulin (–3.3% vs –14.4% vs –19.5% relative to basal) with a higher frequency (5.3% vs 14.4% vs 20.3%) during the critical times when the CGM was reading 90-120 mg/dl and decreasing. Blood glucose analyses indicated that the most aggressive setting resulted in the most desirable combination of the least time spent <70 mg/dl and the most time spent 70-180 mg/dl, particularly in the overnight period. Hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or severe hypoglycemia did not occur with any of the aggressiveness values. Conclusion: The Hypo Minimizer’s controller took preemptive action to prevent hypoglycemia based on predicted changes in CGM glucose levels. The most aggressive setting was quickest to take action to reduce insulin delivery below basal and achieved the best glucose metrics. PMID:26134834

  18. Using Structural Analysis To Facilitate Treatment of Aggression and Noncompliance in a Young Child At-Risk for Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Blair, Kwang-Sun

    1997-01-01

    A study examined the use of structural analysis as part of an assessment-based intervention of a 4-year-old boy whose noncompliance and aggressive behavior put him at risk for behavioral disorders and expulsion from his childcare center. The intervention was found to reduce immediately the noncompliance and aggressive behavior. (Author/CR)

  19. Measuring Callous Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood: Factor Structure and the Prediction of Stable Aggression in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Gottfredson, Nisha C.; Wagner, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to replicate the results of our earlier study, which were published in this Journal (Willoughby et. al 2011), that used mother-reported items from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop a screening measure of callous unemotional (CU) behaviors for use with preschool-aged children. We further sought to extend those results by exploring the predictive validity of the CU measure with aggression trajectories in early-/mid-childhood. The current study involved secondary data analysis of the NICHD Study of Early Childhood and Youth Development (NICHD-SECCYD) dataset. Factor analyses included N = 1176 children who participated in the age 3 year assessment of the NICHD-SECCYD. Predictive models included N = 1081 children for whom four of the six possible teacher ratings of aggressive behavior were available from annual assessments spanning 1st-6th grades. Consistent with prior work, a three-factor confirmatory factor model, which differentiated CU from oppositional defiant (ODD) and attention deficit/hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD) behaviors, provided the best fit to the data. Among children with disorganized attachment status, the combination of high levels of mother-rated ODD behaviors and CU behaviors, was predictive of stable elevated levels of teacher-rated aggression from 1st-6th grade (predicted probability = .38, compared with a base rate of .07). These results demonstrate that CU behaviors can be reliably measured by parent report in young children and are dissociable from more commonly assessed dimensions of disruptive behavior. Three-year-old children who exhibit elevated levels of ODD and CU behaviors, and who have disorganized attachments, are at increased risk for exhibiting elevated levels of aggression across middle childhood. Results are discussed from the perspective of early assessment and intervention. PMID:24729655

  20. Measuring Callous Unemotional Behaviors in Early Childhood: Factor Structure and the Prediction of Stable Aggression in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Wagner, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to replicate the results of our earlier study, which were published in this Journal (Willoughby et. al 2011), that used mother-reported items from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop a screening measure of callous unemotional (CU) behaviors for use with preschool-aged children. We further sought to extend those results by exploring the predictive validity of the CU measure with aggression trajectories in early-/mid-childhood. The current study involved secondary data analysis of the NICHD Study of Early Childhood and Youth Development (NICHD-SECCYD) dataset. Factor analyses included N = 1176 children who participated in the age 3 year assessment of the NICHD-SECCYD. Predictive models included N = 1081 children for whom four of the six possible teacher ratings of aggressive behavior were available from annual assessments spanning 1(st)-6(th) grades. Consistent with prior work, a three-factor confirmatory factor model, which differentiated CU from oppositional defiant (ODD) and attention deficit/hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD) behaviors, provided the best fit to the data. Among children with disorganized attachment status, the combination of high levels of mother-rated ODD behaviors and CU behaviors, was predictive of stable elevated levels of teacher-rated aggression from 1(st)-6(th) grade (predicted probability = .38, compared with a base rate of .07). These results demonstrate that CU behaviors can be reliably measured by parent report in young children and are dissociable from more commonly assessed dimensions of disruptive behavior. Three-year-old children who exhibit elevated levels of ODD and CU behaviors, and who have disorganized attachments, are at increased risk for exhibiting elevated levels of aggression across middle childhood. Results are discussed from the perspective of early assessment and intervention.

  1. Interpersonal violence on college campuses: understanding risk factors and working to find solutions.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather

    2014-10-01

    This commentary discusses the contributions of Drs. Antonia Abbey and Catherine Kaukinen to our understanding of risk factors for sexual and physical aggression among college students. Major contributions of their work are outlined. These include Abbey's contributions to our understanding of trajectories of sexually aggressive behavior among college men, risk factors for engaging in sexual aggression among men, and the role of alcohol in sexual aggression. In addition, Kaukinen's work has increased our understanding of the frequency of violence in college dating relationships as well as the association of violent relationships with health risk behaviors. Directions for future research are also outlined including a need to identify trajectories of violence risk as well as a need to understand the complex interrelationships among health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence. Finally, implications for practice and university policy are discussed, including a focus on the development of effective preventive strategies and proactive responses to violence.

  2. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.

  3. Distal & Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Neilson, Elizabeth C.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N=311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881

  4. Factors relating to the aggressive behavior of primary caregiver toward a child.

    PubMed

    Isaranurug, S; Nitirat, P; Chauytong, P; Wongarsa, C

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to testify the relationship between specific characteristics of family or the caregiver and the aggressive behavior of the caregiver toward a child. The survey was conducted from 2nd to 30th of December 1996 among grade-six students in schools under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). During the survey, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from the target group of 413 students. Among these, 81.8 per cent reported experiencing at least one form of aggressive behavior from their caregivers or parents. The findings revealed that the family relationship, economic status and caregiver's educational level reversibly correlated with the number of types of aggressive behavior with statistical significance at p-value < 0.05 and r = -0.7697, -0.2467 and -0.1641, respectively. The family crisis positively correlated with the number of types of aggressive behaviors with r = 0.1249 and p-value < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that students from nuclear families, living in congested surroundings, having a caregiver with experience of unskilled-work, unemployment or gambling had a higher mean score of the number of types of aggressive behaviors than their counterparts which were statistically significant by t and F tests (p-value < 0.05). Hence, the quality of the parent-and-child relationship should be strengthened and a proactive approach should be conducted for families potentially at risk.

  5. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than normal in children who lived near Chernobyl, the site of a 1986 nuclear plant accident ... exposure was much, much lower than that around Chernobyl. A higher risk of thyroid cancer has not ...

  6. Stroke - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk. Diseases such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, and some types of arthritis. Weak areas in an artery wall or abnormal arteries and veins . Pregnancy. Both during and in the weeks right after ...

  7. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking.

  8. Protective Factors against Serious Violent Behavior in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Aggressive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hill, Karl G.; Chung, Ick-Joong; Guo, Jie; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Examines factors in adolescence that affect the probability of violent behavior at age 18 among youths who received high teacher ratings of aggression at age 10. Study found a lower probability of violence was associated with religious services attendance, good family management by parents, and bonding to school. Implications of these findings for…

  9. Factors Associated with Aggressive Behavior among Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whall, Ann L.; Colling, Kathleen B.; Kolanowski, Ann; Kim, HyoJeong; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeCicco, Barry; Ronis, David L.; Richards, Kathy C.; Algase, Donna; Beck, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In an attempt to more thoroughly describe aggressive behavior in nursing home residents with dementia, we examined background and proximal factors as guided by the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model. Design and Methods: We used a multivariate cross-sectional survey with repeated measures; participants resided in nine randomly…

  10. Analyzing treatment aggressiveness and identifying high-risk patients in diabetic foot ulcer return to care.

    PubMed

    Remington, Austin C; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Finnegan, Micaela A; Shaffer, Robyn; Kwong, Jereen Z; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Rates of diabetes and its associated comorbidities have been increasing in the United States, with diabetic foot ulcer treatment representing a large cost to the patient and healthcare system. These ulcers often result in multiple hospital admissions. This study examined readmissions following inpatient care for a diabetic foot ulcer and identified modifiable factors associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions to the inpatient or emergency department (ED) setting. We hypothesized that patients undergoing aggressive treatment would have lower 30-day readmission rates. We identified patient discharge records containing International Classification of Disease ninth revision codes for both diabetes mellitus and distal foot ulcer in the State Inpatient and Emergency Department databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in Florida and New York, 2011-2012. All-cause 30-day return to care visits (ED or inpatient) were analyzed. Patient demographics and treatment characteristics were evaluated using univariate and multivariable regression models. The cohort included 25,911 discharges, having a mean age of 63 and an average of 3.8 comorbidities. The overall rate of return to care was 30%, and 21% of subjects underwent a toe or midfoot amputation during their index stay. The most common diagnosis codes upon readmission were diabetes mellitus (19%) and infection (13%). Patients with a toe or midfoot amputation procedure were less likely to be readmitted within 30 days (odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.84). Presence of comorbidities, black and Hispanic ethnicities, and Medicare and Medicaid payer status were also associated with higher odds of readmission following initial hospitalization (p < 0.05). The study suggests that there are many factors that affect readmission rates for diabetic foot ulcer patients. Understanding patients at high-risk for readmission can improve counseling and

  11. Students’ Aggression and Its Relevance to Personal, Family, and Social Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Ali; Shahghasemi, Zohreh; Davarinia Motlagh Ghochan, Arezoo; Baratpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aggression is defined as behaviors intended to hurt, harm, or injure another person. Aggression is by no means a new concern in human society, especially in youth. Universities are among the institutions in which most of the members are young people and because of facing with various personal and social stressors, the students usually experience high level of stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine aggression among university students and its association with their personal, family, and social characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on a representative sample (n = 809) of university students (1 state university and 2 private universities) locating in Gonabad, Iran in 2012. Using proportional to size stratified sampling, we selected the respondents and gathered the required data using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS (version 20) and analyzed through t test, ANOVA, and regression model. Results: A total of 381 (47.2%) male and 428 (52.8%) female students participated in the study. Mean (SD) age of the respondents was 21.79 (2.86) years. Overall mean aggression score (SD) in the students was 72.45 (15.49) and this score for in dorm and out of dorm students was 74.31 (15.59) and 70.93 (15.23), respectively. There were significant associations between the mean aggression score of dormitory students and sex (P = 0.004), age (P = 0.044), and type of the university (P = 0.039). On the other hand, there was no significant association between all independent factors and mean aggression score of students living out of dorm. Conclusions: Regarding the control of aggressive behaviors, paying attention to male, young students living in dormitory, especially in non-governmental universities has the highest priority. PMID:26756005

  12. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  13. Differential DNA Methylation Regions in Cytokine and Transcription Factor Genomic Loci Associate with Childhood Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Caramaschi, Doretta; Wang, Dongsha; Hallett, Michael; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF) NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group) from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression. Conclusions We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression. PMID:23977113

  14. A Factor Analytic Approach to Distinguish Pure and Co-Occurring Dimensions of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a confirmatory factor model to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression, and examined the relation between parenting variables and these dimensions of aggression in a sample of 100 children (9 to 12 years of age; 69 boys). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported 3 dimensions of…

  15. Development of the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium: Risk Factor Associations by Heterogeneity of Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0561 TITLE: Development of the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium: Risk Factor Associations by Heterogeneity of Disease...COVERED 30 Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium: Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Factor...authors. Preliminary analyses are on-going for the manuscript examining risk factors by tumor aggressiveness and for the development of a baseline risk

  16. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  18. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous history of clots in the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and livedo reticularis, a mottled purplish discoloration of the skin. “Risk factors are cumulative,” Dr. Kittner adds. “Reducing even one ...

  19. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  20. [Perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martinez, A M; Martínez-Sanchez, C; Pérez-Segura, J

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk perception on several factors related to reproductive health, with the goal of implementing an educational intervention based on detected needs. 405 women between 12 and 44 years were interviewed at home. 62.2% perceived the risk of pregnancy at 17 years and younger; 78.8% the risk of pregnancy at 35 years and older; 76.6% the risk of parity of 5 and higher; and 55.1% the risk of birth interval of 2 years and less. 60.5% recognized family history of birth defects, 80.2% age 35 years and older, and 84.4% rubella during pregnancy, as risk factors for newborns with congenital malformations. 27.7% identified history of a low birth weight and 61.0% birth interval of 1 year and less, as risk factors for low birth weight. The majority perceived the risk of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption during pregnancy, diseases with no treatment and deficient nutrition. There was an inconsistent influence of social and obstetric variables on risk perception. No linear correlation was detected. Health educators should recognize differences on knowledge and behavior of future receptors before an educational intervention starts.

  1. Risk Factors for Suicidality among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Using the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (n = 13,917) of high school students, we examined the association between four domains of risk factors (alcohol/drug use, aggression, HIV risk-related behaviors, and health problems) and indicators of suicidality (considering a suicide attempt, making a plan to attempt suicide, and actually…

  2. Aggressive and Antisocial Behaviours among Secondary School Students in Botswana. The Influence of Family and School Based Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malete, Leapetswe

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…

  3. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  4. Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bédard, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use

  5. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  6. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  7. Long-term risk of cardiovascular disease after treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Moser, Elizabeth C; Noordijk, Evert M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; le Cessie, Saskia; Baars, Joke W; Thomas, José; Carde, Patrice; Meerwaldt, Jacobus H; van Glabbeke, Martine; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2006-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease frequently occurs after lymphoma therapy, but it is common in the general population too. Therefore, risk estimation requires comparison to population-based rates. We calculated risk by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) per 10,000 person-years based on general population rates (Continuous Morbidity Registry Nijmegen) in 476 (Dutch and Belgian) patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated with at least 6 cycles of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in 4 European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trials (1980-1999). Cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease, estimated in a competing risk model, was 12% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (median follow-up, 8.4 years). Risk of chronic heart failure appeared markedly increased (SIR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.1-6.9) with an AER of 208 excess cases per 10 000 person-years, whereas risk of coronary artery disease matched the general population (SIR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8; AER, 8 per 10 000 person-years). Risk of stroke was raised (SIR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; AER, 15 per 10 000 person-years), especially after additional radiotherapy (> 40 Gy). Preexisting hypertension, NHL at young age, and salvage treatment increased risk of all cardiovascular events; the effect of radiotherapy was dose dependent. In conclusion, patients are at long-term high risk of chronic heart failure after NHL treatment and need therefore life-long monitoring. In contrast, risk of coronary artery disease appeared more age dependent than treatment related.

  8. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  9. Factors predictive of early death in patients receiving high-dose CHOP (ACVB regimen) for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a GELA study.

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Charles; Mounier, Nicolas; Munck, Jean Nicolas; Bosly, André; Morschauser, Frank; Simon, Daniele; Marit, Gérald; Casasnovas, Olivier; Reman, Oumédaly; Molina, Thierry; Reyes, Felix; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2002-07-01

    Death during the induction phase of chemotherapy remains a common event in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In a series of patients with aggressive NHL homogeneously treated with intensive induction chemotherapy [ACVB (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, prednisone) regimen], we determined the clinical and biological parameters that were predictive of early death. Early death was defined as death, for whatever reason, occurring within 100 d of randomization. Predictive factors were identified by logistic regression and an index predictive for individual risk of early death was designed. Among the 2210 patients treated with ACVB, there were 162 (7.3%) early deaths. There was no significant reduction in the rate of early death between 1987 and 1998. In a multivariate analysis, age > 60 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status > 1, serum lactate dehydrogenase > normal, serum albumin < 30 g/l, leucocyte counts > 10 x 10(9)/l and haemoglobin levels < 8.5 g/dl were found to be independent predictive factors for early death. An early death index was designed, enabling the evaluation of the individual risk of early death in young (range 2-31% risk of early death) and elderly patients (range 5-53%). Clinical and biological parameters available at diagnosis can help physicians identify patients with aggressive lymphoma at low or high risk of early death.

  10. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  11. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  12. Risk assessment of aggressive behavior in Chinese patients with schizophrenia by fMRI and COMT gene

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoli; Jin, Jun; Tang, Yi; Cao, Jinbo; Huang, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood–oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) maps cerebral activity by the hemodynamic response. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is involved in the metabolism of dopamine. It is reported that both of these can be used to assess the aggression risk in patients with schizophrenia. However, these methods to assess the aggression risk patients with schizophrenia have not been established in China. Therefore, we deliver here a systematic review and meta-analysis based on the studies dealing with Chinese patients. Method Nine fMRI studies and 12 gene studies were included. The data of each study were extracted and summarized. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated on allele, dominant, and recessive models. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg’s funnel plot. Results Positive BOLD-fMRI values in the lower central neural system (CNS) and negative values in the high-level CNS were observed in the patients with aggression risk. A strong association was derived from the recessive gene model of COMT polymorphism rs4680 and risk in aggression behavior (odds ratio =2.10). No significant publication bias was identified. Conclusion Aggression behavior in patients with schizophrenia can be indicated by positive BOLD-fMRI values in the lower CNS and negative values in the high-level CNS and by a recessive gene model in COMT polymorphism rs4680. A combined test of fMRI and COMT gene could increase the predictive value. PMID:28223811

  13. Controlling parenting and physical aggression during elementary school.

    PubMed

    Joussemet, Mireille; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Côté, Sylvana; Nagin, Daniel S; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether controlling parenting contributes to the problem of physical aggression. Developmental trajectories of children's physical aggression were modeled from yearly teachers' ratings, from ages 6 to 12. Multinomial logistic regressions (N = 1,508) served to identify risk factors that distinguish children who display different levels of physical aggression throughout grade school. Results revealed that being a boy and having a reactive temperament were important child predictors. Parental separation and an early onset of motherhood were also significant risk factors. Finally, mothers' controlling parenting increased the odds of following the highest trajectory of physical aggression, above and beyond the previous risk factors.

  14. Hypermasculinity, intimate partner violence, sexual aggression, social support, and child maltreatment risk in urban, heterosexual fathers taking parenting classes.

    PubMed

    Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.

  15. Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Berg, Kristen A

    2017-01-27

    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2-3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4-5 years, and elementary school: age 6-8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at-risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). IPV exposure during age 2-3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4-5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2-3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4-5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-11, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mapping of Genetic Factors That Elicit Intermale Aggressive Behavior on Mouse Chromosome 15: Intruder Effects and the Complex Genetic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aki; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kato, Shogo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Despite high estimates of the heritability of aggressiveness, the genetic basis for individual differences in aggression remains unclear. Previously, we showed that the wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) exhibits highly aggressive behaviors, and identified chromosome 15 (Chr 15) as the location of one of the genetic factors behind this escalated aggression by using a panel of consomic strains of MSM in a C57BL/6J (B6) background. To understand the genetic effect of Chr 15 derived from MSM in detail, this study examined the aggressive behavior of a Chr 15 consomic strain towards different types of opponent. Our results showed that both resident and intruder animals had to have the same MSM Chr 15 genotype in order for attack bites to increase and attack latency to be reduced, whereas there was an intruder effect of MSM Chr 15 on tail rattle behavior. To narrow down the region that contains the genetic loci involved in the aggression-eliciting effects on Chr 15, we established a panel of subconsomic strains of MSM Chr 15. Analysis of these strains suggested the existence of multiple genes that enhance and suppress aggressive behavior on Chr 15, and these loci interact in a complex way. Regression analysis successfully identified four genetic loci on Chr 15 that influence attack latency, and one genetic locus that partially elicits aggressive behaviors was narrowed down to a 4.1-Mbp region (from 68.40 Mb to 72.50 Mb) on Chr 15. PMID:26389588

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) in genetically defined fear-induced aggression.

    PubMed

    Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2015-09-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its precursor (proBDNF) and BDNF mRNA levels were studied in the brain of wild rats selectively bred for more than 70 generations for either high level or for the lack of affective aggressiveness towards man. Significant increase of BDNF mRNA level in the frontal cortex and increase of BDNF level in the hippocampus of aggressive rats was revealed. In the midbrain and hippocampus of aggressive rats proBDNF level was increased, whereas BDNF/proBDNF ratio was reduced suggesting the prevalence and increased influence of proBDNF in highly aggressive rats. In the frontal cortex, proBDNF level in aggressive rats was decreased. Thus, considerable structure-specific differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels as well as in BDNF gene expression between highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats were shown. The data suggested the implication of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF in the mechanism of aggressiveness and in the creation of either aggressive or nonaggressive phenotype.

  18. Addiction-risk and aggressive/criminal behaviour in adolescence: influence of family, school and peers

    PubMed

    Garnefski; Okma

    1996-12-01

    In this study, data from 2814 15- and 16-year-old secondary school students were analysed to investigate the collective influence of family, school and peers on behavioural problems in adolescence. Adolescents with addiction-risk and/or aggressive/criminal behaviour were compared to those who did not display such behaviour. Adolescents with behavioural problems were characterized by having a more negative perception of the environment with regard to most of the variables related with family, school and peers. Clearly behavioural problems are associated with problems in multiple environments. Some differences were found between boys and girls: multiple regression analyses showed that for boys, problems at school were the most important predictor of behavioural problem scores, while for girls, this applied to problems at home.

  19. Associations Between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use Among Elementary School-Age Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250

  20. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  1. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  2. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  3. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  4. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  5. Peer Contagion of Aggression and Health Risk Behavior among Adolescent Males: An Experimental Investigation of Effects on Public Conduct and Private Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Peer contagion of adolescent males' aggressive/health risk behaviors was examined using a computerized "chat room" experimental paradigm. Forty-three 11th-grade White adolescents (16-17 years old) were led to believe that they were interacting with other students (i.e., "e-confederates"), who endorsed aggressive/health risk behaviors and whose…

  6. Associations between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use among Elementary School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% male) second- through fourth-grade students (mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes…

  7. Victim reactions in aggressive erotic films as a factor in violence against women.

    PubMed

    Donnerstein, E; Berkowitz, L

    1981-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether the behavioral characteristics of the people in erotic films and the nature of the targets available for aggression afterward can affect subsequent aggression. In Experiment 1, male subjects were angered by a male or female confederate. They were then shown a neutral film or one of three erotic films. The erotic films differed in terms of their aggressive content (two were aggressive and one was nonaggressive) and the reactions of the female victim in the two aggressive films (positive vs. negative). Subjects were then allowed to aggress against the confederate via electric shock. Results indicated that films had no effect on male targets whereas both types of aggressive erotic films increased aggression toward the female. In Experiment 2, the effects of the above films on nonangry viewers were investigated with only female confederates. Results indicated that angered male subjects were more aggressive toward the female after viewing either aggressive erotic film but that only the positive-outcome aggressive film increased aggression in nonangered subjects. Both the theoretical and applied aspects of aggressive and nonaggressive erotica are discussed.

  8. Polymorphism in the Serotonin Receptor 2a (HTR2A) Gene as Possible Predisposal Factor for Aggressive Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Nanasi, Tibor; Szekely, Anna; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive manifestations and their consequences are a major issue of mankind, highlighting the need for understanding the contributory factors. Still, aggression-related genetic analyses have so far mainly been conducted on small population subsets such as individuals suffering from a certain psychiatric disorder or a narrow-range age cohort, but no data on the general population is yet available. In the present study, our aim was to identify polymorphisms in genes affecting neurobiological processes that might explain some of the inter-individual variation between aggression levels in the non-clinical Caucasian adult population. 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were simultaneously determined in 887 subjects who also filled out the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Single marker association analyses between genotypes and aggression scores indicated a significant role of rs7322347 located in the HTR2A gene encoding serotonin receptor 2a following Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.0007) both for males and females. Taking the four BPAQ subscales individually, scores for Hostility, Anger and Physical Aggression showed significant association with rs7322347 T allele in themselves, while no association was found with Verbal Aggression. Of the subscales, relationship with rs7322347 was strongest in the case of Hostility, where statistical significance virtually equaled that observed with the whole BPAQ. In conclusion, this is the first study to our knowledge analyzing SNPs in a wide variety of genes in terms of aggression in a large sample-size non-clinical adult population, also describing a novel candidate polymorphism as predisposal to aggressive traits. PMID:25658328

  9. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  10. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  11. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In women, high triglycerides combined ... information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  12. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  13. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  14. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  15. Executive (Dys)Functioning and Impulsivity as Possible Vulnerability Factors for Aggression in Forensic Patients.

    PubMed

    Tonnaer, Franca; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated whether executive dysfunction and impulsivity are both predictors of reactive aggression and is the first to use behavioral assessment of aggression in response to provocation by means of a personalized boxing body opponent bag giving harassing feedback. Aggressive behavior, self-reported aggression, executive functioning (ie, working memory, flexibility, and divided attention), and impulsivity dimensions (i.e., Sensation Seeking, Impulsive Decision Making, and [inadequate] Response Inhibition) were measured in 44 incarcerated psychiatric patients. Results show that both executive functioning (working memory) and impulsivity (Impulsive Decision Making) predicted self-reported reactive aggression, whereas Response Inhibition was the only predictor for reactive aggressive behavioral responses. The study suggests that Response Inhibition is a stronger predictor of reactive aggressive behavior than executive capacities of working memory, flexibility, and divided attention. Therefore, future research should investigate whether (inadequate) Response Inhibition could also be a valuable predictor for violent recidivism.

  16. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos.

  17. Factors influencing the temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and experiences with aggression among college women.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Bradizza, Clara M; Romosz, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    The authors assessed temporal relationships among alcohol use, aggression, and mood using daily data from 179 college women. Participants called an interactive voice response system over an 8-week period. The odds of experiencing verbal, sexual, and physical aggression (odd ratios = 2.25, 19.44, and 11.84, respectively) were significantly higher on heavy drinking days (M = 7.46 drinks) compared to nondrinking days. Both a history of victimization and greater psychological symptom severity influenced the odds of involvement in verbal aggression. The odds of alcohol consumption were 3 times higher during the 24 hr following verbal aggression compared with days in which verbal aggression did not occur. On the day immediately following involvement in either verbal or physical aggression, positive mood decreased and negative mood increased. During the week (2-7 days) following sexual aggression, women's positive mood was decreased. These findings reinforce the need for interventions aimed at reducing heavy episodic drinking on college campuses.

  18. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  19. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  20. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70)…

  1. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  2. Mapping Developmental Precursors of Cyber-Aggression: Trajectories of Risk Predict Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Vernon, Lynnette

    2013-01-01

    Technologically mediated contexts are social arenas in which adolescents can be both perpetrators and victims of aggression. Yet, there remains little understanding of the developmental etiology of cyber aggression, itself, as experienced by either perpetrators or victims. The current study examines 3-year latent within-person trajectories of…

  3. Dual Trajectories of Reactive and Proactive Aggression from Mid-childhood to Early Adolescence: Relations to Sensation Seeking, Risk Taking, and Moral Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P

    2016-05-01

    We examined the roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the development of reactive and proactive aggression. Data were drawn from a multiethnic, longitudinal study of children from Switzerland (N = 1571; 52 % male; assessed annually over 6 years; 7-years-old at Time 1). At all 6 time points, teachers reported children's reactive and proactive aggression via questionnaire. Children's sensation seeking (at Time 1) and risk taking (at Time 2) were assessed with two interactive computer tasks and their moral reasoning was assessed at Time 2 in response to four hypothetical vignettes depicting moral transgressions. Parallel process Latent Class Growth Analysis (PP-LCGA) identified six dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression. Children with either childhood-limited or adolescent-onset aggression showed high sensation seeking. Children with persistent, high levels of both reactive and proactive aggression across time showed high levels of sensation seeking and risk taking, as well as low levels of moral reasoning. Children with only high risk taking were more likely to display moderate levels of aggression across time. These findings highlight the shared and differential roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the dual development of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence. We discuss implications for common and tailored strategies to combat these aggression subtypes.

  4. Moderating effects of family environment on the association between children’s aggressive beliefs and their aggression trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    ANDREAS, JASMINA BURDZOVIC; WATSON, MALCOLM W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how children’s aggressive beliefs and their family environments combine to influence the development of child aggression from middle childhood into adolescence. We utilized a “variable-centered” empirical approach, specifically examining whether children’s aggressive beliefs represent a risk factor for their aggressive behaviors and whether this risk can be moderated by children’s family environment. These questions were tested with individual growth modeling, using the data from a community-representative sample of 440 mother–child dyads, interviewed four times over a 6-year study period. The accelerated longitudinal design of the study enabled examination of children’s aggression trajectories from age 7 to age 19. The results supported the hypothesis that elevated aggressive beliefs in children represent a risk factor for aggression, as higher aggressive beliefs were associated with greater aggression at the youngest age, as well as with increased aggression over time. However, as hypothesized, family environment moderated this association, such that changes in children’s aggression over time were contingent upon the interaction of their aggressive beliefs with family environment. Specifically, aggression was reduced in children with high aggressive beliefs if they experienced better than average family environment, which included less family conflict and more family cohesion. PMID:19144230

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  6. GC Gene Polymorphisms and Vitamin D-Binding Protein Levels Are Related to the Risk of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenli; Wang, Xian'e; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore whether GC (group-specific component) rs17467825, rs4588, and rs7041 polymorphisms are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Methods. This case-control study recruited 372 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (group AgP) and 133 periodontal healthy subjects (group HP). GC rs17467825, rs4588, and rs7041 genotypes and plasmatic vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were measured. Analysis of single SNP and multiple SNPs was performed and relevance between plasmatic DBP and haplotypes was analyzed. Results. GC rs17467825 GG genotype was statistically associated with lower risk for generalized aggressive periodontitis under the recessive model (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30–0.92, p = 0.028). GC rs17467825 and rs4588 had strong linkage disequilibrium with r2 ≥ 0.8 and D′ ≥ 0.8. Haplotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) GC was associated with the less risk for generalized aggressive periodontitis (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09–0.96, p = 0.043). In group AgP, individuals with combined genotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) AG+CA had significantly lower plasmatic DBP level than those with the other two combined genotypes (AG+CA versus AA+CC p = 0.007; AG+CA versus GG+AA p = 0.026). Conclusions. GC rs17467825 genotype GG and haplotype (GC rs17467825, rs4588) GC are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The association may be acquired through regulating DBP levels. The functions of GC gene and DBP in inflammatory disease need to be further studied. PMID:28018430

  7. Is Birthweight Associated with Total and Aggressive/Lethal Prostate Cancer Risks? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Welsh, Judith; Mackinnon, Karen; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Cook, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that intrauterine exposures are important for subsequent prostate cancer risk. Prior epidemiological studies have used birthweight as a proxy of cumulative intrauterine exposures to test this hypothesis, but results have been inconsistent partly due to limited statistical power. Methods We investigated birthweight in relation to prostate cancer in the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) using Cox proportional hazards models. We then conducted a meta-analysis of birthweight in relation to total and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer risks, combining results from the NSHD analysis with 13 additional studies on this relationship identified from a systematic search in four major scientific literature databases through January 2015. Results Random-effects models found that each kg increase in birthweight was positively associated with total (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.00, 1.05; I2=13%) and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.99, 1.19; I2=40%). Sensitivity analyses restricted to studies with birthweight extracted from medical records demonstrated stronger positive associations with total (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03, 1.19; I2=0%) and aggressive/lethal (OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.09, 1.74; I2=0%) prostate cancer. These studies heavily overlapped with those based in Nordic countries. Conclusion This study provides evidence that heavier birthweight may be associated with modest increased risks of total and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer, which supports the hypothesis that intrauterine exposures may be related to subsequent prostate cancer risks. PMID:26930450

  8. Suicide Risk Factors in Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motto, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)

  9. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  10. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  11. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.

  12. Interparental Conflict and Early Adolescents' Aggression: Is Irregular Sleep a Vulnerability Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemola, Sakari; Schwarz, Beate; Siffert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether (a) short and irregular sleep are related to aggressive behavior in early adolescence and (b) whether they moderate the relation between interparental conflict and aggressive behavior. 176 early adolescents (mean age 11.6 years, 89 girls) reported their bed and wake times on weekdays and on weekends and their aggressive…

  13. Contributing Factors to Aggressive Behaviors in High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Fadime; Bilgin, Hulya; Singer, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Violence among young people is an important public health topic as a universal problem. One of the recent issues concerning both the media and parents is the aggressive behavior among the high school students in Istanbul and the worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the types and rates of aggressive behavior and the contributing…

  14. Predictors of Student Defenders of Peer Aggression Victims: Empathy and Social Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Despite wide recognition of the important role of student bystanders in influencing peer aggression in schools, little is currently known about what influences students to intervene in defense of peer aggression victims. This longitudinal study involving 1,167 primarily white adolescents (aged 12-15 years, 613 females) investigated the role of…

  15. Neuropsychological Factors in the Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper addresses the neuropsychological evaluation of impulsive aggression in emotionally disturbed students. Specific complications of organic aggressive syndrome include its unpredictable nature and basis in organic etiology. Characteristically, there is a sudden onset of unprovoked rage and violence accompanied by a drastic change in…

  16. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple.

  17. Partner aggression and children's externalizing problems: maternal and partner warmth as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Nancy A; McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David

    2007-09-01

    This research examined maternal and partner warmth as moderators of the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Participants were 157 mothers and their children (ages 7-9 years). Results indicate that maternal and partner warmth each moderated the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with child reports of externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. Similarly, partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with mother reports of girls', but not boys', externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. On the other hand, the moderating effect of partner warmth was in the opposite direction and was found only with child-reported externalizing problems. Increased levels of partner-to-mother aggression related positively to child-reported externalizing problems when partners were higher, but not lower, in warmth.

  18. Risk Factors For Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, Yüksel; KURT, Semiha; KARAER ÜNALDI, Hatice; ERKORKMAZ, Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for distal symmetric sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Method Sixty seven patients with type 2 DM (33 males and 34 females) were included in the study. In addition to a detailed neurological examination, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument was administered to all patients and their total neuropathy scores were calculated. Nerve conduction examinations were performed for all patients. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.83±.87 years. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) value was 8.56±2.07% (normal: 3–6.5%). The total neuropathy score significantly correlated with diabetes duration, hypertension, retinopathy, and HbA1C. Conclusion This study confirms the previous reports regarding the association of neuropathy with poor glycaemic control and duration of the disease. The association of neuropathy with retinopathy and hypertension is important.

  19. Emotion regulation and childhood aggression: longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Röll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and aggressive behavior, moderating and mediating factors like gender and peer rejection have been established. Furthermore, results suggest emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior. Several directions for future research are pointed out to further validate and refine the reviewed relationships.

  20. Partner aggression among men and women in substance use disorder treatment: correlates of psychological and physical aggression and injury.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C

    2008-11-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms.

  1. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury. PMID:23016083

  2. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  3. Effortful Control, Social Information Processing, and the Prevention of Aggression in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Alan Reid

    2012-01-01

    Early aggression is a problem in its own right and a risk factor for further developmental problems. Although both effortful control and social information processing (SIP) skills are negatively associated with aggression and are targeted by aggression prevention programs, little is known about the relation between them or about their joint…

  4. Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of aggression in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Koller, Gabi; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, violence and antisocial behavior are common in alcoholism, but their biological basis is poorly understood. Several studies and recent meta-analyses indicate that in schizophrenia the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype may be associated with aggression, most often in methionine allele carriers. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent in-patients (293 German patients and 499 controls, and additional 190 Polish patients as replication sample). As expected, patients with a history of violent or non-violent crime were more often male, had an earlier onset of alcoholism and more withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts. COMT genotype was not associated with a history of violent or non-violent crime. More studies are needed on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence in alcoholism.

  5. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and General Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Bushman, Brad J.; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of…

  6. A Bullying Intervention System: Reducing Risk and Creating Support for Aggressive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kathleen P.

    2010-01-01

    Involvement in bullying is a contributor to student failure. The author describes a bullying intervention system that has been developed and implemented in a high school that aimed to interrupt bullying, conflict, and aggression before it escalates. A high school tried to reduce student involvement with the school's disciplinary system and…

  7. Residential Mobility and Exposure to Neighborhood Crime: Risks for Young Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Maria E.; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated associations between residential mobility, neighborhood crime, and aggression during middle childhood. Participants were 460 children (M age = 6.9 years, SD = 1.1) residing in a disadvantaged city in the Northeastern United States. Residential mobility was determined from school records, teachers…

  8. Neighborhood Crime and Self-Care: Risks for Aggression and Lower Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…

  9. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  10. Risk Factor Intervention for Health Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lester

    1978-01-01

    Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)

  11. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  12. What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ... For more information, visit Lung Cancer Prevention. Also, arsenic in drinking water (primarily from private wells) can ...

  13. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  14. High physician concern about malpractice risk predicts more aggressive diagnostic testing in office-based practice.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Emily R; Reschovsky, James D; Katz, David A; Mello, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Despite widespread agreement that physicians who practice defensive medicine drive up health care costs, the extent to which defensive medicine increases costs is unclear. The differences in findings to date stem in part from the use of two distinct approaches for assessing physicians' perceived malpractice risk. In this study we used an alternative strategy: We linked physicians' responses regarding their levels of malpractice concern as reported in the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey to Medicare Parts A and B claims for the patients they treated during the study period, 2007-09. We found that physicians who reported a high level of malpractice concern were most likely to engage in practices that would be considered defensive when diagnosing patients who visited their offices with new complaints of chest pain, headache, or lower back pain. No consistent relationship was seen, however, when state-level indicators of malpractice risk replaced self-rated concern. Reducing defensive medicine may require approaches focused on physicians' perceptions of legal risk and the underlying factors driving those perceptions.

  15. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    PubMed

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  16. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  17. Controlling Parenting and Physical Aggression during Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joussemet, Mireille; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Cote, Sylvana; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether controlling parenting contributes to the problem of physical aggression. Developmental trajectories of children's physical aggression were modeled from yearly teachers' ratings, from ages 6 to 12. Multinomial logistic regressions (N = 1,508) served to identify risk factors that distinguish…

  18. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  19. Early Health Risk Factors for Violence: Conceptualization, Review of the Evidence, and Implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2011-01-01

    Violence and aggression are public health problems that can benefit from ongoing research into risk reduction and prevention. Current developmental theories of violence and aggression emphasize biological and psychosocial factors, particularly during adolescence. However, there has been less focus on understanding the interactive, multiplicative effects of these processes. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the pre-, peri-, and postnatal periods, where prevention and intervention may yield effective results. Early health risk factors that influence negative behavioral outcomes include prenatal and postnatal nutrition, tobacco use during pregnancy, maternal depression, birth complications, traumatic brain injury, lead exposure, and child abuse. There is an ample literature to suggest that these early health risk factors may increase the likelihood of childhood externalizing behaviors, aggression, juvenile delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and/or violence. This paper proposes an early health risk factors framework for violence prediction, built on existing developmental theories of criminal behavior and supported by empirical findings. This framework addresses gaps in the adolescent psychopathology literature and presents a novel conceptualization of behavioral disturbance that emphasizes the pre-, peri-, and post-natal periods, when a child's development is critical and the opportunity for behavioral and environmental modification is high. Implications for such a framework on violence prevention programs are discussed.

  20. Early Health Risk Factors for Violence: Conceptualization, Review of the Evidence, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Violence and aggression are public health problems that can benefit from ongoing research into risk reduction and prevention. Current developmental theories of violence and aggression emphasize biological and psychosocial factors, particularly during adolescence. However, there has been less focus on understanding the interactive, multiplicative effects of these processes. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the pre-, peri-, and postnatal periods, where prevention and intervention may yield effective results. Early health risk factors that influence negative behavioral outcomes include prenatal and postnatal nutrition, tobacco use during pregnancy, maternal depression, birth complications, traumatic brain injury, lead exposure, and child abuse. There is an ample literature to suggest that these early health risk factors may increase the likelihood of childhood externalizing behaviors, aggression, juvenile delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and/or violence. This paper proposes an early health risk factors framework for violence prediction, built on existing developmental theories of criminal behavior and supported by empirical findings. This framework addresses gaps in the adolescent psychopathology literature and presents a novel conceptualization of behavioral disturbance that emphasizes the pre-, peri-, and post-natal periods, when a child’s development is critical and the opportunity for behavioral and environmental modification is high. Implications for such a framework on violence prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21399727

  1. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation.

  2. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    PubMed Central

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70) programs. PrimeTime combined community-based mentoring with child-focused skills training and consultation for parents and teachers, and mentors were extensively trained and supervised. Lunch Buddy was a stand-alone, school-based mentoring program that involved lunchtime visits and a different mentor each semester. PrimeTime children rated their mentors as more supportive than did Lunch Buddy children. Relationship conflict predicted changes in teacher-rated externalizing problems. Ratings of relationship quality interacted with treatment in predicting changes in parent-rated externalizing behavior for PrimeTime children only. PMID:19283597

  3. Neighborhood crime and self-care: risks for aggression and lower academic performance.

    PubMed

    Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L

    2007-11-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly hours in self-care were trichotomized into low (0-3), moderate (4-9), and high (10-15). Moderate and high amounts of self-care were linked to increased aggression and decreased academic performance for children from high-crime areas (11,230 crimes per 100,000 persons) but not average-crime areas, when the authors controlled for neighborhood, family, and child covariates. In high-crime areas, academic outcomes were more favorable when self-care occurred in combination with after-school program participation.

  4. Cardiovascular disease and modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and many parts of the world. Potentially modifiable risk factors for CVD include tobacco use, physical inactivity, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors. Over the last several decades, efforts to prevent or treat CVD risk factors have resulted in significantly lower rates of CVD-related mortality. However, many patients never achieve adequate control of CVD risk factors even when these factors have been identified. In addition, the growing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) threatens to undermine the improvements in CVD that have been achieved. In the United States, approximately two thirds of adults are overweight or obese, and even modest excess body weight is associated with a significantly increased risk of CVD-related mortality. Lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss reduce the risk of CVD-related illness but are difficult for patients to sustain over long periods of time. The increased incidence of obesity has also contributed to significant increases in the prevalence of other important CVD risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 DM. Pharmacologic therapies are currently available to address individual CVD risk factors, and others are being evaluated, including endocannabinoid receptor antagonists, inhibitors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes alpha and gamma, and several agents that modulate the activity of glucagon-like peptide-1. The new agents have the potential to significantly improve several CVD risk factors with a single medication and may provide clinicians with several new strategies to reduce the long-term risk of CVD.

  5. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  6. Atherosclerosis risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.

  7. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  8. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  9. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up.

  10. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  11. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  12. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  13. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  14. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  15. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  16. Escape as a Factor in the Maintenance of Aggression, Tantrums and Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Edward G.

    Aggression, tantrums, and self-injury can function as escape behaviors, allowing children to terminate aversive demand (teaching) situations. In one group of six psychotic children, these behaviors were frequent in demand situations, and rare in nondemand situations. Further, when stimuli correlated with the termination of demands were presented,…

  17. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  19. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  20. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  1. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  2. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  3. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  4. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  5. Aggression and Violence on the Move in Russian Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pervova, Irina

    1999-01-01

    Examination of trends in aggression and violence in Russian youth identifies risk factors including political factors, economic factors, ecological factors, the crash of ideals and decrease of morality, cultural factors, family problems, educational aspects, mass media influences, and delinquent groups. Incidents of youth violence and aggression…

  6. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  7. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  8. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  9. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    PubMed

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  10. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  11. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  12. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  13. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  14. Patient characteristics associated with aggression in mental health units.

    PubMed

    Podubinski, Tegan; Lee, Stuart; Hollander, Yitzchak; Daffern, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Aggression in mental health units is a significant and pervasive problem. However, the characteristics of patients associated with increased aggression propensity remain unclear and there are few attempts to expand understanding of these characteristics by drawing upon contemporary aggression theory. This study assessed the influence of interpersonal (hostile-dominance) and personality (psychopathy), General Aggression Model-specified (aggressive script rehearsal, attitudes towards violence, and trait anger), and clinical (psychiatric symptoms) factors on aggression during psychiatric hospitalization in 200 inpatients (132 men and 68 women; 19-64 years, M=38.32 years, S.D.=11.13 years). Patient characteristics were assessed on admission using structured interviews and self-report psychological tests. Patients' files were reviewed and nurses were interviewed after patients were discharged to establish whether patients were aggressive during their hospital stay. Results of univariate analyses showed that higher levels of interpersonal hostile-dominance, psychopathy and aggressive script rehearsal, positive attitudes towards violence, trait anger, and disorganized and excited type psychiatric symptoms all predicted aggression. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, only hostile-dominance remained as a significant predictor of aggressive behavior. This important personality characteristic should be considered in violence risk assessments and aggression prevention strategies.

  15. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  16. Development of a modified prognostic index of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: a possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-03-24

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma to construct a new large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor level (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium level (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein level (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors using the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, medial overall survival was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a new promising risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy.

  17. Necrotising Soft Tissue Infection–Risk Factors for Mortality

    PubMed Central

    V., Kalaivani; Hiremath, Bharati V.; V. A, Indumathi

    2013-01-01

    Necrotising Soft Tissue Infection is a rapidly progressing fatal disorder, the prognosis of which depends on early diagnosis and management. Objective: In this study, our objective was to assess the factors contributing to mortality due to NSTI. Methods: A retrospective review of the records of all patients with NSTI involving fascia, skin or muscle between January 2007 and December 2011, was performed. The atiology, predisposing factors, risk factors, causative microbiological organisms and the clinical outcomes associated with mortality were studied. Statistical Data: Descriptive statistics comprising of proportion(%) presented. Chi–square test was employed to assess the statistical significance in the distribution of various known risk factors between the survivors and non–survivors. A ‘p’ value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients records were reviewed. Fifty-one patients (85%) were males and nine (15%) were females. Mean age was 46.57 years (+/- 20.60) ranging from 15–83 years. All the patients were treated by debridement & wide spectrum antibiotics. Mono-microbial atiology being found in 27 patients (63.3%) and polymicrobial culture was isolated in 13 patients (36.7%), with E-coli and staphylococci being the most common organisms to be isolated. In most patients, multiple debridements were done. The overall mortality rate was estimated to be 25%. Age, aatiology, diabetes mellitus, hypoalbuminemia, alcohol, site of infection, bacteriology etc. were the risk factors associated with mortality, that were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was the most common associated risk factor found in 32 patients (53.3%), though not statistically significant. Increasing age (>50 years, p value = 0.016), raised Serum Creatinine (>1.2mg/dl, p-value = 0.023) and delayed surgical intervention(>24 hours p value= 0.006) were the risk factors associated with Mortality in NSTI that were statistically significant. Conclusion: Despite the use of

  18. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    PubMed

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  20. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Soroush, Ali; Zakiei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS): components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. Methods: The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012-2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male) were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form), and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and canonical correlation. Results: The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extroversion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender) and aggression. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. Conclusions: According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems for the students

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... Lymphocytic Leukemia Be Prevented? More In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  5. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  6. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  7. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  8. Genetic Risk for Conduct Disorder Symptom Subtypes in an ADHD Sample: Specificity to Aggressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred forty-four subjects aged 6-55 years were evaluated to examine the role of COMT and SLC6A4 genes in the risk for conduct disorder and its symptomatic subtypes in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No significant association is found between these genes and the risk for conduct disorder.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors and Achievement of Children At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Diane

    A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…

  10. Aggressive delinquency among north American indigenous adolescents: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sittner, Kelley J; Hautala, Dane

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10-19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non-offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent-limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system.

  11. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed.

  12. Defining Incidence and Risk Factors of Venous Thromboemolism after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Aslam; Spolverato, Gaya; Kim, Yuhree; Lucas, Donald L.; Lau, Brandyn; Weiss, Matthew; Johnston, Fabian M.; Kheng, Marian; Hirose, Kenzo; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Haut, Elliott; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among patients undergoing hepatic surgery is poorly defined, leading to varied use of VTE prophylaxis among surgeons. We sought to define the incidence of VTE after liver surgery and identify risk factors associated with VTE. Methods Incidence of VTE and associated risk factors within 90 days of hepatic resection between 2006 and 2012 at a major academic center was analyzed. Risk factors for VTE were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 599 patients were included in the study cohort; 30 (5.0 %) had a prior history of VTE. The indications for surgery were malignant (90.8 %) and benign lesions (9.2 %). The majority of patients underwent a minor hepatectomy (<3 Couinaud segments; n =402, 67.1 %) while 195 (32.6 %) patients underwent a major hepatectomy (≥3 Couinaud segments). Three hundred seven (51.3 %) patients were started on VTE chemoprophylaxis preoperatively with 407 (67.8 %) patients receiving VTE chemoprophylaxis within 24 h of surgery. Twenty-eight (4.7 %) patients developed VTE; 20 (3.3 %) had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 11 (1.8 %) had pulmonary embolism (PE), and three (0.5 %) developed both DVTand PE. Among the VTE patients, 23 (82.1 %) had received VTE chemoprophylaxis. On multivariate analyses, history of VTE (odds ratio [OR] 4.51, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.81–17.22, P =0.03), prolonged operative time (OR 1.17 per additional hour, 95 % CI 1.04–1.32, P =0.009), and increased length of stay (LOS) (OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.02–1.12, P =0.01) were independent risk factors for VTE. Conclusion VTE within 90 days of hepatic resection is common, occurring in nearly one in 20 patients. Most VTE events occurred among patients who received current best practice prophylaxis for VTE. More aggressive strategies to identify and reduce the risk of VTE in patients at highest risk of VTE, including those with a history of VTE, extended operative time, and prolonged LOS

  13. Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut

    2014-05-01

    This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis.

  14. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

  15. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  16. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  17. Risk factors analysis of consecutive exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qianwen; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ziyuan; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate clinical factors associated with the onset of consecutive exotropia (XT) following esotropia surgery. By a retrospective nested case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of 193 patients who had undergone initial esotropia surgery between 2008 and 2015, and had follow-up longer than 6 months. The probable risk factors were evaluated between groups 1 (consecutive XT) and 2 (non-consecutive exotropia). Pearson chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used for univariate analysis, and conditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring the potential risk factors of consecutive XT. Consecutive exotropia occurred in 23 (11.9%) of 193 patients. Patients who had undergone large bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) (P = 0.017) had a high risk of developing consecutive XT. Oblique dysfunction (P = 0.001), adduction limitation (P = 0.000) were associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which was confirmed in the conditional logistic regression analysis. In addition, large amount of BMR (6 mm or more) was associated with higher incidence of adduction limitation (P = 0.045). The surgical methods and preoperative factors did not appear to influence the risk of developing consecutive XT (P > 0.05). The amount of surgery could be optimized to reduce the risk of consecutive XT. The presence of oblique overaction and postoperative adduction limitation may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT, which may require close supervision, and/or even earlier operation intervention. PMID:27977611

  18. Bleeding risk stratification in an era of aggressive management of acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Major bleeding is currently one of the most common non-cardiac complications observed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Hemorrhagic complications occur with a frequency of 1% to 10% during treatment for ACS. In fact, bleeding events are the most common extrinsic complication associated with ACS therapy. The identification of clinical characteristics and particularities of the antithrombin therapy associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications would make it possible to adopt prevention strategies, especially among those exposed to greater risk. The international societies of cardiology renewed emphasis on bleeding risk stratification in order to decide strategy and therapy for patients with ACS. With this review, we performed an update about the ACS bleeding risk scores most frequently used in daily clinical practice. PMID:25429326

  19. Parental Aggression as a Predictor of Boys' Hostile Attribution across the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…

  20. Interpersonal Circumplex Descriptions of Psychosocial Risk Factors for Physical Illness: Application to Hostility, Neuroticism, and Marital Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Traupman, Emily K.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of three risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  1. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  2. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Conclusions Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE. PMID:27097772

  3. Aggression in psychiatry wards: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Pavone, Fabrizio; Barale, Francesco

    2011-08-30

    Although fairly frequent in psychiatric in-patient, episodes of aggression/violence are mainly limited to verbal aggression, but the level of general health is significantly lower in nurses who report 'frequent' exposure to violent incidents, and there is disagreement between patients and staff concerning predictors of these episodes. We searched the Pubmed, Embase and PsychInfo databases for English, Italian, French or German language papers published between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2010 using the key words "aggress*" (aggression or aggressive) "violen*" (violence or violent) and "in-patient" or "psychiatric wards", and the inclusion criterion of an adult population (excluding all studies of selected samples such as a specific psychiatric diagnosis other than psychosis, adolescents or the elderly, men/women only, personality disorders and mental retardation). The variables that were most frequently associated with aggression or violence in the 66 identified studies of unselected psychiatric populations were the existence of previous episodes, the presence of impulsiveness/hostility, a longer period of hospitalisation, non-voluntary admission, and aggressor and victim of the same gender; weaker evidence indicated alcohol/drug misuse, a diagnosis of psychosis, a younger age and the risk of suicide. Alcohol/drug misuse, hostility, paranoid thoughts and acute psychosis were the factors most frequently involved in 12 studies of psychotic patients. Harmony among staff (a good working climate) seems to be more useful in preventing aggression than some of the other strategies used in psychiatric wards, such as the presence of male nurses.

  4. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  6. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  7. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  8. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  9. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  10. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  11. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  12. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  13. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, J L

    1989-01-01

    Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol consumption. Factors probably or possibly associated with a decreased risk include ingestion of vitamin D and its metabolites, fluoride levels of 2 ppm or more in drinking water, moderate physical activity, pregnancies and breast feeding, use of thiazide diuretics, and progestogens. Some evidence suggests that calcium intake and physical activity at young ages may be important determinants of peak bone mass. Few studies have been undertaken in males and blacks, although at least some risk factors in males may be similar to those in females. Preventive efforts may be aimed at increasing peak bone mass at young ages, preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, and preventing fractures and their adverse consequences in older people with osteoporosis. PMID:2517695

  14. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  15. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  16. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  17. Oral cancer risk factors in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Yakin, Muhammed; Gavidi, Ratu Osea; Cox, Brian; Rich, Alison

    2017-03-03

    Oral cancer constitutes the majority of head and neck cancers, which are the fifth most common malignancy worldwide, accounting for an estimated 984,430 cases in 2012. Between 2000 and 2010, there were 1,916 cases of OSCC in New Zealand with a male to female ratio of 1.85:1, and an age-standardised incidence rate of 42 persons per 1,000,000 population. This article presents an overview of the main risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and their prevalence in New Zealand. Alcohol consumption is the most prevalent risk factor in New Zealand, followed by tobacco. Given the high prevalence of these two risk factors and their synergistic effect, it is important for doctors and dentists to encourage smoking cessation in smokers and to recommend judicious alcohol intake. Research is needed to determine the prevalence of use of oral preparations of tobacco and water-pipe smoking in New Zealand, especially due to changing demography and increases in migrant populations. UV radiation is also an important risk factor. Further investigations are also needed to determine the prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to oncogenic HPV infection.

  18. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-05

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  19. The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Swing, Edward L; Anderson, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression.

  20. Forgiveness and Consideration of Future Consequences in Aggressive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Dahlen, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    Most research on aggressive driving has focused on identifying aspects of driver personality which will exacerbate it (e.g., sensation seeking, impulsiveness, driving anger, etc.). The present study was designed to examine two theoretically relevant but previously unexplored personality factors predicted to reduce the risk of aggressive driving: trait forgiveness and consideration of future consequences. The utility of these variables in predicting aggressive driving and driving anger expression was evaluated among 316 college student volunteers. Hierarchical multiple regressions permitted an analysis of the incremental validity of these constructs beyond respondent gender, age, miles driven per week, and driving anger. Both forgiveness and consideration of future consequences contributed to the prediction of aggressive driving and driving anger expression, independent of driving anger. Research on aggressive driving may be enhanced by greater attention to adaptive, potentially risk-reducing traits. Moreover, forgiveness and consideration of future consequences may have implications for accident prevention. PMID:18760093

  1. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  2. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents.

  3. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christine W; Yamamoto, Kalani T; Henry, Rohan K; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-09-01

    Development of CKD may be programmed prenatally. We sought to determine the association of childhood CKD with prenatal risk factors, including birth weight, maternal diabetes mellitus (DM), and maternal overweight/obesity. We conducted a population-based, case-control study with 1994 patients with childhood CKD (<21 years of age at diagnosis) and 20,032 controls in Washington state. We linked maternal and infant characteristics in birth records from 1987 to 2008 to hospital discharge data and used logistic regression analysis to assess the association of prenatal risk factors with childhood CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 126.7 cases per 100,000 births. High birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated nominally with CKD, with respective crude odds ratios (ORs) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.15 to 3.37); however, adjustment for maternal confounders attenuated these associations to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.21) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.51 to 2.81), respectively. The adjusted ORs for CKD associated with other prenatal factors were 2.88 (95% CI, 2.28 to 3.63) for low birth weight, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.09) for maternal gestational DM, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48) for maternal overweight, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.52) for maternal obesity. In subgroup analysis by CKD subtype, low birth weight and maternal pregestational DM associated significantly with increased risk of renal dysplasia/aplasia. Low birth weight, maternal gestational DM, and maternal overweight/obesity associated significantly with obstructive uropathy. These data suggest that prenatal factors may impact the risk of CKD. Future studies should aim to determine if modification of these factors could reduce the risk of childhood CKD.

  4. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  5. Association between Prostinogen (KLK15) Genetic Variants and Prostate Cancer Risk and Aggressiveness in Australia and a Meta-Analysis of GWAS Data

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyotsna; Lose, Felicity; O'Mara, Tracy; Marquart, Louise; Stephens, Carson; Alexander, Kimberly; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Guy, Michelle; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Rahman, Aneela A.; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Chambers, Suzanne; Gardiner, Robert A.; Aitken, Joanne; Yaxley, John; Kedda, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Kallikrein 15 (KLK15)/Prostinogen is a plausible candidate for prostate cancer susceptibility. Elevated KLK15 expression has been reported in prostate cancer and it has been described as an unfavorable prognostic marker for the disease. Objectives We performed a comprehensive analysis of association of variants in the KLK15 gene with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness by genotyping tagSNPs, as well as putative functional SNPs identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. Methods and Data Sources Twelve out of 22 SNPs, selected on the basis of linkage disequilibrium pattern, were analyzed in an Australian sample of 1,011 histologically verified prostate cancer cases and 1,405 ethnically matched controls. Replication was sought from two existing genome wide association studies (GWAS): the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project and a UK GWAS study. Results Two KLK15 SNPs, rs2659053 and rs3745522, showed evidence of association (p<0.05) but were not present on the GWAS platforms. KLK15 SNP rs2659056 was found to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and showed evidence of association in a replication cohort of 5,051 patients from the UK, Australia, and the CGEMS dataset of US samples. A highly significant association with Gleason score was observed when the data was combined from these three studies with an Odds Ratio (OR) of 0.85 (95% CI = 0.77–0.93; p = 2.7×10−4). The rs2659056 SNP is predicted to alter binding of the RORalpha transcription factor, which has a role in the control of cell growth and differentiation and has been suggested to control the metastatic behavior of prostate cancer cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest a role for KLK15 genetic variation in the etiology of prostate cancer among men of European ancestry, although further studies in very large sample sets are necessary to confirm effect sizes. PMID:22132073

  6. Susceptibility and risk factors in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a high prevalence of advanced destruction but also that relatively few individuals in each age group account for most of the advanced periodontal disease. The available data suggest that three quarters of advanced periodontal disease could be prevented by targeting an effective preventive strategy on the 28% of individuals especially at risk. Questions remain regarding: 1) whether an acceptable cost-effective preventive strategy can be devised; and 2) whether it is possible to establish a simple method of identifying the 'at risk' group. The various risk factors are numerous and include systemic diseases, smoking, drug therapy, hormonal disturbances and genetic factors as well as the more mundane factors such as plaque control and socio-economic and education and attitude factors. Aside from these factors, many patients present with periodontal disease and have no discernible predisposition other than possibly genetic, for which we can not currently test, and for the vast majority of patients there would appear to be no other alternative to periodic thorough examination for all patients, early treatment of all periodontal lesions and appropriate dental health education.

  7. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  8. Association between Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD Val-9Ala) genotypes with the risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis disease.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Moradi, M-T; Yari, K; Mousavi, S A R; Kahrizi, D

    2015-12-19

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a subtype of periodontal diseases that characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal supporting tissues. The MnSOD Val-9Ala mutation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD Val-9Ala) and its correlation with periodontal diseases has been studied in different populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphism with periodontitis disease in sample of GAP patients in Iran for the first time. Following a GAP examination, 50 GAP patients and 100 healthy individuals were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and the MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphismwas detected using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of Ala/Ala, Ala/Val and Val/Val genotypes in healthy individuals were 25, 66 and 9%, respectively. In periodontitis patients, frequencies were as Ala/Ala (12%), Ala/Val (50%) and Val/Val (38%) genotypes. There was a significant positive association between distribution of MnSOD Val-9Ala genotypes and the risk of periodontitis disease (p<0.05). Our results indicated that MnSOD Val-9Ala gene polymorphism has a positive association with the risk of periodontitis disease.

  9. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  11. Language, Cognition, and Social Factors in the Regulation of Aggressive Behavior: A Study of Black, Puerto Rican, and White Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Sherle Leon

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Language Agression Hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that measurable high language proficiency is associated with low observable aggression and low language proficiency is associated with high observable aggression. Consideration was also given to qualitative differences in aggressive behaviors…

  12. Is Aggression the Same for Boys and Girls? Assessing Measurement Invariance with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Kim, Seock-Ho; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in aggression have typically been based on studies utilizing a mean difference method. From a measurement perspective, this method is inherently problematic unless an aggression measure possesses comparable validity across gender. Stated differently, establishing measurement invariance on the measure of aggression is…

  13. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968

  14. Preventive intervention for preschoolers at high risk for antisocial behavior: long-term effects on child physical aggression and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G; Shrout, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant intervention effects on observed child physical aggression, and significant intervention effects found at the end of the program were maintained at follow-up for responsive parenting, harsh parenting and stimulation for learning. Parent ratings of child aggression did not show significant effects of intervention.

  15. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  16. An Examination of Emotion Regulation and Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Female-Perpetrated Dating Violence.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Edwin; Shorey, Ryan C; Cornelius, Tara L

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious problem among college students. Research indicates that females perpetrate as much, if not more, psychological and physical aggression against their dating partners relative to their male counterparts. Unfortunately, there is considerably less research on risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, hindering efforts aimed at preventing violence in their relationships. This study examined 2 risk factors for female-perpetrated dating violence, namely alcohol use and emotion regulation, within a sample of undergraduate female college students (N = 379). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that emotion regulation was associated with psychological aggression perpetration, and this was partially mediated by alcohol use. Moreover, a 2-chain mediation was present, such that emotion regulation deficits predicted alcohol use, which in turn predicted psychological aggression, which finally predicted physical aggression. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of dating violence and indicate that intervention programs should focus their efforts on increasing adaptive emotion regulation, decreasing alcohol use, and reducing psychological aggression.

  17. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  18. Clinical Risk Factors for Portopulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kawut, Steven M.; Krowka, Michael J.; Trotter, James F.; Roberts, Kari E.; Benza, Raymond L.; Badesch, David B.; Taichman, Darren B.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Zacks, Steven; Kaplowitz, Neil; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension affects up to 6% of patients with advanced liver disease, but the predictors and biologic mechanism for the development of this complication are unknown. We sought to determine the clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. We performed a multicenter case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of patients with portal hypertension recruited from tertiary care centers. Cases had a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes · second · cm−5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤ 15 mm Hg. Controls had a right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg (if estimable) and normal right-sided cardiac morphology by transthoracic echocardiography. The study sample included 34 cases and 141 controls. Female sex was associated with a higher risk of portopulmonary hypertension than male sex (adjusted odds ratio =2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20-7.01, P = 0.018). Autoimmune hepatitis was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 4.02, 95% confidence interval 1.14-14.23, P = 0.031), and hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted odds ratio =0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.65, P =0.005) of portopulmonary hypertension. The severity of liver disease was not related to the risk of portopulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Female sex and autoimmune hepatitis were associated with an increased risk of portopulmonary hypertension, whereas hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk in patients with advanced liver disease. Hormonal and immunologic factors may therefore be integral to the development of portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:18537192

  19. Assessment of risk for in-hospital suicide and aggression in high-dependency care environments.

    PubMed

    Rittenmeyer, Leslie

    2012-03-01

    High-dependency environments are complex both from the standpoint of diversity of patient types and the nature of their functioning. Nurses manage this complexity at many different levels. Being attuned not only to the physical status of the patient but also the emotional/psychological status is paramount in maintaining a safe environment. Staff training and education is paramount in reducing risk. Institutions have a responsibility to provide resources to develop violence prevention programs.

  20. Juvenile respiratory papillomatosis: risk factors for severity.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Caroline; Lapointe, Annie; Coutlée, François; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Roger, Michel; Trottier, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused mainly by human papillomavirus genotypes 6 or 11, acquired at birth or during pregnancy from an infected mother. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is characterized by recurring warts growing most commonly in the larynx. Multiple surgical procedures and the risk of airway obstruction contribute to the devastating impact of this disease. Some children will go into remission after a few surgeries whereas others will require repeated interventions over several years. Further understanding of the risk factors associated with severity may contribute to tailored treatments. A retrospective study of cases diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2008 was conducted to study determinants of severe forms of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from children's medical charts and mothers' delivery charts. Viral factors (HPV genotyping and viral load) were studied from archived biopsies. Specific HLA class II alleles and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes were tested from saliva samples. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for severity. Overall, 31 pediatric cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were identified. The only significant factor associated with severe forms of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was the maternal history of condylomas during pregnancy (OR: 12.05 [P=0.05]). The analysis failed to identify risk factors that could be used clinically to identify recurrent respiratory papillomatosis cases likely to take a severe course. Although too early to determine, vaccination against the HPV types involved most commonly in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may provide the best hope to prevent severe forms of this disease.

  1. Social environments and physical aggression among 21,107 students in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, William; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of student social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada and the United States. Methods Students in grades 6–10 from the US (n=14,049) and Canada (n=7,058) who had participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey were studied. Rates of student physical aggression were compared between the two countries. School, family, socioeconomic, and peer-related factors were considered as potential risk factors. A simple social environment risk score was developed using the US data and was subsequently tested in the Canadian sample. Results Risks for physical aggression were consistently higher among US vs. Canadian students, but the magnitude of these differences was modest. The relative odds of physical aggression increased with reported environmental risk. To illustrate, US boys in grades 6 to 8 reporting the highest social-environment risk score (5+) experienced a relative odds of physical aggression 4.02 (95% CI 2.7–5.9) times higher than those reporting the lowest score (adjusted OR for risk scores 0 through 5+: 1.00, 1.19, 2.10, 2.01, 3.71, 4.02; ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Unexpectedly, rates of physical aggression and associations between social environments and student aggression were remarkably similar in Canada and the United States. Family, peer, and school social environments serve as risk or protective factors, with significant cumulative impact on physical aggression in both countries. Given the observed high rates and the many negative effects of aggression on long-term health, school policies aimed at the reduction of such behavior remain a clear priority. PMID:19292848

  2. The burning question: why is smoking a risk factor for pancreatic cancer?

    PubMed

    Pandol, Stephen J; Apte, Minoti V; Wilson, Jeremy S; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease. The prognosis is poor; less than 5% of those diagnosed are still alive five years after diagnosis, and complete remission is still rare. Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor of pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism(s) through which it causes the disease remains unknown. Accumulating evidence indicates that carcinogenic compounds in cigarette smoke stimulate pancreatic cancer progression through induction of inflammation and fibrosis which act in concert with genetic factors leading to the inhibition of cell death and stimulation of proliferation resulting in the promotion of the PDAC.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service: Use of the HCR-20.

    PubMed

    Gunenc, Cevher; O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Despite evidence about the negative effects of verbal aggression in mental health wards there is little research about its prevalence or about the factors that predict the behaviour among inpatients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of verbal aggression in a secure mental health service, and to examine the relationship of verbal aggression with risk factors for aggression in the risk assessment tool HCR-20 in order to establish whether, and with which factors, the behaviour can be predicted. Verbal aggression was measured using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) over a 3-month period across a heterogeneous patient group (n = 613). Over half the patients (n = 341, 56%) engaged in 1594 incidents of verbal aggression. The HCR-20 total, clinical, and risk management subscale scores predicted verbal aggression, though effect sizes were not large. Item-outcome analysis revealed that impulsivity, negative attitudes, and non-compliance with medication were the best predictors of verbal aggression and, therefore, should be targeted for intervention. There are key synergies between factors predicting verbal aggression and the core mental health nursing role. Nurses, therefore, are in a prime position to develop and implement interventions that may reduce verbal aggression in mental health inpatients.

  4. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  5. Risk Factors for Urosepsis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Brian C.; Garvan, Gerard J.; Garvan, Cynthia S.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care. PMID:28138493

  6. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  7. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  8. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    PubMed

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  9. [Risk factors of fatal outcome in pancreatonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Romanov, É I; Zubeev, P S; Ryzhov, M K; Bodrov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzed risk factors after operations for pancreatonecrosis in order to predict a course of the disease and carefully plan the treatment. It was revealed that the lethality level depended on different factors: the sex, age, a period of admission to the hospital, prevalence of necrotic suppurative process and severity of operative trauma. The authors made a conclusion of radical change to treatment approach. The open operations should be reduced at the expense of introduction of low-invasive methods of treatment in the case of pancreatonecrosis.

  10. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  11. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Misra, A

    2000-06-01

    Atherosclerosis starts in childhood, and is accelerated in some individuals. A cluster of clinical and biochemical factors constitute the risk profile for many of them, perhaps most important being metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. Insulin resistance and its components for children and adolescents, especially obesity and dyslipidemia, are generators of hypertension, glucose intolerance and complications of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Some individuals are genetically predisposed, particularly those with the family history of such disorders. For many subjects, there is 'tracking' of metabolic and lifestyle factors from early age to adulthood. Several new risk factors of atherosclerosis (e.g. level of lipoprotein (a), procoagulant state, hyperhomocysteinemia, low birth weight and adverse in-utero environment, and possibly inflammatory markers) are current and potentially future areas of research concerning children and young individuals. Definition of and research on new and hitherto not investigated factors and formulation of strategies to neutralize the known factors are of paramount importance for primary prevention of atherosclerosis. Simple and effective measures for prevention include increasing awareness of the diseases, maintenance of ideal body weight, regular physical exercise, avoidance of smoking and chewing of tobacco, eating a balanced diet, and early periodic monitoring of blood pressure and metabolic status. These measures, starting from childhood, should be applied to all and in particular to the susceptible offspring, predisposed individuals, and populations.

  12. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  13. Identification of Commercial Items Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    profitable ) commercial customer-base. This means that the commercial vendors have several customers and their products are manufactured to meet more...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS...of Commercial Items Risk Factors 6. AUTHOR(S) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  14. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  15. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  16. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    PubMed

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  17. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  18. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  19. Risk factors for malaria in UK travellers.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Grant, Alison D; Armstrong, Margaret; Stümpfle, Richard; Behrens, Ron H

    2004-01-01

    After observing an apparent increase in severe falciparum malaria among travellers returning from The Gambia to the United Kingdom (UK) in the last quarter of 2000, we conducted a case-control study to investigate risk factors for malaria. The study participants had visited The Gambia between 1 September and 31 December 2000, travelling with the largest UK tour operator serving this destination. The main outcome measures were risk factors associated with malaria. Forty-six cases and 557 controls were studied. Eighty-seven percent of all participants reported antimalarial use (41% chloroquine/proguanil, 31% mefloquine). On univariate analysis the strongest risk factors for disease were: early calendar period of visit, longer duration of stay, non-use of antimalarial prophylaxis, non-use of mefloquine, lack of room air-conditioning, less use of insect repellent, prior visit to another malarial area and accommodation in 'hotel X'. After adjustment in multivariate analysis, use of mefloquine remained strongly protective (odds ratios, OR 0.13 [95% confidence intervals, 95% CI 0.04-0.40]), and the strongest independent risk factors for malaria were early calendar period (OR 5.19 [2.35-11.45] for 1 September to 9 November 2000 versus 10 November to 31 December 2000), prior visit to another malarial area (OR 3.27 [1.41-7.56]), main accommodation in 'hotel X' (OR 3.24 [1.51-6.97]) and duration of stay (OR 2.05 per extra week [1.42-2.95]). Neither any use, nor > 90% adherence to chloroquine/proguanil were protective (adjusted OR for any use 0.57 [0.27-1.21], P = 0.14). We concluded mefloquine use was strongly protective against malaria (87% protective efficacy), whereas chloroquine/proguanil, which is no longer recommended but remains widely used, was less than half as effective (43% protective efficacy). Waning efficacy of chloroquine/proguanil may have contributed to the observed increase in malaria among travellers to The Gambia in 2000. Local factors may also influence

  20. Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis of the Jaws

    PubMed Central

    Barasch, A.; Cunha-Cruz, J.; Curro, F.A.; Hujoel, P.; Sung, A.H.; Vena, D.; Voinea-Griffin, A.E.; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G.; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard; Hashimoto, Mariko; Holmes, Jon; Latzke, Brooke; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Richman, Joshua; Safford, Monika; Ship [deceased], Jonathan; Thompson, Van P.; Williams, O. Dale; Yin, Wanrong

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with three dental Practice-based Research Networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested associations between bisphosphonate use and other risk factors with ONJ. We enrolled 191 ONJ cases and 573 controls in 119 dental practices. Bisphosphonate use was strongly associated with ONJ (odds ratios [OR] 299.5 {95%CI 70.0-1282.7} for intravenous [IV] use and OR = 12.2 {4.3-35.0} for oral use). Risk markers included local suppuration (OR = 7.8 {1.8-34.1}), dental extraction (OR = 7.6 {2.4-24.7}), and radiation therapy (OR = 24.1 {4.9-118.4}). When cancer patients (n = 143) were excluded, bisphosphonate use (OR = 7.2 {2.1-24.7}), suppuration (OR = 11.9 {2.0-69.5}), and extractions (OR = 6.6 {1.6-26.6}) remained associated with ONJ. Higher risk of ONJ began within 2 years of bisphosphonate initiation and increased four-fold after 2 years. Both IV and oral bisphosphonate use were strongly associated with ONJ. Duration of treatment > 2 years; suppuration and dental extractions were independent risk factors for ONJ. PMID:21317246

  1. Early-life factors and endometriosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study early-life factors in relation to endometriosis risk in adulthood. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study was conducted among female enrollees ages 18-49 years of a large, integrated healthcare system in western Washington State. Patients Cases (n=310) were women diagnosed for the first time with endometriosis between years 1996-2001 and controls (n=727) were women without a diagnosis of endometriosis randomly selected from the healthcare system population. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between intrauterine diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, maternal smoking, mother’s age at delivery, firstborn status, birth weight, fetal number, prematurity, and regular soy formula feeding during infancy and endometriosis were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching and confounding variables. Information on early-life factors was ascertained retrospectively by in-person interview, with information on maternal DES use and regular soy formula feeding directly gathered from the participant’s mother or other family member. Results We observed that women who were regularly fed soy formula as infants had over twice the risk of endometriosis compared to unexposed women (aOR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.9). Our data also suggested increased endometriosis risk with prematurity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) and maternal use of DES (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.8-4.9, adjusting only for frequency matching variables), although these confidence intervals included the null. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that disruption of development during fetal and infant periods may increase the risk of endometriosis in adulthood. PMID:26211883

  2. Assessment and determinants of aggression in a forensic psychiatric institution in Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Oliver; Chow, Kavin Kit-wan

    2014-12-15

    Institutional aggression in forensic psychiatric setting is an under-researched subject, despite the magnitude of the problem. No studies have been conducted on the assessment of risk and the examination of predictors of aggression among the Chinese forensic psychiatric population. Our study aimed to examine the determinants of aggression in the only forensic psychiatric institution in Hong Kong, and to test the psychometric properties of a risk-assessment instrument, the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA). We recruited a representative sample of 530 consecutively admitted detainees. Qualified nurses completed two risk-assessment instruments, the DASA and the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), once daily during the participants׳ first 14 days of admission. Aggressive incidents were recorded using the revised Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS-R), and participants׳ data were collected for multivariate analyses. We showed that female gender, diagnoses of personality disorder and substance-related disorder, and admission at other correctional institutions were associated with institutional aggression. Aggression was perpetrated by 17.7% of the participants, and the DASA was demonstrated to have good psychometric properties in assessing and predicting aggressive incidents. Our findings preliminarily support the use of daily in-patient risk-assessment and affirm the role of dynamic factors in institutional aggression.

  3. [Subjective perception of maladjustment risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salomone, M; Romano, L; Esposito, A; Nigro, E; Boggia, B; Napolano, E; Carbone, U

    2007-01-01

    Maladjustment at work results from organizational and relational features of the work, the so-called fourth type factors; they include working hours, ways and contents of working activities, and horizontal and vertical business relations. The study reports the percentage of sensed disturbing factors in workers with maladjustment and disaffection at work. Data have been taken from 1382 white collars, 1117 males and 265 females, observed from January 2006 to June 2007 for Health Surveillance. Maladjustment prevalence was higher in females than in males. As individual variables, ageing and family care increased the prevalence of maladjustment among females, whilst a higher prevalence of maladjustment were found in youngest and unmarried males. A very different perception of work harmfulness were found between sexes. As risk factors, female have denounced more wear and tear and authoritarian management; male denounced physical strain.

  4. Two-Part Factor Mixture Modeling: Application to an Aggressive Behavior Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, YoungKoung; Muthen, Bengt O.

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces a two-part factor mixture model as an alternative analysis approach to modeling data where strong floor effects and unobserved population heterogeneity exist in the measured items. As the names suggests, a two-part factor mixture model combines a two-part model, which addresses the problem of strong floor effects by…

  5. Perpetration of Intimate Partner Aggression by Men and Women in the Philippines: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Donna L.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2002 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with intimate partner violence perpetration by husbands and wives in Cebu, Philippines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with wife-only, husband-only, and reciprocal…

  6. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities.

  7. Predicting Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Among Post-9/11 College Student Veterans.

    PubMed

    Klaw, Elena L; Demers, Anne L; Da Silva, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    The current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq present unique risk factors for military personnel that increase the likelihood of psychological distress and concomitant consequences related to trauma. Several studies have found that the stress brought about by financial difficulties, unemployment, and the need to renegotiate roles and responsibilities with spouses following discharge increases the likelihood of relationship strain and even intimate partner violence in the veteran population. This study was undertaken to determine the challenges related to maintaining healthy relationships for college student veterans who have served in the armed forces since September 11, 2001. Psychological distress, substance use, and hypermasculine attitudes were explored as risk factors for intimate violence. Social support was found to be a protective buffer against psychological aggression. However, approximately a third of college student veterans reported low social support along with symptoms of distress, placing them at elevated risk of partner abuse. The current article explores models for predicting risk of perpetrating aggression in college student veterans and concludes that culturally tailored programs and services are needed.

  8. Risk factors for overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed at finding risk factors that predict both overall recidivism and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors associated with family characteristics, peers, psychopathology, substance abuse, psychological factors, and behavior during treatment were assessed with the Juvenile Forensic Profile in a sample of 728 juvenile offenders. Official reconviction data were used to register recidivism with a minimum time at risk of 2 years. Severity of offending was categorized according to the maximum sentence for the offense committed combined with expert opinion. Several risk factors for recidivism were found: past criminal behavior (number of past offenses, young age at first offense, unknown victim of past offenses), conduct disorder, family risk factors (poor parenting skills, criminal behavior in the family, a history of physical and emotional abuse), involvement with criminal peers, and lack of treatment adherence (aggression during treatment, lack of coping strategies). Having an unknown victim in past offenses, criminal behavior in the family, lack of treatment adherence, and lack of positive coping strategies were predictive of serious (violent) recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of their use for risk assessment and in improving treatment effect. Targeting poor parenting skills, involvement in criminal environment, lack of treatment adherence, and problematic coping strategies should reduce the severity of recidivism.

  9. Parkinson's disease: A risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions.

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yapar, Nur

    2014-01-01

    The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, new antifungal agents and new therapy strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and preemptive therapy have come into use. These changes resulted in the alteration of Candida species causing invasive infections. The incidence of Candida albicans was decreased in many countries, especially among patients with immunosuppressive disorders, while the incidence of species other than C. albicans was increased. In this review, incidence, risk factors, and species distribution of invasive candidiasis are discussed. PMID:24611015

  11. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  12. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  13. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  14. [Risk factors and pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Paknys, Gintaras; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its pathogenesis and to introduce the readers to the basic concept of autoimmune thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease are different expressions of a basically similar autoimmune process, and the clinical appearance reflects the spectrum of the immune response in a particular patient. During this response, cytotoxic autoantibodies, stimulatory autoantibodies, blocking autoantibodies, or cell-mediated autoimmunity may be observed. Persons with classic Hashimoto's thyroiditis have serum antibodies reacting with thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. These antibodies (particularly antibodies against thyroid peroxidase) are complement-fixing immunoglobulins and may be cytotoxic. In addition, many patients have cell-mediated immunity directed against thyroid antigens. Cell mediated-immunity is also a feature of experimental thyroiditis induced in animals by injection of thyroid antigen with adjuvants. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is predominantly the clinical expression of cell-mediated immunity leading to destruction of thyroid cells, which in its severest form causes thyroid failure. The significance of genetic component and nongenetic risk factors (pregnancy, drugs, age, sex, infection, and irradiation) in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is also reviewed. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the genetic component is important in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, although the pattern of inheritance is non-Mendelian and is likely to be influenced by subtle variations in the functions of multiple genes. Nongenetic risk factors (environmental factors) are also etiologically important, because the concordance rate in monozygotic twins is below 1.

  15. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    PubMed

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p < .05). High levels of smoking, hypodynamia, and motivation to intake of unhealthy food were found in medical students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p < .05). The indicators of central obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  16. The Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression: Combining Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A model of the characteristics of sexually aggressive men which emphasizes the convergence of several interrelated factors is described. The model explores the role of sexual and power motives underlying rape and other forms of sexual aggression. Also describes a risk analysis which illustrates the potential relevance of the model to clinical…

  17. [Risk factors and protective factors of the insanities].

    PubMed

    Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial. How to explain this group of very heterogeneous factors? Many of them can be considered as biopsychosocial risk factors. In other words, the risk factors, in link with the physiological functioning and a physiopathology, are difficultly dissociable of contingencies of psychological and/or social nature. The vital lead could be the stress bound to these variables, be it biological or psychosocial. It remains to ask the question of the preventive efficiency of treatments to relieve the impact of the traumatizing events of life that entail a depressive state or a state of posttraumatic stress. The hippocamp has to be the object of a quite particular attention. AD is a disease of the adaptation. This integrative model combines three vulnerabilities: a genetic vulnerability which would be there to dictate the type of lesions, their localization and the age of occurence; a psychobiographic vulnerability corresponding to a personality with inadequate mechanisms of defence, precarious adaptability in front of the adversity, weak impact strength and biography built on events of life during childhood, then during the grown-up life of traumatic nature, with a psychosocial environment insufficiently auxiliary; a neuroendocrinologic vulnerability which would base on a deregulation of the corticotrope axis, acquired during its infantile maturation, hampered by too premature stress. It would lead to a bad biological adaptability in stress later, at the origin of the observable lesions in the insanities.

  18. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  19. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis. PMID:26925907

  20. Risk factors for Indian kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Alok; Sur, Dipika; Singh, Vijay P; Siddique, Niyamat A; Manna, Byomkesh; Lal, Chandra S; Sinha, Prabhat K; Kishore, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Sujit K

    2005-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to understand the risk factors associated with kala-azar in disease-endemic areas of Bihar, India. A total of 134 kala-azar cases treated at the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Patna and 406 healthy controls selected randomly from the neighborhoods of cases in their native villages were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that education, a history of other diseases in the previous year, a history of kala-azar in the family, type of walls in houses, presence of a granary inside houses, presence of vegetation around houses, bamboo trees near houses, and irregular spraying around houses with DDT were risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of other diseases in the previous year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, P = 0.002), a history of kala-azar in the family (OR = 1.8, P = 0.03), mud-plastered walls in houses, (OR = 2.4, P = 0.0001], a granary inside houses (OR = 4.3, P = 0.0001), presence of bamboo trees around houses (OR = 2.3, P = 0.001), and houses not sprayed with DDT in the past six months (OR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) were significant risk factors for kala-azar. These results will be useful in developing kala-azar control programs for identifying intervention strategies such as better housing, regular and proper insecticide spraying, and promoting health awareness to the community residing in disease-endemic areas for reducing transmission and incidence of this disease.

  1. Risk factors for anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Pan, Xueliang; Timmers, Cynthia Dawn; Pilarski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.; Lustberg, Maryam B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Carbonyl reductase (CBR) catalyzes anthracycline metabolism, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CBR impact metabolic efficiency. In pediatric patients, homo-zygosity for the major allele (G) in the CBR3 gene was associated with increased risk of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that CBR SNPs contribute to cardiotoxicity in adults Methods We retrospectively identified female breast cancer patients in the Columbus Breast Tissue Bank Registry treated with adriamycin and cytoxan (AC) from 2003 to 2012. We selected patients who developed cardiomyopathy, defined as a drop in ejection fraction to <50 % or >15 % decrease from pre-therapy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify cardiotoxicity risk factors. SNPs were genotyped, and frequency of the major allele (G)/minor allele (A) of the CBR3 and CBR1 genes was calculated. Results We identified 52 cases of cardiotoxicity after AC and 110 controls. Multivariate analysis showed that trastuzumab (p=0.009), diabetes (p=0.05), and consumption of >8 alcoholic drinks/week (p=0.024) were associated with higher cardiotoxicity risk. Moderate alcohol consumption (<8 drinks/week) was associated with lower risk (p=0.009). No association was identified between CBR SNPs and cardiotoxicity (CBR1 p= 0.261; CBR3 p=0.556). Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate SNPs in the CBR pathway as predictors of AC cardiotoxicity in adults. We did not observe any significant correlation between cardiotoxicity and SNPs within the CBR pathway. Further investigation into CBR SNPs in a larger adult sample is needed. Additional exploration into genomic predictors of anthracycline cardiotoxicity may allow for the development of preventative and therapeutic strategies for those at risk. PMID:26563179

  2. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  3. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Tlemcen (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Khan, Shahid A; Toledano, Mireille B; Waked, Imam; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance. PMID:18666317

  5. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  6. Psychopathy as a risk factor for violence.

    PubMed

    Hare, R D

    1999-01-01

    As a result of Kansas v Hendricks, many sex offenders in the U.S. are likely to be civilly committed to mental institutions for indefinite periods, and many others with histories of violent offenses may also be so committed. It therefore becomes critical for mental health professionals to understand the risk factors for re-offending that put the public in jeopardy. The most reliable of these factors is psychopathy, which will here be defined, along with its differentiation from the more commonly diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. The assessment of psychopathy, its relationship to crime--especially, to violent crime, its (non-) responsiveness to the usual treatment, and an outline of a potentially more effective one, are presented. Finally, and particularly in view of its widely accepted validity, the potential for abuse of the PCL-R and :SV are noted.

  7. Parents as Moderators of the Impact of School Norms and Peer Influences on Aggression in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Mays, Sally A.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting variables as protective factors to reduce the influence of school and peer risk factors on adolescents' aggression. Five waves of data spanning 3 years were collected from 5,581 students at 37 schools who began the 6th grade in 2001 or 2002. Class-level and perceived school norms supporting aggression, delinquent peer…

  8. The relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Aggression in the context of schizophrenia has significant detrimental personal, clinical and societal implications. Whilst understanding the precise pathways to aggression in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is critical for risk management and treatment, these pathways remain unclear. A paranoid belief that others intend harm is one psychotic symptom that might contribute to aggressive behaviours. This is the first review to investigate the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis. A systematic review of published literature pertinent to the relationship between paranoia and aggression was conducted. A search of online databases from inception to November 2014 was performed with keywords related to 'schizophrenia', 'paranoia' and 'aggression'. Fifteen studies, primarily cross-sectional in design (n=9), met eligibility criteria. Studies reviewed showed mixed support for an association between paranoia and aggression in both inpatients and community settings. However, when study quality was taken into account, more methodologically rigorous studies tended to show a positive association between factors. Mixed findings are most likely due to important methodological shortcomings, including heterogeneous samples and studies using a diverse range of aggression/violence measures. In light of methodological limitations of individual studies reviewed, further investigation of the relationship between paranoia and aggression in psychosis using robust methodology is needed before definitive clinical recommendations regarding the hypothesised relationship between paranoia and aggression can be made. This paper sets out key recommendations for future studies, including operationalizing the specific components of aggression and paranoia under investigation and methods to delineate important mediators in the paranoia and aggression relationship.

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is anything that changes a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking ...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Be Prevented? Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Are the ... few known risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Being older These tumors can occur in people ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia? A risk factor is anything that affects a ... of leukemia. Having a brother or sister with leukemia Siblings (brothers and sisters) of children with leukemia ...

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as smoking, drinking, or diet. Some factors influence risk more than others. But risk factors don' ... the disease. Written by References The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team Our team is ...

  14. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  15. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Patterns of Aggression and Peer Victimization during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence among California Couples: Multilevel Analysis of Environmental and Partner Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Todd, Michael; Mair, Christina; Remer, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which environmental (Census block-group alcohol outlet density, neighborhood demographic characteristics) and partner risk factors (e.g., hazardous drinking, psychosocial characteristics) contribute to the likelihood of intimate partner violence among 1,753 couples residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the role of alcohol outlets (off-premise outlets, bars/pubs and restaurants), neighborhood demographic characteristics, and partner risk factors in relation to male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) risk. Approximately 12% of couples reported past-year partner violence. Results showed that none of the environmental measures were related to MFPV or FMPV. Male partner's impulsivity and each partner's adverse childhood experiences were associated with MFPV risk. Risk factors for FMPV were male partner's impulsivity and frequency of intoxication and female partner's adverse childhood experiences. Individual/couple characteristics appear to be the most salient IPV risk factors. The male partner's heavy drinking may lead to negative partner/spousal interactions that result in FMPV. The male partner's impulsivity, and each partner's adverse childhood experiences, may potentiate couple conflict and result in aggression. Interventions that target prevention of family dysfunction during childhood may help reduce interpersonal violence in adulthood. PMID:24812578

  17. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  18. Vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia.

    PubMed

    Duron, E; Hanon, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer's disease) and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer's disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.

  19. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  20. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  1. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia as a coronary risk factor.

    PubMed

    Borén, Jan; Matikainen, Niina; Adiels, Martin; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2014-04-20

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is now established as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This metabolic abnormality is principally initiated by overproduction and/or decreased catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and is a consequence of predisposing genetic variations and medical conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. Accumulation of TRLs in the postprandial state promotes the retention of remnant particles in the artery wall. Because of their size, most remnant particles cannot cross the endothelium as efficiently as smaller low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, since each remnant particle contains approximately 40 times more cholesterol compared with LDL, elevated levels of remnants may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and CVD. The recognition of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in the clinical setting has been severely hampered by technical difficulties and the lack of established clinical protocols for investigating postprandial lipemia. In addition, there are currently no internationally agreed management guidelines for this type of dyslipidemia. Here we review the mechanism for and consequences of excessive postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, epidemiological evidence in support of high triglycerides and remnant particles as risk factors for CVD, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia, methods to measure postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and apolipoproteins and, finally, current and future treatment opportunities.

  2. Therapies for type 2 diabetes: lowering HbA1c and associated cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To summarize data supporting the effects of antidiabetes agents on glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Studies reporting on the effects of antidiabetes agents on glycemic control, body weight, lipid levels, and blood pressure parameters are reviewed and summarized for the purpose of selecting optimal therapeutic regimens for patients with type 2 diabetes. Results National guidelines recommend the aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, including weight loss and achieving lipid and blood pressure treatment goals. All antidiabetes pharmacotherapies lower glucose; however, effects on cardiovascular risk factors vary greatly among agents. While thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and insulin are associated with weight gain, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral and metformin can be weight neutral or associated with a small weight loss. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and amylinomimetics (e.g. pramlintide) result in weight loss. Additionally, metformin, thiazolidinediones, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on lipid and blood pressure parameters. Conclusion Management of the cardiovascular risk factors experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes requires a multidisciplinary approach with implementation of treatment strategies to achieve not only glycemic goals but to improve and/or correct the underlying cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20804556

  3. Gene variants as risk factors for gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Tom, Lauren; Lin, Bin; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Lammer, Edward J.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    In a population‐based case‐control study in California of 228 infants, we investigated 75 genetic variants in 20 genes and risk of gastroschisis with regard to maternal age, race/ethnicity, vitamin use, and smoking exposure. We hypothesized that genes related to vascular compromise may interact with environmental factors to affect the risk of gastroschisis. Haplotypes were constructed for 75 gene variants using the HaploView program. Risk for gastroschisis associated with each gene variant was calculated for both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes, with the homozygous wildtypes as the referent. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. We found 11 gene variants with increased risk and four variants with decreased risk of gastroschisis for heterozygous (ORh) or homozygous variants (ORv) genotypes. These included NOS3 (rs1036145) ORh = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.7); NOS3 (rs10277237) ORv = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3–6.0); ADD1 (rs12503220) ORh = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6–5.4), GNB3 (rs5443) ORh = 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1–0.5), ORv = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.9); ICAM1 (rs281428) ORv = 6.9 (95% CI: 2.1–22.9), ICAM1 (rs3093030) ORv = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2–5.6); ICAM4 (rs281438) ORv = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.4–16.6), ICAM5 (rs281417) ORh = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1–4.1), ORv = 4.8 (95% CI: 1.7–13.6); ICAM5 (rs281440) ORh = 23.7 (95% CI: 5.5–102.5), ORv = 20.6 (95% CI: 3.4–124.3); ICAM5 (rs2075741) ORv = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1–4.4); NAT1 ORv = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9). There were additional associations between several gene variants and gastroschisis among women aged 20–24 and among mothers with and without vitamin use. NOS3, ADD1, ICAM1, ICAM4, and ICAM5 warrant further investigation in additional populations and with the interaction of additional environmental exposures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27616475

  4. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  5. Relationship between family characteristics and aggressive behaviors of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yizhen; Shi, Junxia; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist " parents' form" (Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.

  6. Role of androgen metabolism genes CYP1B1, PSA/KLK3, and CYP11alpha in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Mine S; Liu, Xin; Casey, Graham; Witte, John S

    2005-09-01

    Candidate genes involved with androgen metabolism have been hypothesized to affect the risk of prostate cancer. To further investigate this, we evaluated the relationship between prostate cancer and multiple potentially functional polymorphisms in three genes involved in androgen metabolism: CYP1B1 (two single nucleotide polymorphisms: 355G/T and 4326C/G), prostate-specific antigen (PSA/KLK3 (three single nucleotide polymorphisms: -158A/G, -4643G/A, and -5412C/T), and CYP11alpha [(tttta)(n) repeat], using a moderately large (n = 918) sibling-based case-control population. When looking at all subjects combined, no association was observed between any polymorphism-or their haplotypes-and prostate cancer risk. However, among men with more aggressive prostate cancer, the CYP1B1 355G/T variant was positively associated with disease: carrying one or two T alleles gave odds ratios (OR) of 1.90 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09-3.31; P = 0.02] and 3.73 (95% CI, 1.39-10.0; P = 0.009), respectively. Similarly, carrying the CYP1B1 355T-4326C haplotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with high aggressive disease (P = 0.01). In addition, the PSA -158G/-158G genotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with less aggressive disease (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.06-6.94; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that CYP1B1 and PSA variants may affect the risk of prostate cancer and tumor aggressiveness.

  7. Anxiety and aggression in rural youth: baseline results from the rural adaptation project.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Cotter, Katie L; Robertson, Caroline I B; Guo, Shenyang

    2013-08-01

    There is little research on the prevalence of and risk factors for mental health disorders, including anxiety and aggression, for low income, rural youth. The research that does exist suggests that rural youth may be at increased risk for negative outcomes, including low educational achievement, drug use and possession of weapons among gang members, and alcohol use. Using multilevel logistic regression, we examined individual, family, and school risk and protective factors for adolescent anxiety and aggression in a large, racially diverse sample of 4,321 middle school students who came from two impoverished, rural counties in a Southeastern state. Parent-child conflict, negative peer relationships, and negative friend behaviors were key risk factors associated with both anxiety and aggressive behaviors. The teacher turnover rate at school was also associated with both anxiety and aggression. Significant direct effects, cross-level moderation effects, and implications for prevention programming were discussed.

  8. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  9. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  10. Locus of control as a contributing factor in the relation between self-perception and adolescent aggression.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Marion T; Barry, Christopher T; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Green, Bradley A

    2012-01-01

    Researchers continue to debate the role of self-esteem in aggression, but research has shown a consistent association between narcissism and aggression in adults and adolescents [e.g., Barry et al., 2007; Bushman and Baumeister, 1998; Stucke, 2007]. The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether locus of control (LOC) moderated the relation between self-perception variables (i.e., self-esteem and narcissism) and aggression in adolescents. Participants were 174 youth (145 males, 26 females) between the ages of 16 and 19 who were enrolled in a voluntary residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. The results showed that LOC moderated the association between self-esteem and aggression such that low self-esteem was associated with higher levels of aggression for individuals with an external LOC. Contrary to expectations, LOC failed to moderate the narcissism-aggression relation. The implications of this study for understanding how self-perception is related to adolescent aggression are discussed.

  11. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  12. The c-MET Network as Novel Prognostic Marker for Predicting Bladder Cancer Patients with an Increased Risk of Developing Aggressive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Phildu; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Seon-Young; Yan, Chunri; Seo, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that c-MET is overexpressed in cases of aggressive bladder cancer (BCa). Identification of crosstalk between c-MET and other RTKs such as AXL and PDGFR suggest that c-MET network genes (c-MET-AXL-PDGFR) may be clinically relevant to BCa. Here, we examine whether expression of c-MET network genes can be used to identify BCa patients at increased risk of developing aggressive disease. In vitro analysis, c-MET knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In addition, c-MET network gene (c-MET, AXL, and PDGFR) expression allowed discrimination of BCa tissues from normal control tissues and appeared to predict poor disease progression in non-muscle invasive BCa patients and poor overall survival in muscle invasive BCa patients. These results suggest that c-MET network gene expression is a novel prognostic marker for predicting which BCa patients have an increased risk of developing aggressive disease. These genes might be a useful marker for co-targeting therapy, and are expected to play an important role in improving both response to treatment and survival of BCa patients. PMID:26225770

  13. The c-MET Network as Novel Prognostic Marker for Predicting Bladder Cancer Patients with an Increased Risk of Developing Aggressive Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Won; Yun, Seok Joong; Jeong, Phildu; Kim, Seon-Kyu; Kim, Seon-Young; Yan, Chunri; Seo, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that c-MET is overexpressed in cases of aggressive bladder cancer (BCa). Identification of crosstalk between c-MET and other RTKs such as AXL and PDGFR suggest that c-MET network genes (c-MET-AXL-PDGFR) may be clinically relevant to BCa. Here, we examine whether expression of c-MET network genes can be used to identify BCa patients at increased risk of developing aggressive disease. In vitro analysis, c-MET knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In addition, c-MET network gene (c-MET, AXL, and PDGFR) expression allowed discrimination of BCa tissues from normal control tissues and appeared to predict poor disease progression in non-muscle invasive BCa patients and poor overall survival in muscle invasive BCa patients. These results suggest that c-MET network gene expression is a novel prognostic marker for predicting which BCa patients have an increased risk of developing aggressive disease. These genes might be a useful marker for co-targeting therapy, and are expected to play an important role in improving both response to treatment and survival of BCa patients.

  14. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  15. Biomarkers, genetics, and risk factors for concussion.

    PubMed

    Finnoff, Jonathan T; Jelsing, Elena J; Smith, Jay

    2011-10-01

    It is estimated that between 1.6 and 3.8 million concussions occur annually in the United States. Although frequently regarded as benign, concussions can lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, including prolonged postconcussive symptoms, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, early onset dementia, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, motor neuron disease, and even death. Therefore it is important to identify individuals with concussion to provide appropriate medical care and minimize adverse outcomes. Furthermore, it is important to identify individuals who are predisposed to sustaining a concussion or to having an adverse outcome after concussion. This article will discuss the current research on serum biomarkers for concussion, genetic influence on concussion, risk factors associated with concussion predisposition and poor outcome, and practical suggestions for the application of this information in clinical practice.

  16. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  17. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  18. Risk factors and prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Storti, S; Crucitti, P; Cina, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last 20 years within the clinical research on venous thromboembolism a major objective was to identify and develop increasingly effective and safe methods of prevention. This trend is justified by the high incidence of thromboembolism as well as by the relevant mortality for acute pulmonary embolism and postphlebitic sequels of difficult treatment. A significant contribution to the rational application of methods of prevention was given by the knowledge of risk factors. Together with acquired risks, as surgery, age, malignant tumors, in the last 30 years some conditions of thrombophilia were identified. They are caused by deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors (antithrombin III, protein C, protein S) or other alteration of the anticoagulation system as resistance to activated protein C or antiphospholipid antibodies. The primary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism is aimed at the prevention of thrombosis by pharmacologic methods able to oppose the procoagulant alterations while avoiding hemorrhagic complications. The physical methods tend to reduce the stasis in the veins of the lower extremities. Subcutaneous calcium heparin at the dose of 5000 U twice or three times a day is the most common pharmacologic method used. It was shown to be safe and effective especially in postoperative prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in general surgery. More recently, low molecular weight heparin fractions have been introduced. As compared to standard heparin they have the advantage of a single daily dose and a better efficacy in some groups of patients, as those undergoing hip replacement. Among the substances under clinical experimentation, dermatan sulfate seems promising. Most common physical prevention methods consist in the use of elastic graduated compression stockings and systems of intermittent pneumatic calf compression. The former can be used also in presence of a hemorrhagic risk as in neurosurgery. The latter have shown a good efficacy in increasing flow

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  20. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  1. Genetic and environmental stability differs in reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9-10 years (N=1,241) and 11-14 years (N=874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Stability Differs in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9–10 years (N = 1,241) and 11–14 years (N = 874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression. PMID:19688841

  3. Esophageal Cancer in Golestan Province, Iran: A Review of Genetic Susceptibility and Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Mahin; Islami, Farhad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Khoshnia, Masoud; Badakhshan, Abbas; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor that is typically diagnosed only when the tumor has gained remarkable size, extended to peripheral tissues, and led to dysphagia. Five-year survival of advanced cancer is still very poor (19%), even with improved surgical techniques and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Therefore, early detection and prevention are the most important strategies to reduce the burden of ESCC. Our review will focus on the studies conducted in Golestan province, an area with a high prevalence of ESCC in northern Iran. We review three aspects of the research literature on ESCC: epidemiological features, environmental factors (including substance abuse, environmental contaminants, dietary factors, and human papillomavirus [HPV]), and molecular factors (including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and other relevant biomarkers). Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that some chemicals and lifestyle factors, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cigarette smoking, opium use, and hot tea drinking are associated with the development of ESCC in Golestan. HPV infects the esophageal epithelium, but so far, no firm evidence of its involvement in esophageal carcinogenesis has been provided. Some of these factors, notably hot tea drinking, may render the esophageal mucosa more susceptible to injury by other carcinogens. There are few studies at molecular level on ESCC in Golestan. Increasing awareness about the known risk factors of ESCC could potentially reduce the burden of ESCC in the region. Further studies on risk factors, identifying high risk populations, and early detection are needed. PMID:27957288

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-α G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and aggressive periodontitis susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yong-Ji; Wu, Lan; Cui, Li-Jun; Hu, Ding-Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-11

    Association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) were inconsistent, hence we performed this meta-analysis to clarify the association between them using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v2.2 software. 16 case-control studies were searched from the PubMed, Embase and CNKI databases up to February 2, 2015. The meta-analysis showed a significantly increased risk in A vs. G (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.04-1.44), AA vs. GG (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.11-3.87), and AA vs. AG+GG genetic models (OR = 2.09, 95%CI = 1.13-3.86); however, the non-significantly increased risk was shown in AG vs. GG (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85-1.32) and AA+AG vs. GG genetic models (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85-1.31). Cumulative analysis showed that the association changed from non-significant to significant with new studies accumulated and the CIs became more and more narrow, sensitivity analysis indicated results were statistically robust. Stratified analyses of confirmed of HWE, Asians, Caucasians, and population-based controls obtained results similar to that of overall analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias. In summary, current evidence demonstrates that TNF-a G-308A polymorphism might be associated with AgP susceptibility, especially in Asians and Caucasians.

  5. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anthony G.; Sun, Junjiang; Hannah, William B.; Livingston, Eric W.; Heymann, Dominique; Bateman, Ted A.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of hemophilia, a very high prevalance of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with hemophilia. The current study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of hemophilic mice resulting from hemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Methods Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint hemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous Factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after hemorrhage. Mice were euthanized two-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Results Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number, and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci, and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Conclusion Knee joint hemorrhage resulted in acute changes of adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  6. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; Rombetto, Luca; Matarazzo, Francesco; Carelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age) and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate. PMID:27799735

  7. Effect of risk factors on exercise capacity in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Estacio, R O; Wolfel, E E; Regensteiner, J G; Jeffers, B; Havranek, E P; Savage, S; Schrier, R W

    1996-01-01

    Exercise capacity has been used as a noninvasive parameter for predicting cardiovascular events. It is known that diabetic patients have an impaired exercise capacity when compared with nondiabetic age-matched control subjects, but the risk factors associated with this impairment have not been thoroughly analyzed. A total of 453 male and female NIDDM patients who underwent graded exercise testing with expired gas analysis were studied to determine the possible influences of demographic and cardiac risk factors on exercise capacity. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed on baseline patient characteristics with respect to peak oxygen consumption (VO2). In the regression analyses, African-American race was strongly associated with a decrease in peak VO2; the difference in means between African-Americans and other subjects for men was -2.50 ml.kg-1.min-1 (-4.28, -0.07, 95% CI) (P < 0.006) and for women was -2.96 ml.kg-1.min-1 (-4.45, -1.47) (P < 0.0002). Univariate analyses revealed that African-American subjects had increased prevalence, longer duration, and higher systolic and diastolic hypertension than the non-Hispanic and Hispanic whites. Other independent predictors of peak VO2 (reported as change in peak VO2 in milliliters per kilogram per minute) were BMI (men: -0.39 kg/m2 [-0.52, -0.29], P < 0.0001; women: -0.39 kg/m2 [-0.48, -0.31], P < 0.0001), age (men: -0.16/year [-0.23, -0.09], P < 0.0001; women: -0.17/year [-0.24, -0.11], P < 0.0001), baseline resting systolic blood pressure (men: -0.03/mmHg [-0.06, -0.01], P < 0.05; women: -0.03/mmHg (-0.06, -0.01)f1p4< 0.05), and pack-years smoking (men: -0.04/pack-years [-0.04, -0.01], P < 0.01; women: -0.04/pack-years [-0.07, -0.01], P < 0.0001). Thus, in this large NIDDM study, weight loss, smoking cessation, and aggressive blood pressure control, particularly in African-Americans with NIDDM, would appear to be important in improving exercise capacity and potentially improving the

  8. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  9. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model⋆

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  10. The Link Between Alcohol Use and Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities: An Event-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on non-drinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men’s patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups. PMID:20853937

  11. The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities: an event-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-09-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18-30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on nondrinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men's patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

  12. Recurrence and prognostic factors in patients with aggressive fibromatosis. The role of radical surgery and its limitations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgery is still the standard treatment for aggressive fibromatosis (AF); however, local control remains a significant problem and the impact of R0 surgery on cumulative recurrence (CR) is objective of contradictory reports. Methods This is a single-institution study of 62 consecutive patients affected by extra-abdominal and intra-abdominal AF who received macroscopically radical surgery within a time period of 15 years. Results Definitive pathology examination confirmed an R0 situation in 49 patients and an R1 in 13 patients. Five-year CR for patients who underwent R0 vs R1 surgery was 7.1% vs 46.4% (P = 0.04) and for limbs vs other localizations 33.3% vs 9.9% (P = 0.02) respectively. In 17 patients who had intraoperative frozen section (IFS) margin evaluation R0 surgery was more common (17 of 17 vs 32 of 45, P = 0.01) and CR lower (five-year CR 0% vs 19.1%, respectively, P = 0.04). However, in multivariate analysis only limb localization showed a negative impact on CR (HR: 1.708, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.84, P = 0.04). Conclusions IFS evaluation could help the surgeon to achieve R0 surgery in AF. Non-surgical treatment, including watchful follow-up, could be indicated for patients with limb AF localization, because of their high risk of recurrence even after R0 surgery. PMID:22963172

  13. Personalized Predictive Modeling and Risk Factor Identification using Patient Similarity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors.

  14. Peer influences on the dating aggression process among Brazilian street youth: A brief report

    PubMed Central

    Antônio, Tiago; Koller, Silvia H.; Hokoda, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    This study explored risk factors for adolescent dating aggression (ADA) among Brazilian street youth. Forty-three adolescents, between the ages of 13-17 years, were recruited at services centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Simultaneous multiple regression revealed that ADA was significantly predicted by adolescent dating victimization, and that this relationship was moderated by peer involvement in dating aggression. Results also revealed that peer involvement in dating aggression did not significantly predict ADA. These findings suggested that having peers who are involved in dating aggression exacerbates the effects of dating victimization on ADA among Brazilian street youth. However, adolescent dating victimization might be a stronger risk factor for dating aggression in this population, because when controlling for the effects of victimization in dating conflicts peer abuse towards romantic partners did not uniquely contribute to ADA. PMID:22203638

  15. Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner aggression among dating couples: the role of impulse control difficulties.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, research identifying moderators of the alcohol-intimate partner aggression (IPA) relationship has focused almost exclusively on male-perpetrated aggression, without accounting for the dyadic processes of IPA. The current study examined hazardous alcohol use and impulse control difficulties as predictors of IPA among a sample of 73 heterosexual dating couples. Both actor and partner effects of these risk factors on physical and psychological aggression were examined. Results indicated that impulse control difficulties were an important actor and partner predictor of both physical and psychological aggression. Findings supported the multiple threshold model such that the interaction between impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use significantly predicted physical aggression severity. These results suggest the importance of targeting impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use in IPA treatment, as well as the advantages of examining risk factors of IPA within a dyadic rather than individual framework.

  16. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research.

  17. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Methods Data from the Stroke Foundation ‘Know your numbers’ program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Findings Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Conclusions Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world. PMID:28245267

  18. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Data from epidemiologic reports have had mixed results on the role of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for prostate...mediators in a city with high rates of vitamin D deficiency in a case-control study of 40-79 year old African American and European American with incidence...awarded   a  new  investigator  award  by  the  NIH  Office  of   AIDS   Research  in  collaboration  with  two

  20. First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    1999-01-01

    Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…

  1. Heart Disease Risk Factors for Children and Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... called risk factors . Some risk factors can be changed, treated, or modified, and some cannot. Many risk ... would not date someone who smokes. Be a role model for your child. If you ... aging, gender, lifestyle, and illness. Obesity in children is dangerous ...

  2. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-02-15

    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  3. Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on ‘limited prosocial emotions’ (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10–12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10–12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10–12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10–12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  4. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.

  5. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  6. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  7. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation.

  8. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment.

  9. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Epidemiology, environmental risk factors and genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delamarre, Anna; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2017-02-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease with a premotor phase that lasts several years. Risk factors that have been linked to PD are tobacco, caffeine, black tea, pesticides and calcium channel blockers. Some risk factors may be due to inverse causality (e.g. changes in personality during the premotor phase). The genetics of PD are complex with a contribution of Mendelian (e.g. SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin, Pink1,…) and non-Mendelian factors (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms). Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations (Gaucher disease) are currently the strongest genetic risk factor for PD. Studying risk factors will help to better understand the pathogenesis of PD.

  11. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26886483

  12. Risk and preventive factors for prostate cancer in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective (JPHC) study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is much lower in Asian than in Western populations. Lifestyle and dietary habits may play a major role in the etiology of this cancer. Given the possibility that risk factors for prostate cancer differ by disease aggressiveness, and the fact that 5-year relative survival rate of localized prostate cancer is 100%, identifying preventive factors against advanced prostate cancer is an important goal. Using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, the author elucidates various lifestyle risk factors for prostate cancer among Japanese men. The results show that abstinence from alcohol and tobacco might be important factors in the prevention of advanced prostate cancer. Moreover, the isoflavones and green tea intake in the typical Japanese diet may decrease the risk of localized and advanced prostate cancers, respectively. PMID:28135193

  13. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Your risk of getting colorectal cancer increases as you get older. More than 90% ...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental risk factors, such as radiation and certain chemicals, have been linked to MDS. High-dose radiation exposure (such as surviving an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of developing MDS. Long- ...

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  16. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  17. Clinical risk factors and periventricular leucomalacia.

    PubMed

    Trounce, J Q; Shaw, D E; Levene, M I; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred infants of below 1501 g at birth were regularly examined with real time ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. Abnormalities were categorized as periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) (n = 107) or periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), with or without PVH (n = 52). Of the group with PVL, 25 had the appearances of prolonged flare without cavitation. Prospective assessments of up to 50 potential clinical risk factors were made wherever possible on each infant including stratification of all blood gas and systolic blood pressure data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed a strong correlation between immaturity and PVH but this was not found in cases of PVL. Independent variables associated with PVL included pneumothorax, maximum bilirubin concentration, surgery, and the proportion of time the infant's PaCO2 remained above 7 kPa. There was a very strong inverse correlation between anaemia and PVL. Systolic blood pressure data were carefully analysed and there was no relation between either hypotension or antepartum haemorrhage and the development of PVL.

  18. Perimenstrual symptoms: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Logue, C M; Moos, R H

    1986-01-01

    This article provides an overview of information on the prevalence of perimenstrual symptoms. Overall, at least 40% of women experience some cyclical perimenstrual symptoms. Although most women rate their symptoms as mild, approximately 2%-10% report severe symptoms. Prospective studies of perimenstrual symptoms indicate that retrospective reports are reasonably accurate among women who experience moderate to severe symptoms. However, among the majority of women with few or minimal symptoms, retrospective reports may amplify the cyclicity of variation in comparison to concurrent reports. A variety of risk factors are associated with patterns of symptom reporting and may provide clues to the etiology of perimenstrual symptoms and help to identify women most vulnerable to them. A woman's age and cycle characteristics are predictors of the type and severity of perimenstrual symptoms she experiences. In addition, a history of affective illness may be associated with increased reporting of perimenstrual symptoms. Future research should focus on developing new diagnostic criteria for subtypes of perimenstrual syndromes, exploring positive symptoms and experiences associated with the menstrual cycle, and formulating holistic treatment approaches that view perimenstrual syndromes as psychosomatic conditions.

  19. Seasonal variations of selected cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews research on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular risk - cholesterol and other lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine - in the attempt to determine the existence of a predictable seasonal chronobiological pattern of variation. Studies dating as far back as the 1930s have reported seasonal variations in cholesterol levels. Statistically significant seasonal changes in lipid levels have been found in individuals irrespective of the country where the research has been conducted, and irrespective of the age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline lipid levels of the study subjects. While not all studies have been in complete agreement on either the amplitude (degree of seasonal change) or month/s of highest lipid levels, a strong winter/summer difference has been found in most studies. Existing evidence for an independent effect of season in variation of CRP is weak. Studies have consistently reported significant seasonal variations in fibrinogen levels. While other biological factors clearly interact to affect fibrinogen variability, seasonality appears to be an independent source of variability. Evidence from several studies points to a lack of seasonal variability in homocysteine levels. Although seasonal variability is just one source of periodicity influencing biological function and assessments in clinical practice, for some biomarkers, including lipids and fibrinogen, it is a source of variability that warrants consideration prior to a decision to treat and in assessing response to interventions.

  20. Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Song, Jong-Oh; Park, Jung-Hwan; Koh, Soon-Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Seo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to identify risk factors for developing rhabdomyolysis in patients with doxylamine overdose. Patients who were admitted to a university teaching hospital between July 2000 and September 2005 due to doxylamine overdose were recruited. Demographic information, clinical variables, and laboratory data were investigated. Twenty-seven (M/F 12/15, age 33.2 +/-13.1 years) patients were enrolled. Sixteen (59%) of 27 patients developed rhabdomyolysis and three (19%) of 16 patients with rhabdomyolysis also developed acute renal failure. Patients who developed rhabdomyolysis differed from those who did not in the amount of doxylamine ingested, initial serum creatitnine and arterial pH. In multivariate regression analysis, the only reliable predictor of rhabdomyolysis was the amount of doxylamine ingested (P = 0.039). The amount of doxylamine ingested (>/= 20 mg/kg) predicted the development of rhabdomyolysis with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 82%, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 75%.In conclusion, rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose was common, occurring in 87% of patients who ingested more than 20 mg/kg. The amount of doxylamine ingested was the only reliable predictor for developing rhabdomyolysis following doxylamine overdose.

  1. The pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor variation with disease progression and aggressiveness in colorectal cancer depends on tumor location

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGIORGIS, PETROS C.; ZIZI, ADAMANTIA E.; TSELENI, SOPHIA; OIKONOMAKIS, IOANNIS N.; NIKITEAS, NIKOLAOS I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains unclear despite the recent development of anti-EGFR treatments for metastatic disease. The heterogeneity of CRC may account for this discrepancy; proximal and distal CRC has been found to be genetically and clinicopathologically different. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tumor location on the association of EGFR with the conventional prognostic indicators (stage and grade) in CRC. Immunohistochemical assessment of EGFR was retrospectively performed in 119 primary CRC specimens and data were correlated with tumor stage and grade in the proximal and distal tumor subset. The molecular combination of EGFR with p53 (previously assessed in this sample) was similarly analyzed. EGFR positivity was detected in 34, 30 and 35% of the entire cohort, proximal and distal tumors, respectively. The pattern of EGFR clinicopathological correlation was found to differ by site. A reduction in the frequency of EGFR(+) with progression of stage and/or worsening of grade was observed proximally, whereas an opposite trend was recorded distally. Proximal tumors with stage I or with indolent features (stage I, well-differentiated) exhibited a significantly higher proportion of EGFR positivity than other tumors of this location (p=0.023 and p=0.022, respectively) or corresponding distal tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.035, respectively). Moreover, the co-existence of EGFR and high p53 staining (accounting for 11% of cases) was found in a significantly higher proportion of stage IV tumors compared to other stages (p=0.004), although only for the distal subset. Proximal and distal tumors showed various patterns of EGFR variation with disease progression and aggressiveness. This disparity provides further support to the hypothesis that these particular subsets of CRC are distinct tumor entities. It may also be suggestive of a potentially different therapeutic approach according to

  2. Characterization of Desmoglein Expression in the Normal Prostatic Gland. Desmoglein 2 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Alison G.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Christiano, Angela M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The expression of desmogleins (DSGs), which are known to be crucial for establishing and maintaining the cell-cell adhesion required for tissue integrity, has been well characterized in the epidermis and hair follicle; however, their expression in other epithelial tissues such as prostate is poorly understood. Although downregulation of classical cadherins, such as E-cadherin, has been described in prostate cancer tissue samples, the expression of desmogleins has only been previously reported in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study we characterized desmoglein expression in normal prostate tissues, and further investigated whether Desmoglein 2 (DSG2) expression specifically can serve as a potential clinical prognostic factor for patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer. Experimental Design We utilized immunofluorescence to examine DSG2 expression in normal prostate (n = 50) and in a clinically well-characterized cohort of prostate cancer patients (n = 414). Correlation of DSG2 expression with clinico-pathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence was analyzed to assess its clinical significance. Results These studies revealed that DSG2 and DSG4 were specifically expressed in prostatic luminal cells, whereas basal cells lack their expression. In contrast, DSG1 and DSG3 were not expressed in normal prostate epithelium. Further analyses of DSG2 expression in prostate cancer revealed that reduced levels of this biomarker were a significant independent marker of poor clinical outcome. Conclusion Here we report for the first time that a low DSG2 expression phenotype is a useful prognostic biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and may serve as an aid in identifying patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:24896103

  3. ADAM12 is a prognostic factor associated with an aggressive molecular subtype of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Dong-Joo; Li, Andrew J; Beach, Jessica A; Walts, Ann E; Tran, Hang; Lester, Jenny; Karlan, Beth Y; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12) is a promising biomarker because of its low expression in normal tissues and high expression in a variety of human cancers. However, ADAM12 levels in ovarian cancer have not been well characterized. We previously identified ADAM12 as one of the signature genes associated with poor survival in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). Here, we sought to determine if high levels of the ADAM12 protein and/or messenger RNA (mRNA) are associated with clinical variables in HGSOC. We show that high protein levels of ADAM12 in banked preoperative sera are associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Tumor levels of ADAM12 mRNA were also associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival as well as with lymphatic and vascular invasion, and residual tumor volume following cytoreductive surgery. The majority of genes co-expressed with ADAM12 in HGSOC were transforming growth factor (TGF)β signaling targets that function in collagen remodeling and cell-matrix adhesion. In tumor sections, the ADAM12 protein and mRNA were expressed in epithelial cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells. In vitro data showed that ADAM12 mRNA levels can be increased by TGFβ signaling and direct contact between epithelial and stromal cells. High tumor levels of ADAM12 mRNA were characteristic of the mesenchymal/desmoplastic molecular subtype of HGSOC, which is known to have the poorest prognosis. Thus, ADAM12 may be a useful biomarker of aggressive ovarian cancer for which standard treatment is not effective.

  4. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  5. Region 2 of 8q24 is associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African descent from Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Romana, Marc; Gaffory, Cecile; Blanchet, Pascal; Cussenot, Olivier; Multigner, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Multiple regions of the genome have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians, particularly including several polymorphisms located at 8q24. Region 2 of 8q24 has been repeatedly found to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer among men of African descent, although one study performed in the Caribbean island of Jamaica did not report this finding. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16901979, located in region 2 of 8q24, was genotyped in 498 cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 541 controls from the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe, where the population is largely of African descent. The AA genotype and the A allele at rs16901979 were associated with elevated risks of prostate cancer (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.26-2.69, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.13-1.64, P = 0.001, respectively). Following stratification of the patients by disease aggressiveness, as defined by the Gleason score, the pooled genotypes AC + AA were associated with a higher risk of a Gleason score ≥7 at diagnosis (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17-2.73, P = 0.007). In summary, the A allele at rs16901979 was associated with the risk of prostate cancer in the Caribbean population of Guadeloupe, confirming its involvement in populations of African descent. Moreover, our study provides the first evidence of an association between this variant and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

  6. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  7. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

  8. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  9. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  10. Relationships among Violence Exposure, Depression, and Aggressive Behavior in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele S.; Carey, Michael P.; Kim, Wun Jung; Niedermeier, Danielle

    Recent research has indicated that adolescents are particularly prone to witnessing, perpetrating, and being victimized by violence. Research has also suggested that depression may be a risk factor for aggression in adolescents. This document presents preliminary results from a study evaluating the relationship among violence exposure, aggressive…

  11. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  12. A behaviour risk factor survey in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P; Fox, K; Minor, K

    1999-03-01

    A population based probability sample of 958 persons (454 males and 504 females) aged 15 to 49 years was surveyed in Jamaica in late 1993 for lifestyle and behaviour risk factors. Demographic characteristics of the sample were comparable to the general population, 60% of persons visited a private doctor the last time that they were ill. Based on self-reporting, 18% of the women and 8% of the men were hypertensive and 4.8% of the women and 3.3% of the men were diabetic. 26% of the men and 8% of the women had never had their blood pressure taken. 40% of the women had never had a Papanicolaou smear, 29% had never had a breast examination and 33% said that they were overweight compared with 18% of men. Smoking cigarettes and marijuana was more common among men (36%) than women (11%), as were drinking alcohol (79% of men, 41% of women) and heavy alcohol use (30% of men, 9% of women). Injuries requiring medical attention in the previous five years were reported by 40% of the men and 15% of the women. 34% of the men and 12% of the women regularly carried a weapon and 18% of the sample had participated in or witnessed at least one violent act in the previous month. Most of the people interviewed used a contraceptive method; 10% were not sexually active. Significantly more men than women had two or more sexual partners in the previous year (54% vs 17%, p < 0.001) or reported ever having a sexually transmitted disease (29% vs 9%, p < 0.001). Younger persons were more sexually active and more likely to use condoms during their most recent sexual intercourse. Higher socio-economic status and educational level generally had a more positive effect on health behaviour. This survey provides vital information relevant to planning health promotion campaigns and assessing their success.

  13. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Developmental Associations Between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Dating Aggression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-09-01

    While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression.

  15. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  16. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Collaco, Joseph M.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Nies, Melanie K.; Leshko, Jenny; Everett, Allen D.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant cause of morbidity in preterm infants, but no screening guidelines exist. We sought to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with PH in preterm infants to develop a PH risk score. Methods Retrospective analysis of two separate populations of preterm infants (NICU cohort n = 230; Clinic registry n = 580). Results 8.3% of the NICU cohort had PH after 4 weeks of age, while 14.8% of the clinic registry had PH after 2 months of age. Lower birth weights and longer initial hospitalizations were associated with PH in both populations (p<0.001 for all tests). Using adjusted logistic regression, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring ligation was associated with PH in both the NICU cohort (OR: 3.19; p = 0.024) and the clinic registry (OR: 2.67; p<0.001). Risk factors (birth weight ≤780 grams, home supplemental oxygen use, and PDA ligation) identified in the clinic registry (training dataset) were validated in the NICU cohort with 0–1 factors present were associated with ≤1.5% probability of having PH, any 2 factors with a 25% probability, and all 3 factors with a 40% probability. Conclusions Lower birth weight, PDA ligation, and respiratory support were associated with PH in both populations. A PH risk score based on clinical indicators from the training dataset predicted PH in the validation set. This risk score could help focus resources to preterm infants at higher risk for PH. Further work is needed to determine whether earlier or more aggressive management of ductal lesions could alter PH outcomes. PMID:27716811

  17. Risk Factors for Violence in Psychosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of 110 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Katrina; van Dorn, Richard; Fazel, Seena

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous reviews on risk and protective factors for violence in psychosis have produced contrasting findings. There is therefore a need to clarify the direction and strength of association of risk and protective factors for violent outcomes in individuals with psychosis. Method We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 6 electronic databases (CINAHL, EBSCO, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, PUBMED) and Google Scholar. Studies were identified that reported factors associated with violence in adults diagnosed, using DSM or ICD criteria, with schizophrenia and other psychoses. We considered non-English language studies and dissertations. Risk and protective factors were meta-analysed if reported in three or more primary studies. Meta-regression examined sources of heterogeneity. A novel meta-epidemiological approach was used to group similar risk factors into one of 10 domains. Sub-group analyses were then used to investigate whether risk domains differed for studies reporting severe violence (rather than aggression or hostility) and studies based in inpatient (rather than outpatient) settings. Findings There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5%) of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8%) were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable) risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values<0.001), higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values<0.01), and non-adherence with medication (p value <0.05). We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction

  18. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  19. Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D

    2017-04-10

    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9-13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult-reported aggression was re-collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form-specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross-form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross-form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression.

  20. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  1. Radiation effects: Modulating factors and risk assessment -- an overview.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, R

    2012-01-01

    Following low dose or low dose-rate exposures to ionising radiation, the principal resulting radiation-related risk is cancer. Site-specific cancer risk models have been developed that describe how the radiation-induced risk of a particular cancer type varies with the relevant tissue-specific absorbed dose of radiation. The degree of risk will also be determined by the radiation quality and the dose-rate, factors that will vary between types of radiation and cancer. Risk models also include a number of intrinsic factors that modify the radiation-related excess risk - sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, and attained age - although not all these factors enter into each site-specific model. Of some importance is how the radiation-related excess risk is transferred between populations when background incidence rates differ. For most cancer types, expert groups consider that the radiation-related excess risk in a population depends, to some extent, upon the background incidence rate, and therefore that radiation interacts with at least some of the major risk factors that determine the background risk for a person. For example, the radiation-induced risk of lung cancer depends on the degree of individual exposure to tobacco smoke, but the implicit assumption of the currently accepted risk transfer models is that interactions are a general feature of radiation-related cancer risk.

  2. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305

  3. Lifestyle management of erectile dysfunction: the role of cardiovascular and concomitant risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Friedman, Michael; Kostis, John B

    2005-12-26

    The influence and significance of lifestyle factors in erectile dysfunction (ED) have been demonstrated in cross-sectional and prospective, randomized, controlled trials. Recent epidemiologic studies in several countries have shown that modifiable lifestyle or risk factors, including physical activity in particular, are directly related to the occurrence of ED. In this article, we review several recent observational studies, 2 of which include a longitudinal follow-up component in the study design. The levels of physical activity in both of these studies predicted ED prevalence and incidence. Furthermore, the role of lifestyle changes (weight loss, physical activity) were recently demonstrated to be effective in modifying ED in a prospective, randomized Italian trial in moderately obese, sedentary men. Men without overt diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease participated in this landmark study. Other studies have shown that aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors can increase the effectiveness or outcomes associated with pharmacologic management of ED. Taken together, these studies support the value of risk factor modification and lifestyle change in the clinical management in men with ED and concomitant cardiovascular illness.

  4. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  5. KLRC3, a Natural Killer receptor gene, is a key factor involved in glioblastoma tumourigenesis and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Cheray, Mathilde; Bessette, Barbara; Lacroix, Aurélie; Mélin, Carole; Jawhari, Soha; Pinet, Sandra; Deluche, Elise; Clavère, Pierre; Durand, Karine; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Battu, Serge; Lalloué, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumour with a poor prognosis. Cancer stem cells (CSC) were proposed to be the most aggressive cells allowing brain tumour recurrence and aggressiveness. Current challenge is to determine CSC signature to characterize these cells and to develop new therapeutics. In a previous work, we achieved a screening of glycosylation-related genes to characterize specific genes involved in CSC maintenance. Three genes named CHI3L1, KLRC3 and PRUNE2 were found overexpressed in glioblastoma undifferentiated cells (related to CSC) compared to the differentiated ones. The comparison of their roles suggest that KLRC3 gene coding for NKG2E, a protein initially identified in NK cells, is more important than both two other genes in glioblastomas aggressiveness. Indeed, KLRC3 silencing decreased self-renewal capacity, invasion, proliferation, radioresistance and tumourigenicity of U87-MG glioblastoma cell line. For the first time we report that KLRC3 gene expression is linked to glioblastoma aggressiveness and could be a new potential therapeutic target to attenuate glioblastoma.

  6. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships.

  7. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris

    PubMed Central

    Frizzi, Filippo; Ciofi, Claudio; Dapporto, Leonardo; Natali, Chiara; Chelazzi, Guido; Turillazzi, Stefano; Santini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs) and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a ‘nasty neighbor’ effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships. PMID:26445245

  8. The Role of Unknown Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rafighdoust Abbas; Asadollah, Mirzaee; Hossien, Rafigdoust Amir

    2010-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction (MI), which is initiated from childhood and progresses gradually by aging. Several risk factors influence its progress, and are categorized as classic, traditional and novel factors. The role of unknown risk factors is becoming increasingly more significant recently. The aim of this study is to underscore the novel risk factors despite the importance of classic factors and consider these factors for future studies. Methods This is a prospective study on 180 myocardial infarction cases, conducted in the cardiology ward and CCU of Imam-Reza hospital (Mashad-IRAN). A number of risk factors identified and evaluated in these patients included: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, activity, stress, hair of external ear canal and ear lobe crease, age, and sex. Then patients without any risk factor or with one or two risk factors were distinguished. Results The majority of our patients were old men in the age range of 60 - 69 years. Amongst all patients 42.2% were smokers, 68.3% were type A personality group, 19% were active, 81% were physically inactive, 37.2% had hairy ear canal, 35% had hypertension, 21.1% were diabetic, 14.4% had hyperlipidemia and 30% had positive family history of myocardial infarction. Of great interest was the fact that of the patients whose case was studied, many did not have any risk factor or in some cases had only one. Conclusions In regard of increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases and myocardial infarction even amongst the young population, and because of considerable need to improve vascular risk detection, much research over the past decade has focused on identification of novel atherosclerotic risk factors, and some of these new risk factors are identified and some may be unknown. Amongst the new risk factors, inflammation has an important role, other risk factors that must be assessed are homocysteine, serum amyloid, and

  9. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Maternal sensitivity and overt aggression in young children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niccols, Alison; Milligan, Karen; Chisholm, Vivienne; Atkinson, Leslie

    2011-11-01

    Children with genetic syndromes offer a unique opportunity to combine genetic and environmental approaches to the study of aggression. Children with genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay are at increased risk for behavior problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. In this study, we examined maternal sensitivity of mothers of children with Down syndrome using home observations when their children were 2, 3, and 5 years old, and relations with maternal reports and observations of overt aggression at school at age 5. Maternal sensitivity at ages 2 and 3 years did not significantly predict child aggression at age 5, but low maternal sensitivity at age 5 was significantly related to overt aggression at both home and school. By replicating and extending earlier work, this study informs developmental theory and identifies an important maternal variable related to aggression in children with Down syndrome.

  11. The benefits of aggressive traits: a study with current and former street children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Crombach, Anselm; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive behavior in children and youths is commonly associated with exposure to violence and maltreatment. Consequently, aggressive behavior has often been explained as a form of reactive behavior in response to violence-inflicted mental suffering. However, perpetrating violence can become appealing, fascinating and exciting, i.e., may acquire appetitive, self-rewarding aspects. We postulated that this appetitive form of aggression reduces the vulnerability for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in insecure and violent environments. Furthermore we investigated the extent to which reactive aggression and appetitive aggression account for recent violent behavior in children and youths. We conducted semi-structured interviews in a sample of 112 children and youths (Mage=15.9 years) recruited from the streets, families and a residential center for vulnerable children in Burundi. We investigated the cumulative exposure to traumatic events and to domestic and community violence, assessed the recently committed offenses, the severity of PTSD symptoms, and the potential for reactive and appetitive aggression. Reactive aggression was positively related to PTSD, whilst appetitive aggression was negatively related to PTSD. Children higher in appetitive aggression were also more likely to display violent behavior. These results suggest that an appetitive perception of violence may be an useful adaption to insecure and violent living conditions reducing the vulnerability of children for trauma-related mental disorders. However, positive feelings experienced through violent or cruel behavior are also an important risk factor for ongoing aggressive behavior and therefore need to be considered in prevention strategies.

  12. Genetic architecture for human aggression: A study of gene-phenotype relationship in OMIM.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-07-01

    Genetic studies of human aggression have mainly focused on known candidate genes and pathways regulating serotonin and dopamine signaling and hormonal functions. These studies have taught us much about the genetics of human aggression, but no genetic locus has yet achieved genome-significance. We here present a review based on a paradoxical hypothesis that studies of rare, functional genetic variations can lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex multifactorial disorders such as aggression. We examined all aggression phenotypes catalogued in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), an Online Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. We identified 95 human disorders that have documented aggressive symptoms in at least one individual with a well-defined genetic variant. Altogether, we retrieved 86 causal genes. Although most of these genes had not been implicated in human aggression by previous studies, the most significantly enriched canonical pathways had been previously implicated in aggression (e.g., serotonin and dopamine signaling). Our findings provide strong evidence to support the causal role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of aggression. In addition, the novel genes and pathways we identified suggest additional mechanisms underlying the origins of human aggression. Genome-wide association studies with very large samples will be needed to determine if common variants in these genes are risk factors for aggression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Risk factors for destructive periodontitis. I. Behavioral and acquired factors (literature review)].

    PubMed

    Gera, István

    2004-02-01

    Dental plaque is a necessary but not sufficient etiologic factor of the destructive periodontal disease. The manifestation of periodontal destruction is influenced by a wide variety of risk factors and determinants. In the introduction the terminology of different etiologic and risk factors are discussed in general. Than the risk factors and determinants of destructive periodontitis are overviewed. In the first part the acquired and behavioral factors and determinates are discussed. Among the local factors the role of the individual oral hygiene, the specificity of subgingival dental plaque the plaque retentive factors and occlusal traumatism are discussed. The hormonal, the acquired immunological factors, osteoporosis and the age are discussed as systemic risk factors and determinants. Among the behavioral factors smoking, psychological stress and socio-economic factors are covered. The second part is going to cover the genetic predisposing factors.

  14. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels.

  15. Behaviour Problems and Adults with Down Syndrome: Childhood Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with intellectual disability suggest that several individual characteristics and environmental factors are associated with behaviour disorder. To date there are few studies looking at risk factors within specific syndromes and the relationship between early risk markers and later behaviour disorder. The key aim of the…

  16. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema ...Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2004 – 30 Sep 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast...axillary lymph nodes removed were followed for the development of arm lymphedema . Participants completed a baseline interview and subsequent

  17. Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0387 TITLE: Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema ...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2005 – 30 Sep 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Modifiable Risk Factors for Lymphedema in Breast...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema of the arm is a consequence of breast cancer

  18. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  19. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  1. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  2. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  3. Environmental Influences and Perinatal Risk Factors in High Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others

    Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…

  4. Risk factors associated with injuries in thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H O; Hill, T; Lowe, J

    1991-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted on Thoroughbred horses to identify factors associated with the risk of breakdown on racetracks. A total of 310 cases (breakdowns) were identified from the Horse Identification Department records kept by the chief examining veterinarian of New York Racing Association. For each case, two control horses were selected randomly from the Daily Racing Form Inc. records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify and quantify the risk of factors associated with breakdown, while simultaneously controlling for the effect of other putative factors. Factors associated with risk of breakdown were: track (horses raced on Saratoga racetrack were at a lesser risk of breakdown), track composition/condition (turf tracks had a lower risk compared to dirt), number of seasons in race, racing in a later race, number of starts per year, the total number of starts, season (summer had a higher risk than winter or spring) and age of the horse.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  6. Aggression as an equifinal outcome of distinct neurocognitive and neuroaffective processes.

    PubMed

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark T; Fortunato, Christine K; Coccia, Michael A

    2012-08-01

    Early onset aggression precipitates a cascade of risk factors, increasing the probability of a range of externalizing and internalizing psychopathological outcomes. Unfortunately, decades of research on the etiological contributions to the manifestation of aggression have failed to yield identification of any risk factors determined to be either necessary or sufficient, likely attributable to etiological heterogeneity within the construct of aggression. Differential pathways of etiological risk are not easily discerned at the behavioral or self-report level, particularly in young children, requiring multilevel analysis of risk pathways. This study focuses on three domains of risk to examine the heterogeneity in 207 urban kindergarten children with high levels of aggression: cognitive processing, socioemotional competence and emotion processing, and family context. The results indicate that 90% of children in the high aggression group could be characterized as either low in verbal ability or high in physiological arousal (resting skin conductance). Children characterized as low verbal, high arousal, or both differed in social and emotional competence, physiological reactivity to emotion, and aspects of family-based contextual risk. The implications of this etiologic heterogeneity of aggression are discussed in terms of assessment and treatment.

  7. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  8. Intersibling variability of retinopathy of prematurity in twins and its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Gaurav; Dogra, Mangat R; Dutta, Sourabh; Katoch, Deeksha; Gupta, Amod

    2012-04-01

    To study intersibling variability of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in twins and determine its risk factors. A retrospective chart review of twin neonates developing ROP at a tertiary center over a 5 year period (January 2004 to December 2008). Twin pairs with intersibling variability of ROP were retrieved based on one of the following criterion: (1) two-stage difference in ROP between siblings, (2) one sibling with treatable ROP and the other with spontaneously regressed ROP, or (3) one sibling with aggressive posterior ROP and the other with staged ROP. Babies with greater severity of ROP were included in group A (case group) and their siblings with less severity in group B (control group).The two groups were compared for birth weight, birth order and putative post-gestational risk factors. Thirty-five twin pairs developed ROP of which 28 pairs (80%) had severe intersibling variability. Twenty-one pairs with complete information about risk factors were analyzed. The birth weight of the case group was 1212.1 ± 248.3 g (mean ± SD) and control group 1172.1 ± 216.5 g (mean ± SD) (p = 0.33). In twelve of the 21 pairs the second born twin had more severe ROP. However, birth order was not a significant predictor (p = 0.664). Various post-gestational risk factors did not differ significantly between the two groups [oxygen administration (p = 1), sepsis (p = 0.625), exchange transfusion (p = 1), blood transfusion (p = 0.325), respiratory distress syndrome (p = 1), anemia (p = 0.125), apnea (0.375), neonatal jaundice (p = 1), patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.5) and hypoglycemia (p = 1)]. The majority of the twins developing ROP had severe intersibling variability. Birth weight, birth order and post-gestational neonatal risk factor were not predictive of more severe ROP in a twin sibling.

  9. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Gulati, R; Martin, U

    1996-10-01

    Many factors influence whether a person will develop coronary heart disease. Genetic predisposition, gender and advanced age are recognized risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease over which we have little control. On the other hand, high serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, excessive body weight and long-term physical inactivity are key risk factors over which we have considerable control. In many cases cardiac risk factors can be modified without resorting to pharmacological intervention. Current evidence suggests that individuals who follow a diet which is low in saturated fats and cholesterol, lose weight, stop cigarette smoking and take regular aerobic exercise will significantly reduce their risk of developing coronary heart disease. In addition, patients who already have evidence of coronary heart disease may improve their symptoms and prognosis by similar life-style changes. In the first of two parts, we review the role of exercise in modifying cardiac risk factors.

  10. Risk factors of patients with and without postoperative nausea (PON).

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline; Hudgens, Amanda N; Martin, Dana; Jones, Holly; Hunt, Ronald; Blackwell, Richard; Norton, H James; Divine, George

    2012-08-01

    This purpose of this analysis was to study risk factors of postoperative nausea (PON) and their strength. Data were obtained during the screening phase of a controlled clinical trial of aromatherapy for PON. In a sample of 1151 postsurgical subjects, 301 (26.2%) reported PON. Significant risk factors identified in the order of odds ratios for nausea were female gender, gastrointestinal surgery, use of volatile anesthesia gases, history of PON, history of motion sickness, and use of opioids after surgery. Although still over 1.0, the risk factors of length of surgery over 1 hour and gynecologic surgery had the lowest odds ratios. Likelihood of nausea increased significantly with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Administration of preventive antiemetic medication also increased with the number of significant risk factors (P<.0001). Among 301 subjects reporting nausea, 49 (16.28%) received preventive medication. Despite prevention efforts, PON remains a substantial side effect for many surgical patients.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  12. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials.

  13. Parents as moderators of the impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Mays, Sally A; Schoeny, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting variables as protective factors to reduce the influence of school and peer risk factors on adolescents' aggression. Five waves of data spanning 3 years were collected from 5,581 students at 37 schools who began the 6th grade in 2001 or 2002. Class-level and perceived school norms supporting aggression, delinquent peer associations, parental support for fighting and support for nonviolence, and parental involvement were each associated with physical aggression across all waves. Each parenting variable moderated 1 or more risk factors, with the magnitude of many effects varying by gender and decreasing over time. Implications for the role parents may play in reducing the impact of school and peer risk factors for aggression are discussed.

  14. Children at risk: 2. Risk Factors and Clinic Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-27

    health services utilization. develop more robust models of risk, and increase the effectiveness of our efforts directed towards prevention and...mental health services ( Tuckman and Regan, 1967; Novack it is vitally important that the various ways of measuring et al., 1975). Possibly, parental...related to clinic clinics than later-born children ( Tuckman and Regan, 1967). attrition have been conducted, it is not clear that such studies Possibly

  15. Risk Factors for Acute Leukemia in Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belson, Martin; Kingsley, Beverely; Holmes, Adrianne

    2007-01-01

    Although overall incidence is rare, leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It accounts for 30% of all cancers diagnosed in children younger than 15 years. Within this population, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs approximately five times more frequently than acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and accounts for approximately 78% of all childhood leukemia diagnoses. Epidemiologic studies of acute leukemias in children have examined possible risk factors, including genetic, infectious, and environmental, in an attempt to determine etiology. Only one environmental risk factor (ionizing radiation) has been significantly linked to ALL or AML. Most environmental risk factors have been found to be weakly and inconsistently associated with either form of acute childhood leukemia. Our review focuses on the demographics of childhood leukemia and the risk factors that have been associated with the development of childhood ALL or AML. The environmental risk factors discussed include ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, hydrocarbons, pesticides, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and illicit drug use. Knowledge of these particular risk factors can be used to support measures to reduce potentially harmful exposures and decrease the risk of disease. We also review genetic and infectious risk factors and other variables, including maternal reproductive history and birth characteristics. PMID:17366834

  16. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-04-07

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  17. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  18. Clinician perceptions of childhood risk factors for future antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Koegl, Christopher J; Farrington, David P; Augimeri, Leena K

    2009-07-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476 (87%) could be unambiguously classified under one discrete EARL factor category, providing support for the structure of the tools. Children's own antisocial behavior was seen as the most important factor, followed by experiencing abuse and having antisocial peers. In some cases, participants emphasized different risk factors for boys (e.g., having antisocial attitudes) and girls (e.g., low coping ability). The findings highlight the need to pay attention to client characteristics in developing risk assessment protocols and support continued efforts to bridge the gap between scientific research and clinical practice.

  19. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a three month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. Additionally, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. PMID:26048213

  20. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2015-08-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. In addition, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts.