Science.gov

Sample records for aggressive skin cancer

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  3. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  5. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  6. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  7. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  8. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  9. Vitamin D Levels and Related Genetic Polymorphisms, Sun Exposure, Skin Color, and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sun exposure, and dietary calcium and vitamin D intake are ascertained. Finally, the melanin content of the skin is measured using a skin reflectance...meter called a Dermaspectrometer, to measure baseline skin melanin content, which is known to inhibit vitamin D synthesis from sunlight. This...three hospitals in Chicago, along with demographic and medical information, BMI, and skin melanin content using a portable narrow-band reflectometer

  10. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  11. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  12. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  13. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  14. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  15. Common Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent C.

    1992-01-01

    Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma are the three most common forms of skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer is increasing at an alarming rate. Early detection is the key to successful management. In this article, the salient clinical features and diagnostic clues for these tumors and their precursor lesions are presented. Current management guidelines are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figures 2-3Figures 4-6Figures 7-9 PMID:21221380

  16. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  17. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  18. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  19. Aggressive histiocytic disorders that can involve the skin.

    PubMed

    Newman, Brenda; Hu, Weimin; Nigro, Kelly; Gilliam, Anita C

    2007-02-01

    Histiocytoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of reactive or neoplastic histiocytes. Three classes of histiocytoses have been defined: class I, Langerhans cell disease; class II, non-Langerhans cell histiocytic disease without features of malignancy; and class III, malignant histiocytic disorders. Although the disorders in classes I and II usually have a benign appearance on histology and are commonly non-aggressive and self-healing, some can cause debilitating or even fatal outcomes. Such cases beg the question: what stimulates aggressive behavior of a classically benign disease? New molecular information may now provide insight into the driving force behind many of the aggressive histiocytoses. In this article, we review Langerhans cell disease and seven aggressive histiocytoses that can involve skin, discuss histologic features that may forecast a poor prognosis, and discuss the molecular findings that help to explain the pathophysiology of these aggressive histiocytic disorders.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... than in African-Americans. TYPES OF SKIN CANCER Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common form of skin ... epidermis ). Radiation therapy is very effective for treating basal cell cancers that have not spread elsewhere. Other common treatments ...

  1. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  2. Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  3. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mertz, Kirsten D; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Tinguely, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTR) are at a significantly increased risk for developing a wide variety of skin cancers, particularly epithelial skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. Melanoma, skin adnexal neoplasm and cutaneous lymphomas are also more common in OTR and may differ in their clinicopathologic presentation from tumors in immunocompetent patients. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of suspected premalignant and malignant skin lesions in OTR is modest. Therefore, histopathological diagnosis is an essential element for the diagnostic workup of skin cancers and, in addition, provides important information on prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasias (actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ or Bowen's disease) are the most common forms of skin cancer in OTR. The risk of Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma is dramatically increased in OTR. Merkel cell carcinoma shows a highly aggressive course. Kaposi's sarcoma tends to spread to extracutaneous sites. Primary cutaneous lymphomas developing after organ transplantation are rare. The spectrum of cutaneous B cell lymphomas in OTR, in particular, differs significantly from that of the general population, with a predominance of Epstein-Barr virus-driven posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This review discusses the clinical and histopathological aspects of skin cancers in OTR, the impact of dermatopathological analysis on prognosis and the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms.

  4. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  6. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  7. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  8. Nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Lauren E; Ingraffea, Adam

    2013-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of malignancy in humans. The incidence of NMSC continues to increase despite increased awareness and sun-protective measures. If neglected or mismanaged, NMSC can cause significant morbidity and even death. The most common forms of NMSC on the head and neck include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment (standard excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, curettage); however, other modalities exist, including radiation, topical immunomodulators, photodynamic therapy, and new systemic medications.

  9. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? Research into the ... Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? More In Melanoma ...

  10. [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Kolm, Isabell; Hofbauer, Günther; Braun, Ralph P

    2010-09-01

    The skin is the most affected organ by cancer. The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma. Survival from melanoma is strongly related to tumour thickness. Therefore early detection is the most important step to improve prognosis. In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination. In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection. Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.

  11. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules.

  12. Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Cancer Immunotherapy Skin Cancer Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Immunotherapy Skin Cancer About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  13. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  14. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  15. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin. PMID:23015891

  16. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  17. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Melanoma Skin Cancer Most melanomas are brought to a ... New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? Biopsies of melanoma that may have spread Biopsies of areas other ...

  18. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  19. Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0056 TITLE: Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Breast Cancer Aggression 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ori Maller and Valerie M. Weaver email...ECM stiffening cooperate with inflammatory signaling to facilitate immune evasion and promote breast cancer aggression . In this progress report, I

  20. Nanotechnology for the treatment of melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Naves, Lucas B; Dhand, Chetna; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Almeida, Luis

    2017-03-16

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. This literature review intends to elucidate the possibilities to treat melanoma skin cancer using hybrid nanofibers developed by advanced electrospinning process. In this review we have shown that the enhanced permeability and retention is the basis for using nanotechnology, aiming topical drug delivery. The importance of the detection of skin cancer in the early stages is directly related to non-metastatic effects and survival rates of melanoma cells. Inhibitors of protein kinase are already available in the market for melanoma treatment and are approved by the FDA; these agents are cobimetinib, dabrafenib, ipilimumab, nivolumab, trametinib, and vemurafenib. We also report a case study involving two different approaches for targeting melanoma skin cancer therapy, namely, magnetic-based core-shell particles and electrospun mats.

  1. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... it is most common in areas exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  2. Skin cancer in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S.V.

    1987-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major concern in geriatric populations. Cumulative exposure to carcinogens and age-related factors both contribute to the high prevalence of cutaneous malignancy in the elderly. Although mortality rates from skin cancer are relatively low, morbidity can be significant, particularly if lesions are neglected. Physicians can have a major impact on the course of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma by nurturing a high index of suspicion for malignancy when unexplained cutaneous lesions are encountered. 56 references.

  3. Aggressive thyroid cancer: targeted therapy with sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Alda; Ferrari, Silvia M; Politti, Ugo; Mazzi, Valeria; Miccoli, Mario; Materazzi, Gabriele; Antonelli, Alessandro; Ulisse, Salvatore; Fallahi, Poupak; Miccoli, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar), is a multikinase inhibitor, which has demonstrated both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the activity of targets present in the tumoral cells (c-RAF [proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase], BRAF, (V600E)BRAF, c-KIT, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) and in tumor vessels (c-RAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β). Sorafenib was initially approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sorafenib has both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, against thyroid cancer cells. Furthermore, several completed (or ongoing) studies have evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in patients with papillary, follicular and medullary aggressive thyroid cancer. The results of the different studies showed good clinical responses and stabilization of the disease and suggested that sorafenib is a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced thyroid cancer that is not responsive to traditional therapeutic strategies (such as radioiodine). Currently, USA Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of sorafenib for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer.

  4. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... making a person immune to his or her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's ...

  5. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  6. Skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Foley, P

    2009-11-01

    Australia has one of the highest skin cancer incidence and mortality rates in the world. The reason for these high rates is due in part to the high ambient UV radiation levels, combined with a predominantly susceptible fair-skinned population. To address this problem, since 1980 Australians have been exposed to social marketing campaigns to raise awareness of skin cancer prevention. These campaigns have used mass media alongside interventions in schools, workplaces, and in community and leisure settings to motivate sun protective behaviour. As a result of these interventions it can be demonstrated that social marketing campaigns can be a very effective method to not only motivate behaviour change, reduce sunburn, and increase awareness but more importantly, reduce melanoma rates and bring positive economic returns to government. However long term investment in this area is required otherwise any population gains in behaviour are very likely to be quickly eroded.

  7. Protecting Our Children from Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Skin cancer in the United States is epidemic. About 90% of skin cancers are caused by sun exposure. The age of patients developing melanoma is dropping dramatically. Parents must protect their children from the sun during all outdoor activities year round. The article presents recommendations for preventing skin cancer. (SM)

  8. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  9. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis.

  10. Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-29

    vitamin D and genetic polymorphisms act synergistically to affect prostate cancer aggressiveness. We examined these associations among vitamin D...epidemiologic techniques for estimating odds of high aggressive prostate cancer according to vitamin D metabolites, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and genetic ...hypotheses a. Statistical analyses have been performed examining associations between 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer

  11. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FAS activity in prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify key metabolic ...intermediates involved in lipid metabolism , mitochondrial function, inflammation, and apoptosis in the prostatectomy samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS : none...vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism , and prostate cancer aggressiveness, our

  12. Targeting Aggressive Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Nowak, Anna; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12–15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance, and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggest that GSCs share critical signaling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors, SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog homeobox, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse, and achieve a cure for these patients. PMID:26258069

  13. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... for School Programs to Prevent Skin Cancer Research Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links Buttons and ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting melanoma of the skin or dying from melanoma of ...

  14. Human papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Smola, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect squamous epithelia and can induce hyperproliferative lesions. More than 120 different HPV types have been characterized and classified into five different genera. While mucosal high-risk HPVs have a well-established causal role in anogenital carcinogenesis, the biology of cutaneous HPVs is less well understood. The clinical relevance of genus beta-PV infection has clearly been demonstrated in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited disease associated with ahigh rate of skin cancer. In the normal population genus beta-PV are suspected to have an etiologic role in skin carcinogenesis as well but this is still controversially discussed. Their oncogenic potency has been investigated in mouse models and in vitro. In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the genus beta HPV types 5 and 8 as "possible carcinogenic" biological agents (group 2B) in EV disease. This chapter will give an overview on the knowns and unknowns of infections with genus beta-PV and discuss their potential impact on skin carcinogenesis in the general population.

  15. Outdoor sports and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Moehrle, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  16. Skin cancer: causes and groups at risk.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rachel Louise

    This second in a two-part series focuses on the causes and risk factors of skin cancer, highlighting risk factors among the general population as well as in high-risk groups. Part 1, published last week, outlined the main types of skin cancer and the treatment options available for each type; this article stresses the importance of early identification and patient education to prevent skin cancer.

  17. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care.

  18. Mobile teledermatology for skin cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Markun, Stefan; Scherz, Nathalie; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Braun, Ralph P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Skin cancer screening has undoubted potential to reduce cancer-specific morbidity and mortality. Total-body exams remain the prevailing concept of skin cancer screening even if effectiveness and value of this method are controversial. Meanwhile, store and forward teledermatology was shown to be a reliable instrument for several diagnostic purposes mostly in specialized dermatology settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate most convenient mobile teledermatology interventions as instruments for skin cancer screening in a representative population. Prospective diagnostic study with visitors of a skin cancer screening campaign in Switzerland. Histopathology was used as reference standard. Mobile teledermatology with or without dermoscopic images was assessed for performance as a screening test (i.e., rule-in or rule-out the need for further testing). Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Seven cases of skin cancer were present among 195 skin lesions. All skin cancers were ruled-in by teledermatology with or without dermoscopic images (sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%). The addition of dermoscopic images to conventional images resulted in higher specificity (85% vs. 77%), allowing reduction of unnecessary further testing in a larger proportion of skin lesions. Store and forward mobile teledermatology could serve as an instrument for population-based skin cancer screening because of favorable test performance. PMID:28272243

  19. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Staging Tests for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  20. Two Susceptibility Loci Identified for Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Alavanja, Michael C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Amundadottir, Laufey; Andriole, Gerald; Freeman, Laura Beane; Campa, Daniele; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Cussenot, Olivier; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hutchinson, Amy; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Koutros, Stella; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fred; Siddiq, Afshan; Stanford, Janet L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wilkund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S. Lilly; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Han; Sampson, Joshua; Black, Amanda; Jacobs, Kevin; Hoover, Robert N; Tucker, Margaret; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will experience indolent disease; hence discovering genetic variants that distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancer is of critical clinical importance for disease prevention and treatment. In a multistage, case-only genome-wide association study of 12,518 prostate cancer cases, we identify two loci associated with Gleason score, a pathological measure of disease aggressiveness: rs35148638 at 5q14.3 (RASA1, P=6.49×10-9) and rs78943174 at 3q26.31 (NAALADL2, P=4.18×10-8). In a stratified case-control analysis, the SNP at 5q14.3 appears specific for aggressive prostate cancer (P=8.85×10-5) with no association for non-aggressive prostate cancer compared to controls (P=0.57). The proximity of these loci to genes involved in vascular disease suggests potential biological mechanisms worthy of further investigation. PMID:25939597

  1. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0491 TITLE: Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate... MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jer...action is not fully characterized. Using microRNA microarray screening, we found microRNA -363 (miR363) is significantly down regulated in several

  2. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and risk of aggressive breast cancer in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-07-01

    Although breast cancer incidence in the US is highest for women of European ancestry (EA), women of African ancestry (AA) have higher incidence of cancer diagnosed before age 40 and tumors with more aggressive features (high grade and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)), which precludes targeted therapies and leads to poorer outcomes. It is unclear what underlies these disparities. It has been hypothesized that dark skin with high melanin content is the ancestral skin color of origin, with adaptation to northern environs resulting in lighter skin. Although intense sunlight in sub-Saharan Africa may compensate for low sun absorption through skin, an urban or western lifestyle may result in less synthesis of vitamin D with higher skin pigmentation. Laboratory and preclinical data indicate that vitamin D is involved in preventing breast carcinogenesis and progression. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knock-out mice are more likely to develop tumors that are ER-negative, and we have shown that serum levels of 25OHD are lowest among EA women with triple-negative tumors (negative for ER, PR and HER2); and among non-cancer patients, vitamin D levels are lower in AAs than in EAs. Thus, it is plausible to hypothesize that low vitamin D levels could be associated with the higher prevalence of more aggressive tumors among AA women. In this paper, we review the current literature on vitamin D and aggressive breast cancer subtypes, discuss vitamin D in AA women from a perspective of evolution and adaption, and examine the potential role of vitamin D in cancer racial disparities. We present our recently published data showing two single nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin D catabolic enzyme CYP24A1 associated with higher risk of estrogen ER-negative risk in AA than in EA women. The relationship of vitamin D with breast cancer risk may be subtype-specific, with emerging evidence of stronger effects of vitamin

  3. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  4. Skin cancer education in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Ilana; Geller, Alan C

    2008-12-01

    In the past 20 years, long-term survival for solid-organ transplant recipients has improved dramatically; about 223,000 patients are alive in the United States with organ transplants today. As survival rates improve, however, the morbidity and mortality associated with lifelong immunosuppressive therapy is increasing in significance. Skin cancer is common among recipients of all major organ transplants, including the kidney, liver, heart, lung, and pancreas. Although skin cancer is the most common cancer in transplant recipients, many cases can be prevented by sun protection, skin self-examinations, and physician examinations. Because transplant recipients visit the transplant clinic frequently, clinicians have ample opportunities to teach patients about the importance of prevention and detection of skin cancer. At a routine visit, the clinician should inquire about sun protection practices, especially for tanned, light-skinned, or freckled patients or patients who are planning a warm-weather vacation or time in the sun during the summer. Skin cancer education should be integrated into the care of transplant patients as part of their numerous visits to the transplant clinic. Although some transplant recipients may resist adopting new behaviors at first, use of the ample clinic opportunities for patient education can dramatically reduce their risk of skin cancer.

  5. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines might be used to prevent melanoma prevent polio treat melanoma A is the correct answer. Skin ... similar to traditional vaccines, like those that prevent polio, but cancer vaccines are given as treatment to ...

  6. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-10-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted.

  7. NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCER IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saumya

    2010-01-01

    Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy. Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin. Though national surveys and cross-country data in India are unavailable, there are indirect indications from several smaller reports that NMSCs may be on the rise in India. Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India. The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis. Novel management techniques currently available in India are also highlighted. PMID:21430894

  8. Choroidal and skin metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Joo Young; Oh, Edward Hynseung; Jung, Moon Ki; Park, Song Ee; Kim, Ji Tak; Hwang, In Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal and skin metastasis of colon cancer is rare. In women, the frequency of cutaneous metastasis from colon cancer as the primary lesion in is 9% and skin metastasis occurs in 0.81% of all colorectal cancers. We report a patient with colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in her right eye and scalp pain as her initial symptoms. Contrast-enhance orbital magnetic resonance imaging with fat suppression revealed an infrabulbar mass, and skin biopsy of the posterior parietal scalp confirmed adenocarcinoma. These symptoms were diagnosed as being caused by choroidal and skin metastases of colonic adenocarcinoma. We started palliative chemotherapy with oral capecitabine (1000 mg/m2, twice a day, on days 1-14) every 3 wk, which was effective at shrinking the brain masses and improving the visual disorder. This is the first report that capecitabine is effective at reducing a choroidal and cutaneous metastatic lesion from right-sided colorectal cancer. PMID:27920486

  9. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway as well as the family of RAS oncogenes and BRAF as a member of the RAF protein family and the aberrant expression of microRNAs miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b all play major roles in tumor initiation and progression of aggressive PTC. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC. PMID:24955023

  10. Public education and cancer of the skin. What do people need to know about melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, A R

    1995-01-15

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) have a high chance for cure if detected in an early phase of development. Patients who have these tumors may now be treated in the outpatient setting with a minimum of discomfort, inconvenience, and cost. Most skin cancer deaths are caused by CM. Until recently, CM incidence in the United States has been increasing faster than any other potentially lethal cancer, attributable at least in part to aggressive case detection and greater public awareness about the significance of risk factors and early warning signs of evolving tumors, resulting in increased numbers of curable tumors. Most CMs are discovered by patients or close acquaintances. Most CM deaths are related to patient delay in seeking medical care. Patient delay is attributed mostly to lack of knowledge rather than to fear and denial. In the United States, primary prevention of CM and NMSC has focused on encouraging sensible sun-exposure behaviors, while secondary prevention consists of a yearly national campaign that promotes skin awareness and self-examination and free examinations to detect evolving tumors, sponsored by the American Academy of Dermatology and the American Cancer Society. More attention is needed to encourage timely consultation for evolving tumors and predisposing risk factors and to focus screening and surveillance efforts of those people at greatest risk. Public education must continue to promote personal responsibility in the intervention process to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with CM and NMSC.

  11. Role of MicroRNA in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    SUBTITLE Role of microRNA in aggressive prostate cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0491 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER... cancer lesion, we applied ISH on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue . We first confirmed the specificity of miR363 probe using benign...with prostate cancer development. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Lo, U., Pong, R.C., Tseng, S.F., Hsieh, J.T. (2013) MicroRNA -363 regulated by a novel

  12. MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Detroit, MI. Little is known about the role of microRNAs ( miRNAs ) and their biogenesis in prostate cancer (PCa), and less is understood about the possible...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0477 TITLE: MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cathryn...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sept 2013-29 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MicroRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial

  13. Development of a Skin Cancer Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2003-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now categorizes skin cancer as epidemic. Nearly 90% of these deadly cancers start from sun exposure during the childhood years. This makes sun exposure in school-age children a serious public health risk, also one that school nurses can address. Solar radiation is now classified as a "known…

  14. Targets for molecular therapy of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2004-02-01

    Cancers of the skin encompass the first and second most common neoplasms in the United States, epidermal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, as well as the melanocytic malignancy, malignant melanoma (MM). Recently identified alterations in the function of specific genes in these cancers provide new potential therapeutic targets. These alterations affect conserved regulators of cellular proliferation and viability, including the Sonic Hedgehog, Ras/Raf, ARF/p53, p16(INK4A)/CDK4/Rb and NF-kappaB pathways. New modalities designed to target these specific proteins may represent promising approaches to therapy of human skin cancers.

  15. Grenz ray-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Frentz, G.

    1989-09-01

    In 28 patients, nonmelanoma skin cancers developed in areas previously exposed to grenz rays. In 17 patients who did not have psoriasis, no other relevant carcinogenic exposure could be incriminated. Women were more often affected than men. Most of the tumors were basal cell cancers, and most of the patients had multiple tumors. No threshold dose could be established. The distribution of the latency time among patients without psoriasis was strictly normal (median 18 years). These observations suggest that usual therapeutic doses of grenz rays, as a single agent, are capable of causing skin cancer, but only in those persons who are abnormally sensitive to x-rays. 9 references.

  16. Effect of Statins and Anticoagulants on Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alizadeh, Moein; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Zilli, Thomas; Van Nguyen, Thu; Guay, Jean-Pierre; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Taussky, Daniel

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Statins and anticoagulants (ACs) have both been associated with a less-aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and a better outcome after treatment of localized PCa. The results of these studies might have been confounded because patients might often take both medications. We examined their respective influence on PCa aggressiveness at initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 381 patients treated with either external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy for low-risk (n = 152), intermediate-risk (n = 142), or high-risk (n = 87) localized PCa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate an association between these drug classes and prostate cancer aggressiveness. We tested whether the concomitant use of statins and ACs had a different effect than that of either AC or statin use alone. Results: Of the 381 patients, 172 (45.1%) were taking statins and 141 (37.0%) ACs; 105 patients (27.6%) used both. On univariate analysis, the statin and AC users were associated with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (p = .017) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = .0022). On multivariate analysis, statin use was associated with a PSA level <10 ng/mL (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.8; p = .012) and a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.83; p = .03). The use of ACs was associated with a PSA level >20 ng/mL (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.59, p = .02). Conclusion: Both AC and statins have an effect on PCa aggressiveness, with statins having a more stringent relationship with the PSA level, highlighting the importance of considering statin use in studies of PCa aggressiveness.

  17. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes ... your fluid intake. • Treat the skin exposed to radiation with special care. Stay out of the sun, ...

  18. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    saturation bands (six for fat and two for water) were used to minimize lipid/water contamination to the VOI. The 2D MRSI sequence details are: TR/TE... fat as measured by in-vivo imaging using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the prediction of prostate disease aggressiveness...histology, in-vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism, and prostate cancer

  19. microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    final analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, microRNA, racial disparities, African American, genetic polymorphisms, biochemical recurrence...is to identify novel genetic and epigenetic factors that might contribute significantly to racial/ethnic disparity in PCa risk and progression. We...related miRNAs and PCa aggressiveness, and 3) determine the associations between genetic polymorphisms in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and plasma levels

  20. Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race, and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vitamin D and Related Genes, Race, and Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0568 Aggressiveness 5c. PROGRAM...examine whether altered vitamin D status (as measured by serum metabolites and by functional polymorphisms within genes related to vitamin D...potential to provide insights into a chronically underserved population carrying an unequal burden of disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin D, prostate

  1. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... melanomas do not make melanin and can appear pink, tan, or even white. Melanomas can develop anywhere ... Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  2. Novel Medical Strategies Combating Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prasan R; Pai, Varadraj V

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) continues to rise, partly because of aging, the frequency of early childhood sunburns, and sporadic extreme recreational sun exposure. A nonsurgical approach to selected cutaneous malignancy could possibly reduce the cost as well as morbidity of surgical treatment for NMSC. There has been growing interest in isolating compounds that could suppress or reverse the biochemical changes necessary for cutaneous malignancies to progress by pharmacologic intervention. By targeting diverse pathways recognized as important in the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancers, a combination approach with multiple agents or addition of chemopreventative agents to topical sunscreens may offer the potential for novel and synergistic therapies in treating nonmelanoma skin cancer. This preliminary information will expand to include more therapeutic options for NMSC in the future. PMID:25484380

  3. In vivo multiphoton tomography of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Buckle, Rainer; Dimitrow, Enrico; Kaatz, Martin; Fluhr, Joachim; Elsner, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect was used to perform first clinical studies on the early non-invasive detection of skin cancer based on non-invasive optical sectioning of skin by two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation. In particular, deep-tissue pigmented lesions -nevi- have been imaged with intracellular resolution using near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser radiation. So far, more than 250 patients have been investigated. Cancerous tissues showed significant morphological differences compared to normal skin layers. In the case of malignant melanoma, the occurrence of luminescent melanocytes has been detected. Multiphoton tomography will become a novel non-invasive method to obtain high-resolution 3D optical biopsies for early cancer detection, treatment control, and in situ drug screening.

  4. Neuropilin 2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0308 TITLE: Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...14Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT... aggressive prostate cancer. Cancer Discov 2(10):906-921. 3. Gualberto A & Pollak M (2009) Emerging role of insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibitors in

  5. Sunlight vitamin D and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rebecca S; Reichrath, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Today, there is a controversial debate in many scientific and public communities on how much sunlight is appropriate to balance between the positive and negative effects of solar UV-exposure. UV exposure undoubtedly causes DNA damage of skin cells and is a major environmental risk factor for all types of skin cancers. In geographic terms, living in parts of the world with increased erythemal UV or high average annual bright sun results in increased risks of skin cancers, with the greatest increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma and then melanoma. On the other hand, sunlight exerts positive effects on human health, that are mediated in part via UV-B-mediated cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. It has been estimated that at present, approximately 1 billion people worldwide are vitamin D-deficient or -insufficient. This epidemic causes serious health problems that are still widely under-recognized. Vitamin D deficiency leads to well documented problems for bone and muscle function. There are also associations between vitamin D-deficiency and increased incidence of and/or unfavourable outcome for a broad variety of independent diseases, including various types of malignancies (e.g. colon-, skin-, and breast cancer), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the present literature is analyzed to summarize our present knowledge about the important relationship of sunlight, vitamin D and skin cancer.

  6. Low spinophilin expression enhances aggressive biological behavior of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Anna Lena; Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Schauer, Silvia; Wagner, Karin; Langsenlehner, Tanja; Resel, Margit; Gerger, Armin; Ling, Hui; Ivan, Cristina; Calin, George Adrian; Hoefler, Gerald; Rinner, Beate; Pichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Spinophilin, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of certain types of cancer, but its role has never been systematically explored in breast cancer. In this study, we determined for the first time the expression pattern of spinophilin in human breast cancer molecular subtypes (n = 489) and correlated it with survival (n = 921). We stably reduced spinophilin expression in breast cancer cells and measured effects on cellular growth, apoptosis, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and self-renewal capacity in vitro and metastases formation in vivo. Microarray profiling was used to determine the most abundantly expressed genes in spinophilin-silenced breast cancer cells. Spinophilin expression was significantly lower in basal-like breast cancer (p<0.001) and an independent poor prognostic factor in breast cancer patients (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.03; p = 0.004) A reduction of spinophilin levels increased cellular growth in breast cancer cells (p<0.05), without influencing activation of apoptosis. Anchorage-independent growth, migration and self-renewal capacity in vitro and metastatic potential in vivo were also significantly increased in spinophilin-silenced cells (p<0.05). Finally, we identified several differentially expressed genes in spinophilin-silenced cells. According to our data, low levels of spinophilin are associated with aggressive behavior of breast cancer. PMID:25857299

  7. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté

    2012-10-01

    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  8. The Antihelmintic Drug Pyrvinium Pamoate Targets Aggressive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Lacerda, Lara; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Solley, Travis N.; Li, Li; Orton, Darren; McMurray, John S.; Hang, Brian I.; Lee, Ethan; Klopp, Ann H.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, James M.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    WNT signaling plays a key role in the self-renewal of tumor initiation cells (TICs). In this study, we used pyrvinium pamoate (PP), an FDA-approved antihelmintic drug that inhibits WNT signaling, to test whether pharmacologic inhibition of WNT signaling can specifically target TICs of aggressive breast cancer cells. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line, and SUM-159, a metaplastic basal-type breast cancer cell line, were used in these studies. We found that PP inhibited primary and secondary mammosphere formation of cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, at least 10 times less than the dose needed to have a toxic effect on cancer cells. A comparable mammosphere formation IC50 dose to that observed in cancer cell lines was obtained using malignant pleural effusion samples from patients with IBC. A decrease in activity of the TIC surrogate aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed in PP-treated cells, and inhibition of WNT signaling by PP was associated with down-regulation of a panel of markers associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vivo, intratumoral injection was associated with tumor necrosis, and intraperitoneal injection into mice with tumor xenografts caused significant tumor growth delay and a trend toward decreased lung metastasis. In in vitro mammosphere-based and monolayer-based clonogenic assays, we found that PP radiosensitized cells in monolayer culture but not mammosphere culture. These findings suggest WNT signaling inhibition may be a feasible strategy for targeting aggressive breast cancer. Investigation and modification of the bioavailability and toxicity profile of systemic PP are warranted. PMID:24013655

  9. Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths:

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163145.html Skin Cancer Cream Linked to 5 Dog Deaths: FDA Even ingesting ... have died from exposure to a skin cancer cream prescribed for people, according to the U.S. Food ...

  10. [Skin cancer: from smearing to cutting].

    PubMed

    Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Bekkenk, Marcel W; de Haas, Ellen R M

    2013-01-01

    The most common skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Conventional excision is still the current treatment of choice for these malignant tumours. Given the many subtypes and high incidence, the treatment of these skin tumours is not only a matter of surgical procedures. There are many different therapeutic options, from smearing to cutting. Those treating patients with non-melanoma skin cancer should have knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of these many options. Radical surgical treatment is desired, but large margins are preferably avoided. Mohs micrographic surgery is a treatment option available for BCC and SCC in the face. Superficial BCC can be effectively treated with optimal cosmetic outcome in various, non-invasive ways.

  11. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy. Squamous cell cancer may resemble a plantar wart, a fungal infection, eczema, an ulcer, or other ... resemble benign moles, blood blisters, ingrown nails, plantar warts, ulcers caused by poor circulation, foreign bodies, or ...

  12. [Prevention of skin cancers with sunscreening agents].

    PubMed

    Uhoda, I; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-08-01

    How do sunscreens protect against skin cancers? The answer to this question is a matter of controversy among scientist for several years. The doubt persists because the wise use of such products is only one of the factors involved in sun behavior together with avoiding excessive sunlight exposure and wearing protective clothes.

  13. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy.

  14. Early Detection of Skin Cancer by Microtopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen López-Pacheco, María; Acevedo-Martínez, Claudia; Pereira da Cunha Martins Costa, Manuel Filipe; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Pichardo, Patricia; Pérez-Zapata, Aura Judith; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the ruggedness of the skin with benign and malignant lesions. Latex impressions were taken from lesions of skin's patients and were analyzed by the MICROTOP 03.MFC inspection system. For the melanoma lesion it was observed that the average rugosity of this tumor was increased 67% compared with the rugosity of healthy skin. These measures allow us to distinguish significantly from other tumors, as it is the case of the basal cell carcinoma (49%), and benign lesions as the epidermoid cyst (37%) and the seborrhea keratosis (4%). It was observed a direct relation between the rugosity and the malignancy of the lesions. These results indicate that the rugosity is a characteristic that could be useful in the diagnosis of skin cancer.

  15. Tumor reactive stroma in cholangiocarcinoma: The fuel behind cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Simone; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive epithelial malignancy still carrying a dismal prognosis, owing to early lymph node metastatic dissemination and striking resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Although mechanisms underpinning CCA progression are still a conundrum, it is now increasingly recognized that the desmoplastic microenvironment developing in conjunction with biliary carcinogenesis, recently renamed tumor reactive stroma (TRS), behaves as a paramount tumor-promoting driver. Indeed, once being recruited, activated and dangerously co-opted by neoplastic cells, the cellular components of the TRS (myofibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) continuously rekindle malignancy by secreting a huge variety of soluble factors (cyto/chemokines, growth factors, morphogens and proteinases). Furthermore, these factors are long-term stored within an abnormally remodeled extracellular matrix (ECM), which in turn can deleteriously mold cancer cell behavior. In this review, we will highlight evidence for the active role played by reactive stromal cells (as well as by the TRS-associated ECM) in CCA progression, including an overview of the most relevant TRS-derived signals possibly fueling CCA cell aggressiveness. Hopefully, a deeper knowledge of the paracrine communications reciprocally exchanged between cancer and stromal cells will steer the development of innovative, combinatorial therapies, which can finally hinder the progression of CCA, as well as of other cancer types with abundant TRS, such as pancreatic and breast carcinomas.

  16. [Risk factors for skin cancer development in patients after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Okuniewska, Aleksandra; Jaśkiewicz, Janusz; Lizakowski, Sławomir; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2012-11-13

    Cancer has become the second most common cause of death in patients after organ transplantation. Among all cancers arising de novo after transplantation skin cancers are the most common, accounting for 95% of all skin neoplasms. Due to the significantly higher morbidity, aggressive, rapid progression of cancer and unfavorable prognosis, the population requires a specific oncological approach. Therefore, special attention should be paid to factors predisposing to the development of cancer, including skin cancer, in patients after organ transplantation. Some of these factors are well understood, while the role of others is still ambiguous. Among the etiological factors mentioned are those that are associated with the recipient. These include genetic factors such as male sex, fair skin and inability to be tanned, and compatibility of the HLA system, and non genetic factors such as patient age, chronic skin ulcers and scars, the type of transplanted organ, immunosuppression, and particularly the type and cumulative doses of drugs. In addition, the pathogenesis of cancer is influenced by environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight and therefore latitude, ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens and viral infections. Knowledge of etiological factors and mechanisms of etiopathogenesis allow for indication and observation of patients with increased risk of cancer as well as faster healing in these patients.  

  17. Characterization of aggressive prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojaste, Amir; Imani, Farhad; Moradi, Mehdi; Berman, David; Siemens, D. Robert; Sauerberi, Eric E.; Boag, Alexander H.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalently diagnosed and the second cause of cancer-related death in North American men. Several approaches have been proposed to augment detection of prostate cancer using different imaging modalities. Due to advantages of ultrasound imaging, these approaches have been the subject of several recent studies. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on differentiating between lower and higher grade prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series data. We also propose new spectral features of RF time series to highlight aggressive prostate cancer in small ROIs of size 1 mm × 1 mm in a cohort of 19 ex vivo specimens of human prostate tissue. In leave-one-patient-out cross-validation strategy, an area under accumulated ROC curve of 0.8 has been achieved with overall sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 80%, respectively. The current method shows promising results on differentiating between lower and higher grade of prostate cancer using ultrasound RF time series.

  18. Teledermatology protocol for screening of Skin Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Maria Fernanda; Amorim, Bruna Dücker Bastos; Wagner, Harley Miguel; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telemedicine refers to the use of technology as improvement of healthcare delivery to places where distance becomes an obstacle. Its use represents a great potential for dermatology, a specialty whose visual analysis phase is essential in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES To analyze the compatibility index of skin cancer diagnoses between primary care and teledermatology, and to validate a protocol for standardization of digital imaging to obtain the reports in teledermatology. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study developed through the census of 333 examination requests, received between January/2012 and July/2012, in the Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth of SES-SC. We used a protocol for photographic lesion standardization, consisting of three steps (panoramic photo, close-up with ruler and dermoscopy). After collection, the data were sent to a virtual site on the Internet, and recorded with the use of an electronic health record containing the images, the skin phototype and demographic characteristics. RESULTS The level of compatibility between the diagnosis of skin cancer in Santa Catarina's primary care and the diagnosis proposed by teledermatology was 19.02%. Proportionally, it was 21.21% for BCC, 44.44% for SCC and 6.98% for MM. The protocol was statistically significant (p <0.05), with an OR of 38.77. CONCLUSION The rate of diagnostic compatibility of skin cancer was low and the use of the protocol optimized the chance of validating requests for examination. PMID:25830990

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of skin and lung cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Alonova, Marina V.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of cancer control requires design of new approaches for instrumental diagnostics, as the accuracy of cancer detection on the first step of diagnostics in clinics is slightly more than 50%. In this study, we present a method of visualization and diagnostics of skin and lung tumours based on registration and processing of tissues hyperspectral images. In a series of experiments registration of hyperspectral images of skin and lung tissue samples is carried out. Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, nevi and benign tumours are studied in skin ex vivo and in vivo experiments; adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas are studied in ex vivo lung experiments. In a series of experiments the typical features of diffuse reflection spectra for pathological and normal tissues were found. Changes in tissues morphology during the tumour growth lead to the changes of blood and pigments concentration, such as melanin in skin. That is why tumours and normal tissues maybe differentiated with information about spectral response in 500-600 nm and 600 - 670 nm areas. Thus, hyperspectral imaging in the visible region may be a useful tool for cancer detection as it helps to estimate spectral properties of tissues and determine malignant regions for precise resection of tumours.

  20. Sunlight and skin cancer: lessons from the immune system.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Stephen E

    2007-08-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight induces skin cancer development. Skin cancer is the most common form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of 1.5 million new cases of skin cancer (www.cancer.org/statistics) will be diagnosed in the United States this year. Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer, and the cost of treating skin cancer in the United States (both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer) is estimated to be in excess of $2.9 billion a year. In addition to causing skin cancer, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. Recent studies in my laboratory have focused on understanding the initial molecular events that induce immune suppression. We made two novel observations: first UV-induced keratinocyte-derived platelet activating factor plays a role in the induction of immune suppression. Second, cis-urocanic acid, a skin-derived immunosuppressive compound mediates immune suppression by binding to serotonin receptors on target cells. Recent findings suggest that blocking the binding of these compounds to their receptors not only inhibits UV-induced immune suppression but it also interferes with skin cancer induction.

  1. Optical mapping of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Richard R.

    2004-07-01

    More than two million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancers are diagnosed every year. Therefore, there is a strong need for practical, reliable, rapid, and precise methods for tumor delineation, to guide surgery and other treatments of skin cancer. Once developed, such methods may be useful for squamous cell carcinomas of other organs. Non-invasive optical imaging techniques including polarization sensitive reflectance and fluorescence imaging were evaluated for the demarcation of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Thick freshly excised tumor specimens obtained from Mohs surgery were used for the experiments. Imaging was performed using linearly polarized incident light in the visible and near infrared spectral range from 577 nm to 750 nm. Non-toxic absorbing and fluorescent dyes (Toluidine Blue O, Methylene Blue) were employed to enhance tumor contrast in the images. The images were acquired using the remitted light polarized in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of incident light. Reflectance and fluorescence polarization images were evaluated. The data were processed and analyzed for dependence of the remitted light polarization on the tissue type (cancerous/normal). The data obtained so far from fresh tumor specimens in vitro using dye-enhanced polarized light reflectance, and exogenous fluorescence polarization imaging suggest that optical mapping can become a valuable guidance tool in nonmelanoma cancer surgery.

  2. Highly prevalent TERT promoter mutations in aggressive thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Bishop, Justin; Shan, Yuan; Pai, Sara; Liu, Dingxie; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Sun, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-08-01

    Mutations 1 295 228 C>T and 1 295 250 C>T (termed C228T and C250T respectively), corresponding to -124 C>T and -146 C>T from the translation start site in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, have recently been reported in human cancers, but not in thyroid cancers yet. We explored these mutations in thyroid cancers by genomic sequencing of a large number of primary tumor samples. We found the C228T mutation in 0 of 85 (0.0%) benign thyroid tumors, 30 of 257 (11.7%) papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), 9 of 79 (11.4%) follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), 3 of 8 (37.5%) poorly differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC), 23 of 54 (42.6%) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC), and 8 of 12 (66.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. The C250T mutation was uncommon, but mutually exclusive with the C228T mutation, and the two mutations were collectively found in 11 of 79 (13.9%) FTC, 25 of 54 (46.3%) ATC, and 11 of 12 (91.7%) thyroid cancer cell lines. Among PTC variants, the C228T mutation was found in 4 of 13 (30.8%) tall-cell PTC (TCPTC), 23 of 187 (12.3%) conventional PTC, and 2 of 56 (3.6%) follicular variant PTC samples. No TERT mutation was found in 16 medullary thyroid cancer samples. The C228T mutation was associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in PTC, being present in 19 of 104 (18.3%) BRAF mutation-positive PTC vs 11 of 153 (7.2%) the BRAF mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). Conversely, BRAF mutation was found in 19 of 30 (63.3%) C228T mutation-positive PTC vs 85 of 227 (37.4%) C228T mutation-negative PTC samples (P=0.0094). We thus for the first time, to our knowledge, demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancers, that are particularly prevalent in the aggressive thyroid cancers TCPTC, PDTC, ATC and BRAF mutation-positive PTC, revealing a novel genetic background for thyroid cancers.

  3. The cutting edge of skin cancer in transplant recipients: scientific retreat of international transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative and Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Patients Europe.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, A; Colegio, O R

    2014-05-01

    The International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) is an organization of more than 300 physicians and scientists focused on the study of dermatologic changes following solid organ transplantation. Transplant patients have a 100-fold increased risk of developing skin cancer. In October 2012, ITSCC and its European counterpart Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Patients Europe held a joint biennial retreat in Essex, MA to discuss novel findings in the pathogenesis and management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients. This meeting report is a summary of the novel findings discussed.

  4. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. Study population The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen’s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Main variables Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. Descriptive data In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen’s disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. Conclusion The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance. PMID:27822110

  5. MMSET is overexpressed in cancers: Link with tumor aggressiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Klein, Bernard Moreaux, Jerome

    2009-02-20

    MMSET is expressed ubiquitously in early development and its deletion is associated with the malformation syndrome called Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. It is involved in the t(4; 14) (p16; q32) chromosomal translocation, which is the second most common translocation in multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with the worst prognosis. MMSET expression has been shown to promote cellular adhesion, clonogenic growth and tumorigenicity in multiple myeloma. MMSET expression has been recently shown to increase with ascending tumor proliferation activity in glioblastoma multiforme. These data demonstrate that MMSET could be implicated in tumor emergence and/or progression. Therefore, we compared the expression of MMSET in 40 human tumor types - brain, epithelial, lymphoid - to that of their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database. We found significant overexpression of MMSET in 15 cancers compared to their normal counterparts. Furthermore MMSET is associated with tumor aggressiveness or prognosis in many types of these aforementioned cancers. Taken together, these data suggest that MMSET potentially acts as a pathogenic agent in many cancers. The identification of the targets of MMSET and their role in cell growth and survival will be key to understand how MMSET is associated with tumor development.

  6. Bioenergetics of Stromal Cells As a Predictor of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0255 TITLE: BIOENERGETICS OF STROMAL CELLS AS A PREDICTOR OF AGGRESSIVE PROSTATE CANCER...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Bioenergetics Of Stromal Cells As A Predictor Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer” 5b. GRANT NUMBER...form and rapidly falls below the normal as they become aggressive in prostate tumorigenesis. We have validated this in five prostate cancer cell

  7. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.

  8. [Heterochromic sun-damaged skin and the risk of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1998-06-01

    The severity of heterochromia on sun-damaged skin is a good indicator for the risk of development of a skin cancer. Clinical photography under ultraviolet light allows to objectivate such a risk factor.

  9. Screening for Novel Germline Rare Mutations Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0348 TITLE: “Screening for Novel Germline Rare Mutations Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer ” PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Screening for Novel Germline Rare Mutations Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in males in the U.S. While the major indolent form

  10. Evaluating a skin cancer education program for the Deaf community.

    PubMed

    Harry, Kadie M; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Branz, Patricia; Fager, Matthew; Garcia, Barbara D; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common, preventable, and treatable cancer, so public education has been a priority. Unfortunately, for the Deaf community, most skin cancer information is difficult to access, so tailored approaches are needed. Participants (N=136) were randomly assigned to view either a skin cancer education video in American Sign Language (n=75) or an alternate video (n=61). All participants completed skin cancer knowledge questionnaires at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 2-month post-intervention. Control group participants could then transfer to the experimental condition, using their 2-month follow-up data as their baseline. Participants who saw the skin cancer video gained significantly more knowledge than control participants, demonstrating the video's effectiveness in increasing skin cancer control knowledge. There was no difference between the original experimental group and the delayed intervention group on knowledge gains.

  11. The immune system and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sherry H; Bordeaux, Jeremy S; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenesis involves multiple mechanisms that disturb genomic integrity and encourage abnormal proliferation. The immune system plays an integral role in maintaining homeostasis and these mechanisms may arrest or enhance dysplasia. There exists a large body of evidence from organ transplantation literature supporting the significance of the immune suppression in the development of skin cancer. Nonmelanoma skin cancers are the most frequent neoplasms after organ transplantation, with organ transplant recipients having a 65-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma incidence and 10-fold increase in basal cell carcinoma incidence. Similarly, UV-radiation (UVR) induced immunosuppression is correlated with the development of cutaneous malignancies in a dose-dependent manner. This was first shown several decades ago by Margaret Kripke, when transplanted tumors were rejected in mice with competent immune systems, but grew unchecked in immunosuppressed specimens. After UV exposure, chromophores initiate a cascade that leads to immunosuppression via derangement of Langerhans cells' antigen-presenting capacity. UV-irradiated Langerhans cells present antigens to Th2 cells, but fail to stimulate Th1 cells. A subset of T regulatory cells, specific for the antigen encountered after UVR, is also stimulated to proliferate. In general UV irradiation leads to a greater number of T regulatory cells and fewer effector T cells in the skin, shiftingthe balance from T-cell-mediated immunity to immunosuppression. These regulatory cells have the phenotype CD4+, CD25+, Foxp3+, CTLA-4+. These and many other changes in local immunity lead to a suppressed immune state, which allow for skin cancer development.

  12. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS) anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM) on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3) and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration. Conclusions Our

  13. [Skin cancer screening program in the population of Bydgoszcz].

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Tomasz; Zegarski, Wojciech; Placek, Waldemar; Zegarska, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The results of prophylactic medical skin examinations in inhabitants of Bydgoszcz were estimated. A prophylactic skin examination in asymptomatic patients was performed, and the most suspicion lesions were selected to excision. 750 persons were examined (age 15-93 years). 133 persons were operated. 173 skin lesions were removed. 32 skin cancers (18.53%), 3 melanomas (1.73%) and 34 skin lesions (which are base for melanoma) were confirmed. Detected carcinomas and melanomas were in early state of development. Prophylactic medical skin examination enable the detection of skin neoplasms in early state of development. Percent of detected carcinomas and melanomas of skin justify continuation this kinds of screening.

  14. PEG-3, a nontransforming cancer progression gene, is a positive regulator of cancer aggressiveness and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Z Z; Goldstein, N I; Jiang, H; Wang, M N; Duigou, G J; Young, C S; Fisher, P B

    1999-12-21

    Cancer is a progressive disease culminating in acquisition of metastatic potential by a subset of evolving tumor cells. Generation of an adequate blood supply in tumors by production of new blood vessels, angiogenesis, is a defining element in this process. Although extensively investigated, the precise molecular events underlying tumor development, cancer progression, and angiogenesis remain unclear. Subtraction hybridization identified a genetic element, progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), whose expression directly correlates with cancer progression and acquisition of oncogenic potential by transformed rodent cells. We presently demonstrate that forced expression of PEG-3 in tumorigenic rodent cells, and in human cancer cells, increases their oncogenic potential in nude mice as reflected by a shorter tumor latency time and the production of larger tumors with increased vascularization. Moreover, inhibiting endogenous PEG-3 expression in progressed rodent cancer cells by stable expression of an antisense expression vector extinguishes the progressed cancer phenotype. Cancer aggressiveness of PEG-3 expressing rodent cells correlates directly with increased RNA transcription, elevated mRNA levels, and augmented secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PEG-3 transcriptionally activates VEGF in transformed rodent and human cancer cells. Taken together these data demonstrate that PEG-3 is a positive regulator of cancer aggressiveness, a process regulated by augmented VEGF production. These studies also support an association between expression of a single nontransforming cancer progression-inducing gene, PEG-3, and the processes of cancer aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In these contexts, PEG-3 may represent an important target molecule for developing cancer therapeutics and inhibitors of angiogenesis.

  15. Risk of Skin Cancer from Space Radiation. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Wu, Hong-Lu

    2003-01-01

    We review the methods for estimating the probability of increased incidence of skin cancers from space radiation exposure, and describe some of the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects of combined ionizing and UV exposure. The steep dose gradients from trapped electrons, protons, and heavy ions radiation during EVA and limitations in EVA dosimetry are important factors for projecting skin cancer risk of astronauts. We estimate that the probability of increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold for individual astronauts and that the risk of skin cancer could exceed 1 % for future lunar base operations for astronauts with light skin color and hair. Limitations in physical dosimetry in estimating the distribution of dose at the skin suggest that new biodosimetry methods be developed for responding to accidental overexposure of the skin during future space missions.

  16. Clinical characteristics and awareness of skin cancer in Hispanic patients.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Syed A; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K

    2013-09-14

    Skin cancer in darker skin is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics of cutaneous malignancy amongst Hispanic skin cancer patients and compare them to age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians. In this retrospective study, 150 Hispanic skin cancer patients were identified from electronic medical records and age-matched to 150 non-Hispanic Caucasian controls with skin cancer. The incidence of actinic keratoses (AKs) in Hispanic skin cancer patients (34.0%) was statistically lower than age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasian skin cancer controls (61.3%, P <0.001; odds ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.92 - 4.93). Moreover, non-Hispanic Caucasian SCC (squamous cell cancer) controls were much more likely to report AKs (36.1%, P = 0.003) than Hispanic SCC patients (25.0%, P = 0.19). This study illustrates a lower incidence of AKs in Hispanic skin cancer patients as compared to their age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians. The Hispanic skin malignancies present at a more advanced state and there is usually a lack of awareness in such cases. Therefore, patient knowledge and education is crucial for early detection and prevention of skin cancer in the Hispanic population.

  17. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented. PMID:25692212

  18. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0535 TITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...different between aggressive and indolent tumors. For the third year of the grant, we evaluated the gene expression of these 8 CTAs in PCa and benign

  19. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  20. Relational victimization and proactive versus reactive relational aggression: The moderating effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the moderating effect of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the associations between relational victimization and reactive and proactive relational aggression. Both branches of the ANS, the parasympathetic nervous system (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity; RSA-Reactivity) and the sympathetic nervous system (indexed by skin conductance level reactivity; SCL-Reactivity), were examined. Emerging adults (N = 168) self-reported on relational victimization and proactive and reactive relational aggression; RSA-Reactivity and SCL-Reactivity were assessed in response to a laboratory stressor. Relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/high SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coactivation) and RSA withdrawal/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coinhibition). In addition, relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation). This study extends previous research on relational victimization and provides novel evidence that (a) exposure to relational victimization is associated with reactive relational aggression, but not proactive relational aggression, and (b) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity jointly moderate the link between relational victimization and reactive relational aggression.

  1. Effects of sunscreen on skin cancer and photoaging.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Green, Adèle C

    2014-01-01

    Application of sunscreen to the skin is widely used as an adjunct strategy, along with wearing protective clothing and seeking shade, to protect against skin cancer and photoaging that result from excessive sun exposure. Many epidemiological studies of case-control and cohort study design have studied the effects of sunscreen use on skin cancer, and more recently photoaging, but their findings have been mostly uninformative. This review of results of randomized controlled trials shows that the evidence, though limited, supports beneficial effects of sunscreen application on the occurrence of skin cancers and skin photoaging.

  2. Glucose promotes breast cancer aggression and reduces metformin efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema; Fan, Zeying; Edgerton, Susan M; Liu, Bolin; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Arnadottir, Sigrid Salling; Richer, Jennifer K; Anderson, Steven M; Thor, Ann D

    2013-01-01

    Metformin treatment has been associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk and improved survival. Metformin induces complex cellular changes, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation, reduction of stem cells, and apoptosis. Using a carcinogen-induced rodent model of mammary tumorigenesis, we recently demonstrated that overfeeding in obese animals is associated with a 50% increase in tumor glucose uptake, increased proliferation, and tumor cell reprogramming to an “aggressive” metabolic state. Metformin significantly inhibited these pro-tumorigenic effects. We hypothesized that a dynamic relationship exists between chronic energy excess (glucose by dose) and metformin efficacy/action. Media glucose concentrations above 5 mmol/L was associated with significant increase in breast cancer cell proliferation, clonogenicity, motility, upregulation/activation of pro-oncogenic signaling, and reduction in apoptosis. These effects were most significant in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. High-glucose conditions (10 mmol/L or above) significantly abrogated the effects of metformin. Mechanisms of metformin action at normal vs. high glucose overlapped but were not identical; for example, metformin reduced IGF-1R expression in both the HER2+ SK-BR-3 and TNBC MDA-MB-468 cell lines more significantly at 5, as compared with 10 mmol/L glucose. Significant changes in gene profiles related to apoptosis, cellular processes, metabolic processes, and cell proliferation occurred with metformin treatment in cells grown at 5 mmol/L glucose, whereas under high-glucose conditions, metformin did not significantly increase apoptotic/cellular death genes. These data indicate that failure to maintain glucose homeostasis may promote a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype and alter metformin efficacy and mechanisms of action. PMID:24107633

  3. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part II. Management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zwald, Fiona O'Reilly; Brown, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients is a challenge to both the dermatologist and transplant physician. Part II of this continuing medical education review offers an approach to the management of this increasing problem. The importance of specialty dermatology clinics providing access to transplant patients, frequent skin cancer screening, patient education, and multidisciplinary care is discussed. The management of low risk squamous cell carcinoma with topical therapies, photodynamic therapy, systemic retinoids, and capecitabine is reviewed. Revision of immunosuppression in the management of high-risk patients is discussed in association with the potential role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for aggressive disease. Finally, management of in-transit and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, with a discussion of the role of more recent innovative therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

  4. Skin Cancer Recognition by Using a Neuro-Fuzzy System

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Bareqa; Alshraideh, Mohammad; Beidas, Rasha; Hayajneh, Ferial

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) and a fuzzy inference system were used in this study as promising modalities for detection of different types of skin cancer. The accuracy rate of the diagnosis of skin cancer by using the hierarchal neural network was 90.67% while using neuro-fuzzy system yielded a slightly higher rate of accuracy of 91.26% in diagnosis skin cancer type. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing skin cancer was 95%, while the specificity was 88%. Skin cancer diagnosis by neuro-fuzzy system achieved sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 89%. PMID:21340020

  5. [Clinicopathological confrontation. Was the skin cancer eradicated?].

    PubMed

    Arrese, J E; Piérard, G E; Ruiz Ballon, M; Quatresooz, P

    2007-09-01

    Distinguishing complete removal of a skin cancer and its partial destruction is frequently requested by the clinicians and their patients. The information is awaited from the laboratory, but it is not always correctly interpreted by the information-seekers. The factors influencing this assessment include the combination of the nature of the antineoplastic therapy, the sampling modality of the area to be examined, and the quality of the dermatopathology procedure. In addition, the possibility of neoplastic regression linked to scarring or, conversely, the existence of a possible field cancerisation should be taken into consideration.

  6. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. Y.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    Methods for estimating the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure, must consider the variability of skin doses at specific anatomical areas, and the individual factors that may contribute to risk projection models, including skin pigment, and synergistic effects from combined ionizing radiation and UV exposure. Using the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding, we estimate the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions. Our model projects that individual variations in the probability for increased skin cancer risk varies more than 10-fold and that an excess cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color exposed to medium class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from galactic cosmic rays on Mars missions.

  7. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  8. Profilin 1 is a Potential Biomarker for Bladder Cancer Aggressiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Zerefos, Panagiotis G.; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Esteban, Sergio; Frantzi, Maria; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Anagnou, Nikolaos P.; Roubelakis, Maria G.; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Vlahou, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Of the most important clinical needs for bladder cancer (BC) management is the identification of biomarkers for disease aggressiveness. Urine is a “gold mine” for biomarker discovery, nevertheless, with multiple proteins being in low amounts, urine proteomics becomes challenging. In the present study we applied a fractionation strategy of urinary proteins based on the use of immobilized metal affinity chromatography for the discovery of biomarkers for aggressive BC. Urine samples from patients with non invasive (two pools) and invasive (two pools) BC were subjected to immobilized metal affinity chromatography fractionation and eluted proteins analyzed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, band excision and liquid chromatography tandem MS. Among the identified proteins, multiple corresponded to proteins with affinity for metals and/or reported to be phosphorylated and included proteins with demonstrated association with BC such as MMP9, fibrinogen forms, and clusterin. In agreement to the immobilized metal affinity chromatography results, aminopeptidase N, profilin 1, and myeloblastin were further found to be differentially expressed in urine from patients with invasive compared with non invasive BC and benign controls, by Western blot or Elisa analysis, nevertheless exhibiting high interindividual variability. By tissue microarray analysis, profilin 1 was found to have a marked decrease of expression in the epithelial cells of the invasive (T2+) versus high risk non invasive (T1G3) tumors with occasional expression in stroma; importantly, this pattern strongly correlated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. The functional relevance of profilin 1 was investigated in the T24 BC cells where blockage of the protein by the use of antibodies resulted in decreased cell motility with concomitant decrease in actin polymerization. Collectively, our study involves the application of a fractionation method of urinary proteins and as one main result of this analysis reveals the

  9. Deciphering the role of nuclear and cytoplasmic IKKα in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Josefa P.; Gaspar, Miriam; Ramírez, Ángel; Navarro, Manuel; Page, Angustias; Suárez-Cabrera, Cristian; Fernández, M. Guadalupe; Mérida, Jose R.; Paramio, Jesús M.; García-Fernández, Rosa A.; Fernández-Aceñero, M. Jesús; Casanova, M. Llanos

    2016-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human malignancies. IKKα is an essential protein for skin development and is also involved in the genesis and progression of NMSC, through mechanisms not fully understood. While different studies show that IKKα protects against skin cancer, others indicate that it promotes NMSC. To resolve this controversy we have generated two models of transgenic mice expressing the IKKα protein in the nucleus (N-IKKα mice) or the cytoplasm (C-IKKα mice) of keratinocytes. Chemical skin carcinogenesis experiments show that tumors developed by both types of transgenic mice exhibit histological and molecular characteristics that make them more prone to progression and invasion than those developed by Control mice. However, the mechanisms through which IKKα promotes skin tumors are different depending on its subcellular localization; while IKKα of cytoplasmic localization increases EGFR, MMP-9 and VEGF-A activities in tumors, nuclear IKKα causes tumor progression through regulation of c-Myc, Maspin and Integrin-α6 expression. Additionally, we have found that N-IKKα skin tumors mimic the characteristics associated to aggressive human skin tumors with high risk to metastasize. Our results show that IKKα has different non-overlapping roles in the nucleus or cytoplasm of keratinocytes, and provide new targets for intervention in human NMSC progression. PMID:27121058

  10. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  11. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Batai, Ken; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Kittles, Rick A.

    2016-01-01

    African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04). Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day) modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03). Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05). These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies. PMID:28036013

  12. Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived annexin A6+ extracellular vesicles support pancreatic cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Leca, Julie; Martinez, Sébastien; Lac, Sophie; Nigri, Jérémy; Secq, Véronique; Rubis, Marion; Bressy, Christian; Lavaut, Marie-Noelle; Dusetti, Nelson; Loncle, Céline; Roques, Julie; Pietrasz, Daniel; Bousquet, Corinne; Garcia, Stéphane; Granjeaud, Samuel; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Bachet, Jean Baptiste; Iovanna, Juan L.; Zimmermann, Pascale; Vasseur, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The intratumoral microenvironment, or stroma, is of major importance in the pathobiology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and specific conditions in the stroma may promote increased cancer aggressiveness. We hypothesized that this heterogeneous and evolving compartment drastically influences tumor cell abilities, which in turn influences PDA aggressiveness through crosstalk that is mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we have analyzed the PDA proteomic stromal signature and identified a contribution of the annexin A6/LDL receptor-related protein 1/thrombospondin 1 (ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1) complex in tumor cell crosstalk. Formation of the ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1 complex was restricted to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and required physiopathologic culture conditions that improved tumor cell survival and migration. Increased PDA aggressiveness was dependent on tumor cell–mediated uptake of CAF-derived ANXA6+ EVs carrying the ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1 complex. Depletion of ANXA6 in CAFs impaired complex formation and subsequently impaired PDA and metastasis occurrence, while injection of CAF-derived ANXA6+ EVs enhanced tumorigenesis. We found that the presence of ANXA6+ EVs in serum was restricted to PDA patients and represents a potential biomarker for PDA grade. These findings suggest that CAF–tumor cell crosstalk supported by ANXA6+ EVs is predictive of PDA aggressiveness, highlighting a therapeutic target and potential biomarker for PDA. PMID:27701147

  13. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer What’s New in Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  14. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: ...

  15. CRAFT: Multimodality confocal skin imaging for early cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Wang, Weichao; Li, Zhiming; Jin, Dayong; Tang, Yuanhe; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Although histological analysis serves as a gold standard to cancer diagnosis, its application on skin cancer detection is largely prohibited due to its invasive nature. To obtain both the structural and pathological information in situ, a Confocal Reflectance/Auto-Fluorescence Tomography (CRAFT) system was established to examine the skin sites in vivo with both reflectance and autofluorescence modes simultaneously. Nude mice skin with cancerous sites and normal skin sites were imaged and compared with the system. The cellular density and reflective intensity in cancerous sites reflects the structural change of the tissue. With the decay coefficient analysis, the corresponding NAD(P)H decay index for cancerous sites is 1.65-fold that of normal sites, leading to a 97.8% of sensitivity and specificity for early cancer diagnosis. The results are verified by the followed histological analysis. Therefore, CRAFT may provide a novel method for the in vivo, non-invasive diagnosis of early cancer.

  16. Skin cancer: increasing awareness and screening in primary care.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Randy

    2014-05-12

    Skin cancer screening (SCS) promotes early detection and improves treatment. Primary care providers are strategically positioned to provide screenings, yet the frequency is low. Strategies to improve SCS include increasing skin cancer awareness, targeting high-risk patient populations, and advocating for primary care providers to conduct screenings.

  17. Evaluation of protein biomarkers of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostic multibiomarker signatures in prostate cancer (PCa) may improve patient management and provide a bridge for developing novel therapeutics and imaging methods. Our objective was to evaluate the association between expression of 33 candidate protein biomarkers and time to biochemical failure (BF) after prostatectomy. Methods PCa tissue microarrays were constructed representing 160 patients for whom clinicopathologic features and follow-up data after surgery were available. Immunohistochemistry for each of 33 proteins was quantified using automated digital pathology techniques. Relationships between clinicopathologic features, staining intensity, and time to BF were assessed. Predictive modeling using multiple imputed datasets was performed to identify the top biomarker candidates. Results In univariate analyses, lymph node positivity, surgical margin positivity, non-localized tumor, age at prostatectomy, and biomarkers CCND1, HMMR, IGF1, MKI67, SIAH2, and SMAD4 in malignant epithelium were significantly associated with time to BF. HMMR, IGF1, and SMAD4 remained significantly associated with BF after adjusting for clinicopathologic features while additional associations were observed for HOXC6 and MAP4K4 following adjustment. In multibiomarker predictive models, 3 proteins including HMMR, SIAH2, and SMAD4 were consistently represented among the top 2, 3, 4, and 5 most predictive biomarkers, and a signature comprised of these proteins best predicted BF at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions This study provides rationale for investigation of HMMR, HOXC6, IGF1, MAP4K4, SIAH2, and SMAD4 as biomarkers of PCa aggressiveness in larger cohorts. PMID:24708576

  18. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  19. Drug Delivery Nanoparticles in Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Zara, Gian Paolo; Maina, Giovanni; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Rossi, Federica; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Daga, Martina; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the engineering of functional systems at nanoscale, thus being attractive for disciplines ranging from materials science to biomedicine. One of the most active research areas of the nanotechnology is nanomedicine, which applies nanotechnology to highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, including cancer disease. Over the past two decades, the rapid developments in nanotechnology have allowed the incorporation of multiple therapeutic, sensing, and targeting agents into nanoparticles, for detection, prevention, and treatment of cancer diseases. Nanoparticles offer many advantages as drug carrier systems since they can improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, modify pharmacokinetics, increase drug half-life by reducing immunogenicity, improve bioavailability, and diminish drug metabolism. They can also enable a tunable release of therapeutic compounds and the simultaneous delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of different types of nanoparticles for systemic and topical drug delivery in the treatment of skin cancer. In particular, the progress in the treatment with nanocarriers of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma has been reported. PMID:25101298

  20. Probing HER2-PUMA and EGFR-PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0600 TITLE: Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive...COVERED 1 Sep 2011 – 31 Aug 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer 5b...on novel significant findings made from the initial Idea Award. We discovered that proapoptotic PUMA protein is highly expressed in the breast cancer

  1. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-03-01

    Every living organism on the surface of the earth is exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) fraction of the sunlight. This electromagnetic energy has both life-giving and life-endangering effects. UV radiation can damage DNA and thus mutagenize several genes involved in the development of the skin cancer. The presence of typical signature of UV-induced mutations on these genes indicates that the ultraviolet-B part of sunlight is responsible for the evolution of cutaneous carcinogenesis. During this process, variable alterations of the oncogenic, tumor-suppressive, and cell-cycle control signaling pathways occur. These pathways include (a) mutated PTCH (in the mitogenic Sonic Hedgehog pathway) and mutated p53 tumor-suppressor gene in basal cell carcinomas, (b) an activated mitogenic ras pathway and mutated p53 in squamous cell carcinomas, and (c) an activated ras pathway, inactive p16, and p53 tumor suppressors in melanomas. This review presents background information about the skin optics, UV radiation, and molecular events involved in photocarcinogenesis.

  2. Solar ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs): an update.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the annual numbers of performed solid organ transplants have continuously increased world-wide. Solid organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a greater risk to develop malignancies, with skin cancer representing the most common neoplasia. Additionally, OTRs in general develop a more aggressive form of malignancies. In consequence, dermatologic surveillance is of high importance for OTRs and these patients represent an increasing and significant challenge to clinicians including dermatologists. In OTRs, patient and organ survival have increased considerably and continuously over the past two decades as a result of better immunosuppressive regimens and better posttransplant care. Great progress has been made in our understanding that individual immunosuppressive regiments differ in their effect on skin cancer risk in OTRs, and that effects of individual immunosuppressive regiments on skin cancer risk depend on various other factors including viral infections. Since sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most humans, OTRs, who have to protect themselves consequently against solar or artificial UV radiation, are at high risk of developing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is not only associated with increased risk for metabolic bone disease, but with other severe health problems including various types of malignancies. As a consequence, screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiency is warranted in OTRs. In this review, we give an update on our present understanding of skin cancer surveillance in OTRs.

  3. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  4. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Liezel L.; Lear, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen’s disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management. PMID:27782094

  5. A mobile system for skin cancer diagnosis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yanliang; Tang, Jinshan

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a mobile system for aiding doctors in skin cancer diagnosis and other persons in skin cancer monitoring. The basic idea is to use image retrieval techniques to help the users to find the similar skin cancer cases stored in a database by using smart phones. The query image can be taken by a smart phone from a patient or can be uploaded from other resources. The shapes of the skin lesions are used for matching two skin lesions, which are segmented from skin images using the skin lesion extraction method developed in 1. The features used in the proposed system are obtained by Fourier descriptor. A prototype application has been developed and can be installed in an iPhone. In this application, the iPhone users can use the iPhone as a diagnosis tool to find the potential skin lesions in a persons' skin and compare the skin lesions detected by the iPhone with the skin lesions stored in a database in a remote server.

  6. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    PubMed

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  7. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  8. Evaluation of skin cancer risk for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Methods used to estimate the probability of excess incidence of skin cancer from space radiation exposure must take into consideration the variability of dose to different areas of the body and the individual factors that may contribute to increased risk, including skin pigment and synergistic effects from combined ionizing and UV exposure. We have estimated the skin cancer risk for future lunar and Mars missions using: (1) the multiplicative risk model for transferring the Japanese survivor data to the US population, (2) epidemiological data for the increased risk for skin locations exposed to combined UV and ionizing radiation, and (3) models of space radiation environments, transport, and anatomical shielding for 5260 skin loci. We have estimated that the probability for increased skin cancer risk from solar particle events varies more than 10-fold depending on the individual and area of skin exposed. We show that a skin cancer risk greater than 1% could occur for astronauts with light skin and hair color following exposure to medium or large class solar particle events during future lunar base operations, or from exposure to galactic cosmic rays during Mars missions.

  9. Prediction of skin cancer occurrence by ultraviolet solar index.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Calaf, Gloria M

    2012-04-01

    An increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet light that reaches the Earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. It has been reported that exposure to excessive levels of solar ultraviolet light has multiple effects, which can be harmful to humans. Experimental ultraviolet light measurements were obtained in several locations in Chile between 2006 and 2009 using wide-band solar light Biometer YES, calibrated according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria and integrated into the National Meteorological Center of Chile ultraviolet network (DMC). The aim of this study was to determine skin cancer rates in relation to experimental data accumulated during one year of studying the solar ultraviolet index in Chile, in order to explain the possible effect of radiation on skin cancer. The rate of skin cancer per 100,000 persons was considered in Arica, Santiago, Concepción and Valdivia and extrapolated to other cities. Results of the present study showed that the incidence of skin cancer was markedly correlated with accumulative ultraviolet radiation, and rates of skin cancer could be extrapolated to other locations in Chile. There is a steady increase in the rate of skin cancer in cities located nearest to the equator (low latitude) that receive greater accumulated solar ultraviolet radiation, due to the accumulative effects of this type of radiation on the skin. It can be concluded that Arica is a city at sea level that receives higher levels of ultraviolet solar radiation than other locations, which may explain the higher prevalence of skin cancer in the population of this location, compared with other cities in Chile.

  10. Prediction of skin cancer occurrence by ultraviolet solar index

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Calaf, Gloria M.

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the amount of solar ultraviolet light that reaches the Earth is considered to be responsible for the worldwide increase in skin cancer. It has been reported that exposure to excessive levels of solar ultraviolet light has multiple effects, which can be harmful to humans. Experimental ultraviolet light measurements were obtained in several locations in Chile between 2006 and 2009 using wide-band solar light Biometer YES, calibrated according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria and integrated into the National Meteorological Center of Chile ultraviolet network (DMC). The aim of this study was to determine skin cancer rates in relation to experimental data accumulated during one year of studying the solar ultraviolet index in Chile, in order to explain the possible effect of radiation on skin cancer. The rate of skin cancer per 100,000 persons was considered in Arica, Santiago, Concepción and Valdivia and extrapolated to other cities. Results of the present study showed that the incidence of skin cancer was markedly correlated with accumulative ultraviolet radiation, and rates of skin cancer could be extrapolated to other locations in Chile. There is a steady increase in the rate of skin cancer in cities located nearest to the equator (low latitude) that receive greater accumulated solar ultraviolet radiation, due to the accumulative effects of this type of radiation on the skin. It can be concluded that Arica is a city at sea level that receives higher levels of ultraviolet solar radiation than other locations, which may explain the higher prevalence of skin cancer in the population of this location, compared with other cities in Chile. PMID:22741013

  11. A 10-year review of outpatient skin biopsy results and skin cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Sebastian S; Vos, Paul; Green, Harris; Defazio, Jennifer; Davis, Natalie; Fiz, Lindsey; Phillips, Charles

    2016-01-15

    The results of skin biopsies over a 10 year period were reviewed from the outpatient dermatology clinic at the Brody School of Medicine in Greenville, North Carolina. This research was conducted because there are very few studies that characterize this information over a long-term horizon. The biopsy rate per patient encounter, the clinical reason for the biopsy, the biopsy outcomes, the distribution of cutaneous malignancies per encounter, and the distribution of the subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma were analyzed. Biopsy logs from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010 were reviewed. Our investigation found that 20% of patient encounters resulted in a biopsy. Of these biopsies, 87.9% were performed to rule out malignancy and 12.1% were completed on patients suspected of having inflammatory skin conditions. The basal cell carcinomas diagnosed in Greenville, NC have more aggressive histologic subtypes compared to other studies, whereas the squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas were less aggressive.

  12. The Epidemiology of Skin Cancer and its Trend in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Fathali-loy-dizaji, Mehri; Soltani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004–2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively). The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively). The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers. PMID:26288708

  13. Sunscreens, Skin Cancer, and Your Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Terence M.; Wolfe, Dana P.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of sunlight on skin are described. The principal types of sunscreens and their properties are discussed. The three types of skin tumors, their cure rates, and treatment methods are examined. (Author/MT)

  14. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  15. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Rajani; Brown, Danielle Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO supplements and dietary intake of AOs via whole foods. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AOs in preventing tumorigenesis and outline four targeted dietary AOs. We review the results of research evaluating oral AOs supplements as compared to dietary AOs intake via whole foods. While these specific supplements have not shown efficacy, intake of AOs via consumption of whole foods has shown some promise. Lessons learned from the field of hypertension research may provide important guidance in future study design. Further research on the role of dietary AOs in the prevention of NMSC is warranted and should focus on intake via whole food consumption. PMID:26583073

  16. Automated skin segmentation in ultrasonic evaluation of skin toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic.

  17. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  18. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.01) by at least twofold between two groups of the cell lines. Of the 181 genes, 109 and 72 genes were overexpressed in highly and moderately aggressive cell lines, respectively. Analysis of the 109 and 72 genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tool revealed two cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian

  19. Sun exposure and skin cancer prevention in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Richard, N

    2000-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of malignancy today, and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Sun exposure is believed to be the primary factor behind this trend. Nearly 80% of a person's lifetime sun exposure occurs before age 21. Many skin cancer risk behaviors begin in early childhood; therefore, it is important to target the pediatric population for skin cancer prevention education. Parents, teachers, day care providers, and health care professionals should make sun safety a regular part of their practice. School nurses, in particular, are in a prime setting for educating the greatest number of children about sun safety. Age-appropriate skin cancer prevention education should become a routine part of the health curriculum at all grade levels. Numerous on-line resources are available to assist school nurses in the development of age-appropriate teaching materials and sun exposure policies for schools.

  20. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  1. Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanisms in Advanced Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalal, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal; Upadhya, Dinesh; Pai, Vinitha Ramanath

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:28382191

  2. A life history perspective on skin cancer and the evolution of skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Daniel L; Hames, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The ancestral state of human skin pigmentation evolved in response to high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress. Some argue that pigmentation evolved to limit folate photolysis, therein limiting neural tube defects. Pigmentation also protects against sunburn which decreases the efficiency of sweating and potentiates skin infection. Pigmentation increases the efficacy of skin as a barrier to infection. Skin cancer has been rejected or minimized as a selective pressure because it is believed to have little or no effect on mortality during reproductive years. This argument ignores evidence of human longevity as a derived life history trait and the adaptive value of investment in offspring and kin, particularly during the post-reproductive lifespan. Opponents argue that lifespan in prehistoric hunter-gatherers was too short to be relevant to the evolution of skin pigmentation. This argument is flawed in that it relies on estimates of longevity at birth rather than adolescence. When appropriate estimates are used, it is clear that human longevity has a deep evolutionary history. We use a life history perspective to demonstrate the value of skin pigmentation as an adaptation to skin cancer with the following points: UVR exposure increases dysregulation of gene expression in skin cells leading to immortal cell lines; cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) affects individuals throughout reproductive years; and lifespan was longer than has previously been acknowledged, providing the opportunity for kin selection. This hypothesis is not at odds with the folate or barrier hypotheses. We stress that the evolution of skin pigmentation is complex and is an ongoing process.

  3. Spermine and Citrate as Metabolic Biomarkers for Assessing Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Giskeødegård, Guro F.; Bertilsson, Helena; Selnæs, Kirsten M.; Wright, Alan J.; Bathen, Tone F.; Viset, Trond; Halgunset, Jostein; Angelsen, Anders; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Tessem, May-Britt

    2013-01-01

    Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients) with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8%) were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS) were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS). Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA) and absolute quantification (LCModel) were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS = 6, n = 30) and high grade (GS≥7, n = 81) cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n = 47). High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p = 0.0044) and citrate (p = 7.73·10−4), and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines)/citrate (CCP/C) ratio (p = 2.17·10−4). The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r = 0.71), and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:23626811

  4. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    this application, we propose to build upon our current work to determine the association between fatty acid synthase (FAS) overexpression and...Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using...INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence suggests that dysregulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the rate limiting multienzyme in the de novo formation of free

  5. Risk of Total and Aggressive Prostate Cancer and Pesticide Use in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lubin, Jay H.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Barry, Kathryn Hughes; DellaValle, Curt T.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lynch, Charles F.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Because pesticides may operate through different mechanisms, the authors studied the risk of prostate cancer associated with specific pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study (1993–2007). With 1,962 incident cases, including 919 aggressive prostate cancers among 54,412 applicators, this is the largest study to date. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using Poisson regression to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prostate cancer incidence. Three organophosphate insecticides were significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer: fonofos (rate ratio (RR) for the highest quartile of exposure (Q4) vs. nonexposed = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.17; Ptrend < 0.001); malathion (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88; Ptrend = 0.04); and terbufos (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.64; Ptrend = 0.03). The organochlorine insecticide aldrin was also associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (RR for Q4 vs. nonexposed = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.18; Ptrend = 0.02). This analysis has overcome several limitations of previous studies with the inclusion of a large number of cases with relevant exposure and detailed information on use of specific pesticides at 2 points in time. Furthermore, this is the first time specific pesticides are implicated as risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:23171882

  6. Aggressive Surgery in Palliative Setting of Lung Cancer: Is it Helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Byregowda, Suman; Prabhash, Kumar; Puri, Ajay; Joshi, Amit; Noronha, Vanita; Patil, Vijay M; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Gulia, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    With increase in survival and progression-free survival in the advanced metastatic cancers, the expectation of quality of life (QOL) has increased dramatically. Palliative care plays a vital role in the management of these advanced cancer patients. At present scenario, palliative care in advanced cancer has seen a completely different approach. Aggressive surgical procedures have been performed to improve the QOL in the advanced cancer patients. We report a case of advanced lung cancer with pathological femur fracture, treated with extensive total femur replacement surgery to provide better QOL. PMID:27803575

  7. Microvascular Channel Device to Study Aggressiveness in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    E-selectin ligands and prostate cancer bone metastasis (Barthel et al., 2007; Barthel et al., 2008; Dimitroff et al., 2005; Gout et al., 2008). In...Vesuna, F., et al. (2013). The Twist Box Domain is Required for Twist1-induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis. Mol Cancer Res. Gout , S., Morin, C., Houle, F...by triggering p38 and ERK MAPK activation. Cancer research 66, 9117-9124. Gout , S., Tremblay, P. L., and Huot, J. (2008). Selectins and selectin

  8. Mutations in PUMA Gene Cause Prostate Cancer Development and Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Stephen Thibodeau , Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, to obtain de-identified clinical samples which were isolated from the PCa patients with the association...between chromosome 19q13 and PCa aggressiveness (1). Drs. Thibodeau and Schaid (PI’s another collaborator) have been collaborating for many years and...the amplified sequences were bona fide PUMA. Furthermore, during the course of study, we initiated a new collaboration with Dr. Stephen Thibodeau

  9. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers. PMID:23983679

  10. Controversial role of mast cells in skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria R; Marone, Giancarlo; Granata, Francescopaolo; Borriello, Francesco; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumor initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment can promote tumor development. Mast cells, widely distributed throughout all tissues, are a stromal component of many solid and haematologic tumors. Mast cells can be found in human and mouse models of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous lymphomas, haemangiomas and Merkel cell carcinoma. However, human and animal studies addressing potential functions of mast cells and their mediators in skin cancers have provided conflicting results. In several studies, mast cells play a pro-tumorigenic role, whereas in others, they play an anti-tumorigenic role. Other studies have failed to demonstrate a clear role for tumor-associated mast cells. Many unanswered questions need to be addressed before we understand whether tumor-associated mast cells are adversaries, allies or simply innocent bystanders in different types and subtypes of skin cancers.

  11. Human Breast Cancer Invasion and Aggression Correlates with ECM Stiffening and Immune Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, I; Cassereau, L; Dean, I; Shi, Q; Au, A; Park, C; Chen, YY; Liphardt, J; Hwang, ES; Weaver, VM

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are stiff and data suggest that the extracellular matrix stiffening that correlates with experimental mammary malignancy drives tumor invasion and metastasis. Nevertheless, the relationship between tissue and extracellular matrix stiffness and human breast cancer progression and aggression remains unclear. We undertook a biophysical and biochemical assessment of stromal-epithelial interactions in noninvasive, invasive and normal adjacent human breast tissue and in breast cancers of increasingly aggressive subtype. Our analysis revealed that human breast cancer transformation is accompanied by an incremental increase in collagen deposition and a progressive linearization and thickening of interstitial collagen. The linearization of collagen was visualized as an overall increase in tissue birefringence and was most striking at the invasive front of the tumor where the stiffness of the stroma and cellular mechanosignaling were the highest. Amongst breast cancer subtypes we found that the stroma at the invasive region of the more aggressive Basal-like and Her2 tumor subtypes was the most heterogeneous and the stiffest when compared to the less aggressive Luminal A and B subtypes. Intriguingly, we quantified the greatest number of infiltrating macrophages and the highest level of TGF beta signaling within the cells at the invasive front. We also established that stroma stiffness and the level of cellular TGF beta signaling positively correlated with each other and with the number of infiltrating tumor-activated, macrophages, which was highest in the more aggressive tumor subtypes. These findings indicate that human breast cancer progression and aggression, collagen linearization and stromal stiffening are linked and implicate tissue inflammation and TGF beta. PMID:25959051

  12. Overexpression of α (1,6) fucosyltransferase associated with aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangchun; Chen, Jing; Li, Qing Kay; Peskoe, Sarah B; Zhang, Bai; Choi, Caitlin; Platz, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is known to be associated with the development of cancers. The aberrant glycans are produced by the combined actions of changed glycosylation enzymes, substrates and transporters in glycosylation synthesis pathways in cancer cells. To identify glycosylation enzymes associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), we analyzed the difference in the expression of glycosyltransferase genes between aggressive and non-aggressive PCa. Three candidate genes encoding glycosyltransferases that were elevated in aggressive PCa were subsequently selected. The expression of the three candidates was then further evaluated in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3) PCa cell lines. We found that the protein expression of one of the glycosyltransferases, α (1,6) fucosyltransferase (FUT8), was only detected in PC3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. We further showed that FUT8 protein expression was elevated in metastatic PCa tissues compared to normal prostate tissues. In addition, using tissue microarrays, we found that FUT8 overexpression was statistically associated with PCa with a high Gleason score. Using PC3 and LNCaP cells as models, we found that FUT8 overexpression in LNCaP cells increased PCa cell migration, while loss of FUT8 in PC3 cells decreased cell motility. Our results suggest that FUT8 may be associated with aggressive PCa and thus is potentially useful for its prognosis.

  13. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Sean D; Christian, Rigel T; Horowitz, Maxx P; Garcia, Amaia; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2007-11-01

    Invasion and metastasis of aggressive breast cancer cells is the final and fatal step during cancer progression, and is the least understood genetically. Clinically, there are still limited therapeutic interventions for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers available. Clearly, effective and nontoxic therapies are urgently required. Id-1, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a key regulator of the metastatic potential of breast and additional cancers. Using a mouse model, we previously determined that metastatic breast cancer cells became significantly less invasive in vitro and less metastatic in vivo when Id-1 was down-regulated by stable transduction with antisense Id-1. It is not possible at this point, however, to use antisense technology to reduce Id-1 expression in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Here, we report that cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid with a low-toxicity profile, could down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive human breast cancer cells. The CBD concentrations effective at inhibiting Id-1 expression correlated with those used to inhibit the proliferative and invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells. CBD was able to inhibit Id-1 expression at the mRNA and protein level in a concentration-dependent fashion. These effects seemed to occur as the result of an inhibition of the Id-1 gene at the promoter level. Importantly, CBD did not inhibit invasiveness in cells that ectopically expressed Id-1. In conclusion, CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.

  14. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  15. A Targetable GATA2-IGF2 Axis Confers Aggressiveness in Lethal Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Samuel J.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S. Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M.; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080

  16. Skin Cancer: Epidemiology, Disease Burden, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Apalla, Zoe; Nashan, Dorothée; Weller, Richard B; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer. Key case studies are presented that highlight the practic challenges of choosing the most appropriate treatment for patients with skin cancer. Thirdly, we consider the potential risks and benefits of increased sun exposure. However, this is discussed in terms of the possibility that the avoidance of sun exposure in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer may be less important than the reduction in all-cause mortality as a result of the potential benefits of increased exposure to the sun. Finally, we consider common questions on human papillomavirus infection.

  17. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  18. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K

    2015-03-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

  19. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    for CB was added to the wells. Following several washes to remove unbound antibody-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution HRP (horse- radish ...prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 6: 3430-3433, 2000. 8 Guo Y, Sigman DB, Borkowski A and Kyprianou N: Racial differences in prostate cancer growth ...cystatins in tumor growth and progression. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 1990;371 Suppl:193-198. 39. Yan S, Sloane BF. Molecular regulation of human cathepsin B

  20. Chronic psychological stress and its impact on the development of aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cormanique, Thayse Fachin; de Almeida, Lirane Elize Defante Ferreto; Rech, Cynthia Alba; Rech, Daniel; Herrera, Ana Cristina da Silva do Amaral; Panis, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological findings of women diagnosed with breast cancer and study the impact of chronic psychological stress on the pathological characteristics of these tumors. Methods We investigated a cohort composed of women diagnosed with breast cancer and divided into two groups. One group was categorized as presenting with chronic psychological stress (by using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire − SRQ-20). Another group of women with breast cancer, but with no previous history of chronic psychological stress, comprised the Control Group. Clinical and pathological data were assessed. Results Women presenting with a history of chronic distress were significantly overweight when compared to the Control Group. Furthermore, it was observed that these stressed women also had a significant percentage of aggressive breast cancer subtype, the HER2 amplified tumor, which could be putatively associated with the loss of immunosurveillance. Conclusion Our findings suggested an interaction among chronic psychological stress, overweight, and the development of more aggressive breast tumors. PMID:26466057

  1. ZEB1 turns into a transcriptional activator by interacting with YAP1 in aggressive cancer types.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Waltraut; Mossmann, Dirk; Kleemann, Julia; Mock, Kerstin; Meisinger, Chris; Brummer, Tilman; Herr, Ricarda; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P; Brabletz, Thomas

    2016-02-15

    Early dissemination, metastasis and therapy resistance are central hallmarks of aggressive cancer types and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. The EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 is a crucial stimulator of these processes, particularly by coupling the activation of cellular motility with stemness and survival properties. ZEB1 expression is associated with aggressive behaviour in many tumour types, but the potent effects cannot be solely explained by its proven function as a transcriptional repressor of epithelial genes. Here we describe a direct interaction of ZEB1 with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, but notably not with its paralogue TAZ. In consequence, ZEB1 switches its function to a transcriptional co-activator of a 'common ZEB1/YAP target gene set', thereby linking two pathways with similar cancer promoting effects. This gene set is a predictor of poor survival, therapy resistance and increased metastatic risk in breast cancer, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings.

  2. ZEB1 turns into a transcriptional activator by interacting with YAP1 in aggressive cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Waltraut; Mossmann, Dirk; Kleemann, Julia; Mock, Kerstin; Meisinger, Chris; Brummer, Tilman; Herr, Ricarda; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Early dissemination, metastasis and therapy resistance are central hallmarks of aggressive cancer types and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. The EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 is a crucial stimulator of these processes, particularly by coupling the activation of cellular motility with stemness and survival properties. ZEB1 expression is associated with aggressive behaviour in many tumour types, but the potent effects cannot be solely explained by its proven function as a transcriptional repressor of epithelial genes. Here we describe a direct interaction of ZEB1 with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, but notably not with its paralogue TAZ. In consequence, ZEB1 switches its function to a transcriptional co-activator of a ‘common ZEB1/YAP target gene set', thereby linking two pathways with similar cancer promoting effects. This gene set is a predictor of poor survival, therapy resistance and increased metastatic risk in breast cancer, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:26876920

  3. HES6 promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness independently of Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filipe L F; Marchionni, Luigi; Gupta, Anuj; Kummangal, Basheer A; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E; Berman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Notch signalling is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of cancers, but its role in prostate cancer is poorly understood. However, selected Notch pathway members are overrepresented in high-grade prostate cancers. We comprehensively profiled Notch pathway components in prostate cells and found prostate cancer-specific up-regulation of NOTCH3 and HES6. Their expression was particularly high in androgen responsive lines. Up- and down-regulating Notch in these cells modulated expression of canonical Notch targets, HES1 and HEY1, which could also be induced by androgen. Surprisingly, androgen treatment also suppressed Notch receptor expression, suggesting that androgens can activate Notch target genes in a receptor-independent manner. Using a Notch-sensitive Recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region (RBPJ) reporter assay, we found that basal levels of Notch signalling were significantly lower in prostate cancer cells compared to benign cells. Accordingly pharmacological Notch pathway blockade did not inhibit cancer cell growth or viability. In contrast to canonical Notch targets, HES6, a HES family member known to antagonize Notch signalling, was not regulated by Notch signalling, but relied instead on androgen levels, both in cultured cells and in human cancer tissues. When engineered into prostate cancer cells, reduced levels of HES6 resulted in reduced cancer cell invasion and clonogenic growth. By molecular profiling, we identified potential roles for HES6 in regulating hedgehog signalling, apoptosis and cell migration. Our results did not reveal any cell-autonomous roles for canonical Notch signalling in prostate cancer. However, the results do implicate HES6 as a promoter of prostate cancer progression.

  4. Probing HER2-PUMA and EGFR-PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0600 TITLE: Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA ...AND SUBTITLE Probing HER2- PUMA and EGFR- PUMA Crosstalks in Aggressive Breast Canccer Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0600 er 5b. GRANT...Award. We discovered that proapoptotic PUMA protein is highly expressed in the breast cancer cell lines and patient tumors that overexpress HER2 and/or

  5. Melanocortin 1 receptor variants and skin cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiali; Kraft, Peter; Colditz, Graham A; Wong, Jason; Hunter, David J

    2006-10-15

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with red hair and fair skin color. We assessed the associations of common MC1R genotypes with the risks of 3 types of skin cancer simultaneously in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (219 melanoma, 286 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 873 controls). We found that the 151Cys, 160Trp and 294His variants were significantly associated with red hair, fair skin color and childhood tanning tendency. The MC1R variants, especially the 151Cys variant, were associated with increased risks of the 3 types of skin cancer, after controlling for hair color, skin color and other skin cancer risk factors. Carriers of the 151Cys variant had an OR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.04-2.59) for melanoma, 1.67 (1.12-2.49) for SCC and 1.56 (1.03-2.34) for BCC. Women with medium or olive skin color carrying 1 nonred hair color allele and 1 red hair color allele had the highest risk of melanoma. A similar interaction pattern was observed for red hair and carrying at least 1 red hair color allele on melanoma risk. We also observed that the 151Cys variant contributed additional melanoma risk among red-haired women. The information on MC1R status modestly improved the risk prediction; the increase was significant for melanoma and BCC (p, 0.004 and 0.05, respectively). These findings indicated that the effects of the MC1R variants on skin cancer risk were independent from self-reported phenotypic pigmentation.

  6. PKCα expression is a marker for breast cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are potential targets for breast cancer therapy. This study was designed to evaluate which PKC isoforms might be optimal targets for different breast cancer subtypes. Results In two cohorts of primary breast cancers, PKCα levels correlated to estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity, tumor grade, and proliferative activity, whereas PKCδ and PKCε did not correlate to clinicopathological parameters. Patients with PKCα-positive tumors showed poorer survival than patients with PKCα-negative tumors independently of other factors. Cell line studies demonstrated that PKCα levels are high in MDA-MB-231 and absent in T47D cells which proliferated slower than other cell lines. Furthermore, PKCα silencing reduced proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. PKCα inhibition or downregulation also reduced cell migration in vitro. Conclusions PKCα is a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer and correlates to and is important for cell functions associated with breast cancer progression. PMID:20398285

  7. Continuous-wave terahertz imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Cecil Sudhir

    Continuous wave terahertz imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human skin cancers. Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) has already shown that there is contrast between basal cell carcinoma and normal skin. Continuous-wave imaging offers a simpler, lower cost alternative to terahertz pulse imaging. This project aims to isolate the optimal contrast frequency for a continuous wave terahertz imaging system and demonstrate transmission based, in-vitro , imaging of thin sections of non-melanoma skin cancers and correlate the images to sample histology. The aim of this project is to conduct a proof-of-principle experiment that establishes whether continuous-wave terahertz imaging can detect differences between cancerous and normal tissue while outlining the basic requirements for building a system capable of performing in vivo tests.

  8. Perceptions and Portrayals of Skin Cancer among Cultural Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura E.; Ahn, Ho-Young; Haley, J. Eric

    2014-01-01

    Health communication scholars have a responsibility to be certain that both healthcare practitioners and government agencies accurately communicate health information to the public. In order to carry out this duty, health communication scholars must assess how messages are being received and if they are being received at all by the public. This paper details a two part study which assesses this phenomenon within the context of skin cancer. Study 1 utilized 29 in depth qualitative interviews to identify subcultures among college students whose communication puts them at risk for skin cancer by encouraging poor sun exposure behaviors. The results indicate that farmers, African Americans, and individuals who regularly participate in outdoor athletics are at risk groups. Study 2 reports a content analysis of the known population of skin cancer Public Service Announcements (PSAs) available via the internet in 2013. The aforementioned groups were not present in any of the PSAs. Detailed results and implications are discussed. PMID:24616816

  9. Skin cancer in patients with chronic radiation dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Hanke, C.W.; Zollinger, T.W.; Montebello, J.F.; Hornback, N.B.; Norins, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    The cases of 76 patients with chronic radiation dermatitis resulting from low-dose ionizing radiation for benign disease were reviewed retrospectively for risk factors leading to the development of neoplasia. The patients were studied with respect to original hair color, eye color, sun reactive skin type, benign disease treated, area treated, age at treatment, and age at development of first skin cancer. Analysis of data showed 37% of patients had sun-reactive skin type I, 27% had type II, and 36% had type III. Types IV through VI were not represented. There appeared to be an overrepresentation of types I and II. Increased melanin pigmentation may therefore be either directly or indirectly protective against the development of skin cancers in patients who have received low-dose superficial ionizing radiation for benign disease. The sun-reactive skin type of patients with chronic radiation dermatitis may be used as a predictor of skin cancer risk when the total dose of ionizing radiation is not known.

  10. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  11. The 19q12 bladder cancer GWAS signal: association with cyclin E function and aggressive disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Ping; Kohaar, Indu; Moore, Lee E.; Lenz, Petra; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Tang, Wei; Porter-Gill, Patricia; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Scott-Johnson, Alexandra; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Muchmore, Brian; Baris, Dalsu; Paquin, Ashley; Ylaya, Kris; Schwenn, Molly; Apolo, Andrea B.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Tarway, McAnthony; Johnson, Alison; Mumy, Adam; Schned, Alan; Guedez, Liliana; Jones, Michael A.; Kida, Masatoshi; Monawar Hosain, GM; Malats, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardon, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Wu, Xifeng; Purdue, Mark; Andriole, Gerald L.; Grubb, Robert L.; Black, Amanda; Landi, Maria T.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Vineis, Paolo; Siddiq, Afshan; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Severi, Gianluca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C.; Tjønneland, Anne; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Prescott, Jennifer; Chen, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Govannucci, Edward; Hunter, David; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Gapstur, Susan M.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Kooperberg, Charles; Hohensee, Chancellor; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Conti, David V.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Stern, Mariana C.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Haiman, Christopher A.; Cussenot, Olivier; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Porru, Stefano; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Grossman, H. Barton; Wang, Zhaoming; Deng, Xiang; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Wheeler, William; Fraumeni, Joseph; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell cycle protein. We performed genetic fine mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r2≥0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWAS, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele odds ratio (OR) =1.18 (95%CI=1.09-1.27, p=4.67×10−5 vs. OR =1.01 (95%CI=0.93-1.10, p=0.79) for non-aggressive disease, with p=0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (p=0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (ptrend=0.024). Over-expression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E over-expression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. PMID:25320178

  12. BCC skin cancer diagnosis based on texture analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Shao-Hui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Chang, Wen-Yu; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic D.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture analysis based method for diagnosing the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer using optical images taken from the suspicious skin regions. We first extracted the Run Length Matrix and Haralick texture features from the images and used a feature selection algorithm to identify the most effective feature set for the diagnosis. We then utilized a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier to classify the images to BCC or normal cases. Experiments showed that detecting BCC cancer based on optical images is feasible. The best sensitivity and specificity we achieved on our data set were 94% and 95%, respectively.

  13. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    microdisection (LCM) in this task is in progress. Prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ) as control samples, were collected at the...antigen (PSA) levels in less than five years even though the post-RP pathology report did not detect cancer cell invasion to prostate margin/capsule...design of prospective studies. Biopsies showed significantly higher levels of CB to SA ratios than BPH . 15. SUBJECT TERMS African and White American Men

  14. Molecular Innovations Towards Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    quantitative PET imaging of PSMA expression in prostate cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...design for noninvasive assessment of prostate specific membrane antigen ( PSMA ) expression in prostate cancer. • We have published two peer-reviewed...other is on the use of our proposed bifunctional chelator system to exploit the multivalent effect for the detection of PSMA . REPORTABLE OUTCOMES

  15. Development of targeted therapy in uterine serous carcinoma, a biologically aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    El-Sahwi, Karim S; Schwartz, Peter E; Santin, Alessandro D

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common female genital malignancy in the USA. Most carcinomas arising from the uterus are estrogen dependent and are associated with obesity and hypertension. They are designated type I ECs and typically, due to their early diagnosis secondary to postmenopausal bleeding, have a good prognosis. By contrast, type II ECs develop in older patients, are not hormone dependent and are responsible for most recurrences and deaths from EC. Uterine serous cancer constitutes up to 10% of all endometrial tumors, and represents the most biologically aggressive variant of type II EC. This article will describe the most salient molecular markers that have been identified in uterine serous cancer, thus far with emphasis on the use of erbB2 (HER2/neu) as the first of a series of therapeutic markers for the treatment of this highly-aggressive subset of ECs.

  16. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

  17. Risk of skin cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older

  18. p53 and the pathogenesis of skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2007-11-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex molecules involved in cellular functions. Genetic alterations within the p53 gene have been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific 'signature' mutations that can result in oncogenic transformation. There are certain 'hot-spots' in the p53 gene where mutations are commonly found that result in a mutated dipyrimidine site. This review discusses the role of p53 from normal function and its dysfunction in pre-cancerous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. Additionally, special situations are explored, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome in which there is an inherited p53 mutation, and the consequences of immune suppression on p53 mutations and the resulting increase in non-melanoma skin cancer in these patients.

  19. p53 and the Pathogenesis of Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cara L.

    2007-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene and gene product are among the most diverse and complex molecules involved in cellular functions. Genetic alterations within the p53 gene have been shown to have a direct correlation with cancer development and have been shown to occur in nearly 50% of all cancers. p53 mutations are particularly common in skin cancers and UV irradiation has been shown to be a primary cause of specific ‘signature’ mutations that can result in oncogenic transformation. There are certain ‘hot-spots’ in the p53 gene where mutations are commonly found that result in a mutated dipyrimidine site. This review discusses the role of p53 from normal function and its dysfunction in pre-cancerous lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. Additionally, special situations are explored, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome in which there is an inherited p53 mutation, and the consequences of immune suppression on p53 mutations and the resulting increase in non-melanoma skin cancer in these patients. PMID:17270229

  20. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  1. Combined Treatments with Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Silvia Rocío; Salazar, Nerea; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Zamarrón, Alicia; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Ángeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the Caucasian population. Among NMSC types, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has the highest incidence and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is less common although it can metastasize, accounting for the majority of NMSC-related deaths. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and non-surgical modalities. Even though surgical approaches are most commonly used to treat these lesions, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has the advantage of being a non-invasive option, and capable of field treatment, providing optimum cosmetic outcomes. Numerous clinical research studies have shown the efficacy of PDT for treating pre-malignant and malignant NMSC. However, resistant or recurrent tumors appear and sometimes become more aggressive. In this sense, the enhancement of PDT effectiveness by combining it with other therapeutic modalities has become an interesting field in NMSC research. Depending on the characteristics and the type of tumor, PDT can be applied in combination with immunomodulatory (Imiquimod) and chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, diclofenac, or ingenol mebutate) agents, inhibitors of some molecules implicated in the carcinogenic process (COX2 or MAPK), surgical techniques, or even radiotherapy. These new strategies open the way to a wider improvement of the prevention and eradication of skin cancer. PMID:26516853

  2. Enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) population drives the aggressive phenotypes presented in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Li, Huihui; Wang, Haijuan; Shi, Xiuqing; Fan, Ying; Ding, Xiaoyan; Lin, Chen; Zhan, Qimin; Qian, Haili; Xu, Binghe

    2014-10-28

    The mechanism underlying the aggressive behaviors of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not well characterized yet. The association between cancer stem cell (CSC) population and the aggressive behaviors of TNBC has not been established. We found the CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population was enriched in TNBC tissues and cell lines, with a higher capacity of proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenicity as well as lower adhesion ability. The CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population with cancer stem cell-like properties may play an important role in the aggressive behaviors of TNBC. This discovery may lead to new therapeutic strategies targeting CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population in TNBC.

  3. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    objective is to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that...The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and...bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear functional handles for conjugation with imaging

  4. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    precursor to hormone synthesis. While cholesterol accumulation is known to be a hallmark of atherosclerosis , its exact role in cancer progression...molecule inhibitors of cholesterol accumulation, e.g. avasimibe, have gone through clinical trials to treat atherosclerosis but failed due to the lack of

  5. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  6. Skin Cancer, Irradiation, and Sunspots: The Solar Cycle Effect

    PubMed Central

    Zurbenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise. PMID:25126567

  7. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  8. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  9. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.G. ); Hoover, R.N. )

    1989-10-20

    Squamous cell skin cancer, though common, remains largely unreported and unstudied, with little known about its incidence and time trends. The authors have used a unique resource--a continuous population-based registry of cases of squamous cell skin cancer within a single prepaid health plant--to describe basic epidemiologic features of this malignancy and compare it with the more widely studied melanoma. Both malignancies are considerably more common in this population than they expected based on previous reports from the general population. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the incidence of squamous cell skin cancer increased 2.6 times in men and 3.1 times in women, while incidence of melanoma rose 3.5-fold and 4.6-fold in men and women, respectively. Skin cancers of both types involving the head and neck or the extremities increased essentially in parallel over these 27 years. Melanomas of the trunk, however, appeared to increase at a faster rate in both sexes. These observations are consistent with the impression that the rising incidence of both malignancies may be attributable to increased voluntary exposure to the sun over an extended period.

  10. Calcium intake, polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor, and recurrent/aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Moritz; Shui, Irene M.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kibel, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether calcium intake and common genetic variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) are associated with either aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) or disease recurrence after prostatectomy. Methods Calcium intake at diagnosis was assessed, and 65 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASR were genotyped in 886 prostatectomy patients. We investigated the association between calcium intake and CASR variants with both PCa recurrence and aggressiveness (defined as Gleason score ≥4 + 3, stage ≥pT3, or nodal-positive disease). Results A total of 285 men had aggressive disease and 91 experienced recurrence. A U-shaped relationship between calcium intake and both disease recurrence and aggressiveness was observed. Compared to the middle quintile, the HR for disease recurrence was 3.07 (95 % CI 1.41–6.69) for the lowest quintile and 3.21 (95 % CI 1.47–7.00) and 2.97 (95 % CI 1.37–6.45) for the two upper quintiles, respectively. Compared to the middle quintile, the OR for aggressive disease was 1.80 (95 % CI 1.11–2.91) for the lowest quintile and 1.75 (95 % CI 1.08–2.85) for the highest quintile of calcium intake. The main effects of CASR variants were not associated with PCa recurrence or aggressiveness. In the subgroup of patients with moderate calcium intake, 31 SNPs in four distinct blocks of high linkage disequilibrium were associated with PCa recurrence. Conclusions We observed a protective effect of moderate calcium intake for PCa aggressiveness and recurrence. While CASR variants were not associated with these outcomes in the entire cohort, they may be associated with disease recurrence in men with moderate calcium intakes. PMID:26407952

  11. In vivo hyperspectral imaging and differentiation of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdeva, Larisa A.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Moryatov, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey V.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2016-10-01

    Results of hyperspectral imaging analysis for in vivo visualization of skin neoplasms are presented. 16 melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas and 10 benign tumors with different stages of neoplasm growth were tested. The HSI system provide skin tissue images with 5 nm spectral resolution in the range of 450-750 nm with automatic stabilization of each frame compensating displacement of the scanning area due to spontaneous macro-movements of the patient. The integrated optical densities in 530-600 and 600-670 nm ranges are used for real-time hemoglobin and melanin distribution imaging in skin tissue. It was shown that the total accuracy of skin cancer identification exceeds 90% and 70% for differentiation of melanomas from BCC and begihn tumors. It was demonstrated the possibility for HSI classification of melanomas of different stages.

  12. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production

    PubMed Central

    RIVAS, MIGUEL; ROJAS, ELISA; ARAYA, MARÍA C.; CALAF, GLORIA M.

    2015-01-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290–320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D. PMID:26622830

  13. Ultraviolet light exposure, skin cancer risk and vitamin D production.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Rojas, Elisa; Araya, María C; Calaf, Gloria M

    2015-10-01

    The danger of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation has been widely reviewed since the 1980s due to the depletion of the ozone layer. However, the benefits of mild exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) light have not been widely investigated. Numerous reports have demonstrated that an association exists between low light exposure to the sun, non-melanoma skin cancer and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. As vitamin D synthesis in the body depends on skin exposure to UVB radiation from the sun (wavelength, 290-320 nm), experimental measurements for this type of solar radiation are important. The present study analyzed data obtained from a laboratory investigating UV radiation from the sun at the University of Tarapacá (Arica, Chile), where systematic experimental UVB measurements had been performed using a calibrated biometer instrument since 2006. These data were compared with skin cancer data from the local population. The results demonstrated that the incidence of skin cancer systematically increased from 7.4 to 18.7 in men and from 10.0 to 21.7 in women between 2000 and 2006 in Arica, respectively; this increase may be due to multiple factors, including the lack of adequate levels of vitamin D in risk groups such as post-menopausal women and senior age. This marked increase may also be due to the high levels of UV radiation measured in this region throughout the year. However, it is not certain that the local population has adequate vitamin D levels, nor that their skin has been predominantly exposed to artificial light that does not allow adequate vitamin D synthesis. Thus, the current study presents the association between skin type IV, the time to induce solar erythema and the time required to produce 1,000 international units of vitamin D.

  14. Noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using multimodal optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Markey, Mia K.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a multimodal spectroscopy (MMS) system towards the goal of a spectral biopsy of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We describe our present efforts to develop an updated MMS system composed of OEM components that will be smaller, less expensive, and more clinic-friendly than the previous system. Key system design choices include the selection of miniature spectrometers, a fiber-coupled broadband light source, a fiber coupled diode laser, and a revised optical probe. Selection of these components results in a 50% reduction in system footprint, resulting in a more clinic-friendly system. We also present preliminary characterization data from the updated MMS system, showing similar performance with our revised optical probe design. Finally, we present in vivo skin measurements taken with the updated MMS system. Future work includes the initiation of a clinical study (n = 250) of the MMS system to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers.

  15. The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Adamic, Metka

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defense ability. The reduction of oxidative stress can be achieved on two levels: by lowering exposure to UVR and/or by increasing levels of antioxidant defense in order to scavenge ROS. The only endogenous protection of our skin is melanin and enzymatic antioxidants. Melanin, the pigment deposited by melanocytes, is the first line of defense against DNA damage at the surface of the skin, but it cannot totally prevent skin damage. A second category of defense is repair processes, which remove the damaged biomolecules before they can accumulate and before their presence results in altered cell metabolism. Additional UV protection includes avoidance of sun exposure, usage of sunscreens, protective clothes, and antioxidant supplements. PMID:24790705

  16. The role of antioxidants in skin cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Godic, Aleksandar; Poljšak, Borut; Adamic, Metka; Dahmane, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defense ability. The reduction of oxidative stress can be achieved on two levels: by lowering exposure to UVR and/or by increasing levels of antioxidant defense in order to scavenge ROS. The only endogenous protection of our skin is melanin and enzymatic antioxidants. Melanin, the pigment deposited by melanocytes, is the first line of defense against DNA damage at the surface of the skin, but it cannot totally prevent skin damage. A second category of defense is repair processes, which remove the damaged biomolecules before they can accumulate and before their presence results in altered cell metabolism. Additional UV protection includes avoidance of sun exposure, usage of sunscreens, protective clothes, and antioxidant supplements.

  17. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    to develop dendrimer -based theranostic agent with prostate cancer specificity and positron emission tomography imaging capability that can prevent...laboratories to develop a new molecular medicine. The goal of this project is to construct dendrimer nanoconjuate containing a prostate specific...cell permeation peptide, peptide therapeutic(s) and bifunctional chelator for PET imaging. Dr. Simanek’s laboratory will make dendrimers that bear

  18. Microvascular Channel Device to Study Aggressiveness in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    leukocyte like’ cells to be transported through the blood stream to their metastatic destinations (1). Like leukocytes, prostate cancer ( PRCA ) cells...for the dynamic flow-based E-selectin+SDF-1 coated microtubes, which can capture PRCA cells and allow us to study the circulating tumor cell...1 dyne/cm2 is the best possible combination to collect the smallest most potent PRCA cells from the tube based circulation model (preliminary data

  19. Microvascular Channel Device to Study Aggressiveness in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Prostate Cancer ( PRCA ) cells preferentially adhere and roll on bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) (2, 3) where abundant E-selectin is expressed (4...successfully established parameters’ for the dynamic flow-based E-selectin+SDF-1 coated microtubes, which can capture PRCA cells and allow us to study the...ml of SDF-1β with shear stress 1 dyne/cm2 is the best possible combination to collect the smallest more potent PRCA cells from the tube based

  20. Microvascular Channel Device to Study Aggressiveness in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    stream to their metastatic destinations (1). Like leukocytes, Prostate Cancer ( PRCA ) cells preferentially adhere and roll on bone marrow endothelial...microtubes, which can capture PRCA cells and allow us to study the circulating tumor cell behavior and its contribution to tumor metastasis. It was...the smallest more potent PRCA cells from the tube based circulation model (preliminary data). We used this selectin and SDF-1β coated micro-renathane

  1. Solar UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer surveillance in organ transplant recipients (OTRs).

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of organ transplantation in clinical medicine has resulted in a constantly increasing, large population of patients that are chronically on immunosuppressive medication. It is well known that skin cancer, especially SCC, in this population has higher incidence rates, behaves more aggressively and has higher rates of metastasis. OTRs who have been treated for many years with immunosuppressive medication are at the highest risk for developing malignant skin tumors. Therefore, the intensity of surveillance for cutaneous lesions is of high importance in OTRs. A full-body skin exam at least once a year and more frequently if skin cancer or precancerous cutaneous lesions develop is recommended. Clinicians should not hesitate to biopsy or to surgically excise any suspicious skin lesion. Of high importance is also the education of OTRs about their increased risk. Protection against solar and artificial UV-radiation and monthly self-examinations are good ways to prevent and to recognize any new suspicious skin lesions. Patients are advised to always wear solar UV-radiation protection (e.g., clothing, sunscreen) before going outdoors. However, investigations have revealed that solar UV-B-exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels positively correlate with decreased risk for various internal malignancies (e.g., breast, colon, prostate and ovarian cancer) and other severe diseases. As we have shown previously, renal transplant recipients are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency. A sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)-8 reduces the skin's production of vitamin D by 95%. Clothing completely blocks all solar UVB-radiation and this prevents any vitamin D production. Therefore, it is important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in solid organ transplant recipients. Optimal management of these patients requires communication between the transplant teams and the treating dermatologist and other clinicians. For advanced or metastatic disease, collaboration

  2. The relationship between skin cancers, solar radiation and ozone depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Moan, J.; Dahlback, A.

    1992-01-01

    During the period 1957-1984 the annual age-adjusted incidence rate of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) increased by 350% for men and 440% for women in Norway. The annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight in Norway, calculated by use of measured ozone levels, showed no increasing trend during the same period. Thus, ozone depletion is not a cause of the increasing trend of the incidence rates of skin cancers. The incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) increase with decreasing latitude in Norway. The same is true for CMM in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Our data were used to estimate the implications of a future ozone depletion for the incidence rates of skin cancer: a 10% ozone depletion was found to give rise to a 16-18% increase in the incidence rate of SCC (men and women), a 19% increase in the incidence rate of CMM for men and a 32% increase in the incidence rate of CMM for women. The difference between the numbers for men and women is almost significant and may be related to a different intermittent exposure pattern to sunlight of the two sexes. The increasing trend in the incidence rates of CMM is strongest for the trunk and lower extremities of women, followed by that for the trunk of men. The increasing incidence rates of skin cancers as well as the changing pattern of incidence on different parts of the body is most likely due to changing habits of sun exposure. Comparisons of relative densities of CMM, SCC, LMM and SCC falling per unit area of skin at different parts of the body indicate that sun exposure is the main cause of these cancer forms although other unknown factors may play significant roles as well. For the population as a whole sun exposure during vacations to sunny countries has so far been of minor importance in skin cancer induction. PMID:1616864

  3. Beyond the scalpel: targeting hedgehog in skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective places the article by Tang et al. in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 25) in the context of recent work defining the hedgehog signaling pathway as a central etiologic factor and as a therapeutic target in basal cell cancer. Tang et al. show that inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, either genetically (in a relevant mouse model) or pharmacologically (in the mouse and in patients highly predisposed to develop basal cell skin cancers), may suppress basal cell carcinogenesis. This new study of cyclooxygenase inhibition, together with recent data on the efficacy of hedgehog pathway inhibition, offers new hope for patients at a high risk for basal cell cancer.

  4. A novel non-canonical Wnt signature for prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Sandsmark, Elise; Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Selnæs, Kirsten M; Bertilsson, Helena; Bofin, Anna M; Wright, Alan J; Viset, Trond; Richardsen, Elin; Drabløs, Finn; Bathen, Tone F; Tessem, May-Britt; Rye, Morten B

    2017-02-07

    Activation of the Canonical Wnt pathway (CWP) has been linked to advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, whereas the Wnt5a-induced non-canonical Wnt pathway (NCWP) has been associated with both good and poor prognosis. A newly discovered NCWP, Wnt5/Fzd2, has been shown to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancers, but has not been investigated in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate if the CWP and NCWP, in combination with EMT, are associated with metabolic alterations, aggressive disease and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. An initial analysis was performed using integrated transcriptomics, ex vivo and in vivo metabolomics, and histopathology of prostatectomy samples (n=129), combined with at least five-year follow-up. This analysis detected increased activation of NCWP through Wnt5a/ Fzd2 as the most common mode of Wnt activation in prostate cancer. This activation was associated with increased expression of EMT markers and higher Gleason score. The transcriptional association between NCWP and EMT was confirmed in five other publicly available patient cohorts (1519 samples in total). A novel gene expression signature of concordant activation of NCWP and EMT (NCWP-EMT) was developed, and this signature was significantly associated with metastasis and shown to be a significant predictor of biochemical recurrence. The NCWP-EMT signature was also associated with decreased concentrations of the metabolites citrate and spermine, which have previously been linked to aggressive prostate cancer. Our results demonstrate the importance of NCWP and EMT in prostate cancer aggressiveness, suggest a novel gene signature for improved risk stratification, and give new molecular insight.

  5. Detection of Melanoma Skin Cancer in Dermoscopy Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayef, Khalid; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2017-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most hazardous type of human skin cancer and its incidence has been rapidly increasing. Early detection of malignant melanoma in dermoscopy images is very important and critical, since its detection in the early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer Aided Diagnosis systems can be very helpful to facilitate the early detection of cancers for dermatologists. In this paper, we present a novel method for the detection of melanoma skin cancer. To detect the hair and several noises from images, pre-processing step is carried out by applying a bank of directional filters. And therefore, Image inpainting method is implemented to fill in the unknown regions. Fuzzy C-Means and Markov Random Field methods are used to delineate the border of the lesion area in the images. The method was evaluated on a dataset of 200 dermoscopic images, and superior results were produced compared to alternative methods.

  6. Aggressive surgical resection for concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases. PMID:27621747

  7. Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12- 1 -0308 TITLE: Neuropilin-2: Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Prostate Cancer...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE September

  8. Study in mice shows that an aggressive type of breast cancer is linked to an inflammatory protein

    Cancer.gov

    Aberrant expression of an inflammatory protein, nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), may enhance the progression and metastasis of an aggressive and less common form of breast cancer, known as the estrogen receptor-negative type of disease.

  9. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  10. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one.

  11. [The educational website Dermaguard to prevent the incidence of skin cancer after transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bühler, Meret N; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; French, Lars E; Djamei, Vahid; Serra, Andreas L; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2013-11-13

    Solid organ transplant recipients are highly susceptible to skin cancer. The major driving factors are immunosuppressive medication and ultraviolet light. Appropriate sun protection markedly reduces the development of skin cancer. Skin cancer recognized at an early stage can reliably be cured, and fatal outcomes can be prevented. The aim of this work is to educate organ transplant recipients and health care professionals involved in their care, to increase awareness of skin cancer in this high-risk population and thus to optimize the long-term outcome of patients with skin cancer. Our newly developed website provides free access to various educational materials, including leaflets, presentations and interactive elements using edutainment.

  12. The PD1/PDL1 axis, a promising therapeutic target in aggressive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Mamessier, Emilie

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of PDL1 mRNA expression in ∼5,500 breast cancers showed PDL1 upregulation in 38% of basal tumors and 38% of inflammatory breast cancers (IBC). Upregulation, associated with signs of strong cytotoxic local immune response, was associated with a better survival in the basal or triple-negative subtypes, and with a better pathological response to chemotherapy in these subtypes and IBC. Reactivation of dormant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by PD1/PDL1-inhibitors represents a promising strategy in these aggressive tumors.

  13. The PD1/PDL1 axis, a promising therapeutic target in aggressive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Mamessier, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of PDL1 mRNA expression in ∼5,500 breast cancers showed PDL1 upregulation in 38% of basal tumors and 38% of inflammatory breast cancers (IBC). Upregulation, associated with signs of strong cytotoxic local immune response, was associated with a better survival in the basal or triple-negative subtypes, and with a better pathological response to chemotherapy in these subtypes and IBC. Reactivation of dormant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by PD1/PDL1-inhibitors represents a promising strategy in these aggressive tumors. PMID:27141340

  14. Screening for Novel Germline Rare Mutations Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Schmidt S., Peshkin L., et al. A method and server for predicting damaging missense mutations. Nat Methods. 7, 248-249 (2010). Akbari MR, Trachtenberg...Inst. 2012 Aug 1;104(16):1260-2. Epub 2012 Jul 9. Castro E. G.C.L., Olmos D., et al. Correlation of germ-line BRCA2 mutations with aggressive...prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 16, 2115-2121 (2010). 20    Hammer GE, Gonzalez F, Champsaur M, Cado D, Shastri N. The aminopeptidase ERAAP shapes the

  15. A Systems Genetics Approach Identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as Novel Aggressive Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Jonathan; Patel, Shashank J.; Zhang, Suiyuan; Chines, Peter; Elkahloun, Abdel; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Crawford, Nigel P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/J (TRAMP) mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 intercross males (n = 228), which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322) were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A) were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2) harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such approaches will

  16. Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Craik, Charles S

    2013-04-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system, which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared imaging and (111)In single-photon emission computed tomography. Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. In addition, a radioimmunotherapy study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope (177)Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology.

  17. Inherited Variants in the Chemokine CCL2 Gene and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness in a Caucasian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Oh, William K.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kantoff, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Though C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and invasion, the role of inherited variation in the CCL2 gene in prostate cancer progression and metastases remains unanswered. This study is aimed to determine the influence of CCL2 germline variants on prostate cancer aggressiveness. Experimental Design We performed an association study between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL2 gene and prostate cancer clinicopathologic variables in a large hospital based Caucasian patient cohort (N =4073). Results Genetic variantion at CCL2 is associated with markers of disease aggressiveness. Three SNPs, each in strong linkage disequilibrium, are associated with a higher (>7) biopsy Gleason score: CCL2-1811 A/G, −2835A/C and +3726 T/C (P =0.01, 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). The CCL2 −1811 G allele is addionally associated with advanced pathologic stages in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (P = 0.04). In haplotype analysis, we found that the frequency of a common haplotype, H5, was higher among patients with D’Amico good risk features (Ppermutation = 0.04). Conclusions These results support the influence of CCL2 variants on prostate cancer development and progression. PMID:21135144

  18. Circadian Dysrhythmias, Physiological Aberrations, and the Link to Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Arbesman, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are core regulators of a variety of mammalian physiologic processes and oscillate in a 24-h pattern. Many peripheral organs possess endogenous rhythmicity that is then modulated by a master clock; the skin is one of these peripheral organs. The dysregulation of rhythms is associated with decreased ability to ameliorate cellular stressors at a local and global level, which then increases the propensity for the development of neoplastic growths. In this article, we review the implications of altered circadian rhythms on DNA repair as well as modified gene expression of core clock proteins with particular focus on skin models. These findings are then correlated with epidemiologic data regarding skin cancer to showcase the effects of circadian disruption on this phenomenon. PMID:27128901

  19. A hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe for skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, P. A. A.; Dunsby, C.; Galletly, N. P.; Stamp, G. W.; Chu, A. C.; Anand, U.; Anand, P.; Benham, C. D.; Naylor, A.; French, P. M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The autofluorescence of biological tissue can be exploited for the detection and diagnosis of disease but, to date, its complex nature and relatively weak signal levels have impeded its widespread application in biology and medicine. We present here a portable instrument designed for the in situ simultaneous measurement of autofluorescence emission spectra and temporal decay profiles, permitting the analysis of complex fluorescence signals. This hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime probe utilizes two ultrafast lasers operating at 355 and 440nm that can excite autofluorescence from many different biomolecules present in skin tissue including keratin, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), and flavins. The instrument incorporates an optical fiber probe to provide sample illumination and fluorescence collection over a millimeter-sized area. We present a description of the system, including spectral and temporal characterizations, and report the preliminary application of this instrument to a study of recently resected (<2h) ex vivo skin lesions, illustrating its potential for skin cancer detection and diagnosis.

  20. Brachytherapy in the treatment of skin cancer: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer worldwide is constantly growing and it is the most frequently diagnosed tumor. Brachytherapy (BT) in particular localizations is a valuable tool of the exact radiation depot inside the tumor mass. In localizations such as the face, skull skin and inoperable tumors, relapses after surgery, radiotherapy are usually not suitable for primary or secondary invasive treatment. Brachytherapy is a safe procedure for organs at risk according to rapid fall of a dose outside the axis of the applicator with satisfactory dose localization inside the target. The complications rate is acceptable and treatment costs are low. In some tumors (great skin lesions in the scalp, near eyes or on the nose) BT allows for a great dose reduction in surrounding healthy tissues. Brachytherapy provides minimal dose delivery to surrounding healthy tissue, thus enabling good functional and cosmetic results. Treatment is possible almost in all cases on an outpatient basis. PMID:26759545

  1. Correspondence and Correlates of Couples’ Skin Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan; Manne, Sharon L.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Munshi, Teja

    2013-01-01

    Objective Skin cancer is common among older adults. Some national organizations recommend total cutaneous examination (TCE) and skin self-examinations (SSE) for skin cancer detection. Although the spousal relationship is a known influence on health behavior, little is known about the level of correspondence in skin screening among couples. The study objective was to investigate correspondence of TCE and SSE among older couples, demographic correlates of correspondence, and correspondence among barriers to skin exams. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting Online via the nationally-representative GfK Internet Panel Participants Cohabitating partners 50 years of age and older Main Outcome Measures TCE in the past three years and SSE in the past year Results Correspondence among partners was high. With regard to TCE, in 24% of the sample, both partners completed TCE, and in 48% of the sample, both partners had not completed TCE. With regard to SSE, in 40% of the sample, both partners completed SSE, and in 40% of the sample, both partners had not completed SSE. Correlates of both partners not doing TCE include lower household income, larger household size, non-metropolitan residence, living in the Midwest, and being in a same-sex relationship. Correlates of both members not doing SSE included larger household size and being in a same-sex relationship. Barriers to screening that members of couples reported were similar to one another. Conclusions Couples were mostly concordant with regard to engagement in skin exams. Therefore, dyadic interventions to increase screening rates could be useful. Certain socio-demographic groups should especially be targeted. PMID:23864084

  2. [Rasopathies: developmental disorders that predispose to cancer and skin manifestations].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martín, A; Torrelo, A

    2011-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and death. For more than 30 years now we have known that 30% of human cancers carry somatic mutations in genes encoding proteins from this pathway. Whereas somatic mutations have a high malignant potential, germline mutations are linked to developmental abnormalities that are often poorly clinically differentiated, although each is dependent upon the specific gene affected. Thus, all patients share varying degrees of mental retardation or learning difficulties, heart disease, facial dysmorphism, skin anomalies, and, in some cases, predisposition to cancer. These syndromes, known as rasopathies, include Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis-1, LEOPARD syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, and Legius syndrome. Recognizing the skin manifestations of rasopathies can facilitate diagnosis of these syndromes.

  3. [The relationship between the ozone layer and skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Sánchez C, Francisca

    2006-09-01

    In the recent decades, a sustained increase in the worldwide incidence of skin cancer has been observed and Chile is not the exception. The most important risk factor is the exaggerated and repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. The ozone layer restricts the transmission of type B and C ultraviolet light. Since 1980, a sustained depletion of stratospheric ozone levels is occurring, specially in middle latitudes (-30 to -60). Along with this depletion, the amount of ultraviolet light that reaches the earth surface is increasing. This article reviews some basic concepts about the ozone layer and the association between its depletion and skin cancer. The general population should be informed about the risks of inadequate and exaggerated exposure to sunlight.

  4. Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Skin Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Arne; Ericsson, Marica; Grapengiesser, Sofia; Gudmundson, Fredrik; Larko, Olle; Mölne, Lena; Stenquist, Bo; Ternesten, Annika; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2000-03-01

    Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Skin Cancer Photodynamic therapy has become an interesting alternative to conventional therapy of skin cancer as basal cell carcinoma, BCC. Delta-aminolevulinic acid, ALA, is a precursor in the biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX, Ph IX, which accumulates to a large extent in tumor tissue. We have compared in vivo Ph IX, fluorescence with the extent of BCC on the face, trunk and thigh etc determined by histological mapping in a number of lesions. A non-laser-based set-up (1) was used to record the fluorescence images. The time for application of ALA was varied to optimize the uptake and the contrast in fluorescence between tumor attached and healthy skin. In more than 50 correlation between the fluorescence imaging and histological pattern. The contrast in fluorescence between tumor and healthy skin seems to be highr for older patients. Work is in progress to develope routines for optimization of the contrast. 1. A-M Wennberg et al, Acta Derm Venereol(Stockh) 1999, 79:54-61.

  5. Lectin chromatography/mass spectrometry discovery workflow identifies putative biomarkers of aggressive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Drake, Penelope M; Schilling, Birgit; Niles, Richard K; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Li, Bensheng; Jung, Kwanyoung; Cho, Wonryeon; Braten, Miles; Inerowicz, Halina D; Williams, Katherine; Albertolle, Matthew; Held, Jason M; Iacovides, Demetris; Sorensen, Dylan J; Griffith, Obi L; Johansen, Eric; Zawadzka, Anna M; Cusack, Michael P; Allen, Simon; Gormley, Matthew; Hall, Steven C; Witkowska, H Ewa; Gray, Joe W; Regnier, Fred; Gibson, Bradford W; Fisher, Susan J

    2012-04-06

    We used a lectin chromatography/MS-based approach to screen conditioned medium from a panel of luminal (less aggressive) and triple negative (more aggressive) breast cancer cell lines (n=5/subtype). The samples were fractionated using the lectins Aleuria aurantia (AAL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which recognize fucose and sialic acid, respectively. The bound fractions were enzymatically N-deglycosylated and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 533 glycoproteins, ∼90% of which were components of the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We observed 1011 glycosites, 100 of which were solely detected in ≥3 triple negative lines. Statistical analyses suggested that a number of these glycosites were triple negative-specific and thus potential biomarkers for this tumor subtype. An analysis of RNaseq data revealed that approximately half of the mRNAs encoding the protein scaffolds that carried potential biomarker glycosites were up-regulated in triple negative vs luminal cell lines, and that a number of genes encoding fucosyl- or sialyltransferases were differentially expressed between the two subtypes, suggesting that alterations in glycosylation may also drive candidate identification. Notably, the glycoproteins from which these putative biomarker candidates were derived are involved in cancer-related processes. Thus, they may represent novel therapeutic targets for this aggressive tumor subtype.

  6. Three-Dimensional In Vitro Skin and Skin Cancer Models Based on Human Fibroblast-Derived Matrix.

    PubMed

    Berning, Manuel; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro skin and skin cancer models help to dissect epidermal-dermal and tumor-stroma interactions. In the model presented here, normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from adult skin self-assembled into dermal equivalents with their specific fibroblast-derived matrix (fdmDE) over 4 weeks. The fdmDE represented a complex human extracellular matrix that was stabilized by its own heterogeneous collagen fiber meshwork, largely resembling a human dermal in vivo architecture. Complemented with normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the skin equivalent (fdmSE) thereof favored the establishment of a well-stratified and differentiated epidermis and importantly allowed epidermal regeneration in vitro for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, the fdmDE could be used to study the features of cutaneous skin cancer. Complementing fdmDE with HaCaT cells in different stages of malignancy or tumor-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, the resulting skin cancer equivalents (fdmSCEs) recapitulated the respective degree of tumorigenicity. In addition, the fdmSCE invasion phenotypes correlated with their individual degree of tissue organization, disturbance in basement membrane organization, and presence of matrix metalloproteinases. Together, fdmDE-based models are well suited for long-term regeneration of normal human epidermis and, as they recapitulate tumor-specific growth, differentiation, and invasion profiles of cutaneous skin cancer cells, also provide an excellent human in vitro skin cancer model.

  7. Skin artifact removal technique for breast cancer radar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caorsi, S.; Lenzi, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new model-based skin artifact cleaning technique with the aim to remove skin reflections with good effectiveness, without introducing significant signal distortions, and without assuming a priori information on the real structure of the breast. The reference cleaning model, constituted by a two-layer geometry skin-adipose tissue, is oriented to all the ultrawideband radar methods able to detect the tumor starting by the knowledge of each trace recorded around the breast. All the radar signal measurements were simulated by using realistic breast models derived from the University of Wisconsin computational electromagnetic laboratory database and the finite difference time domain (FDTD)-based open source software GprMax. First, we have searched for the best configuration for the reference cleaning model with the aim to minimize the distortions introduced on the radar signal. Second, the performance of the proposed cleaning technique has been assessed by using a breast cancer radar detection technique based on the use of artificial neural network (ANN). In order to minimize the signal distortions, we found that it was necessary to use the real skin thickness and the static Debye parameters of both skin and adipose tissue. In such a case the ANN-based radar approach was able to detect the tumor with an accuracy of 87%. By extending the performance assessment also to the case when only average standard values are used to characterize the reference cleaning model, the detection accuracy was of 84%.

  8. Confocal microscopy patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    González, S; Sánchez, V; González-Rodríguez, A; Parrado, C; Ullrich, M

    2014-06-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is currently the most promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for studying cutaneous structures between the stratum corneum and the superficial reticular dermis. This tool gives real-time images parallel to the skin surface; the microscopic resolution is similar to that of conventional histology. Numerous studies have identified the main confocal features of various inflammatory skin diseases and tumors, demonstrating the good correlation of these features with certain dermatoscopic patterns and histologic findings. Confocal patterns and diagnostic algorithms have been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Possible present and future applications of this noninvasive technology are wide ranging and reach beyond its use in noninvasive diagnosis. This tool can also be used, for example, to evaluate dynamic skin processes that occur after UV exposure or to assess tumor response to noninvasive treatments such as photodynamic therapy. We explain the characteristic confocal features found in the main nonmelanoma skin tumors and discuss possible applications for this novel diagnostic technique in routine dermatology practice.

  9. Protective actions of vitamin D in UVB induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2012-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common type of cancer, occurring at a rate of over 1 million per year in the United States. Although their metastatic potential is generally low, they can and do metastasize, especially in the immune compromised host, and their surgical treatment is often quite disfiguring. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVR is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we hypothesize that the vitamin D produced in the skin serves to suppress UVR epidermal tumor formation. In this review we will first discuss the evidence supporting the conclusion that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with or without its ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, limits the propensity for cancer formation following UVR. We will then explore three potential mechanisms for this protection: inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation, immune regulation, and stimulation of DNA damage repair (DDR).

  10. A cancer-causing gene is positively correlated with male aggression in Xiphophorus cortezi

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, André A.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of seemingly maladaptive genes in organisms challenges evolutionary biological thought. In Xiphophorus fishes, certain melanin patterns form malignant melanomas due to a cancer-causing gene (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase; Xmrk), which arose several millions years ago from unequal meiotic recombination. Xiphophorus melanomas are male biased and induced by androgens however male behavior and Xmrk genotype has not been investigated. This study found that male X. cortezi with the spotted caudal (Sc) pattern, from which melanomas originate, displayed increased aggression in mirror image trials. Furthermore, Xmrk males (regardless of Sc phenotype) bit and performed more agonistic displays than Xmrk deficient males. Male aggressive response decreased when males viewed their Sc image as compared to their non-Sc image. Collectively, these results indicate that Xmrk males experience a competitive advantage over wild-type males and that intrasexual selection could be an important component in the evolutionary maintenance of this oncogene within Xiphophorus. PMID:20021547

  11. Novel targeted therapies in uterine serous carcinoma, an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Menderes, Gulden; Clark, Mitchell; Santin, Alessandro D

    2016-04-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a rare but aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer. Although it represents only 10% of all endometrial cancer cases, USC accounts for up to 40% of all endometrial cancer-related recurrences and subsequent deaths. With such a dismal prognosis, there is an expanding role for novel targeted approaches in the treatment of USC. Recent whole-exome sequencing studies have demonstrated gain of function of the HER2/NEU gene, as well as driver mutations in the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR and cyclin E/FBXW7 oncogenic pathways in a large number of USCs. The results emphasize the relevance of these novel therapeutic targets for biologic therapy of USC, which will be reviewed in this article.

  12. Possibility that certain hypnotics might cause cancer in skin.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2008-09-01

    Fifteen epidemiologic studies have associated hypnotic drugs with excess mortality, especially excess cancer deaths. Until recently, insufficient controlled trials were available to demonstrate whether hypnotics actually cause any cancers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval History and Documents were accessed for zaleplon, eszopiclone and ramelteon. Since zolpidem was used as a comparison drug in zaleplon trials, some zolpidem data were also available. Incident cancers occurring during randomized hypnotics administration or placebo administration were tabulated. Combining controlled trials for the four drugs, there were 6190 participants given hypnotics and 2535 given placebo in parallel. There were eight mentions of incident non-melanoma skin cancers among participants receiving hypnotics but no comparable mentions of cancers among those receiving placebo (P = 0.064, one-tailed). There were also four mentions of incident tumors of uncertain malignancy among those receiving hypnotics but none among those receiving placebo, so combining uncertain and definite malignancies yielded a more significant contrast (P = 0.016). FDA files revealed that all four of the new hypnotics were associated with cancers in rodents. Three had been shown to be clastogenic. Together with the epidemiologic data and laboratory studies, the available evidence signals that new hypnotics may increase cancer risk. Due to limitations in available data, confirmatory research is needed.

  13. Prevalence of Skin Cancer and Related Skin Tumors in High-Risk Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Sinnya, Sudipta; Pandeya, Nirmala; Isbel, Nikky; Campbell, Scott; Fawcett, Jonathan; Soyer, Peter H; Ferguson, Lisa; Davis, Marcia; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2016-07-01

    The increased skin cancer incidence in organ transplant recipients is well-known, but the skin cancer burden at any one time is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the period prevalence of untreated skin malignancy and actinic keratoses in high-risk kidney and liver transplant recipients and to assess associated factors. Organ transplant recipients underwent full skin examinations by dermatologically trained physicians. The proportion of examined organ transplant recipients with histopathologically confirmed skin cancer in the 3-month baseline period was estimated. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals indicated significant associations. Of 495 high-risk organ transplant recipients (average age = 54 years, time immunosuppressed = 8.9 years), 135 (27%) had basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or Bowen's disease (intraepidermal carcinoma) present and confirmed in the baseline period, with respective prevalence proportions of 10%, 11%, and 18% in kidney transplant recipients and 10%, 9%, and 13% in liver transplant recipients. Over 80% had actinic keratosis present, with approximately 30% having 5 or more actinic keratoses. Organ transplant recipients with the highest skin cancer burden were Australian born, were fair skinned (prevalence ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 2.43]), reported past skin cancer (prevalence ratio =3.39, 95% confidence interval = [1.93, 5.95]), and were receiving the most frequent skin checks (prevalence ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = [1.15, 2.70]). In conclusion, high-risk organ transplant recipients carry a substantial measurable skin cancer burden at any given time and require frequent review through easily accessible, specialized services.

  14. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  15. [Skin cancer and sun radiation: peruvian experience in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and melanoma].

    PubMed

    Sordo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, César

    2013-03-01

    The excessive exposure to sun radiation, especially to ultraviolet radiation (UV), has led to various diseases, in particular to skin cancer. In 1995, the Peruvian Dermatological Association conducted the first "Campaign for Education, Prevention and Early Detection of Skin Cancer and Melanoma" called "Mole's Day". The Ministry of Health has turned it into an official event, and the Health Social Security (EsSalud) also participates. This is a free campaign that takes place every year nationwide. 118,092 people attended from 1995 to 2011 in 76 sites distributed in 18 cities throughout the country. A cutaneous lesion were malignancy was suspected was identified in 2.8% of people attending, out of which 64.9% corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 26.7% to cutaneous melanoma, and 8.4% to squamous cell carcinoma. These campaigns are highly important not only because of the assistance given, but also because of the educational activities aimed at promoting a prevention culture in favor of the most vulnerable populations. Finally, we believe it is important to continue educating the population on skin cancer prevention, to build awareness among the authorities so that they actively participate in the performance of these activities, and to ask all physicians to coordinately join this initiative, in order to continue growing, and to improve all that has been attained for the benefit of our country.

  16. The role of skin cancer knowledge in sun-related behaviours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in many Western countries. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between skin cancer knowledge and sun-protective, exposure and tanning behaviours in the general population. A total of 34 studies, published in peer-reviewed journals over three decades, were reviewed and synthesised. Sun-protective behaviour was positively associated with skin cancer knowledge in most cases. Findings were inconsistent regarding other sun-related behaviours. Heterogeneity in measurement compromised the capacity to definitively link knowledge and sun-related behaviours. There is a need for development and utilisation of a standardised skin cancer knowledge scale, and guidelines are suggested.

  17. Ectopic Activation of Germline and Placental Genes Identifies Aggressive Metastasis-Prone Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rousseaux, Sophie; Debernardi, Alexandra; Jacquiau, Baptiste; Vitte, Anne-Laure; Vesin, Aurélien; Nagy-Mignotte, Hélène; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Brichon, Pierre-Yves; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Hainaut, Pierre; Laffaire, Julien; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Beer, David G.; Timsit, Jean-François; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Khochbin, Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of normally silent tissue-specific genes and the resulting cell “identity crisis” are the unexplored consequences of malignant epigenetic reprogramming. We designed a strategy for investigating this reprogramming, which consisted of identifying a large number of tissue-restricted genes that are epigenetically silenced in normal somatic cells and then detecting their expression in cancer. This approach led to the demonstration that large-scale “off-context” gene activations systematically occur in a variety of cancer types. In our series of 293 lung tumors, we identified an ectopic gene expression signature associated with a subset of highly aggressive tumors, which predicted poor prognosis independently of the TNM (tumor size, node positivity, and metastasis) stage or histological subtype. The ability to isolate these tumors allowed us to reveal their common molecular features characterized by the acquisition of embryonic stem cell/germ cell gene expression profiles and the down-regulation of immune response genes. The methodical recognition of ectopic gene activations in cancer cells could serve as a basis for gene signature–guided tumor stratification, as well as for the discovery of oncogenic mechanisms, and expand the understanding of the biology of very aggressive tumors. PMID:23698379

  18. Pathogenesis of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers in Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Mohammad; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common human cancer, with an incidence of more than 1.2 million per year in the U.S.A. The risk for the development of NMSCs increases by approximately 10–250 fold in chronically immune suppressed organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Solar UVB is the most common etiologic factor in the development of this neoplasm, both in immune competent and immune suppressed populations. This review provides a description of NMSC in OTRs. It also provides an account of the various immunologic and non-immune-dependent mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of NMSCs in OTRs. Finally, this review addresses possible strategies for the prevention of this cancer, particularly focusing on the aspects that may be incorporated to prevent negative effects of chemopreventive chemicals on graft survival. PMID:21232524

  19. A Neighborhood-Wide Association Study (NWAS): Example of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Shannon M.; Mitra, Nandita; Ross, Michelle; Newcomb, Craig; Dailey, Karl; Jackson, Tara; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Riethman, Harold; Branas, Charles C.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Cancer results from complex interactions of multiple variables at the biologic, individual, and social levels. Compared to other levels, social effects that occur geospatially in neighborhoods are not as well-studied, and empiric methods to assess these effects are limited. We propose a novel Neighborhood-Wide Association Study(NWAS), analogous to genome-wide association studies(GWAS), that utilizes high-dimensional computing approaches from biology to comprehensively and empirically identify neighborhood factors associated with disease. Methods Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data were linked to U.S. Census data. In a successively more stringent multiphase approach, we evaluated the association between neighborhood (n = 14,663 census variables) and prostate cancer aggressiveness(PCA) with n = 6,416 aggressive (Stage≥3/Gleason grade≥7 cases) vs. n = 70,670 non-aggressive (Stage<3/Gleason grade<7) cases in White men. Analyses accounted for age, year of diagnosis, spatial correlation, and multiple-testing. We used generalized estimating equations in Phase 1 and Bayesian mixed effects models in Phase 2 to calculate odds ratios(OR) and confidence/credible intervals(CI). In Phase 3, principal components analysis grouped correlated variables. Results We identified 17 new neighborhood variables associated with PCA. These variables represented income, housing, employment, immigration, access to care, and social support. The top hits or most significant variables related to transportation (OR = 1.05;CI = 1.001–1.09) and poverty (OR = 1.07;CI = 1.01–1.12). Conclusions This study introduces the application of high-dimensional, computational methods to large-scale, publically-available geospatial data. Although NWAS requires further testing, it is hypothesis-generating and addresses gaps in geospatial analysis related to empiric assessment. Further, NWAS could have broad implications for many diseases and future precision medicine studies focused on multilevel

  20. Nonsurgical Innovations in the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Sadegh; Viera, Martha H.; Valins, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of cancer in the United States and represent 75 percent and 20 percent, respectively, of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Since ultraviolet radiation is implicated in their development, photoprotection is fundamental in their prevention. Additional preventive measures include identifying high-risk individuals for early detection along with using agents, such as retinoids, that are effective in decreasing the risk of premalignant cells further developing into carcinomas. Newer agents achieving this goal include perillyl alcohol, T4 endonuclease 5, DL-α-tocopherol, and α-difluoromethylornithine. Procedural modalities are currently the standard of treatment, but recent evidence has consistently shown that newer (nonsurgical) therapies, such as interferon, imiquimod, retinoids, and 5-fluorouracil, can be used effectively either as monotherapies or as adjuvants to those surgical modalities for the treatment of superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers and premalignant lesions. These newer therapies have achieved significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. Procedural modalities that have been evolving into important tools for the treatment of actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers include photodynamic therapy and lasers. Nonsurgical therapies currently proving to be effective in clinical trials include ingenol mebutate and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Agents that are showing promising results in early phases of clinical trials include betulinic acid; hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors, such as cyclopamine and GDC-0449; α-melanocyte–stimulating hormone analogs, such as afamelanotide; epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib; anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab and panitumumab; and the 5-fluorouracil prodrug capecitabine. PMID:20725548

  1. Radon exposure of the skin: II. Estimation of the attributable risk for skin cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Charles, M W

    2007-09-01

    A preceding companion paper has reviewed the various factors which form the chain of assumptions that are necessary to support a suggested link between radon exposure and skin cancer in man. Overall, the balance of evidence was considered to be against a causal link between radon exposure and skin cancer. One factor against causality is evidence, particularly from animal studies, that some exposure of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is required-beyond the range of naturally occurring alpha particles. On this basis any skin cancer risk due to radon progeny would be due only to beta and gamma components of equivalent dose, which are 10-100 times less than the alpha equivalent dose to the basal layer. Notwithstanding this conclusion against causality, calculations have been carried out of attributable risk (ATR, the proportion of cases occurring in the total population which can be explained by radon exposure) on the conservative basis that the target cells are, as is often assumed, in the basal layer of the epidermis. An excess relative risk figure is used which is based on variance weighting of the data sources. This is 2.5 times lower than the value generally used. A latent period of 20 years and an RBE of 10 are considered more justifiable than the often used values of 10 years and 20 respectively. These assumptions lead to an ATR of approximately 0.7% (0.5-5%) at the nominal UK indoor radon level of 20 Bq m(-3). The range reflects uncertainties in plate-out. Previous higher estimates by various authors have made more pessimistic assumptions. There are some indications that radon progeny plate-out may be elevated out of doors, particularly due to rainfall. Although average UK outdoor radon levels ( approximately 4 Bq m(-3)) are much less than average indoor levels, and outdoor residence time is on average about 10%, this might have the effect of increasing the ATR several-fold. This needs considerable further

  2. Coffee consumption and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African and Caucasian Americans in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Su, L Joseph; Steck, Susan E; Ang, Alfonso; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness using data from a population-based incident CaP study within the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP). Classification of CaP aggressiveness at diagnosis was based on clinical criteria for 1,049 African-American (AA) and 1,083 Caucasian-American (CA) research subjects. Coffee consumption was measured using a modified NCI Dietary History Questionnaire. No significant associations were found between CaP aggressiveness and consumption of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. The OR for high aggressive CaP among consumers of more than 4 cups per day was 0.92 (95%CI = 0.61, 1.39), compared to non-coffee-drinkers. Results stratified by race found no significant associations and no noticeable trends in either AAs (P for trend = 0. 62) or CAs (P for trend = 0.42). In contrast to a recent report on a select population that has less complete information on CaP aggressiveness suggesting that coffee prevents aggressive CaP, this rapid case ascertainment population-based study, in a biracial population with differing risks of CaP did not demonstrate a protective relationship between high coffee consumption and risk of high aggressive CaP.

  3. Actinic keratosis: preventable and treatable like other precancerous and cancerous skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Nicol, N H

    1989-01-01

    Actinic keratosis, like many other precancerous and cancerous skin lesions are preventable and treatable. Nurses, physicians, other health care providers, school teachers, daycare workers, grandparents, parents, and children must assume the role of educating others regarding attitudes and knowledge about sun damage to the skin. Protecting one's skin should be a lifelong process from the newborn period onward. However, if sun damage does occur, the next important step is early detection of skin cancer. Individuals with associated risk factors should be screened routinely by health care personnel with expertise in the area of skin cancer. The best treatment of actinic keratosis, as with most diseases, is prevention.

  4. Telomerase activity in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parris, C N; Jezzard, S; Silver, A; MacKie, R; McGregor, J M; Newbold, R F

    1999-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized structures consisting of repeat arrays of TTAGGGn located at the ends of chromosomes. They are essential for chromosome stability and, in the majority of normal somatic cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division. Most immortalized cell lines and tumours reactivate telomerase to stabilize the shortening chromosomes. Telomerase activation is regarded as a central step in carcinogenesis and, here, we demonstrate telomerase activation in premalignant skin lesions and also in all forms of skin cancer. Telomerase activation in normal skin was a rare event, and among 16 samples of normal skin (one with a history of chronic sun exposure) 12.5% (2 out of 16) exhibited telomerase activity. One out of 16 (6.25%) benign proliferative lesions, including viral and seborrhoeic wart samples, had telomerase activity. In premalignant actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease, 42% (11 out of 26) of samples exhibited telomerase activity. In the basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) lesions, telomerase was activated in 77% (10 out of 13) and 69% (22 out of 32) respectively. However, only 25% (3 out of 12) of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) had telomerase activity. With the exception of one SCC sample, telomerase activity in a positive control cell line derived from a fibrosarcoma (HT1080) was not inhibited when mixed with the telomerase-negative SCC or CMM extracts, indicating that, overall, Taq polymerase and telomerase inhibitors were not responsible for the negative results. Mean telomere hybridizing restriction fragment (TRF) analysis was performed in a number of telomerase-positive and -negative samples and, although a broad range of TRF sizes ranging from 3.6 to 17 kb was observed, a relationship between telomerase status and TRF size was not found. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408692

  5. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-20

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  6. HER2 overcomes PTEN (loss)-induced senescence to cause aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Patel, Rachana; Singh, Lukram Babloo; Nixon, Colin; Seywright, Morag; Barnetson, Robert J.; Brunton, Valerie G.; Muller, William J.; Edwards, Joanne; Sansom, Owen J.; Leung, Hing Y.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common cancer among adult men in the Western world. Better insight into its tumor-activating pathways may facilitate the development of targeted therapies. In this study, we show that patients who develop prostate tumors with low levels of PTEN and high levels of HER2/3 have a poor prognosis. This is functionally relevant, as targeting Her2 activation to the murine prostate cooperates with Pten loss and drives CaP progression. Mechanistically, this is associated with activation of the MAPK pathway and abrogation of the Pten loss-induced cellular senescence program. Importantly, inhibition of MEK function strongly suppressed proliferation within these tumors by restoring the Pten loss-induced cellular senescence program. Taken together, these data suggest that stratification of CaP patients for HER2/3 and PTEN status could identify patients with aggressive CaP who may respond favorably to MEK inhibition. PMID:21930937

  7. Targeted therapy in uterine serous carcinoma: an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Black, Jonathan D; English, Diana P; Roque, Dana M; Santin, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a highly aggressive variant of endometrial cancer. Although it only represents less than 10% of all cases, it accounts for a disproportionate number of deaths from endometrial cancer. Comprehensive surgical staging followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy represents the mainstay of USC therapy. Vaginal cuff brachytherapy is also of potential benefit in USC. Recent whole-exome sequencing studies have demonstrated gain of function of the HER2/NEU gene, as well as driver mutations in the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR and cyclin E/FBXW7 oncogenic pathways in a large number of USCs. These results emphasize the relevance of these novel therapeutic targets for biologic therapy of chemotherapy-resistant recurrent USC.

  8. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  9. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tang, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features. PMID:26924072

  10. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%.

  11. GALNT6 expression enhances aggressive phenotypes of ovarian cancer cells by regulating EGFR activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Chi; Chen, Syue-Ting; Huang, Min-Chuan; Huang, John; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Chen, Chi-Hau

    2017-03-28

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 (GALNT6), an enzyme that mediates the initial step of mucin type-O glycosylation, has been reported to regulate mammary carcinogenesis. However, the expression and role of GALNT6 in ovarian cancer are still unclear. Here we showed that high GALNT6 expression correlates with increased recurrence, lymph node metastasis, and chemoresistance in ovarian endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas; and higher GALNT6 levels are significantly associated with poorer patient survivals. GALNT6 knockdown with two independent siRNAs significantly suppressed viability, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Using phospho-RTK array and Western blot analyses, we identified EGFR as a critical target of GALNT6. GALNT6 knockdown decreased phosphorylation of EGFR, whereas GALNT6 overexpression increased the phosphorylation. Lectin pull-down assays with Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) indicated that GALNT6 was able to modify O-glycans on EGFR. Moreover, the GALNT6-enhanced invasive behavior was significantly reversed by erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor. Our results suggest that GALNT6 expression is associated with poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and enhances the aggressive behavior of ovarian cancer cells by regulating EGFR activity.

  12. Breast cancer after radiotherapy for skin hemangioma in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, M.; Mattsson, A.; Hakulinen, T.; Holm, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Between 1920 and 1959, 9675 women were irradiated in infancy for skin hemangioma at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. They were exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. The mean age at first exposure was 6 months and the mean absorbed dose to the breast anlage was 0.39 Gy (range < 0.01-35.8 Gy). The breast cancer incidence was analyzed by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register for the period 1958-1986. Seventy-five breast cancers were found after a mean absorbed dose of 1.5 Gy in the breasts with cancer. The analyses showed a significant dose-response relationship with a linear model estimate for the excess relative risk (ERR) of 0.38 at 1 Gy (95% CI 0.09-0.85). This relationship was not modified significantly by age at exposure or by dose to the ovaries. The ERR increased significantly with time after exposure and for > 50 years after exposure the ERR at 1 Gy was 2.25 (95% CI 0.59-5.62). The fitted excess absolute risk (EAR) was 22.9 per 10{sup 4} breast-year gray. The breast absorbed dose and time after exposure were important risk determinants for breast cancer excess risk. Forty to 50 years of follow-up was necessary for the excess risk to be expressed. The study confirms previous findings that the breast anlage of female infants is sensitive to ionizing radiation. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Novel mechanisms for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the skin and in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med 1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways-wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas, VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of SHH expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  14. Mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index: A potential biomarker to predict progression from indolent to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Landar, Aimee

    2015-12-15

    Mitochondrial function is influenced by alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and changes in the microenvironment occurring during tumorigenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial function will be stably and dynamically altered at each stage of the prostate tumor development. We tested this hypothesis in RWPE-1 cells and its tumorigenic clones with progressive malignant characteristics (RWPE-1 < WPE-NA22 < WPE-NB14 < WPE-NB11 < WPE-NB26) using high-throughput respirometry. Our studies demonstrate that mitochondrial content do not change with increasing malignancy. In premalignant cells (WPE-NA22 and WPE-NB14), OXPHOS is elevated in presence of glucose or glutamine alone or in combination compared to RWPE-1 cells and decreases with increasing malignancy. Glutamine maintained higher OXPHOS than glucose and suggests that it may be an important substrate for the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells. Glycolysis significantly increases with malignancy and follow a classical Warburg phenomenon. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is significantly lower in tumorigenic clones and invasive WPE-NB26 does not utilize FAO at all. In this paper, we introduce for the first time the mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index (MOBI), a mathematical representation of oncobioenergetic profile of a cancer cell, which increases significantly upon transformation into localized premalignant form and rapidly falls below the normal as they become aggressive in prostate tumorigenesis. We have validated this in five prostate cancer cell lines and MOBI appears to be not related to androgen dependence or mitochondrial content, but rather dependent on the stage of the cancer. Altogether, we propose that MOBI could be a potential biomarker to distinguish aggressive cancer from that of indolent disease.

  15. Metabolic coupling in urothelial bladder cancer compartments and its correlation to tumor aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Julieta; Santos, Lúcio L.; Morais, António; Amaro, Teresina; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    abstract Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are vital for intracellular pH homeostasis by extruding lactate from highly glycolytic cells. These molecules are key players of the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, and evidence indicates a potential contribution in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) aggressiveness and chemoresistance. However, the specific role of MCTs in the metabolic compartmentalization within bladder tumors, namely their preponderance on the tumor stroma, remains to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the immunoexpression of MCTs in the different compartments of UBC tissue samples (n = 111), assessing the correlations among them and with the clinical and prognostic parameters. A significant decrease in positivity for MCT1 and MCT4 occurred from normoxic toward hypoxic regions. Significant associations were found between the expression of MCT4 in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma. MCT1 staining in normoxic tumor areas, and MCT4 staining in hypoxic regions, in the tumor stroma and in the blood vessels were significantly associated with UBC aggressiveness. MCT4 concomitant positivity in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma, as well as positivity in each of these regions concomitant with MCT1 positivity in normoxic tumor cells, was significantly associated with an unfavourable clinicopathological profile, and predicted lower overall survival rates among patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Our results point to the existence of a multi-compartment metabolic model in UBC, providing evidence of a metabolic coupling between catabolic stromal and cancer cells’ compartments, and the anabolic cancer cells. It is urgent to further explore the involvement of this metabolic coupling in UBC progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26636903

  16. Are patients with skin cancer at lower risk of developing colorectal or breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Soerjomataram, I; Louwman, W J; Lemmens, V E P P; Coebergh, J W W; de Vries, E

    2008-06-15

    Ultraviolet exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal and breast cancer as the result of rising vitamin D levels. Because skin cancer is positively related to sun exposure, the authors hypothesized a lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer after skin cancer diagnosis. They analyzed the incidence of colorectal and breast cancer diagnosed from 1972 to 2002 among 26,916 Netherlands skin cancer patients (4,089 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19,319 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and 3,508 cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM)). Standardized incidence ratios were calculated. A markedly decreased risk of colorectal cancer was found for subgroups supposedly associated with the highest accumulated sun exposure: men (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 0.97); patients with SCC (SIR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93); older patients at SCC diagnosis (SIR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88); and patients with a SCC or BCC lesion on the head and neck area (SIR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.92 for SCC and SIR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.97 for BCC). Patients with CMM exhibited an increased risk of breast cancer, especially advanced breast cancer (SIR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.94) and older patients at CMM diagnosis (SIR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.89). Study results suggest a beneficial effect of continuous sun exposure against colorectal cancer. The higher risk of breast cancer among CMM patients may be related to socioeconomic class, both being more common in the affluent group.

  17. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I; Lee, Tim K

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  18. Polarization speckle imaging as a potential technique for in vivo skin cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Lui, Harvey; Kalia, Sunil; Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; Lee, Tim K.

    2013-06-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the Western world. In order to accurately detect the disease, especially malignant melanoma-the most fatal form of skin cancer-at an early stage when the prognosis is excellent, there is an urgent need to develop noninvasive early detection methods. We believe that polarization speckle patterns, defined as a spatial distribution of depolarization ratio of traditional speckle patterns, can be an important tool for skin cancer detection. To demonstrate our technique, we conduct a large in vivo clinical study of 214 skin lesions, and show that statistical moments of the polarization speckle pattern could differentiate different types of skin lesions, including three common types of skin cancers, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and two benign lesions, melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratoses. In particular, the fourth order moment achieves better or similar sensitivity and specificity than many well-known and accepted optical techniques used to differentiate melanoma and seborrheic keratosis.

  19. An Overview of Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Skin Cancer Chemoprevention by Silibinin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer incidences are rising worldwide, and one of the major causative factors is excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Annually, ~5 million skin cancer patients are treated in United States, mostly with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which is also frequent in other Western countries. As sunscreens do not provide adequate protection against deleterious effects of UVR, additional and alternative chemoprevention strategies are urgently needed to reduce skin cancer burden. Over the last couple of decades, extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of skin carcinogenesis, and to identifying novel agents which could be useful in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. In this regard, several natural non-toxic compounds have shown promising efficacy in preventing skin carcinogenesis at initiation, promotion and progression stages, and are considered important in better management of skin cancer. Consistent with this, we and others have studied and established the notable efficacy of natural flavonolignan silibinin against UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Extensive pre-clinical animal and cell culture studies report strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, DNA damage repair, immune-modulatory and anti-proliferative properties of silibinin. Molecular studies have identified that silibinin targets pleotropic signaling pathways including mitogenic, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, p53, NF-κB, etc. Overall, the skin cancer chemopreventive potential of silibinin is well supported by comprehensive mechanistic studies, suggesting its greater use against UV-induced cellular damages and photocarcinogenesis. PMID:26097804

  20. Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants determine the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer independently of fair skin and red hair.

    PubMed

    Bastiaens, M T; ter Huurne, J A; Kielich, C; Gruis, N A; Westendorp, R G; Vermeer, B J; Bavinck, J N

    2001-04-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants are associated with fair skin and red hair and, independently of these, with cutaneous malignant melanoma. The association of MC1R gene variants with nonmelanoma skin cancer is largely unknown. A total of 838 subjects were included in the present study: 453 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and 385 subjects with no skin cancer. The coding sequence of the human MC1R gene was tested using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis followed by sequencing of unknown variants. Risk of skin cancer dependent on the various MC1R gene variants was estimated using the exposure odds ratio. We investigated whether subjects with MC1R variant alleles were at increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer and, if so, whether this increased risk was mediated by fair skin and red hair. A total of 27 MC1R gene variants were found. The number of carriers of one, two, or three MC1R gene variants was 379 (45.2%), 208 (24.8%), and 7 (0.9%), respectively. A strong association between MC1R gene variants and fair skin and red hair was established, especially the variants Arg151Cys and Arg160Trp (P < .0001). Carriers of two variant alleles were at increased risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-6.78), nodular basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 2.26; 95% CI 1.45-3.52), and superficial multifocal basal cell carcinoma (odds ratio 3.43; 95% CI 1.92-6.15), compared with carriers of two wild-type alleles. Carriers of one variant allele had half the risk. The highest relative risks of nonmelanoma skin cancer were found in carriers of the Asp84Glu, His260Pro, and Asp294His variant alleles, and the risk was only slightly lower for carriers of the Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg142His, Arg151Cys, and Arg160Trp variant alleles. When subjects were stratified by skin type and hair color, analysis showed that these factors did not materially change the relative risks. These findings

  1. Missense polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase genes and skin cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Niu, Tianhua; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2008-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) degrade various components of the extracellular matrix, and their overexpression has been implicated in tumor progression. Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to amino acid substitutions that can alter the function of the encoded protein. We evaluated the associations of six nonsynonymous SNPs in the MMP3, MMP8, and MMP9 genes with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 normal controls. We observed that the MMP9 Arg668Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of SCC. Compared with the Arg/Arg group, the multivariate odds ratio was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.97) for the Arg/Gln group and 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.97) for the Gln/Gln group (P(trend) = 0.004). We did not observe any association of this SNP with the risks of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. No associations were found for other SNPs with skin cancer risk. This study provides evidence for the contribution of the MMP9 Arg668Gln to SCC development.

  2. UV and skin cancer: specific p53 gene mutation in normal skin as a biologically relevant exposure measurement.

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, H; English, D; Randell, P L; Nakazawa, K; Martel, N; Armstrong, B K; Yamasaki, H

    1994-01-01

    Many human skin tumors contain mutated p53 genes that probably result from UV exposure. To investigate the link between UV exposure and p53 gene mutation, we developed two methods to detect presumptive UV-specific p53 gene mutations in UV-exposed normal skin. The methods are based on mutant allele-specific PCRs and ligase chain reactions and designed to detect CC to TT mutations at codons 245 and 247/248, using 10 micrograms of DNA samples. These specific mutations in the p53 gene have been reported in skin tumors. CC to TT mutations in the p53 gene were detected in cultured human skin cells only after UV irradiation, and the mutation frequency increased with increasing UV dose. Seventeen of 23 samples of normal skin from sun-exposed sites (74%) on Australian skin cancer patients contained CC to TT mutations in one or both of codons 245 and 247/248 of the p53 gene, and only 1 of 20 samples from non-sun-exposed sites (5%) harbored the mutation. None of 15 biopsies of normal skin from non-sun-exposed or intermittently exposed sites on volunteers living in France carried such mutations. Our results suggest that specific p53 gene mutations associated with human skin cancer are induced in normal skin by solar UV radiation. Measurement of these mutations may be useful as a biologically relevant measure of UV exposure in humans and as a possible predictor of risk for skin cancer. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8278394

  3. UV and skin cancer: Specific p53 gene mutation in normal skin as a biologically relevant exposure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, H.; Martel, N.; Armstrong, B.K.; Yamasaki, H. ); English, D.; Randell, P.L. ); Nakazawa, K. )

    1994-01-04

    Many human skin tumors contain mutated p53 genes that probably results from UV exposure. To investigate the link between UV exposure and p53 gene mutation, the authors developed two methods to detect presumptive UV-specific p53 gene mutations in UV-exposed normal skin. The methods are based on mutant allele-specific PCRs and ligase chain reactions and designed to detect CC to TT mutations at codons 245 and 247/248, using 10 [mu]g of DNA samples. These specific mutations in the p53 gene have been reported in skin tumors. CC to TT mutations in the p53 gene were detected in cultured human skin cells only after UV irradiation, and the mutation frequency increased with increasing UV dose. Seventeen of 23 samples of normal skin from sun-exposed sites (74%) on Australian skin cancer patients contained CC to TT mutations in one or both of codons 245 and 247/248 of the p53 gene, and only 1 of 20 samples form non-sun-exposed sites (5%) harbored the mutation. None of 15 biopsies of normal skin from non-sun-exposed or intermittently exposed sites on volunteers living in France carried such mutations. The results suggest that specific p53 gene mutations associated with human skin cancer are induced in normal skin by solar UV radiation. Measurement of these mutations may be useful as a biologically relevant measure of UV exposure in humans and as a possible predictor of risk for skin cancer.

  4. In vivo NCL targeting affects breast cancer aggressiveness through miRNA regulation

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Dario; De Luca, Luciana; Consiglio, Jessica; You, Jia; Rocci, Alberto; Talabere, Tiffany; Piovan, Claudia; Lagana, Alessandro; Cascione, Luciano; Guan, Jingwen; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Balatti, Veronica; Nuovo, Gerard; Coppola, Vincenzo; Hofmeister, Craig C.; Marcucci, Guido; Byrd, John C.; Volinia, Stefano; Shapiro, Charles L.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have described the altered expression and the causal role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer. However, to date, efforts to modulate miRNA levels for therapeutic purposes have been challenging to implement. Here we find that nucleolin (NCL), a major nucleolar protein, posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-103, that are causally involved in breast cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. We also show that NCL is commonly overexpressed in human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with that of NCL-dependent miRNAs. Finally, inhibition of NCL using guanosine-rich aptamers reduces the levels of NCL-dependent miRNAs and their target genes, thus reducing breast cancer cell aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate a path to novel therapeutic approaches based on NCL-targeting aptamers for the modulation of miRNA expression in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23610125

  5. Circular polarization terahertz imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jillian P.

    The use of terahertz (THz) radiation for imaging human tissue and delineating tumor margins has become an appealing topic in the biomedical field because THz radiation is non-ionizing and has the demonstrated ability to differentiate between cancerous and normal tissue without the need for exogenous contrast agents. Previously, a reflective continuous-wave (CW) THz imaging system utilizing a linear polarization-sensitive detection technique was demonstrated and used to delineate tumor margins for nonmelanoma skin cancers [1, 2] and determine reflectivity differences between normal and cancerous colon tissue [3 - 5]. This detection technique involves illuminating ex vivo tissue samples with linearly polarized light and collecting the signal remitted by the sample after passing through an analyzing wire grid polarizer oriented with its transmission axis perpendicular to the linear polarization incident on the sample. By collecting the cross-polarization signal, the strong Fresnel surface reflections from the sample holder interfaces are eliminated and predominantly signal from within the tissue volume is obtained. The aim of the proposed research is to enhance this polarization-sensitive detection technique by incorporating circular polarization illumination and detection channels. This technique has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths [6], where the scattering of light within the tissue volume has been extensively studied; however, it has yet to be implemented using THz radiation. In addition, this detection technique has the potential to demonstrate increased contrast between cancerous and normal tissue, and experimental results may shed light on the mechanism behind the observed contrast.

  6. Priorities and challenges for skin cancer prevention in Europe: an expert survey.

    PubMed

    Forsea, Ana-Maria; Del Marmol, Veronique; Geller, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The incidence, mortality, and survival rates of melanoma vary significantly across Europe, likely related to persistent inequalities between European countries in the areas of skin cancer early detection, case registration, and prevention. To enhance the planning of prevention strategies for skin cancer in Europe, we solicited the direct opinion of European experts in the field of dermato-oncology on the main obstacles, needs, and priorities for the reduction of the skin cancer burden on this continent. We surveyed European dermatologists with leading positions in European and international organizations active in skin cancer prevention by means of written, single-choice and multiple-choice questionnaires. Fifty-two dermatologists from 32 European countries completed the survey (response rate 80%). Fewer respondents in Eastern Europe compared with Western Europe reported the presence of governmental (12 vs. 46%) or nongovernmental (35 vs. 65%) initiatives for skin cancer prevention. Most respondents in Eastern (73%) and Western Europe (69%) reported the existence of national cancer registries, but the confidence in the accuracy of melanoma registration was low. Public and professional education for early detection were top priorities for skin cancer campaigns across Europe and the perceived obstacles were similar in both regions: the lack of a national program of public education, insufficient public authority initiatives, and insufficient training of physicians on skin cancer. Our survey highlighted several areas requiring intervention for skin cancer prevention and found that the main issues and obstacles appear to be similar across Europe, creating the premise for coordinated, pan-European action.

  7. Clinical study of imaging skin cancer margins using polarized light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Lee, Ken; Jacques, Steven L.

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer is most commons type of cancer in United States that occur on sun-exposed cosmetically sensitive areas like face, neck, and forearms. Surgical excision of skin cancer is challenging as more than one-third the actual margins extend beyond the clinically determined margins. Polarized light camera (polCAM) provides images of the superficial layers of the tissue with enhanced contrast which was used to image skin cancer margins. In a NIH-funded pilot study polCAM was used to image skin cancer in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery for skin cancer. Polarized light imaging utilizes the polarization properties of light to create an image of a lesion comprised only of light scattering from the superficial layers of the skin which yields a characteristic "fabric pattern" of the putative lesion and the surrounding normal tissue. In several case studies conducted with a system developed for the clinic, we have found that skin cancer disrupts this fabric pattern, allowing the doctor a new means of identifying the margins of the lesion. Data is acquired before the patient underwent surgery. The clinically determined skin cancer margins were compared with margins determined by examination of the polCAM images. The true margins were provided by the dermatophathologist on examination of the frozen sections. Our initial data suggests that the contrast due to polarization changes associated with cancerous lesions can elucidate margins that were not recognized by the surgeon under normal conditions but were later confirmed by the pathologist.

  8. Galvanic skin response of oral cancer patients during speech.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, G; Natsuaki, N; Maruo, Y; Okamoto, M; Minagi, S

    2003-05-01

    Severe speech difficulty is often caused after surgery of an oral cancer. Prosthetic treatment with a removable obturator prosthesis is generally provided for such patients. Although some speech ability is recovered with prosthetic treatment, patients sometimes complain of continued dissatisfaction with their speech. However, it is difficult to evaluate the dissatisfaction. Therefore, a new method for evaluation is desirable. In this study, such a new method using the galvanic skin response as the index for the dissatisfaction of the patient was developed, and its objectivity was investigated. Eleven patients with maxillary bone defects were selected. Prior to the evaluation, improvement of speech with the removable prosthesis was confirmed using the speech intelligibility test and the visual analogue scale. The electrical resistant value at pronunciation was measured with the measuring system composed with the apparatus (galvanic skin response (GSR) measuring apparatus), the personal computer program. The changes for the electrical resistant value after pronunciation were evaluated by calculating the decrease ratio at pronunciation [(the mean electrical resistance before pronunciation - the mean electrical resistance after pronunciation)/the mean electrical resistance before pronunciation]. This decrease ratio at pronunciation was defined as the index of the speech dissatisfaction of the subject. The mean values for the decrease ratio with prosthesis were significantly smaller than the values without prosthesis (P < 0.05). From the results of this study, it is suggested that the measurement of the electrical resistance change of the skin during speech could be a new method for evaluating the speech dissatisfaction of the post-oral-cancer patient.

  9. Skin cancer education among massage therapists: a survey at the 2010 meeting of the American Massage Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Shannon M; Louie-Gao, Qiong; Hession, Meghan L; Bailey, Elizabeth; Geller, Alan C; Cummins, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Massage therapists encounter skin on a daily basis and have a unique opportunity to recognize potential skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to describe the skin cancer education provided to massage therapists and to assess their comfort regarding identification and communication of suspicious lesions. An observational retrospective survey study was conducted at the 2010 American Massage Therapy Association Meeting. Sixty percent reported receiving skin cancer education during and 25% reported receiving skin cancer education after training. Massage therapists who examine their own skin are more likely to be comfortable with recognizing a suspicious lesion and are more likely to examine their client's skin. Greater number of clients treated per year and greater frequency of client skin examinations were predictors of increased comfort level with recognizing a suspicious lesion. Massage therapists are more comfortable discussing than identifying a potential skin cancer. Massage therapists may be able to serve an important role in the early detection of skin cancer.

  10. Risk of skin cancer in multiple myeloma patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Austin A; Wang, James; Vardanyan, Suzie; Madden, Erik K; Hebroni, Frank; Udd, Kyle A; Spektor, Tanya M; Nosrati, Jason D; Kitto, Alex Z; Zahab, Michael; Cheema, Simrin; Fors, Darron H; Norberg, Adam; Diehl, Joseph; Waterman, Gabriel N; Swift, Regina A; Crowley, John; Berenson, James R

    2016-11-01

    Immunosuppressed patients are known to have an increased incidence of skin cancer. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show impaired immune function. In the past, because of poor survival, the incidence of specific secondary primary malignancies such as skin cancer among these patients was difficult to establish. With more effective MM therapies that have emerged in recent years, these patients are living markedly longer, and therefore, it becomes of increasing importance to determine whether their risk of developing other medical problems such as skin cancer is increased. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 205 myeloma patients and 193 age-, race-, and gender-matched control subjects to assess the incidence of skin cancers among patients with MM and determine the specific types of and risk factors for skin cancer. We found that there is an increased occurrence of skin cancer among patients with MM compared to control subjects (26.8% vs. 16.1% in controls; P = 0.009). Among specific types of skin cancer, the proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than controls (P = 0.016). In addition to MM diagnosis, older age and Caucasian ethnicity were predictors of skin cancer of any type. Furthermore, older age was also a predictor of SCC.

  11. Association of prostate volume with incidence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalil, Shadi; Ibilibor, Christine; Cammack, James Thomas; de Riese, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between prostate volume and aggressiveness and incidence of prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and methods A chart review of a cohort of 448 consecutive prostate biopsy-naive men was performed. These men underwent at least a 12-core biopsy at our institution due to increased prostate-specific antigen serum levels (>4 ng/mL) and/or suspicious findings on digital rectal examination during the period between 2008 and 2013. Transrectal ultrasound was used to determine the prostate volume. Results The positive biopsy rate was 66% for patients with a prostate volume of ≤35 cc and 40% for patients with a prostate volume of ≥65 cc (P<0.001). Of the 110 patients testing positive on biopsy with a volume of ≤35 cc, 10 patients (9.1%) had a Gleason score of ≥8. Of the 27 patients testing positive on biopsy with a volume of ≥65 cc, only 1 patient (3.7%) had a Gleason score of ≥8. Conclusion These results suggest that there may be an association between prostate volume and the incidence and aggressiveness of PCa. The larger the prostate, the lower the positive biopsy rate for PCa and the lower the Gleason score. PMID:27822463

  12. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment. We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction. Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers. PMID:27534889

  13. Neglected skin cancer in the elderly: a case of basosquamous cell carcinoma of the right shoulder.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, Erika; Tarakji, Michael; Lau, Frank; Riker, Adam

    2016-08-17

    Skin cancer remains the most common cancer worldwide, and basal cell carcinoma represents the largest portion of non-melanomatous skin cancers with over 3 million cases diagnosed annually. Locally advanced disease is frequently seen in the elderly posing clinical challenges regarding proper treatment.We report on an 86-year-old female presenting with fatigue, anemia and a large ulcerated skin lesion along the right upper back. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a basosquamous cell carcinoma. She underwent a wide local excision with complex wound reconstruction.Neglected skin cancers in the elderly can present difficult clinical scenarios. There are associated adjuvant therapies that should be considered following resection, such as local radiation therapy and other novel therapies. Newer therapies, such as with vismodegib, may also be considered. A comprehensive, multimodal approach to treatment should be considered in most cases of locally advanced, non-melanoma skin cancers.

  14. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness.

  15. Aggressive resection of frequent peritoneal recurrences in colorectal cancer contributes to long-term survival

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Koji; Kinoshita, Takashi; Taihei, Oshiro; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuich; Uemura, Norihisa; Natsume, Seiji; Kawakami,, Jiro; Ouchi, Akira; Tsutsuyama, Masayuki; Hosoi, Takahiro; Shigeyoshi, Itaru; Akazawa, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a long-term survivor of colorectal cancer who underwent aggressive, frequent resection for peritoneal recurrences. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with descending colon cancer. Resection of the descending colon along with lymph node dissection was performed in September 2006. The pathological findings revealed Stage IIA colorectal cancer. The following peritoneal recurrences were removed: two in July 2007, two in the omental fat and two in the pouch of Douglas in June 2008 resected by low anterior resection of the rectum, one in the uterus and right ovarian recurrence resected via bilateral adnexectomy and Hartmann’s procedure in May 2011, and one in the ascending colon by partial resection of the colon wall in December 2011. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (uracil and tegafur/leucovorin, fluorouracil/levofolinate/oxaliplatin/bevacizumab, 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/bevacizumab, irinotecan/bevacizumab, and irinotecan/panitumumab) was administered. The patient did not desire postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy after the fourth operation. The long-term survival was 6 years and 7 months. PMID:28008206

  16. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  17. Comprehensive functional analysis of the tousled-like kinase 2 frequently amplified in aggressive luminal breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Ah; Tan, Ying; Wang, Xian; Cao, Xixi; Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Liang, Yulong; Edwards, Dean P.; Huang, Shixia; Pan, Xuewen; Li, Kaiyi; Schiff, Rachel; Wang, Xiao-Song

    2016-01-01

    More aggressive and therapy-resistant oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers remain a great clinical challenge. Here our integrative genomic analysis identifies tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) as a candidate kinase target frequently amplified in ∼10.5% of ER-positive breast tumours. The resulting overexpression of TLK2 is more significant in aggressive and advanced tumours, and correlates with worse clinical outcome regardless of endocrine therapy. Ectopic expression of TLK2 leads to enhanced aggressiveness in breast cancer cells, which may involve the EGFR/SRC/FAK signalling. Conversely, TLK2 inhibition selectively inhibits the growth of TLK2-high breast cancer cells, downregulates ERα, BCL2 and SKP2, impairs G1/S cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis and significantly improves progression-free survival in vivo. We identify two potential TLK2 inhibitors that could serve as backbones for future drug development. Together, amplification of the cell cycle kinase TLK2 presents an attractive genomic target for aggressive ER-positive breast cancers. PMID:27694828

  18. Increased number of skin lesions as a measure of aggression following the mixing of slaughter boars from western Canada assembled for export

    PubMed Central

    Paetkau, Leanne N.; Whiting, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary observational study was conducted to evaluate the animal welfare impacts of holding and mixing on boars; specifically, the need to tusk trim on arrival at assembly. Cull boars assembled in Manitoba from 3 western Canadian provinces were observed without intervention. Although aggression among boars was common, significant physical injury to boars from handling and other boars was rare. Tusk trimming was widely practised in mature boars prior to transport in the population studied. Length of time assembled, number of boars in a pen, temperature, size of boar, and presence of tusk were not associated with change in the skin score of new boars introduced into a pen. Holding groups of previously unfamiliar boars en route to slaughter did not appear to be a significant risk for increased skin lesions in the population studied. Further research is required into the methods and welfare implications to boars subjected to tusk trimming. PMID:18512461

  19. Enhancement of the Efficacy of Conventional Anticancer Compounds through the Repression of SNAI Proteins in Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    vitamin D and anti-estrogens in human breast cancer tissues; (b) To determine the effects of alterations of the levels of SNAI proteins in breast...determine the effects of alterations of the levels of SNAI proteins in breast cancer cells on their sensitivity towards vitamin D and/or 4HT; and (3) To...diminish their aggressiveness but also make these cells sensitive to the inhibition of some of the conventional anticancer agents such as vitamin D and

  20. RB loss contributes to aggressive tumor phenotypes in MYC-driven triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Erik S; McClendon, A Kathleen; Franco, Jorge; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by multiple genetic events occurring in concert to drive pathogenic features of the disease. Here we interrogated the coordinate impact of p53, RB, and MYC in a genetic model of TNBC, in parallel with the analysis of clinical specimens. Primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) with defined genetic features were used to delineate the combined action of RB and/or p53 in the genesis of TNBC. In this context, the deletion of either RB or p53 alone and in combination increased the proliferation of mMEC; however, the cells did not have the capacity to invade in matrigel. Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of each tumor suppressor has effects related to proliferation, but RB loss in particular leads to alterations in gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The overexpression of MYC in combination with p53 loss or combined RB/p53 loss drove rapid cell growth. While the effects of MYC overexpression had a dominant impact on gene expression, loss of RB further enhanced the deregulation of a gene expression signature associated with invasion. Specific RB loss lead to enhanced invasion in boyden chambers assays and gave rise to tumors with minimal epithelial characteristics relative to RB-proficient models. Therapeutic screening revealed that RB-deficient cells were particularly resistant to agents targeting PI3K and MEK pathway. Consistent with the aggressive behavior of the preclinical models of MYC overexpression and RB loss, human TNBC tumors that express high levels of MYC and are devoid of RB have a particularly poor outcome. Together these results underscore the potency of tumor suppressor pathways in specifying the biology of breast cancer. Further, they demonstrate that MYC overexpression in concert with RB can promote a particularly aggressive form of TNBC.

  1. Involvement of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Taichiro; Toda, Yoshinobu; Hiai, Hiroshi; Uemura, Munehiro; Nakamura, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Norio; Asato, Ryo; Hattori, Yukari; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Minato, Nagahiro; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Most skin cancers develop as the result of UV light-induced DNA damage; however, a substantial number of cases appear to occur independently of UV damage. A causal link between UV-independent skin cancers and chronic inflammation has been suspected, although the precise mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Here, we have proposed that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, encoded by AICDA) links chronic inflammation and skin cancer. We demonstrated that Tg mice expressing AID in the skin spontaneously developed skin squamous cell carcinoma with Hras and Trp53 mutations. Furthermore, genetic deletion of Aicda reduced tumor incidence in a murine model of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis. AID was expressed in human primary keratinocytes in an inflammatory stimulus-dependent manner and was detectable in human skin cancers. Together, the results of this study indicate that inflammation-induced AID expression promotes skin cancer development independently of UV damage and suggest AID as a potential target for skin cancer therapeutics.

  2. Glycoprotein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Aggressive Prostate Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Network of the NCI is charged with the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for early detection and prognosis related to neoplastic disease. Our laboratory is an NCI EDRN (U01CA152813) working on "Glycoprotein biomarkers for the early detection of aggressive prostate cancer". This EDRN administratiVE! supplement is a collaboration with Robert Veltri on his project to identify men with very low risk (indolent) prostate cancer (CaP) at the diagnostic biopsy at selection for active surveillance (AS). We will assess biopsy tissue using quantitative nuclear histomorphometric measurements and molecular biomarkers to predict an unexpected catastrophic CaP in such men with indolent CaP. At Johns Hopkins Hospital w1e use the Epstein criteria that includes; PSA density (PSAD) <0.15 ng/mVcm3, Gleason score SS, S2 cons involved with cancer, and ::;;SO% of any core involved with cancer to select AS. Our approach will study 140 AS men (70 with a expected outcome and 70 with a disastrous outcome) using nuclear histomorphometry and pre-qualified biomarkers quantified by digital microscopy. Previously, our laboratory combined measurements of DNA content and (-2)pPSA in the serum and (-5,-?)pPSA in biopsy tissue to identify 7/10 men that would fail surveillance based on the primary diagnostic biopsy. We now will devHiop a clinical, morphological and biomarker 'signature' for identifying severe aggressive disease from a AS diagnostic biopsy. Our approach will combine nuclear morphometry measured by digital microscopy with a unique biopsy tissue biomarker profile (DNA content, Ki67, Her2neu, CACND1 and periostin). Fc•r the molecular targets we will us•e a multiplex tissue blot (MTB) immunohistochemistry method. The Aims o'f our work include 1) to utilize retrospective archival biopsy material from 70 AS cases where the outcome was unexpected and disastrous and collect an equal number of AS cases (n=140) and perform assays for morphology

  3. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Diana K.; Lee, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Non-surgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs) are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ) have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL) PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well-tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect. PMID:27782043

  4. Abnormal lymphocyte response to ultraviolet radiation in multiple skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munch-Petersen, B.; Frentz, G.; Squire, B.; Wallevik, K.; Horn, C.C.; Reymann, F.; Faber, M. )

    1985-06-01

    The lymphocyte response to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) was investigated by two different methods in 29 unselected patients with multiple epidermal cancer. The ultraviolet-induced DNA synthesis was determined as the increase in incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine in irradiated cells compared with non-irradiated cells after incubation for 2 h. The ultraviolet tolerance was measured as the ultraviolet dose necessary for 50% reduction in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Patients with both squamous cell differentiated tumours and basal cell carcinomas had very high ultraviolet-induced DNA synthesis values. The ultraviolet tolerance in patient lymphocytes was considerably lower than in control lymphocytes with the lowest values occurring in patients with clinical sun intolerance. These investigations may be of predictive value in skin carcinogenesis.

  5. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  6. Non-melanoma skin cancer, sun exposure and sun protection.

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, P; Ortel, B; Venturini, M

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of skin tumors including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and its biological precursor, the actinic keratosis, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) often named together non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is growing all over the world in people of Caucasian ancestry. A plenty of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the causal relationship with high cumulative solar dosages and number of sunburns, although the hazard may be different for different tumors according to the modalities of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. BCC is much more strongly related to measures of intermittent ultraviolet exposure (particularly those of childhood or adolescence) than to measures of cumulative exposure. In contrast, SCC is more strongly related to constant or cumulative sun exposure. Photobiological studies have clarified that sunlight and UVB radiation are complete carcinogens for AK and SCC although the relationship with UVA exposure is much less known. Also the likelihood of BCC has been related to either sunburns and high lifetime solar, UVA and UVB cumulative doses but the pathogenetic pathways of both UVB and UVA radiation for BCC development need to be clarified so far. The lack of a complete knowledge of the photocarcinogenic pathways of keratinocytes has contributed to the limited results of solar photoprotection strategies, beside the limitations of the available sunscreens and present EU regulations.

  7. Patient Factors and Their Association with Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Morbidity and the Performance of Self-skin Exams

    PubMed Central

    Amber, Kyle T.; Bloom, Romi; Abyaneh, Mohammad-Ali Yazdani; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre A.; Viera, Martha; Zaiac, Martin N.; Nouri, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mohs micrographic surgery is widely utilized for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers with the advantage of tissue sparing and higher cure rate. The preoperative tumor size and post-Mohs micrographic surgery defect size are useful surrogate measures of nonmelanoma skin cancer morbidity. The authors sought to evaluate whether gender, Hispanic ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sun-safe practices and self-skin exams affected tumor size and Mohs micrographic surgery defect size. They also investigated factors associated with self-skin exams. Design: A cross-sectional survey-based study. Setting: Two dermatologic surgery clinics—one academic-associated and the other private. Participants: Patients receiving Mohs surgery for nonmelanoma skin cancers. Measurements: Tumor size and Mohs defect size and their relationship to patient factors ascertained from a survey, as well as the number of patients performing self-skin exams. The authors used t-tests and analysis of variance to compare tumor and defect sizes for each patient factor. Chi-squared tests were used to determine the factors associated with self-skin exams performance. Results: Lower education was associated with greater head and face tumor area (95mm2 vs. 41mm2, P=0.019), but not Mohs micrographic surgery defect size. Other studied patient factors were not associated with an increased morbidity. Hispanics performed self-skin exams at a lower rate than non-Hispanics (27% vs. 46%, p=0.03). Conclusion: This study innovatively uses tumor and Mohs micrographic surgery defect area as a measure of morbidity, allowing for identification of populations at need for improved education and prevention. (J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):16–22.) PMID:27878058

  8. Optical imaging modalities: From design to diagnosis of skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korde, Vrushali Raj

    This study investigates three high resolution optical imaging modalities to better detect and diagnose skin cancer. The ideal high resolution optical imaging system can visualize pre-malignant tissue growth non-invasively with resolution comparable to histology. I examined 3 modalities which approached this goal. The first method examined was high magnification microscopy of thin stained tissue sections, together with a statistical analysis of nuclear chromatin patterns termed Karyometry. This method has subcellular resolution, but it necessitates taking a biopsy at the desired tissue site and imaging the tissue ex-vivo. My part of this study was to develop an automated nuclear segmentation algorithm to segment cell nuclei in skin histology images for karyometric analysis. The results of this algorithm were compared to hand segmented cell nuclei in the same images, and it was concluded that the automated segmentations can be used for karyometric analysis. The second optical imaging modality I investigated was Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is analogous to ultrasound, in which sound waves are delivered into the body and the echo time and reflected signal magnitude are measured. Due to the fast speed of light and detector temporal integration times, low coherence interferometry is needed to gate the backscattered light. OCT acquires cross sectional images, and has an axial resolution of 1-15 mum (depending on the source bandwidth) and a lateral resolution of 10-20 mum (depending on the sample arm optics). While it is not capable of achieving subcellular resolution, it is a non-invasive imaging modality. OCT was used in this study to evaluate skin along a continuum from normal to sun damaged to precancer. I developed algorithms to detect statistically significant differences between images of sun protected and sun damaged skin, as well as between undiseased and precancerous skin. An Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) endoscope was developed in the third

  9. Diagnosis of skin cancer by correlation and complexity analyses of damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Delaviz, Fatemeh; Delaviz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is a common, low-grade cancerous (malignant) growth of the skin. It starts from cells that begin as normal skin cells and transform into those with the potential to reproduce in an out-of-control manner. Cancer develops when DNA, the molecule found in cells that encodes genetic information, becomes damaged and the body cannot repair the damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to diagnose the skin cancer, first DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with skin cancer were generated. Then, the data so obtained was checked for complexity by computing the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the Hurst exponent has been employed in order to study the correlation of damaged DNA. By analysing different samples it has been found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of complexity and less correlation compared to normal DNA sequences. This investigation confirms that this method can be used for diagnosis of skin cancer. The method discussed in this research is useful not only for diagnosis of skin cancer but can be applied for diagnosis and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26497203

  10. Is Birthweight Associated with Total and Aggressive/Lethal Prostate Cancer Risks? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Welsh, Judith; Mackinnon, Karen; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Cook, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that intrauterine exposures are important for subsequent prostate cancer risk. Prior epidemiological studies have used birthweight as a proxy of cumulative intrauterine exposures to test this hypothesis, but results have been inconsistent partly due to limited statistical power. Methods We investigated birthweight in relation to prostate cancer in the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) using Cox proportional hazards models. We then conducted a meta-analysis of birthweight in relation to total and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer risks, combining results from the NSHD analysis with 13 additional studies on this relationship identified from a systematic search in four major scientific literature databases through January 2015. Results Random-effects models found that each kg increase in birthweight was positively associated with total (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.00, 1.05; I2=13%) and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.99, 1.19; I2=40%). Sensitivity analyses restricted to studies with birthweight extracted from medical records demonstrated stronger positive associations with total (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03, 1.19; I2=0%) and aggressive/lethal (OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.09, 1.74; I2=0%) prostate cancer. These studies heavily overlapped with those based in Nordic countries. Conclusion This study provides evidence that heavier birthweight may be associated with modest increased risks of total and aggressive/lethal prostate cancer, which supports the hypothesis that intrauterine exposures may be related to subsequent prostate cancer risks. PMID:26930450

  11. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Intrinsic Biomarkers for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy of intrinsic biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer . Cecil S. Joseph1*, Anna N. Yaroslavsky2, Munir Al-Arashi2,Thomas...offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human cancers . The aim of this study was to identify intrinsic...biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer and their absorption frequencies. Knowledge of these frequencies is a prerequisite for the optimal development of

  12. High correlation of double Debye model parameters in skin cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Truong, Bao C Q; Tuan, H D; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Wallace, Vincent P; Nguyen, H T

    2014-01-01

    The double Debye model can be used to capture the dielectric response of human skin in terahertz regime due to high water content in the tissue. The increased water proportion is widely considered as a biomarker of carcinogenesis, which gives rise of using this model in skin cancer detection. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a specific analysis of the double Debye parameters in terms of non-melanoma skin cancer classification. Pearson correlation is applied to investigate the sensitivity of these parameters and their combinations to the variation in tumor percentage of skin samples. The most sensitive parameters are then assessed by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot to confirm their potential of classifying tumor from normal skin. Our positive outcomes support further steps to clinical application of terahertz imaging in skin cancer delineation.

  13. [Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) : A genetic disease sheds light on UV-induced skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Emmert, B; Hallier, E; Schön, M P; Emmert, S

    2011-02-01

    The recessively inherited nucleotide excision repair (NER) defect syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) serves as a model disease for UV-induced skin cancer. XP is characterized by sun-sensitivity, freckling, and poikilodermic skin changes in sun-exposed areas, and a more than 1000-fold increased risk of skin cancer including melanoma as well as basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Seven XP complementation groups (XP-A to XP-G) are known to date representing the defective genes in XP patients. An additional "variant" form (XPV) which is clinically indistinguishable from the complementation groups exhibits defective translesional synthesis. An enhanced understanding of skin cancer development in general can help to identify individuals at an increased risk who should take special precautions, for example to avoid occupational exposures. The position of skin cancer induced by UV-light as an occupational disease in the ordinance on industrial diseases (BKV) is currently a topic of research and discussion in Germany.

  14. Environmental factors and risk of aggressive prostate cancer among a population of New Zealand men - a genotypic approach.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Venkatesh; Naidu, Vijay; Kao, Chi Hsiu-Juei; Karunasinghe, Nishi; Bishop, Karen S; Wang, Alice; Pallati, Radha; Shepherd, Phillip; Masters, Jonathan; Zhu, Shuotun; Goudie, Megan; Krishnan, Mohanraj; Jabed, Anower; Marlow, Gareth; Narayanan, Ajit; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-03-28

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant health concerns for men worldwide. Numerous researchers carrying out molecular diagnostics have indicated that genetic interactions with biological and behavioral factors play an important role in the overall risk and prognosis of this disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly becoming strong biomarker candidates to identify susceptibility to prostate cancer. We carried out a gene × environment interaction analysis linked to aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) with a number of SNPs. By using this method, we identified the susceptible alleles in a New Zealand population, and examined the interaction with environmental factors. We have identified a number of SNPs that have risk associations both with and without environmental interaction. The results indicate that certain SNPs are associated with disease vulnerability based on behavioral factors. The list of genes with SNPs identified as being associated with the risk of PCa in a New Zealand population is provided in the graphical abstract.

  15. ZNF503/Zpo2 drives aggressive breast cancer progression by down-regulation of GATA3 expression.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Payam; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lawson, Devon A; Slorach, Euan M; Lu, Angela; Yu, Ying; Lai, Ming-Derg; Gonzalez Velozo, Hugo; Werb, Zena

    2017-03-21

    The transcription factor GATA3 is the master regulator that drives mammary luminal epithelial cell differentiation and maintains mammary gland homeostasis. Loss of GATA3 is associated with aggressive breast cancer development. We have identified ZNF503/ZEPPO2 zinc-finger elbow-related proline domain protein 2 (ZPO2) as a transcriptional repressor of GATA3 expression and transcriptional activity that induces mammary epithelial cell proliferation and breast cancer development. We show that ZPO2 is recruited to GATA3 promoter in association with ZBTB32 (Repressor of GATA, ROG) and that ZBTB32 is essential for down-regulation of GATA3 via ZPO2. Through this modulation of GATA3 activity, ZPO2 promotes aggressive breast cancer development. Our data provide insight into a mechanism of GATA3 regulation, and identify ZPO2 as a possible candidate gene for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  16. Loss of RasGAP Tumor Suppressors Underlies the Aggressive Nature of Luminal B Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sarah Naomi; Wronski, Ania; Castaño, Zafira; Dake, Benjamin; Malone, Clare; De Raedt, Thomas; Enos, Miriam; DeRose, Yoko S; Zhou, Wenhui; Guerra, Stephanie; Loda, Massimo; Welm, Alana; Partridge, Ann H; McAllister, Sandra S; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Cichowski, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Luminal breast cancers are typically estrogen receptor-positive and generally have the best prognosis. However, a subset of luminal tumors, namely luminal B cancers, frequently metastasize and recur. Unfortunately, the causal events that drive their progression are unknown, and therefore it is difficult to identify individuals who are likely to relapse and should receive escalated treatment. Here, we identify a bifunctional RasGAP tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in almost 50% of luminal B tumors. Moreover, we show that two RasGAP genes are concomitantly suppressed in the most aggressive luminal malignancies. Importantly, these genes cooperatively regulate two major oncogenic pathways, RAS and NF-κB, through distinct domains, and when inactivated drive the metastasis of luminal tumors in vivo Finally, although the cooperative effects on RAS drive invasion, NF-κB activation triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is required for metastasis. Collectively, these studies reveal important mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of luminal B tumors and provide functionally relevant prognostic biomarkers that may guide treatment decisions.

  17. Human papillomaviruses and non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the squamous epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions. To date, more than 200 different HPV types have been identified and classified into five genera, α, β, γ, μ, and ν. While high-risk α mucosal HPVs have a well-established role in cervical carcinoma and a significant percentage of other anogenital tract and oral carcinomas, the biology of the cutaneous β HPVs and their contribution to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has been less studied. Although the association of β HPV infection with NMSC in patients with a rare, genetically determined condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis has been well established, the role of β HPV infection with NMSC in the normal population remains controversial. In stark contrast to α HPV-associated cancers, the presence of the β HPV genome does not appear to be mandatory for the maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Moreover, the mechanism of action of the β HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins differs from the β HPV oncoproteins.

  18. Classification of skin cancer images using local binary pattern and SVM classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjed, Faouzi; Faye, Ibrahima; Ababsa, Fakhreddine; Gardezi, Syed Jamal; Dass, Sarat Chandra

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a classification method for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer images has been presented using the local binary patterns (LBP). The LBP computes the local texture information from the skin cancer images, which is later used to compute some statistical features that have capability to discriminate the melanoma and non-melanoma skin tissues. Support vector machine (SVM) is applied on the feature matrix for classification into two skin image classes (malignant and benign). The method achieves good classification accuracy of 76.1% with sensitivity of 75.6% and specificity of 76.7%.

  19. One Thousand Genomes Imputation in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium Aggressive Prostate Cancer Genome-wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Chen, Constance; Liang, Liming; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genotype imputation substantially increases available markers for analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by leveraging linkage disequilibrium from a reference panel. We sought to (i) investigate the performance of imputation from the August 2010 release of the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP) in an existing GWAS of prostate cancer, (ii) look for novel associations with prostate cancer risk, (iii) fine-map known prostate cancer susceptibility regions using an approximate Bayesian framework and stepwise regression, and (iv) compare power and efficiency of imputation and de novo sequencing. METHODS We used 2,782 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,458 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium aggressive prostate cancer GWAS to infer 5.8 million well-imputed autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. RESULTS Imputation quality, as measured by correlation between imputed and true allele counts, was higher among common variants than rare variants. We found no novel prostate cancer associations among a subset of 1.2 million well-imputed low-frequency variants. At a genome-wide sequencing cost of $2,500, imputation from SNP arrays is a more powerful strategy than sequencing for detecting disease associations of SNPs with minor allele frequencies above 1%. CONCLUSIONS 1000GP imputation provided dense coverage of previously-identified prostate cancer susceptibility regions, highlighting its potential as an inexpensive first-pass approach to fine-mapping in regions such as 5p15 and 8q24. Our study shows 1000GP imputation can accurately identify low-frequency variants and stresses the importance of large sample size when studying these variants. PMID:23255287

  20. The role of the cutaneous microbiome in skin cancer: lessons learned from the gut.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Champer, Jackson; Beynet, David; Kim, Jenny; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-05-01

    The human microbiome has recently gained prominence as a major factor in health and disease. Here we review the literature regarding the microbiome and cancer and suggest how the microbiome may be manipulated for improved health outcomes. The gut microbiome has been relatively well studied, and the mechanisms of how it may increase or decrease the risk of certain cancers may apply to the skin microbiome. Additionally, the gut microbiome may directly impact the risk of cancer in the skin and other organs by promoting systemic inflammation. The skin microbiome itself is as diverse as the gut microbiome, but research has just begun to unravel its influence on the host. Like the gut microbiome, it affects the risk for several diseases, including cancer. By using healthpromoting strains from the microbiome in oral or topical probiotics, it may be possible to reduce the risk of skin cancer and perhaps even increase the likelihood of successful treatment.

  1. Insect antimicrobial peptides: potential tools for the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Miray; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are biologically active molecules with diverse structural properties that are produced by mammals, plants, insects, ticks, and microorganisms. They have a range of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and even anticancer activities, and their biological properties could therefore be exploited for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Cancer and cancer drug resistance are significant current health challenges, so the development of innovative cancer drugs with minimal toxicity toward normal cells and novel modes of action that can evade resistance may provide a new direction for anticancer therapy. The skin is the first line of defense against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection, and skin cancer is thus the most common type of cancer. The skin that has been exposed to sunlight is particularly susceptible, but lesions can occur anywhere on the body. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are necessary to improve sun protection behavior, but more effective preventative approaches are also required. AMPs may offer a new prophylactic approach against skin cancer. In this mini review, we draw attention to the potential use of insect AMPs for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer.

  2. Changes in biophysical properties of the skin following radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Hou, Ming-Feng; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Chiang, Wenchang; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common adverse effect in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. However, the effects of radiotherapy on biophysical properties of the skin have rarely been investigated. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to determine the effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer on skin biophysical parameters. We measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin hydration, pH, sebum level, pigmentation, and blood flow) in 144 breast cancer patients by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. The measurements were simultaneously performed on the irradiated breast and the corresponding contralateral unirradiated breast for comparison. Following radiotherapy, the irradiated breast showed a significant decrease in skin hydration, increase in skin pH, increase in pigmentation, and increase in cutaneous blood flow. The contralateral unirradiated breast showed a slight increase in pigmentation but no significant changes in any of the other biophysical parameters after radiotherapy. No significant associations were found between patient characteristics (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy) and changes in skin biophysical parameters following radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy for breast cancer induces measurable and significant changes in biophysical properties of the skin including hydration, pH, pigmentation, and blood flow. These findings give us a greater understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on skin physiology, and provide non-invasive and objective methods to assess radiation dermatitis.

  3. Rac3 induces a molecular pathway triggering breast cancer cell aggressiveness: differences in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rho GTPases are involved in cellular functions relevant to cancer. The roles of RhoA and Rac1 have already been established. However, the role of Rac3 in cancer aggressiveness is less well understood. Methods This work was conducted to analyze the implication of Rac3 in the aggressiveness of two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7: both express Rac3, but MDA-MB-231 expresses more activated RhoA. The effect of Rac3 in cancer cells was also compared with its effect on the non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A. We analyzed the consequences of Rac3 depletion by anti-Rac3 siRNA. Results Firstly, we analyzed the effects of Rac3 depletion on the breast cancer cells’ aggressiveness. In the invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, Rac3 inhibition caused a marked reduction of both invasion (40%) and cell adhesion to collagen (84%), accompanied by an increase in TNF-induced apoptosis (72%). This indicates that Rac3 is involved in the cancer cells’ aggressiveness. Secondly, we investigated the effects of Rac3 inhibition on the expression and activation of related signaling molecules, including NF-κB and ERK. Cytokine secretion profiles were also analyzed. In the non-invasive MCF-7 line; Rac3 did not influence any of the parameters of aggressiveness. Conclusions This discrepancy between the effects of Rac3 knockdown in the two cell lines could be explained as follows: in the MDA-MB-231 line, the Rac3-dependent aggressiveness of the cancer cells is due to the Rac3/ERK-2/NF-κB signaling pathway, which is responsible for MMP-9, interleukin-6, -8 and GRO secretion, as well as the resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis, whereas in the MCF-7 line, this pathway is not functional because of the low expression of NF-κB subunits in these cells. Rac3 may be a potent target for inhibiting aggressive breast cancer. PMID:23388133

  4. Ultrasound and Biomarker Tests in Predicting Cancer Aggressiveness in Tissue Samples of Patients With Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Bladder Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

  5. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, M.; Khan, R. U.; Firdous, S.; Atif, M.; Nawaz, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this prospective study duly approved from Institutional Ethics Review Committee for research in medicine, PAEC General Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan, we investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability along with cosmetic outcome of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and their precursors. Patients with Histological diagnosis of NMSCs and their precursors were assessed for PDT, after photographic documentation of the lesions and written consent, underwent two (2) sessions of PDT in one month (4 weeks) according to standard protocol. A freshly prepared 20% 5-ALA in Unguentum base was applied under occlusive dressing for 4-6 h as Drug Light Interval (DLI) and irradiated with light of 630 nm wavelength from a diode laser at standard dose of 90 J/cm2. Approximately 11% patients reported pain during treatment which was managed in different simple ways. In our study we regularly followed up the patients for gross as well as histopathological response and recurrence free periods during median follow-up of 24 months. Regarding Basal cell carcinomas complete response was observed in 86.2% (25/29), partial response in 10.3% (3/29) and recurrence during first year in 3.5% (1/29) lesions. All the lesions which showed partial response or recurrence were nBCCs. Regarding Actinic Keratosis complete response was observed in 95.3% (20/21), partial response in 4.7% (1/21) while Bowen's disease showed 100% (2/2) results. 81.8% (9/11) Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed complete, 9% (1/11) partial response and 9% (1/11) presented with recurrence after 3 months. We observed excellent and good cosmetic results along with tumor clearance in our study. Treatment sessions were well tolerated with high level of patient's satisfaction and only minor side effects of pain during treatment sessions and inflammatory changes post photodynamic therapy were observed. We concluded that 5-ALA PDT is an effective and safe emerging

  7. Trends in malignant skin melanoma and other skin cancers in Spain, 1975-1983, and their relation to solar radiation intensity.

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Llopis-González, A; Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Ferrandiz-Ferragud, J

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown solar exposure to play an important role in the appearance of skin cancer. We investigated the association between mortality standardized by the indirect method for malignant skin melanoma and other skin cancers and the mean intensity of solar radiation during July and August for the different provinces in Spain. A statistically significant relation was observed (p less than .05) for these two months but not upon considering mean annual solar radiation. We thus suggest that intermittent, intense exposure to sunlight constitutes an important risk factor for skin cancer. We observed an 8.5% and 15.72% increase in mortality due to malignant skin melanoma and other skin cancers, respectively, during the period 1975-1983. Mortality was slightly higher among males than females.

  8. Phenotypic changes of acid adapted cancer cells push them toward aggressiveness in their evolution in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Damaghi, Mehdi; Gillies, Robert

    2016-09-16

    The inter- and intra-tumoral metabolic phenotypes of tumors are heterogeneous, and this is related to microenvironments that select for increased glycolysis. Increased glycolysis leads to decreased pH, and these local microenvironment effects lead to further selection. Hence, heterogeneity of phenotypes is an indirect consequence of altering microenvironments during carcinogenesis. In early stages of growth, tumors are stratified, with the most aggressive cells developing within the acidic interior of the tumor. However, these cells eventually find themselves at the tumor edge, where they invade into the normal tissue via acid-mediated invasion. We believe acid adaptation during the evolution of cancer cells in their niche is a Rubicon that, once crossed, allows cells to invade into and outcompete normal stromal tissue. In this study, we illustrate some acid-induced phenotypic changes due to acidosis resulting in more aggressiveness and invasiveness of cancer cells.

  9. Oncogenic miR-181a/b affect the DNA damage response in aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bisso, Andrea; Faleschini, Michela; Zampa, Federico; Capaci, Valeria; De Santa, Jacopo; Santarpia, Libero; Piazza, Silvano; Cappelletti, Vera; Daidone, Mariagrazia; Agami, Reuven; Del Sal, Giannino

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous tumor type characterized by a complex spectrum of molecular aberrations, resulting in a diverse array of malignant features and clinical outcomes. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that fuel breast cancer development and act as determinants of aggressiveness is a primary need to improve patient management. Among other alterations, aberrant expression of microRNAs has been found in breast cancer and other human tumors, where they act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors by virtue of their ability to finely modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we describe a new role for miR-181a/b as negative regulators of the DNA damage response in breast cancer, impacting on the expression and activity of the stress-sensor kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We report that miR-181a and miR-181b were overexpressed in more aggressive breast cancers, and their expression correlates inversely with ATM levels. Moreover we demonstrate that deregulated expression of miR-181a/b determines the sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells to the poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase1 (PARP1) inhibition. These evidences suggest that monitoring the expression of miR-181a/b could be helpful in tailoring more effective treatments based on inhibition of PARP1 in breast and other tumor types. PMID:23656790

  10. CD44v6 promotes β-catenin and TGF-β expression, inducing aggression in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xiao, Ling; Luo, Chen-Hui; Zhou, Hui; Zeng, Liang; Zhong, Jingmin; Tang, Yan; Zhao, Xue-Heng; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    A high expression of CD44v6 has been reported in numerous malignant cancers, including stomach, prostate, lung and colon. However, the pathological role and the regulatory mechanisms of CD44v6 have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression levels of CD44v6 were shown to be significantly higher in ovarian cancer tissues, as compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, the upregulated expression levels of CD44v6 were correlated with disease recurrence and poor survival in patients. The expression of CD44v6 was knocked down in the CAOV3 ovarian cell line, by transfection of a specific small hairpin RNA. The present study showed a correlation between the aggression, viability, invasion and migration of the ovarian cancer cells, with the expression of CD44v6. In addition, the expression of CD44v6 was positively correlated with the expression levels of β‑catenin and tumor growth factor‑β, which indicates that the effects of CD44v6 on ovarian cancer cell aggression may be mediated by these two signaling pathways. In conclusion, the present study provides a novel insight into the association between CD44v6 expression and ovarian cancer. CD44v6 may provide a novel target for the prognosis and treatment of ovarian cancer.

  11. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%. PMID:26504638

  12. [Carcinogenic viruses in etiopathogenesis of skin cancers in patients after organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Piesiaków, Maria Luiza; Imko-Walczuk, Beata; Osiecka, Karolina; Kiełbowicz, Marta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2016-02-14

    The latest literature report specifies multifactoral etiology of skin cancer in population of patients after organs transplats. Carcirogenic viruses are one of etiopathogenesis components. Viruses of a vital meaning for skin oncogenesis are called Human papillomavirus - HPV, Human herpesvirus 8 - HHV8 i Merkel cell polyomavirus - MCV. Report on connections exisisting between viruses HPV and skin cancers in the population of patients after organs transplants confirms clinical connection between viruses papillas and cancers centres occuring in similar locations and more frequent appearance of attributes characteristic for HPV infection within the limits of changes in the type of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). What's more, coexisting of viruses papillas and SCC is more often noticed in the population of organ recipients than in the population of healthy people. It is not confirmed yet that any specific correlation between subtypes of HPV and greater frequency of morbidity in skin cancers really exist. However, in the population of organ recipients infections of different types of HPV are found within the limits of cancers centres in the case of SCC (63%) as well as in basal cell carcinoma-BCC (55%). DNA of HPV was also fund in healthy parts of organ recipients skin (92-94%). HHV8 is also an oncogenic viruse that influences the development of lymphoma. Infection of that virus may cause ocuuring of Kaposi's sarkoma, which is one of the most frequent types of cancer appearing in population of patients treating by long-term immunosuppression in particular geographical zones. MCV, which belongs to the group called Polyomaviriade, owes a particular meaning in etiopathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma - MCC. It is a rare cancer derived from neuroendocrine cells of the basic layers of epidermie. For over 30 years it was supposed that correlation between viruses and skin cancers in population of organ recipient exist. Knowledge of the total viruses influence on skin cancers

  13. βIII-tubulin overexpression is linked to aggressive tumor features and genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Chaker, Aref; Burdelski, Christian; Koop, Christina; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Steurer, Stefan; Rink, Michael; Eichenauer, Till Simon; Wilczak, Waldemar; Wittmer, Corinna; Fisch, Margit; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Büschek, Franziska; Clauditz, Till; Minner, Sarah; Jacobsen, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Development of genetic instability is a hallmark of tumor progression. Type III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a component of microtubules involved in chromosome segregation. Its overexpression has been linked to adverse features of urinary bladder cancer. To investigate the role of TUBB3 for development of genetic instability, we compared TUBB3 expression with histopathological features and surrogate markers of genetic instability and tumor aggressiveness; copy number changes of HER2, TOP2A, CCND1, RAF1, and FGFR1; nuclear accumulation of p53, and cell proliferation in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 700 bladder cancers. TUBB3 expression was linked to high-grade and advanced-stage cancers (P<.0001), rapid cell proliferation (P<.0001), presence of multiple gene copy number alterations (P=.0008), and nuclear accumulation of p53 (P=.0008). Strong TUBB3 staining was found in 43% of urothelial cancers harboring copy number alterations as compared with 28% of genetically stable cancers, and in 50% of p53-positive cancers as compared with 30% of p53-negative tumors. The fraction of tumors with concomitant TUBB3 and p53 positivity increased with tumor stage and grade: 2% in pTaG1-2, 11% in pTaG3, 17% in pT1G2, 23% in pT1G3, and 32% in pT2-4 cancers (P<.0001). Importantly, strong TUBB3 overexpression was detectable in about 20% of low-grade, noninvasive cancers. In summary, our study demonstrates that TUBB3 overexpression is linked to an aggressive subtype of urinary bladder cancers, which is characterized by increased genetic instability, p53 alterations, and rapid cell proliferation. Detection of TUBB3 overexpression in genetically stable, low-grade, and noninvasive bladder cancers may be clinically useful to identify patients requiring particular close monitoring.

  14. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: defective DNA repair causes skin cancer and neurodegeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, J.H.

    1988-07-15

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease with numerous malignancies on sun-exposed areas of the skin and eye because of an inability to repair DNA damage inflicted by harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. Because it is the only disease in which cancer is known to result from defective DNA repair, XP has received intense clinical and biochemical study during the last two decades. Furthermore, some patients with XP develop a primary neuronal degeneration, probably due to the inability of nerve cells to repair damage to their DNA caused by intraneuronal metabolites and physicochemical events that mimic the effects of UV radiation. Studies of XP neurodegeneration and DNA-repair defects have led to the conclusion that efficient DNA repair is required to prevent premature death of human nerve cells. Since XP neurodegeneration has similarities to premature death of nerve cells that occurs in such neurodegenerative disorders, XP may be the prototype for these more common neurodegenerations. Recent studies indicate that these degenerations also may have DNA-repair defects.

  15. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Gastman, Brian; Zhang, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is rising. Research in the field of these tumors is aimed toward developing earlier and less invasive diagnostic methods and more effective, more accessible therapeutic options. Although there is much advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of NMSC, there are few literatures cataloging these developments. The aim of this review was to present the sensitivity and specificity of new imaging modalities, the dosing regimen and clearance rates of topical treatments, newer systemic treatment modalities, and discuss developments in the use of radiation as a mode of therapy. Recent developments in the diagnosis of NMSC include imaging modalities such as reflectance confocal microscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis. Recent advances in the treatment of these tumors include systemic therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and topical immunomodulating drugs such as imiquimod. The progress in the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors is a gradual but fruitful growth. Scientists and clinicians alike must continue their exploration and study to address these tumors and, hopefully in the future, prevent their occurrence.

  16. Targeted molecular-genetic imaging and ligand-directed therapy in aggressive variant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; Staquicini, Daniela I; Driessen, Wouter H P; D'Angelo, Sara; Dobroff, Andrey S; Barry, Marc; Lomo, Lesley C; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Soghomonyan, Suren; Alauddin, Mian M; Flores, Leo G; Arap, Marco A; Lauer, Richard C; Mathew, Paul; Efstathiou, Eleni; Aparicio, Ana M; Troncoso, Patricia; Navone, Nora M; Logothetis, Christopher J; Marchiò, Serena; Gelovani, Juri G; Sidman, Richard L; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2016-10-24

    Aggressive variant prostate cancers (AVPC) are a clinically defined group of tumors of heterogeneous morphologies, characterized by poor patient survival and for which limited diagnostic and treatment options are currently available. We show that the cell surface 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a receptor that binds to phage-display-selected ligands, such as the SNTRVAP motif, is a candidate target in AVPC. We report the presence and accessibility of this receptor in clinical specimens from index patients. We also demonstrate that human AVPC cells displaying GRP78 on their surface could be effectively targeted both in vitro and in vivo by SNTRVAP, which also enabled specific delivery of siRNA species to tumor xenografts in mice. Finally, we evaluated ligand-directed strategies based on SNTRVAP-displaying adeno-associated virus/phage (AAVP) particles in mice bearing MDA-PCa-118b, a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of castration-resistant prostate cancer bone metastasis that we exploited as a model of AVPC. For theranostic (a merging of the terms therapeutic and diagnostic) studies, GRP78-targeting AAVP particles served to deliver the human Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase type-1 (HSVtk) gene, which has a dual function as a molecular-genetic sensor/reporter and a cell suicide-inducing transgene. We observed specific and simultaneous PET imaging and treatment of tumors in this preclinical model of AVPC. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of GPR78-targeting, ligand-directed theranostics for translational applications in AVPC.

  17. Role of miR-139 as a surrogate marker for tumor aggression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongyan; Gallagher, Dan; Schmitt, Sarah; Pessetto, Ziyan Y; Fan, Fang; Godwin, Andrew K; Tawfik, Ossama

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNAs are non-protein coding molecules that play a key role in oncogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis in many types of malignancies including breast cancer. In the current study, we studied the expression of microRNA-139-5p (miR-139) in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and correlated its expression with tumor grade, molecular subtype, hormonal status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, proliferation index, tumor size, lymph node status, patient's age, and overall survival in 74 IDC cases. In addition, we compared and correlated miR-139 expression in 18 paired serum and tissue samples from patients with IDC to assess its value as a serum marker. Our data showed that miR-139 was down-regulated in all tumor tissue samples compared with control. More pronounced down-regulation was seen in tumors that were higher grade, estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, more proliferative, or larger in size (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, lower miR-139 level was frequently associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression. In addition, significantly lower miR-139 tissue level was seen in patients who were deceased (P = .027), although older age (>50 years) and positive local nodal disease did not adversely affect miR-139 expression. In contrast, serum miR-139 profile of the patients appeared similar to that of normal control. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-139 was associated with aggressive tumor behavior and disease progression in breast cancer. miR-139 may serve as a risk assessment biomarker in tailoring treatment options.

  18. Targeted molecular-genetic imaging and ligand-directed therapy in aggressive variant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Fortunato; Staquicini, Daniela I.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; D’Angelo, Sara; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Barry, Marc; Lomo, Lesley C.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Soghomonyan, Suren; Alauddin, Mian M.; Flores, Leo G.; Arap, Marco A.; Lauer, Richard C.; Mathew, Paul; Efstathiou, Eleni; Aparicio, Ana M.; Troncoso, Patricia; Navone, Nora M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Marchiò, Serena; Gelovani, Juri G.; Sidman, Richard L.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive variant prostate cancers (AVPC) are a clinically defined group of tumors of heterogeneous morphologies, characterized by poor patient survival and for which limited diagnostic and treatment options are currently available. We show that the cell surface 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a receptor that binds to phage-display-selected ligands, such as the SNTRVAP motif, is a candidate target in AVPC. We report the presence and accessibility of this receptor in clinical specimens from index patients. We also demonstrate that human AVPC cells displaying GRP78 on their surface could be effectively targeted both in vitro and in vivo by SNTRVAP, which also enabled specific delivery of siRNA species to tumor xenografts in mice. Finally, we evaluated ligand-directed strategies based on SNTRVAP-displaying adeno-associated virus/phage (AAVP) particles in mice bearing MDA-PCa-118b, a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of castration-resistant prostate cancer bone metastasis that we exploited as a model of AVPC. For theranostic (a merging of the terms therapeutic and diagnostic) studies, GRP78-targeting AAVP particles served to deliver the human Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase type-1 (HSVtk) gene, which has a dual function as a molecular-genetic sensor/reporter and a cell suicide-inducing transgene. We observed specific and simultaneous PET imaging and treatment of tumors in this preclinical model of AVPC. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of GPR78-targeting, ligand-directed theranostics for translational applications in AVPC. PMID:27791181

  19. Awareness of Skin Cancer, Prevention, and Early Detection among Turkish University Students

    PubMed Central

    Uğrlu, Ziyafet; Işık, Sevcan Avcı; Balanuye, Berrak; Budak, Elif; Elbaş, Nalân Özhan; Kav, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the awareness about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 404 students in a university located in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. A 35-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Less than half of the students (37.9%) had knowledge about skin cancer mostly through the internet (24.5%) and media (24.1%). Half of them aware of the risk factors; mostly as avoiding direct exposure to the Sun between 10 am and 4 pm (45.3%); smoking and alcohol (38.4%); having fair skin color (34.9%); and ultraviolet light exposure (25.7%). Only one-third of them (32.9%) are knowledgeable about skin cancer signs and symptoms, such as a change in color and appearance of the nevus/moles (24%). The majority of the responders (77.3%) did not know about screening tests for skin cancer and only 18 (4.5%) students were practicing skin self-examination. Conclusions: This study showed a lack of knowledge about skin cancer, prevention, and early detection among university students and reported the need for educational interventions to raise awareness in this target group. PMID:27981144

  20. Estrogen-dependent signaling in a molecularly distinct subclass of aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Setlur, Sunita R.; Mertz, Kirsten D.; Hoshida, Yujin; Demichelis, Francesca; Lupien, Mathieu; Perner, Sven; Sboner, Andrea; Pawitan, Yudi; Andrén, Ove; Johnson, Laura A.; Tang, Jeff; Adami, Hans-Olov; Calza, Stefano; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Rhodes, Daniel; Tomlins, Scott; Fall, Katja; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kantoff, Philip W; Stampfer, Meir J.; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Varenhorst, Eberhard; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Brown, Myles; Golub, Todd R.; Rubin, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of prostate cancers harbor gene fusions of the 5′-untranslated region of the androgen-regulated transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) promoter with erythroblast transformation specific (ETS) transcription factor family members. The common v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog [avian] (TMPRSS2–ERG) fusion is associated with a more aggressive clinical phenotype, implying the existence of a distinct subclass of prostate cancer defined by this fusion. Methods We used cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, ligation, and extension to determine the expression profiles of 6144 transcriptionally informative genes in archived biopsy samples from 455 prostate cancer patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (1987–1999) and the US-based Physicians Health Study cohort (1983–2003). A gene expression signature for prostate cancers with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was determined using partitioning and classification models and used in computational functional analysis. Cell proliferation and TMPRSS2-ERG expression in androgen receptor–negative (NCI-H660) and –positive (VCaP-ERβ) prostate cancer cells after treatment with vehicle or estrogenic compounds were assessed by viability assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We identified an 87-gene expression signature that distinguishes TMPRSS2-ERG fusion prostate cancer as a discrete molecular entity (area under the curve = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.792 to 0.81; P<.001). Computational analysis suggested that this fusion signature was associated with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Viability of NCI-H660 cells decreased after treatment with estrogen (viability normalized to day 0, estrogen vs vehicle at day 8, mean = 2.04 vs 3.40, difference = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.62) or ERβ agonist (ERβ agonist vs vehicle at day 8, mean = 1.86 vs 3.40, difference = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.69) but increased

  1. Non-melanoma skin cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Newlands, C; Currie, R; Memon, A; Whitaker, S; Woolford, T

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides consensus recommendations on the management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region on the basis of current evidence. Recommendations • Royal College of Pathologists minimum datasets for NMSC should be adhered to in order to improve patient care and help work-force planning in pathology departments. (G) • Tumour depth is of critical importance in identifying high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and should be reported in all cases. (R) • Appropriate imaging to determine the extent of primary NMSC is indicated when peri-neural involvement or bony invasion is suspected. (R) • In the clinically N0 neck, radiological imaging is not beneficial, and a policy of watchful waiting and patient education can be adopted. (R) • Patients with high-risk NMSC should be treated by members of a skin cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care. (G) • Non-infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) <2 cm in size should be excised with a margin of 4-5 mm. Smaller margins (2-3 mm) may be taken in sites where reconstructive options are limited, when reconstruction should be delayed. (R) • Where there is a high risk of recurrence, delayed reconstruction or Mohs micrographic surgery should be used. (R) • Surgical excision of low-risk cSCC with a margin of 4 mm or greater is the treatment of choice. (R) • High-risk cSCC should be excised with a margin of 6 mm or greater. (R). • Mohs micrographic surgery has a role in some high-risk cSCC cases following MDT discussion. (R) • Delayed reconstruction should be used in high-risk cSCC. (G) • Intra-operative conventional frozen section in cSCC is not recommended. (G) • Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective therapy for primary BCC and cSCC. (R) • Re-excision should be carried out for incompletely excised

  2. Worry about skin cancer mediates the relation of perceived cancer risk and sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M

    2014-12-01

    Preventive health behaviors are believed to be motivated in part by a person's perception of risk for a particular health problem. Risk contains a cognitive component, beliefs about the chances of a health problem occurring, and an affective component, fear or worry about the health problem. Although both have been shown to influence behavior, the nature of their interrelation as an influence on behavior has not been examined. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a US nationally-representative telephone survey was analyzed. Participants reported perceived absolute and comparative risk for skin cancer, feelings of worry about skin cancer, and sunscreen use behavior. Analyses examined main effects models for the relation between perceived risk, worry, and sunscreen use, as well as both moderated and mediated models. For both absolute and comparative risk, the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk for skin cancer and sunscreen use was fully mediated by feelings of worry, as evidenced by significant direct effects of worry (bs > 0.046, ps < 0.01) and indirect effects of risk through worry (bs > 0.19, ps < 0.01). When worry was included in the models, direct effects of risk perceptions were non-significant (bs < 0.11, ps < 0.10). No evidence was found for moderated effects of worry on the relation between risk and behavior. While cognitive risk appraisals do influence decision making and may be addressed by interventions, these findings demonstrate that affectively-based risk components play a key role in behavior regulation. Affectively-based risk might be an effective target for interventions and should be incorporated more fully in decision-making models.

  3. [Disappearance of the ozone layer and skin cancer: attempt at risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Schaart, F M; Garbe, C; Orfanos, C E

    1993-02-01

    The increased incidence of skin cancer recorded worldwide is alarming. The incidence of malignant melanoma has doubled in Germany every 10-15 years during recent decades, for example, as documented in the population-based cancer registry of the Saarland. In 1989, the incidence was 8.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants a year equally for both sexes. Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) showed a similar dramatic increase like melanoma and ranged in second place in the Saarland Cancer Registry in 1989, exceeded in men only by lung cancers and in women only by breast cancer. Their incidence was 93.4/100,000 in men and 55.8/100,000 in women. Epidemiological studies worldwide revealed a correlation between the increase of skin cancer incidence and UV exposure in white populations, and Caucasians living in regions near the equator are predominantly affected by this increase. Recently, incidence values for non-melanoma skin cancer in the USA were reported to be 232/100,000, whereas, for Queensland/Australia even numbers as high as 2398/100,000 (males) and 1908/100,000 (females) have been published. So far, the increase in skin cancer incidence has been related to changes in leisure time habits with increasing UV exposure. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate any additional future risks for the development of skin cancer as a result of increasing UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. Its reduction has been reported to be 3% over large areas of the globe (65 degrees North to 65 degrees South) according to the latest study of the United Nations Environment Programme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Epigenetically upregulated WIPF1 plays a major role in BRAF V600E-promoted papillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Shen, Xiaopei; Liu, Rengyun; Zhu, Guangwu; Bishop, Justin; Xing, Mingzhao

    2017-01-01

    How the BRAF V600E mutation promotes the pathogenesis and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is not completely understood. Here we explored a novel mechanism involving WASP interacting protein family member 1 (WIPF1). In PTC tumors, compared with the wild-type BRAF, BRAF V600E was associated with over-expression and hypomethylation of the WIPF1 gene. In thyroid cancer cell lines with wild-type BRAF, WIPF1 expression was robustly upregulated upon introduced expression of BRAF V600E (P=0.03) whereas the opposite was seen upon BRAF knockdown or treatment with BRAF V600E or MEK inhibitors in cells harboring BRAF V600E. Methylation of a functionally critical region of the WIPF1 promoter was decreased by expressing BRAF V600E in cells harboring the wild-type BRAF and increased by BRAF knockdown or treatment with BRAF V600E or MEK inhibitors in cells harboring BRAF V600E mutation. Under-expression and hypermethylation of WIPF1 induced by stable BRAF knockdown was reversed by DNA demethylating agent 5′-azadeoxycytidine. Knockdown of WIPF1 robustly inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells and suppressed xenograft thyroid cancer tumor growth and vascular invasion, mimicking the effects of BRAF knockdown. In human PTC tumors, WIPF1 expression was associated with extrathyroidal invasion (P=0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P=2.64E-05). In summary, BRAF V600E-activated MAP kinase pathway causes hypomethylation and overexpression of WIPF1; WIPF1 then functions like an oncoprotein to robustly promote aggressive cellular and tumor behaviors of PTC. This represents a novel mechanism in BRAF V600E-promoted PTC aggressiveness and identifies WIPF1 as a novel therapeutic target for thyroid cancer. PMID:27863429

  5. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Yen-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Husan-Wen; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  6. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    PubMed

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  7. Cancer-specific uptake of a liganded protein nanocarrier targeting aggressive CXCR4(+) colorectal cancer models.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Unzueta, Ugutz; Álamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Sala, Rita; Casanova, Isolda; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Mangues, María Antonia; Trías, Manuel; López-Pousa, Antonio; Villaverde, Antonio; Vázquez, Esther; Mangues, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    Unliganded drug-nanoconjugates accumulate passively in the tumor whereas liganded nanoconjugates promote drug internalization in tumor cells via endocytosis and increase antitumor efficacy. Whether or not tumor cell internalization associates with enhanced tumor uptake is still under debate. We here compared tumor uptake of T22-GFP-H6, a liganded protein carrier targeting the CXCR4 receptor, and the unliganded GFP-H6 carrier in subcutaneous and metastatic colorectal cancer models. T22-GFP-H6 had a higher tumor uptake in primary tumor and metastatic foci than GFP-H6, with no biodistribution or toxicity on normal tissues. T22-GFP-H6 was detected in target CXCR4(+) tumor cell cytosol whereas GFP-H6 was detected in tumor stroma. SDF1-α co-administration switched T22-GFP-H6 internalization from CXCR4(+) tumor epithelial cells to the stroma. Therefore, the incorporation of a targeting ligand promotes selective accumulation of the nanocarrier inside target tumor cells while increasing whole tumor uptake in a CXCR4-dependent manner, validating T22-GFP-H6 as a CXCR4-targeted drug carrier.

  8. The mechanistic basis of arsenicosis: Pathogenesis of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Katherine M.; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Significant amounts of arsenic have been found in the groundwater of many countries including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, and the United States with an estimated 200 million people at risk of toxic exposure. Although chronic arsenic poisoning damages many organ systems, it usually first presents in the skin with manifestations including hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratoses, Bowen’s disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Arsenic promotes oxidative stress by upregulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, uncoupling nitric oxide synthase, and by depleting natural antioxidants such as nitric oxide and glutathione in addition to targeting other proteins responsible for the maintenance of redox homeostasis. It causes immune dysfunction and tissue inflammatory responses, which may involve activation of the unfolded protein response signaling pathway. In addition, the dysregulation of other molecular targets such as nuclear factor kappa B, Hippo signaling protein Yap, and the mineral dust-induced proto-oncogene may orchestrate the pathogenesis of arsenic-mediated health effects. The metalloid decreases expression of tumor suppressor molecules and increases expression of pro-inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways leading to a tumor-promoting tissue microenvironment. Cooperation of upregulated signal transduction molecules with DNA damage may abrogate apoptosis, promote proliferation, and enhance cell survival. Genomic instability via direct DNA damage and weakening of several cellular DNA repair mechanisms could also be important cancer development mechanisms in arsenic-exposed populations. Thus, arsenic mediates its toxicity by generating oxidative stress, causing immune dysfunction, promoting genotoxicity, hampering DNA repair, and disrupting signal transduction, which may explain the complex disease manifestations seen in arsenicosis. PMID:25173797

  9. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-04-22

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1-2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins.

  10. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  11. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Geetha, T; Kapila, Meenakshi; Prakash, Om; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Kakkar, Vandita; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin carcinogenesis is well documented. Natural molecules, like sesamol, with marked antioxidant potential can be useful in combating skin cancers. In vitro antiproliferative (using MTT assay) and DNA fragmentation studies in HL 60 cell lines, confirmed the apoptotic nature of sesamol. However, it showed a significant flux across the mice skin upon topical application, such that its local availability in skin is limited. Former is attributed mainly to its properties like small size, low molecular weight (138.28), and a sufficient lipid and water solubility (log P 1.29; solubility 38.8 mg/ml). To achieve its maximum epicutaneous delivery, packaging it into a suitable carrier system is thus indicated. Sesamol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLN) were thus prepared with particle size of 127.9 nm (PI: 0.256) and entrapment efficiency of 88.21%. Topical application of S-SLN in a cream base indicated significant retention in the skin with minimal flux across skin as confirmed by the in-vivo skin retention and ex-vivo skin permeation studies. In vivo anticancer studies performed on TPA-induced and benzo(a)pyrene initiated tumour production (ROS mediated) in mouse epidermis showed the normalization (in histology studies) of skin cancers post their induction, upon treatment with S-SLN.

  12. Changing Trends of Skin Cancer: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study in Malwa Region of Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Banipal, Raja Paramjeet Singh; Bhatti, Deepak John; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancer. Although the presence of eumelanin in dark skin is protective against the development of skin cancer, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the Indian population. Aim To study the profile of skin cancer patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Malwa area of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods Retrospective study was done to analyse the profile of skin cancer patients who attended the institution over one year from 1st December 2013 to 30th November 2014. A comprehensive review of aetiology and related risk factors was done to correlate the environmental factors with high skin cancer prevalence in this region. Results Skin cancer constituted (3.18%) 84 out of 2638 patients registered with cancer of all types. The age of the patients was 62±14.2 years and ranged from 27 to 92 yrs. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common histological type(46/84, 54.76%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (31/84, 36.91%) and malignant melanoma (MM) (7/84, 8.33%). Male: female ratio was found to be 0.79:1. BCC showed higher female preponderance (p<0.05). Head and Neck was the commonest site involved (p<0.05). Majority (88%) of patients were from rural area. 92% of patients were directly into the profession of agriculture with history of prolonged exposure to sunlight. Conclusion Skin cancer constitutes a small but significant proportion of patients with cancers. This study highlights a paradoxically increasing trend of BCC and female preponderance. Head and neck is the most common site involved. Exposure to Ultra Violet B (UVB) radiation and higher levels of arsenic in drinking water has been reported to be associated with skin cancers. Limited studies show that levels of arsenic and pesticides were higher in the samples of drinking water in Malwa area of Punjab. Therefore a multipronged strategy to provide safe drinking water supply and discouraging the indiscriminate

  13. Shorter telomeres and high telomerase activity correlate with a highly aggressive phenotype in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ceja-Rangel, Hugo A; Sánchez-Suárez, Patricia; Castellanos-Juárez, Emilio; Peñaroja-Flores, Rubicelia; Arenas-Aranda, Diego J; Gariglio, Patricio; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of telomere length is one function of human telomerase that is crucial for the survival of cancer cells and cancer progression. Both telomeres and telomerase have been proposed as possible biomarkers of cancer risk and cancer invasiveness; however, their clinical relevance is still under discussion. In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between telomere length and telomerase activity with cancer invasiveness, we studied telomere length as well as telomerase levels, activity, and intracellular localization in breast cancer cell lines with diverse invasive phenotypes. We found an apparently paradoxical coincidence of short telomeres and enhanced telomerase activity in the most invasive breast cancer cell lines. We also observed that hTERT intracellular localization could be correlated with its level of activity. There was no association between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression levels and invasiveness. We propose that simultaneous evaluation of these two biomarkers-telomere length and telomerase activity-could be useful for the assessment of the invasive capacity and aggressiveness of tumor cells from breast cancer patients.

  14. Observation and analysis on skin cancer induced by UVB irradiation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxia; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxiao

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the prevalent skin cancers, which have a quite high incidence in the white race. In recent years, however, their incidences have been increasing in the yellow race, resulting in a great threat to the public health. According to researches, chronics UVB irradiation (280nm~320nm) is the major culprit of skin cancer in humans. In our study, the model of UVB induced skin cancer was established firstly. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with the histopathology was exploited to monitor the morphologic and histological changes of the process of UVB induced skin cancer. Meanwhile, this canceration process was systematically studied and analyzed from the perspective of tissue optics. The attenuation coefficient (μt) has a rising trend in the epidermis, but which shows a downward trend in the dermis. The results are conducive to understand the process of UVB-induced skin cancer and further be able to provide a reference for medical researchers.

  15. A Phase III Skin Cancer Chemoprevention Study of DFMO: Long-term Follow-up of Skin Cancer Events and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kreul, Sarah M.; Havighurst, Tom; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Wood, Gary S.; Snow, Stephen; Borich, Abbey; Verma, Ajit; Bailey, Howard H.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is of great importance in regards to future healthcare services. Given the previously reported preventive effects of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in skin and colon cancer trials, we determined appropriate cause to update the clinical data on the subjects from the recently reported Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Skin Cancer Prevention Study of DFMO. Our intention was to retrospectively assess the further incidence of skin cancer, other malignancies, and adverse events of patients accrued to our phase III skin cancer prevention study of DFMO. Clinical records of 209 UW Health subjects were reviewed, and 2092.7 person years of on study (884.3 person years) and post study (1208.4 person years) follow-up for these patients were assessed for new NMSC events and recurrence rates from the on study period, the post study period, and the two study periods combined. No evidence of increased significant diagnoses or serious adverse events was observed in the DFMO participants. The initially observed, marginally significant reduction (p=0.069) in NMSC rates for DFMO subjects relative to placebo continued without evidence of rebound. Event rates after discontinuation from study for total NMSCs (DFMO 0.236 NMSC/person/year, placebo 0.297, p=0.48) or the subtypes of BCCs (DFMO 0.179 BCC/person/year, placebo 0.190, p=0.77) and SCCs (DFMO 0.057 SCC/person/year, placebo 0.107, p=0.43) are listed. Follow-up data revealed a persistent but insignificant reduction in new NMSCs occurring in DFMO subjects without evidence of latent or cumulative toxicity relative to placebo subjects. PMID:23060038

  16. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and Ki-67 in nonmelanoma skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum and non-xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    El-Hawary, Amira K; Yassin, Eman; Khater, Ashraf; Abdelgaber, Soheir

    2013-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a heterogenous group of genetic diseases in which basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and Ki-67 in SCC and BCC from patients with and without XP to elucidate their roles in the pathogenesis of these highly aggressive tumors in patients with XP. Immunolabeling using MMP-13 and Ki-67 antibodies was performed on tissue sections derived from skin biopsies of SCC and BCC of 15 patients with XP and 40 non-XP patients. There was no significant difference between XP and non-XP patients as regards MMP-13 expression by epithelial and stromal cells of SCC or BCC. Ki-67 expression in SCC and BCC of patients with XP was significantly higher than in non-XP patients. We concluded that the higher expression of Ki-67 in NMSC of patients with XP than of non-XP patients may reflect the growth and invasive capacity of these tumors in patients with XP. MMP-13 is expressed by tumor epithelial cells, stromal and inflammatory cells of NMSC of both XP and non-XP patients.

  17. Visual images for skin cancer prevention: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2012-06-01

    Visual images play an important role in educating the public about skin cancer prevention. The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) determine how visual images are evaluated in skin cancer and tanning qualitative research studies (including theoretical and methodological approaches) and 2) summarize and discuss the image-related findings of the studies with respect to cancer education and public health. Seven databases were searched (PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) using multiple search terms, including MeSH terms, resulting in 5330 citations. Studies were included if they were in English, peer-reviewed, qualitative in design or methodology, dealt with skin cancer or UV exposure, used visual images, and had a focus on the public or patients (i.e., not medical professionals). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: seven content analyses and one focus group study. Content analysis studies in this review suggest the mass media portray Caucasian men and women as unprotected from the sun and with tanned skin, and thus, may inform behaviors related to skin cancer risk. The focus group study suggests visible minorities may benefit from the incorporation of images of melanoma on ethnic skin in cancer education materials. None of the studies used visual communication theory to explicitly guide the research, nor were standardized tools used for image assessment. The lack of guiding theory and standardized assessment instruments can introduce bias in how images are selected and used in research on skin cancer education.

  18. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D.; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines. We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK. Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%. Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants. In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  19. Diagnostic potential of optical coherence tomography in non-melanoma skin cancer: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2007-07-01

    Introduction: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the Western World. OCT has proved potential in assisting clinical diagnosis and perhaps reducing the need for biopsies in NMSC. As non-invasive treatment is increasingly used for NMSC patients with superficial lesions, the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies is highly relevant. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional clinical study, enrolling 100 NMSC patients and 20 healthy volunteers, is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and applicability of OCT in NMSC diagnosis. Our OCT-system has been developed at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark and offers ppolarization sensitive-OCT (PS-OCT) that may have additional advantaged as NMSC differ in content of birefringent collagens from normal skin. Results: Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) can in some cases be distinguished from normal skin in OCT-images, as normal skin exhibits a layered structure this layering is not present in BCC and sometimes not in actinic keratosis (AK). BCC lesions seem to be clearly less reflective than normal tissue. The predictive value of OCT in NMSC will be presented from a clinical point of view. Discussion: The earlier a skin cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Estimation of diagnostic accuracy and abilities of OCT in clinical studies of skin cancer patients is essential to establish the role and future set-ups for diagnostic OCT-systems.

  20. Suitability of frequency modulated thermal wave imaging for skin cancer detection-A theoretical prediction.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Arka; Repaka, Ramjee; Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Mishra, Subhash C

    2015-07-01

    A theoretical study on the quantification of surface thermal response of cancerous human skin using the frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (FMTWI) technique has been presented in this article. For the first time, the use of the FMTWI technique for the detection and the differentiation of skin cancer has been demonstrated in this article. A three dimensional multilayered skin has been considered with the counter-current blood vessels in individual skin layers along with different stages of cancerous lesions based on geometrical, thermal and physical parameters available in the literature. Transient surface thermal responses of melanoma during FMTWI of skin cancer have been obtained by integrating the heat transfer model for biological tissue along with the flow model for blood vessels. It has been observed from the numerical results that, flow of blood in the subsurface region leads to a substantial alteration on the surface thermal response of the human skin. The alteration due to blood flow further causes a reduction in the performance of the thermal imaging technique during the thermal evaluation of earliest melanoma stages (small volume) compared to relatively large volume. Based on theoretical study, it has been predicted that the method is suitable for detection and differentiation of melanoma with comparatively large volume than the earliest development stages (small volume). The study has also performed phase based image analysis of the raw thermograms to resolve the different stages of melanoma volume. The phase images have been found to be clearly individuate the different development stages of melanoma compared to raw thermograms.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies the Dysregulation of Ultraviolet Target Genes in Human Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yao; Kim, Arianna L.; Du, Rong; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. In addition to its mutagenic effect, UVR can also induce substantial transcriptional instability in skin cells affecting thousands of genes, including many cancer genes, suggesting that transcriptional instability may be another important etiological factor in skin photocarcinogenesis. In this study, we performed detailed transcriptomic profiling studies to characterize the kinetic changes in global gene expression in human keratinocytes exposed to different UVR conditions. We identified a subset of UV-responsive genes as UV signature genes (UVSGs) based on 1) conserved UV-responsiveness of this subset of genes among different keratinocyte lines; and 2) UV-induced persistent changes in their mRNA levels long after exposure. Interestingly, 11 of the UVSGs were shown to be critical to skin cancer cell proliferation and survival. Through computational Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we demonstrated that a significant portion of the UVSGs were dysregulated in human skin squamous cell carcinomas, but not in other human malignancies. This highlights the potential and specificity of the UVSGs in clinical diagnosis of UV damage and stratification of skin cancer risk. PMID:27643989

  2. Molecular characterization of skin microbiota between cancer cachexia patients and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Han, Lei; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Wu, Xiaokang; Moore, John E; Xu, Jiru

    2014-04-01

    Systemic inflammation contributes to both the development of cancer and of cachexia. The microenvironment of bacterial habitats might be changed during the progression of cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively compare the composition of the skin microbiota between cancer cachexia patients and healthy volunteers. Cutaneous bacteria were swabbed at the axillary fossa of 70 cancer cachexia patients and 34 healthy individuals from China. Nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) with primers specifically targeting V3 region and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis were performed on all samples. Barcoded 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 regions was performed on 30 randomly selected samples. By comparing diversity and richness indices, we found that the skin microbiome of cachectic cancer patients is less diverse than that of healthy participants, though these differences were not significant. The main microbes that reside on human skin were divided into four phyla: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. were the dominant bacteria at the genus level. Significantly fewer Corynebacterium spp. had been observed in cachexia patients compared to healthy subjects. These results suggest that the presence of cancer and cachexia alters human skin bacterial communities. Understanding the changes in microbiota during cancer cachexia may lead to new insights into the syndrome.

  3. Sunscreens, skin photobiology, and skin cancer: the need for UVA protection and evaluation of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, F P

    2000-03-01

    Sunscreens are ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-absorbing chemicals that attenuate the amount and nature of UVR reaching viable cells in the skin. They are selected and tested for their ability to prevent erythema. No sunscreen prevents photodamage, as it has been demonstrated that suberythemal doses of UVR cause a variety of molecular changes (including DNA damage) in these cells. Furthermore, the spectrum of UVR reaching viable cells is altered by topically applied sunscreen. In this review, the basic aspects of sunscreens and skin photobiology are reviewed briefly. Although there can be no question concerning the efficacy of sunscreens for the prevention of erythema, questions remain because of the possible cumulative effects of chronic suberythemal doses and the increased exposure of skin cells to longer UVR wavelengths. The current major issue surrounding sunscreens involves their ability to protect skin cells against the effects of UVA radiation. These UVA effects may be direct damage (base oxidations) or effects on the skin immune system, yet there is no uniformly accepted method for the evaluation of UVA protection. This review is focused primarily on the latter topic covering action spectra that implicate the need for UVA protection. In addition, in vivo and in vitro methods proposed for the evaluation of candidate sunscreen formulations of UVA protective ability are reviewed. Finally, revisions in the terminology used to describe the protection afforded by sunscreens are suggested. It is proposed that SPF ("sun" protection factor) be renamed "sunburn" protection factor and that "critical wavelength" be designated "long wave index."

  4. Sunscreens, skin photobiology, and skin cancer: the need for UVA protection and evaluation of efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Gasparro, F P

    2000-01-01

    Sunscreens are ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-absorbing chemicals that attenuate the amount and nature of UVR reaching viable cells in the skin. They are selected and tested for their ability to prevent erythema. No sunscreen prevents photodamage, as it has been demonstrated that suberythemal doses of UVR cause a variety of molecular changes (including DNA damage) in these cells. Furthermore, the spectrum of UVR reaching viable cells is altered by topically applied sunscreen. In this review, the basic aspects of sunscreens and skin photobiology are reviewed briefly. Although there can be no question concerning the efficacy of sunscreens for the prevention of erythema, questions remain because of the possible cumulative effects of chronic suberythemal doses and the increased exposure of skin cells to longer UVR wavelengths. The current major issue surrounding sunscreens involves their ability to protect skin cells against the effects of UVA radiation. These UVA effects may be direct damage (base oxidations) or effects on the skin immune system, yet there is no uniformly accepted method for the evaluation of UVA protection. This review is focused primarily on the latter topic covering action spectra that implicate the need for UVA protection. In addition, in vivo and in vitro methods proposed for the evaluation of candidate sunscreen formulations of UVA protective ability are reviewed. Finally, revisions in the terminology used to describe the protection afforded by sunscreens are suggested. It is proposed that SPF ("sun" protection factor) be renamed "sunburn" protection factor and that "critical wavelength" be designated "long wave index." PMID:10698724

  5. Confocal microscopy of excised human skin using acetic acid and crossed polarization: rapid detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind M.; Menaker, Gregg; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2000-05-01

    Moh's micrographic surgery for basal- and squamous-cell cancers (BCCs, SCCs) involves precise excision of the tumor with minimal damage to the surrounding normal skin. Precise excision is guided by histopathologic examination for tumor margins; typically, 2 - 4 slices of skin are excised, and there is a waiting time of 15 - 45 minutes for the surgeon and patient while each slice is being processed for histopathology. We can avoid the processing by using a confocal reflectance microscope; confocal detection of BCCs and SCCs is possible after staining the nuclei in the excised skin with 5% acetic acid, and imaging in crossed polarization. The cancerous nuclei appear bright against the dark surrounding normal dermis. The contrast is due to increased back-scattering as well as increased depolarization from the intra-nuclear structure relative to that from the surrounding normal dermis. As in conventional histopathology, the tumors are first detected at low resolution (section thickness 20 micrometer) in a wide field (1-2 mm); nuclear morphology is then viewed at high resolution (section thickness 2 micrometer) in a small field (0.25 - 0.50 mm). Mosaics of images are assembled to produce confocal maps of the BCCs or SCCs within large excised tissue. Rapid detection (within minutes) is possible.

  6. In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Kovacic, Dianne; Migden, Michael F.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Nguyen, Tri H.; Tunnell, James W.

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques have widely been used as noninvasive tools for early cancer detection in several organs including the cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Using a combined DOS/LIF approach, one can simultaneously measure the morphology and biochemical composition of tissue and use these features to diagnose malignancy. We report for the first time to our knowledge both the optical properties and native fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in the UV-visible range. We collected in vivo diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence measurements from 44 skin lesions on 37 patients. The skin sites were further categorized into three groups of non-melanoma skin cancer according to histopathology: 1) pre-cancerous actinic keratosis 2) malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We used a custom-built probe-based clinical system that collects both white light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-700 nm. We extracted the blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation, blood vessel size, tissue microarchitecture and melanin content from diffuse reflectance measurements. In addition, we determined the native fluorophore contributions of NADH, collagen and FAD from laser-induced fluorescence for all groups. The scattering from tissue decreased with progression from clinically normal to precancerous actinic keratosis to malignant SCC. A similar trend was observed for clinically normal skin and malignant BCC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen contributions, which were lower in malignant SCC and BCC as compared to normal skin. Our data demonstrates that the mean optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal, benign and malignant nonmelanoma cancers are significantly different from each other and can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early detection of skin cancer.

  7. Venous free flaps for the treatment of skin cancers of the digits.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Ung; Kim, Kiwan; Kwon, Sung Tack

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular reconstruction using distant free flaps is often required after excision of skin cancers of the digits. The delivered flaps should be chosen with many factors taken into consideration, especially in the digits, in which a very thin, pliable, and durable flap is required to maintain both function and cosmetic appearance. Free flaps, such as perforator flaps, however, for distal or small defects of the hand after excision of skin cancer, require the sacrifices of the main arterial pedicle with deep dissection and exhibit potential limitations regarding flap size and location of the defect. Instead, arterialized venous free flap could be used as an alternative reconstructive method for skin cancers of the digits. Twelve soft tissue defects of the digits after excision of skin cancers (5 cases of malignant melanoma and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma) were reconstructed using arterialized venous free flaps from January 2009 to May 2011. The flaps ranged in size from 1 × 1.5 cm to 5 × 7 cm. The flaps completely survived in 9 cases. Partial necrosis developed in 3 cases; however, skin graft was necessary only for 1 case. There were no recurrences or metastases for at least 20 months after the last case. Recently in cases of noninvasive or low-grade skin cancer of the hand, the concept of "preservative surgery" has been a higher priority compared with functional and esthetic aspects. Particularly in cases of reconstruction of a small-sized fingertip defect as 1 functional unit, arterialized venous free flaps offer several advantages, such as thinness and color similar to the hand, technical ease with a short operative time, long vascular pedicle, less donor site morbidity with no sacrifice of a major vessel, applicable to any site, and modifiable to the appropriate size and shape. Arterialized venous free flap could serve as a useful and reliable method for soft tissue reconstruction after excision of skin cancers in the digits.

  8. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT.

  9. Contribution of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms to development of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zeyuan; Liu, Ting; Li, Xiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) family genes are of vital importance in maintaining cellular defence systems, protecting cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen produced during the synthesis of melanin, and detoxifying environmental mutagens and chemical or synthetic drugs. As no previous meta-analyses have examined the association of polymorphisms at GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val with skin cancer risk and independently published studies have produced inconsistent conclusions, we were promoted to estimate the associations in the largest study to date. Methods: Computer-assisted searches were carried out to systematically identify the studies of GST polymorphisms and skin cancer. The eligibility of studies was evaluated following the requirements of inclusion criteria. Risk of skin cancers (OR and 95% CI) was assessed with the fixed or random effects meta-analysis. Major findings: The fixed effects meta-analysis of 15 studies suggested no overall association between GSTT1 null and skin cancer. Nor was there a significant association in any subgroup. However, in the stratified analysis by histologic type for GSTP1 Ile105Val, we found 1.56 times higher risk of malignant melanoma (MM) among people with the 105-Val/Val genotype (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32, pheterogeneity = 0.584). Conclusions: These statistical data demonstrate that Ile105Val polymorphism of the GSTP1 gene may have genetic contribution to the development of skin cancer, MM in particular. PMID:25785008

  10. Coverage of skin cancer prevention in professional journals and the popular press

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review skin cancer prevention and suntan articles in professional health education journals and in the popular press as a means to compare coverage of skin cancer prevention, ozone layer depletion, and suntanning norms. Articles were also reviewed for coverage of individual sun protection measures and coverage of collective skin cancer risk reduction through policy and legislative reform. A total of 155 articles indexes in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (1986 through 1991) under skin cancer causes, skin cancer prevention, suntan, and suntan products were reviewed for this study. An additional nine articles published in professional health education journals from 1986 through 1991 were also reviewed. Analysis of the 164 coding forms indicated that (a) individual sun protection measures were covered with greater frequency than public policy measures, (b) risk reduction through public policy reform was covered with greater frequency in professional health education journals, and (c) individuals from different professions were not cited within the articles with equal frequency. This content analysis provides evidence of coverage of contemporary tanning norms in the popular press, as well as the presence of misleading information and contradictory messages regarding personal protection from ultraviolet radiation.

  11. Effect of intense THz pulses on expression of genes associated with skin cancer and inflammatory skin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim K.; Purschke, David; Golubov, Andrey; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Woycicki, Rafal; Hegmann, Frank A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-03-01

    The growing experimental evidence suggests that broadband, picosecond-duration THz pulses may influence biological systems and functions. While the mechanisms by which THz pulse-induced biological effects are not yet known, experiments using in vitro cell cultures, tissue models, as well as recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that THz pulses can elicit cellular and molecular changes in exposed cells and tissues in the absence of thermal effects. Recently, we demonstrated that intense, picosecond THz pulses induce phosphorylation of H2AX, indicative of DNA damage, and at the same time activate DNA damage response in human skin tissues. We also find that intense THz pulses have a profound impact on global gene expression in human skin. Many of the affected genes have important functions in epidermal differentiation and have been implicated in skin cancer and inflammatory skin conditions. The observed THzinduced changes in expression of these genes are in many cases opposite to disease-related changes, suggesting possible therapeutic applications of intense THz pulses.

  12. Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation exposure Exposure to certain chemicals such as arsenic Certain genetic conditions such as xeroderma pigmentosum and ... Avoid exposure to high-risk chemicals such as arsenic. Check your skin regularly with a dermatologist and ...

  13. Loss of miR-200c: A Marker of Aggressiveness and Chemoresistance in Female Reproductive Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Dawn R.; Howe, Erin N.; Spoelstra, Nicole S.; Richer, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We focus on unique roles of miR-200c in breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers. Members of the miR-200 family target ZEB1, a transcription factor which represses E-cadherin and other genes involved in polarity. We demonstrate that the double negative feedback loop between miR-200c and ZEB1 is functional in some, but not all cell lines. Restoration of miR-200c to aggressive cancer cells causes a decrease in migration and invasion. These effects are independent of E-cadherin status. Additionally, we observe that restoration of miR-200c to ovarian cancer cells causes a decrease in adhesion to laminin. We have previously reported that reintroduction of miR-200c to aggressive cells that lack miR-200c expression restores sensitivity to paclitaxel. We now prove that this ability is a result of direct targeting of class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3). Introduction of a TUBB3 expression construct lacking the miR-200c target site into cells transfected with miR-200c mimic results in no change in sensitivity to paclitaxel. Lastly, we observe a decrease in proliferation in cells transfected with miR-200c mimic, and cells where ZEB1 is knocked down stably, demonstrating that the ability of miR-200c to enhance sensitivity to paclitaxel is not due to an increased proliferation rate. PMID:20049172

  14. TGF-β Regulates DNA Methyltransferase Expression in Prostate Cancer, Correlates with Aggressive Capabilities, and Predicts Disease Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T.; Jang, Thomas L.; Sharma, Vidit; Kozlowski, James; Kuzel, Timothy Michael; Zhu, Lihua J.; Yang, Ximing J.; Javonovic, Borko; Guo, Yinglu; Lonning, Scott; Harper, Jay; Teicher, Beverly A.; Brendler, Charles; Yu, Nengwang; Catalona, William J.; Lee, Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is one of the major factors mediating the methylation of cancer related genes such as TGF-β receptors (TβRs). This in turn may result in a loss of sensitivity to physiologic levels of TGF-β in aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). The specific mechanisms of DNMT's role in CaP remain undetermined. In this study, we describe the mechanism of TGF-β-mediated DNMT in CaP and its association with clinical outcomes following radical prostatectomy. Methodology/Principal Findings We used human CaP cell lines with varying degrees of invasive capability to describe how TGF-β mediates the expression of DNMT in CaP, and its effects on methylation status of TGF-β receptors and the invasive capability of CaP in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the association between DNMT expression and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. We found that more aggressive CaP cells had significantly higher TGF-β levels, increased expression of DNMT, but reduced TβRs when compared to benign prostate cells and less aggressive prostate cancer cells. Blockade of TGF-β signaling or ERK activation (p-ERK) was associated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of DNMT, which results in a coincident increase in the expression of TβRs. Blockade of either TGF-β signaling or DNMT dramatically decreased the invasive capabilities of CaP. Inhibition of TGF-β in an TRAMP-C2 CaP model in C57BL/6 mice using 1D11 was associated with downregulation of DNMTs and p-ERK and impairment in tumor growth. Finally, independent of Gleason grade, increased DNMT1 expression was associated with biochemical recurrence following surgical treatment for prostate cancer. Conclusions and Significance Our findings demonstrate that CaP derived TGF-β may induce the expression of DNMTs in CaP which is associated with methylation of its receptors and the aggressive potential of CaP. In addition, DNMTs is an independent predictor for disease recurrence after

  15. Expression of cancer-related carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Leo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Leppilampi, Mari; Kallioinen, Matti; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Parkkila, Seppo; Karttunen, Tuomo

    2014-09-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the presence of hypoxia-inducible, tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and a series of cutaneous tumours. Human tumour samples were taken during surgical operations performed on 245 patients and were immunohistochemically stained. A histological score value was calculated for statistical analyses which were performed using SPSS for Windows, versions 17.0 and 20.0. In normal skin, the highest expression of CA IX was detected in hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and basal parts of epidermis. CA XII was detected in all epithelial components of skin. Both CA IX and CA XII expression levels were significantly different in epidermal, appendigeal, and melanocytic tumour categories. Both CA IX and XII showed the most intense immunostaining in epidermal tumours, whereas virtually all melanocytic tumours were devoid of CA IX and XII immunostaining. In premalignant lesions, CA IX expression significantly increased when the tumours progressed to more severe dysplasia forms. Both CA IX and XII are highly expressed in different epithelial components of skin. They are also highly expressed in epidermal tumours, in which CA IX expression levels also correlate with the dysplasia grade. Interestingly, both isozymes are absent in melanocytic tumours.

  16. Identification of the transforming STRN-ALK fusion as a potential therapeutic target in the aggressive forms of thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lindsey M.; Barila, Guillermo; Liu, Pengyuan; Evdokimova, Viktoria N.; Trivedi, Sumita; Panebianco, Federica; Gandhi, Manoj; Carty, Sally E.; Hodak, Steven P.; Luo, Jianhua; Dacic, Sanja; Yu, Yan P.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Ferris, Robert L.; Altschuler, Daniel L.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy that encompasses well-differentiated as well as dedifferentiated cancer types. The latter tumors have high mortality and lack effective therapies. Using a paired-end RNA-sequencing approach, we report the discovery of rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in thyroid cancer. The most common of these involves a fusion between ALK and the striatin (STRN) gene, which is the result of a complex rearrangement involving the short arm of chromosome 2. STRN-ALK leads to constitutive activation of ALK kinase via dimerization mediated by the coiled-coil domain of STRN and to a kinase-dependent, thyroid-stimulating hormone–independent proliferation of thyroid cells. Moreover, expression of STRN-ALK transforms cells in vitro and induces tumor formation in nude mice. The kinase activity of STRN-ALK and the ALK-induced cell growth can be blocked by the ALK inhibitors crizotinib and TAE684. In addition to well-differentiated papillary cancer, STRN-ALK was found with a higher prevalence in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers, and it did not overlap with other known driver mutations in these tumors. Our data demonstrate that STRN-ALK fusion occurs in a subset of patients with highly aggressive types of thyroid cancer and provide initial evidence suggesting that it may represent a therapeutic target for these patients. PMID:24613930

  17. The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation.

    PubMed

    Aistars, Juli

    2006-08-01

    Skin care in women receiving external radiation to the breast varies among institutions. Studies have been conducted looking at the effect that various skin care products have on the onset and severity of radiation-induced skin reactions in those patients. Results show that no significant difference exists among these products. The practice of avoiding aluminum-based deodorant on the treated side and avoiding use of any skin care products four hours prior to treatment is not evidence based but often is part of skin care protocols for women receiving breast irradiation. A review of the literature since 1996 in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia revealed some evidence to refute the practice but no supporting evidence. Because minimal disruption in a woman's normal hygiene routine could mitigate anxiety and improve coping during a time of extreme stress brought on by a cancer diagnosis, further research is warranted to support changing the practice.

  18. Hypopharynx and larynx defect repair after resection for pyriform fossa cancer with a platysma skin flap.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Huang, Xiaoming; Han, Ping; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-02-01

    We used a platysma skin flap to repair larynx and hypopharynx defects to improve postoperative laryngeal function in patients with pyriform fossa cancer. Larynx-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were used in 10 patients with pyriform fossa cancer. The surgical approaches of lymph node dissection of the neck, vertical partial laryngectomy, and pyriform fossa resection were adopted, and a platysma skin flap was used to repair the resulting defects. In this group, the overall 3-year survival rate was 75% according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the local control rate was 90%. Additionally, all patients were able to speak fluently with mild-to-moderate hoarseness. The tracheal tube was removed in all cases. Laryngeal fistulas were observed in 1 patient during radiotherapy. In conclusion, a platysma skin flap can be used to rebuild the larynx and hypopharynx in larynx-sparing resection for pyriform fossa cancer. These patients can obtain good postoperative function in swallowing, breathing, and pronunciation.

  19. PI3K/AKT pathway regulates E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 in aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Barber, Alison G; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M; Jia, Angela J; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Christiano, Angela M; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Reduced expression of both classical and desmosomal cadherins has been associated with different types of carcinomas, including prostate cancer. This study aims to provide a comprehensive view of the role and regulation of cell-cell adhesion in prostate cancer aggressiveness by examining the functional implications of both E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 (DSG2). E-cadherin expression was first examined using immunofluorescence in 50 normal prostate tissues and in a cohort of 414 prostate cancer patients. Correlation and survival analyses were performed to assess its clinical significance. In primary prostate cancer patients, reduced expression of both E-cadherin and DSG2 is significantly associated with an earlier biochemical recurrence. Transgenic DU145 E-cadherin knockdown and constitutively active AKT overexpression lines were generated. Functional implications of such genetic alterations were analyzed in vitro and in vivo, the latter by using tumorigenesis as well as extravasation and metastatic tumor formation assays. We observed that loss of E-cadherin leads to impaired primary and metastatic tumor formation in vivo, suggesting a tumor promoter role for E-cadherin in addition to its known role as a tumor suppressor. Activation of AKT leads to a significant reduction in E-cadherin expression and nuclear localization of Snail, suggesting a role for the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the transient repression of E-cadherin. This reduced expression may be regulated by separate mechanisms as neither the loss of E-cadherin nor activation of AKT significantly affected DSG2 expression. In conclusion, these findings illustrate the critical role of cell-cell adhesion in the progression to aggressive prostate cancer, through regulation by the PI3K pathway.

  20. Keratinocyte stem cells and the targets for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok; Park, Heuijoon; Kangsamaksin, Thaned; Singh, Anupama; Readio, Nyssa; Morris, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian skin is a complex dynamic organ composed of thin multilayered epidermis and a thick underlying connective tissue layer dermis. The epidermis undergoes continuous renewal throughout life. The stems cells uniquely express particular surface markers utilized for their identification, isolation and localization in specific niches in epidermis as well as hair follicles (HFs). The two stage skin carcinogenesis model involves stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and ultimately leading to malignancy. Whereas early research on skin carcinogenesis focused on the molecular nature of carcinogens and tumor promoters, more recent studies have focused on the identification of the target cells and tumor promoting cells for both chemical and physical carcinogens and promoters. Recent studies support the hypothesis that keratinocyte stem cells are the targets in skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss briefly the localization of stem cells in the epidermis and HFs, and review the possibility that skin papillomas and carcinomas are derived from stem cells, as well as from other cells in the cutaneous epithelium whose stem cell properties are not well known.

  1. Lentivirus-mediated RASSF1A expression suppresses aggressive phenotypes of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P-H; Zheng, J-B; Wei, G-B; Wang, X-L; Wang, W; Chen, N-Z; Yu, J-H; Yao, J-F; Wang, H; Lu, S-Y; Sun, X-J

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Ras association domain family protein 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) expression is associated with the development of a variety of human cancers and the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) frequently occurs in gastric cancer. This study investigated the effects of RASSF1A expression restoration using a hypoxia-inducible CEA promoter-driven vector on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice and on the in-vitro regulation of gastric cancer cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, colony formation and invasion capacity. The data showed that the level of CEA mRNA and protein was much higher in gastric cancer SGC7901 cells than in a second gastric cancer cell line, MKN28, or in the MCF-10A normal epithelial breast cell line. RASSF1A expression was restored in SGC7901 cells compared with the negative control virus-infected SGC7910 cells. RASSF1A expression restoration significantly inhibited gastric cancer cell viability, colony formation and invasion capacity, but induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro, especially under hypoxic culture conditions. At the gene level, restoration of RASSF1A expression under hypoxic culture conditions significantly suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and prevented cyclinD1 expression. A nude mouse xenograft assay showed that the restoration of RASSF1A expression reduced gastric cancer xenograft formation and growth. In conclusion, the restoration of RASSF1A expression using a hypoxia-inducible and CEA promoter-driven vector suppressed aggressive phenotypes of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that LV-5HRE-CEAp-RASSF1A gene therapy may be a promising novel approach to treat advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26005859

  2. Development of an Internet Intervention to Address Behaviors Associated with Skin Cancer Risk among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Munshi, Teja; Caruso, Carolyn; Ritterband, Lee; Raivitch, Stephanie; Fleisher, Linda; Manne, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the US, and its incidence is increasing. The major risk factor for skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Young adults tend to expose themselves to large amounts of UV and engage in minimal skin protection, which increases their skin cancer risk. Interventions are needed to address risk behaviors among young adults that may lead to skin cancer. The nternet offers a cost-effective way to widely disseminate efficacious interventions. The current paper describes the development of an online skin cancer risk reduction intervention (UV4.me) for young adults. Procedures The iterative development process for UV4.me followed best-practice guidelines and included the following activities: individual interviews, focus groups, content development by the expert team, acceptability testing, cognitive interviewing for questionnaires, quality control testing, usability testing, and a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participant acceptability and usability feedback was assessed. Principal Results The development process produced an evidence-informed intervention that is individually-tailored, interactive, and multimedia in nature based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction, a model for internet interventions, and other best-practice recommendations, expert input, as well as user acceptability and usability feedback gathered before, during, and after development. Major Conclusions Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions. PMID:26640776

  3. The association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-03-17

    Major health organizations recommend obtaining most of one's vitamin D through dietary sources rather than from sun exposure, given the link between sun exposure and increased skin cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors, a topic on which research is limited. We analyzed cross-sectional online survey data collected in the summer of 2015 from 4127U.S. adults aged 18years and older. Overall, 19.7% of adults believed that sun protection would put them at risk of not getting enough vitamin D. However, less than half (43.1%) thought they could get enough vitamin D from dietary sources. Individuals with this belief were more likely to protect their skin when spending time outdoors (71.3%) compared with those who were neutral or disagreed (56.5%; P<0.001). Only 5.1% of adults believed that indoor tanning is an effective way to get vitamin D. Compared to those who disagreed or were neutral, those who thought it was effective were more likely to be outdoor tanners (45.1% vs. 28.5%; P<0.001) and indoor tanners (13.8% vs 1.9%; P<0.001). Beliefs about vitamin D were associated with skin cancer risk-related behaviors. Including information about vitamin D in skin cancer prevention messages may be beneficial.

  4. Risk of melanocytic nevi and nonmelanoma skin cancer in children after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Song, J S; London, W B; Hawryluk, E B; Guo, D; Sridharan, M; Fisher, D E; Lehmann, L E; Duncan, C N; Huang, J T

    2017-04-03

    There is a known increased risk of skin cancer in the adult population after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, late dermatologic effects that children may experience after HSCT have not been well described. The primary objective of this study was to characterize nevi and skin cancers affecting children after allogeneic HSCT. A cross-sectional cohort study of 85 pediatric HSCT recipients and 85 controls matched for age, sex and skin phototype was performed at a single institution. All participants underwent a full skin examination. Median age at study visit was 13.8 years in HSCT patients with median time post-HSCT of 3.6 years. HSCT patients had significantly more nevi than control patients (median (range): 44 (0-150) vs 11 (0-94), P<0.0001). HSCT patients also had significantly more nevi >5 mm in diameter and atypical nevi than controls. Factors associated with increased nevus count included malignant indication for HSCT, pretransplant chemotherapy, TBI exposure and myeloablative conditioning. A total of 16.5% of HSCT patients developed cancerous, precancerous lesions and/or lentigines. Our study suggests that pediatric HSCT recipients have an increased risk of benign and atypical melanocytic proliferations and nonmelanoma skin cancer that can manifest even during childhood.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.57.

  5. Nitric oxide-releasing sulindac is a novel skin cancer chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Singh, Tripti; Kapur, Puneet; Weng, Zhiping; Arumugam, Aadithya; Elmets, Craig A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) which have been synthesized to reduce gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular toxicities of NSAIDs, possess anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activities. Here, we show that NO-sulindac inhibited UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical application of NO-sulindac reduced tumor incidence, number (p < 0.05) and volume (p < 0.005) as compared to UVB (alone)-irradiated vehicle-treated mice. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells in skin lesions was accompanied by the enhanced Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was increased whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 reduced. However, proliferation was identified as the major target of NO-sulindac in this study. A reduced expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 associated with the dampening of cell cycle progression was observed. The mechanism of this inhibition was related to the reduction in UVB-induced Notch signaling pathway. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by NO-sulindac as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK1/2. In this regard, NO-sulindac also inhibited NFκB by enhancing IκBα as evidenced by the reduced expression of iNOS and COX-2, the direct NFκB transcription target proteins. NO-sulindac significantly diminished the progression of benign lesions to invasive carcinomas by suppressing the tumor aggressiveness and retarding epithelial–mesenchymal transition. A marked decrease in the expression of mesenchymal markers such as Fibronectin, N-cadherin, SNAI, Slug and Twist and an increase in epithelial cell polarity marker E-cadherin were noted in NO-sulindac-treated tumors. Our data suggest that NO-sulindac is a potent inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and acts by targeting proliferation-regulatory pathways. - Highlights: ► NO-sulindac is a potent chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced skin cancer. ► NO

  6. Diagnostic ability of %p2PSA and prostate health index for aggressive prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenying; Wang, Meilin; Wang, Li; Adams, Tamara S.; Tian, Ye; Xu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The role of [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) based diagnostic tests for the detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) has not been fully evaluated. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of p2PSA/free PSA (%p2PSA) and prostate health index (Phi) tests for PCa and to evaluate their ability in discriminating between aggressive and non-aggressive PCa. A total of 16 articles were included in this meta-analysis. For the detection of PCa, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84–0.87), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.39–042) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67–0.77) for %p2PSA respectively, and were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83–0.86), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.44–0.47) and 0.70 (95% CI = 0.65–0.74) for Phi, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity for discriminating PCa between higher Gleason score (≥7) and lower Gleason score (<7) was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93–0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87–0.92) for %p2PSA and Phi respectively, and the specificity was low, only 0.09 (95% CI, 0.06–0.12) and 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14–0.19) for %p2PSA and Phi, respectively. Phi and %p2PSA have a high diagnostic accuracy rates and can be used in PCa diagnosis. Phi and %p2PSA may be useful as tumor markers in predicating patients harboring more aggressive disease and guiding biopsy decisions. PMID:24852453

  7. The ETS family member GABPα modulates androgen receptor signalling and mediates an aggressive phenotype in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naomi L.; Massie, Charlie E.; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias; Bon, Helene; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Menon, Suraj; Stark, Rory; Lamb, Alastair D.; Scott, Helen E.; Warren, Anne Y.; Neal, David E.; Mills, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    In prostate cancer (PC), the androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcription factor at all disease stages, including the advanced stage of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In the present study, we show that GABPα, an ETS factor that is up-regulated in PC, is an AR-interacting transcription factor. Expression of GABPα enables PC cell lines to acquire some of the molecular and cellular characteristics of CRPC tissues as well as more aggressive growth phenotypes. GABPα has a transcriptional role that dissects the overlapping cistromes of the two most common ETS gene fusions in PC: overlapping significantly with ETV1 but not with ERG target genes. GABPα bound predominantly to gene promoters, regulated the expression of one-third of AR target genes and modulated sensitivity to AR antagonists in hormone responsive and castrate resistant PC models. This study supports a critical role for GABPα in CRPC and reveals potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24753418

  8. A new goniothalamin N-acylated aza-derivative strongly downregulates mediators of signaling transduction associated with pancreatic cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Rosimeire Coura; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Pastre, Julio Cezar; Dias, Marina Pereira; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise

    2014-11-24

    In this study, a novel concise series of molecules based on the structure of goniothalamin (1) was synthesized and evaluated against a highly metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1). Among them, derivative 8 displayed a low IC50 value (2.7 μM) and its concentration for decreasing colony formation was 20-fold lower than goniothalamin (1). Both compounds reduced the levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) and cyclin D1 which are known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells. Importantly, despite the fact that goniothalamin (1) and derivative 8 caused pancreatic cancer cell cycle arrest and cell death, only derivative 8 was able to downregulate pro-survival and proliferation pathways mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2. Another interesting finding was that Panc-1 cells treated with derivative 8 displayed a strong decrease in the transcription factor (c-Myc), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. Notably, the molecular effects caused by derivative 8 might not be related to ROS generation, since no significant production of ROS was observed in low concentrations of this compound (from 1.5 up to 3 μM). Therefore, the downregulation of important mediators of pancreatic cancer aggressiveness by derivative 8 reveals its great potential for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  9. Stressed out mitochondria: the role of mitochondria in ageing and cancer focussing on strategies and opportunities in human skin.

    PubMed

    Tulah, Asif S; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA damage has been used as a successful and unique biomarker of tissue stress. A valuable example of this is sun damage in human skin which leads to ageing and skin cancer. The skin is constantly exposed to the harmful effects of sunlight, such as ultraviolet radiation, which causes it to age with observable characteristic features as well as clinical precancerous lesions and skin cancer. Formation of free radicals by the sun's harmful rays which contribute to oxidative stress has been linked to the induction of deletions and mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. These markers of mitochondrial DNA damage have been proposed to contribute to the mechanisms of ageing in many tissues including skin and are associated with many diseases including cancer. In this article we highlight the role of this important organelle in ageing and cancer with particular emphasis on experimental strategies in the skin.

  10. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jing; Mikulec, Carol; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Magyar, Clara; Dumlao, Darren S; Dennis, Edward A; Fischer, Susan M; Herschman, Harvey

    2014-06-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2(flox/flox) mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2(flox/flox);K14Cre(+) mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2(flox/flox);K14Cre(+) papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2(flox/flox); LysMCre(+) myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer.

  11. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness.

  12. Time and dose-response effects of honokiol on UVB-induced skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zeman, David; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-06-01

    Honokiol has shown chemopreventive effects in chemically-induced and UVB-induced skin cancer in mice. In this investigation, we assessed the time-effects of a topical low dose of honokiol (30 μg), and then the effects of different honokiol doses (30, 45, and 60 μg) on a UVB-induced skin cancer model to find an optimal dose and time for desirable chemopreventive effects. UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2), 5 days/week for 25 or 27 weeks) was used to induce skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. For the time-response experiment 30 μg honokiol in acetone was applied topically to the animals before the UVB exposure (30 min, 1 h, and 2 h) and after the UVB exposure (immediately, 30 min, and 1 h). Control groups were treated with acetone. For the dose-response study, animals were treated topically with acetone or honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) one hour before the UVB exposure. In the time-response experiment, honokiol inhibited skin tumor multiplicity by 49-58% while reducing tumor volumes by 70-89%. In the dose-response study, honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) significantly decreased skin tumor multiplicity by 36-78% in a dose-dependent manner, while tumor area was reduced by 76-94%. Honokiol (60 μg) significantly reduced tumor incidence by 40% as compared to control group. Honokiol applied in very low doses (30 μg) either before or after UVB radiation shows chemopreventive effects. Honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) prevents UVB-induced skin cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Honokiol can be an effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.

  13. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of the Ethanol Bane Skin Extract in Human Prostate Cancer Pc3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Maryam; Kazerouni, Faranak; Namaki, Saeed; Darbandi Tamijani, Hassan; Rahimipour, Hooman; Boroumand, Nasrin; Barghi, Siyamak; Ebrahimi, Nazanin; Gheibi Hayat, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is extensively supposed that vegetarian diet could affect cancer progress and increase the influence of formal chemotherapy. Objectives: The present study was designed to determine the effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract against chemo resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells. Materials and Methods: PC3 and L929 cells were cultivated and then incubated in the ethanol Bane skin extract with various concentrations of 0.78, 1.5, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5 mg/mL in 3 times 24, 48, 72 hours. Cytotoxic effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract on PC3 and L929 cells was examined by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Morphology of PC3 cells was evaluated by Gimsa staining. Results: The ethanol Bane skin extract inhibited proliferation and caused cell death with IC50 values of 2.8 mg/mL on PC3 cells and the IC50 was 6.1 mg/mL on l929 cells. Morphological changes and apoptotic bodies were observed in PC3 cells faced with the ethanol Bane skin extract by staining with Gimsa. Conclusions: The ethanol Bane skin extract could repress the growth of PC3 cell line. This inhibitory effect of the Bane extract depended on the dose and the time on PC3. The result of this study shows that the ethanol Bane skin extract includes photochemical and inhibitory function against proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells and also has less cytotoxic effect on l929 than PC3 cells. The ethanol Bane skin extract might be a good candidate for the new herbal anticancer drug. PMID:27482333

  15. The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Delira; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that antioxidant enzyme expression and activity are drastically reduced in most human skin diseases, leading to propagation of oxidative stress and continuous disease progression. However, antioxidants, an endogenous defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be induced by exogenous sources, resulting in protective effects against associated oxidative injury. Many studies have shown that the induction of antioxidants is an effective strategy to combat various disease states. In one approach, a SOD mimetic was applied topically to mouse skin in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. This method effectively reduced oxidative injury and proliferation without interfering with apoptosis. In another approach, Protandim, a combination of 5 well-studied medicinal plants, was given via dietary administration and significantly decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity by 33% and 57%, respectively. These studies suggest that alterations in antioxidant response may be a novel approach to chemoprevention. This paper focuses on how regulation of antioxidant expression and activity can be modulated in skin disease and the potential clinical implications of antioxidant-based therapies.

  16. The Role of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Delira; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that antioxidant enzyme expression and activity are drastically reduced in most human skin diseases, leading to propagation of oxidative stress and continuous disease progression. However, antioxidants, an endogenous defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be induced by exogenous sources, resulting in protective effects against associated oxidative injury. Many studies have shown that the induction of antioxidants is an effective strategy to combat various disease states. In one approach, a SOD mimetic was applied topically to mouse skin in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. This method effectively reduced oxidative injury and proliferation without interfering with apoptosis. In another approach, Protandim, a combination of 5 well-studied medicinal plants, was given via dietary administration and significantly decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity by 33% and 57%, respectively. These studies suggest that alterations in antioxidant response may be a novel approach to chemoprevention. This paper focuses on how regulation of antioxidant expression and activity can be modulated in skin disease and the potential clinical implications of antioxidant-based therapies. PMID:21603266

  17. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  18. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  19. Fernblock, a nutriceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin.

  20. Fernblock, a Nutriceutical with Photoprotective Properties and Potential Preventive Agent for Skin Photoaging and Photoinduced Skin Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena; Juarranz, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Many phytochemicals are endowed with photoprotective properties, i.e., the capability to prevent the harmful effects of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. These effects include photoaging and skin cancer, and immunosuppression. Photoprotection is endowed through two major modes of action: UV absorption or reflection/scattering; and tissue repair post-exposure. We and others have uncovered the photoprotective properties of an extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (commercial name Fernblock). Fernblock is an all-natural antioxidant extract, administered both topically (on the skin) or orally. It inhibits generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by UV including superoxide anion. It also prevents damage to the DNA, inhibits UV-induced AP1 and NF-κB, and protects endogenous skin natural antioxidant systems, i.e., CAT, GSH, and GSSR. Its photoprotective effects at a cellular level include a marked decrease of UV-mediated cellular apoptosis and necrosis and a profound inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling. These molecular and cellular effects translate into long-term inhibition of photoaging and carcinogenesis that, together with its lack of toxicity, postulate its use as a novel-generation photoprotective nutriceutical of phytochemical origin. PMID:22272084

  1. Risk factors for non-melanomatous skin cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    el Khwsky, F; Bedwani, R; D'Avanzo, B; Assaad, S; el Shafei Ali, A; Mokhtar, S; La Vecchia, C

    1994-02-01

    The role of constitutional and environmental factors on the risk of non-melanomatous skin cancer was evaluated in a case-control study conducted in 1992 in Alexandria, Egypt, on 136 incident histologically confirmed (99 basal-cell and 37 squamous-cell) cases of non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) and 145 controls in hospital for a broad spectrum of acute non-sun-related dermatological conditions. In relation to skin colour, compared with brown-skinned subjects, the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.3 for olive-skinned subjects and 3.8 for fair/medium-skinned subjects. Three cases and 29 controls were black (RR = 0.2). The trend in risk with skin colour was significant. Likewise, compared with subjects with brown or hazel eyes, those with green or blue eyes had a RR of 3.1. In relation to acute sun reaction, compared with subjects reporting easy tanning, the RRs were 2.5 for subjects reporting moderate tanning and 4.7 for those reporting easy burning. The risk of NMSC was higher for subjects reporting an outdoor occupation than for those reporting an indoor occupation (RR = 7.7). A significant trend in risk was observed with degree of sun exposure: compared with subjects reporting light sun exposure, the RR was 3.0 for those reporting moderate exposure, and 6.1 for those reporting heavy sun exposure. There was an indication of a relationship between clothing pattern and skin-cancer risk: compared with subjects reporting frequent use of traditional Egyptian clothes, the RR for dressing in short clothes was 1.8. The presence of signs of photodamage was also associated with NMSC (RR = 3.7). Exposure to arsenic was reported by 10 cases and 1 control (RR = 9.5). A positive interaction between sun exposure and skin colour was observed, and the RR rose to 14.2 for medium- or fair-skinned subjects with heavy exposure compared with brown- or black-skinned subjects with light or moderate sun exposure. In this Egyptian population, over 60% of NMSC could be attributed to

  2. Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; Coups, Elliot J.; Ford, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass media is increasingly important in shaping a range of health beliefs and behaviors. Objective We examined the association between mass media health information exposure (general health, cancer, sun-protection information), skin cancer beliefs and sun protection behaviors. Methods We utilized a general population national probability sample comprised of 1,633 individuals with no skin cancer history (Health Information National Trends Survey, 2005, National Cancer Institute) and examined univariate and multivariate associations between family history of skin cancer, mass media exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection (use of sunscreen, shade-seeking, and use of sun-protective clothing). Results Mass media exposure was higher in younger individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. More accurate skin cancer beliefs and more adherent sun protection practices were reported by older individuals, and among those who were Caucasian and more highly educated. Recent Internet searches for health or sun-protection information was associated with sunscreen use. Limitations Study limitations include the self-report nature of sun protection behaviors and cross-sectional study design. Conclusion We identify demographic differences in mass media health exposure, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors that will contribute to planning skin cancer awareness and prevention messaging across diverse population subgroups. PMID:19596487

  3. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D--Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-04-06

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3), plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR). UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation.

  4. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D—Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3), plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR). UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation. PMID:27058533

  5. Development of effective skin cancer treatment and prevention in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Lambert, W Clark; Lambert, Muriel W

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare, recessively transmitted genetic disease characterized by increasingly marked dyspigmentation and xerosis (dryness) of sun-exposed tissues, especially skin. Skin cancers characteristically develop in sun-exposed sites at very much earlier ages than in the general population; these are often multiple and hundreds or even thousands may develop. Eight complementation groups have been identified. Seven groups, XP-A…G, are associated with defective genes encoding proteins involved in the nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) pathway that recognizes and excises mutagenic changes induced in DNA by sunlight; the eighth group, XP-V, is associated with defective translesion synthesis (TLS) bypassing such alterations. The dyspigmentation, xerosis and eventually carcinogenesis in XP patients appear to be due to their cells' failure to respond properly to these mutagenic DNA alterations, leading to mutations in skin cells. A subset of cases, especially those in some complementation groups, may develop neurological degeneration, which may be severe. However, in most XP patients, in the past the multiple skin cancers have led to death at an early age due to either metastases or sepsis. Using either topical 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, we have developed a protocol that effectively prevents most skin cancer development in XP patients.

  6. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  7. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  8. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  9. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-05-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care.

  10. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  11. Iatrogenic effects of photoprotection recommendations on skin cancer development, vitamin D levels, and general health.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kavitha K; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an established carcinogen that causes skin cancers and other cutaneous photodamage. Vitamin D is produced in the skin after UV exposure and may also be obtained from dietary and supplemental sources. The effect of recommendations for UV protection, as well as for very large vitamin D supplements, and possible adverse effects of both are explored. Current evidence supports the conclusion that protection from UV radiation reduces the incidence of skin cancers and photodamage, but generally does not compromise vitamin D status or lead to iatrogenic disease. Conversely, risks of maintaining very high vitamin D levels have not been adequately studied. Vitamin D obtained from diet and supplements is functionally identical to that produced after UV exposure, and is a more reliable and quantifiable source of the vitamin.

  12. [Skin-sparing mastectomy: an alternative to conventional mastectomy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramos Boyero, Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Women who require or desire mastectomy for breast cancer one option should be immediate breast reconstruction. Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) describes the surgery that maximises breast skin and infra- mammary fold preservation, significantly improves the symmetry and natural appearance and a more satisfied patient. In multiple studies, SSM seems to be oncologically safe in patients undergoing mastectomy for invasive T1-T2 tumours, multicentric tumours, ductal carcinoma in situ or risk-reduction. However, the technique should be avoided in patients with inflammatory breast cancer or in those with extensive tumour involvement of the skin. SSM with nipple areola complex preservation appears to be oncologically safe, providing that the tumour is not close to the nipple and the retro-areolar tissue is free of tumour. Though adjuvant radiotherapy is not an absolute contraindication to SSM, it should be used with caution since it decreases the final cosmetic result.

  13. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches to skin cancer treatments using protein transduction technology.

    PubMed

    Shibagaki, Naotaka; Okamoto, Takashi; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Inozume, Takashi; Kanzaki, Mirei; Shimada, Shinji

    2011-03-01

    Protein-transduction domains (PTDs) are short stretches of cationic amino acids that enable peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and other reagents to efficiently enter multiple cell types. Therefore, PTDs offer unique therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of many diseases. Previous studies examined the in vivo distribution of PTD-containing fusion proteins following administration via different routes, including portal vein, intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral administration. Skin may be an appropriate target organ for this new molecular-carrier system; however, there are no studies on the in vivo kinetics and biological effects of PTD-containing proteins following intradermal application. Among the PTDs, poly-arginine peptides, especially nona-arginine (R9), is transported most efficiently with minimal cytotoxicity. Here, we review protein transduction technology from a different angle, as a novel tool in immunotherapeutic approaches to the skin cancers that depend on the biological characteristics of poly-arginine. This could be used in place of gene therapy for skin cancer patients.

  14. Indoor Tanning, Skin Cancer and the Young Female Patient: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Blake; English, Joseph C; Ferris, Laura K

    2015-08-01

    Young, non-Hispanic white females represent the population most likely to use indoor tanning facilities. This population may be at increased risk of skin cancer as recent meta-analyses support a strong association between cutaneous malignancy and indoor tanning. Public perception of the purported health benefits of indoor tanning may be partially to blame for the popularity of tanning salons as a desire to prepare skin prior to sun exposure is among the most commonly cited motivations for indoor tanning. Improving education and counseling to address misconceptions regarding tanning safety will require the participation of healthcare providers for both physical and psychological screenings as well as for information dissemination. This review presents the association between tanning bed use and skin cancer, biological effects of UV radiation exposure, UV burden associated with tanning devices, public perception of tanning, demographic and psychological profile of indoor tanners, and current legislation regulating tanning bed use.

  15. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... become cancer cells. Most UV rays come from sunlight, but some can come from man-made sources ... more likely the result of damage caused by sunlight. In some people, such as those with xeroderma ...

  16. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  17. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  18. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase.

  19. Fifty years of changes in UV Index and implications for skin cancer in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemus-Deschamps, Lilia; Makin, Jennifer K.

    2012-07-01

    Surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in human health. Increased exposure to UV radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. In Australia, public campaigns to prevent skin cancer include the promotion of daily UV forecasts. If all other atmospheric factors are equal, stratospheric ozone decreases result in UV increases. Given that Australia still has the highest skin cancer rates in the world, it is important to monitor Australia's stratospheric ozone and UV radiation levels over time because of the effects cumulative exposure can have on humans. In this paper, two long-term ozone datasets derived from surface and satellite measurements, a radiation code and atmospheric meteorological fields are used to calculate clear-sky UV radiation over a 50-year period (1959-2009) for Australia. The deviations from 1970-1980 levels show that clear-sky UV is on the rise. After the 1990s, an overall annual increase from 2 to 6% above the 1970-1980 levels was observed at all latitudes. Examining the summer and winter deviations from 1970-1980 showed that the winter signal dominated the annual changes, with winter increases almost twice those in summer. With ozone levels not expected to recover to pre-depletion levels until the middle of this century, UV levels are expected to continue to rise. Combined with Australians favoring an outdoor life-style, when temperatures are warmer, under high levels of UV, the associated risk of skin cancer will increase.

  20. [The use of disposable vascular catheters in interstitial brachytherapy of skin cancers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Daly, N J; Malissard, L; Douchez, J; Combes, P F

    1978-05-01

    Authors present technical improvements dealing with interstitial brachytherapy (Ir192) of skin cancers. They use fine disposable plastic tubes fitted with mandril, which allow loading of light radioactive material in any case. Short term results are discussed according to 101 applications.

  1. An Evaluation of UV-Monitoring Enhanced Skin Cancer Prevention among Farm Youth in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Ohanehi, Donatus C.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health districts in southwest Virginia have one of the highest ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and sunburn rate. Due to higher levels of UV exposure, rural farm youth are at higher risk for skin cancer than non-farm youth. Few studies have been published that explore best practices for decreasing UV exposure among this population.…

  2. Skin cancer incidence is highly associated with ultraviolet-B radiation history.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Feng, Rui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the increased amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure due to ozone depletion has been found to be associated with increased incidence of skin cancer across the world. The quantification of individual, regional, and historical UV exposure directly affects establishment of the association between skin cancer and UV exposure, but accurate assessment and measurement have been challenging for decades. As a sequence, cumulative studies using different metrics reported conflicting results on whether UV radiation, including sunburns, early childhood sun exposure, and chronic exposure, increases melanoma risk. This paper aims to establish the relationship between UV-B and melanoma incidence across the continental U.S. using an ecological approach that incorporate more accurate UV-B exposure measured by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration Nimbus-7 total ozone mapping spectrometer, and the United State Department of Agriculture ground-based network. Using statistical linear mixed models, we found strong positive associations between the skin cancer and the past UV exposure or the past cumulative 3-year UV exposure 3 or 4 years ago. UV has regional distributions and its regional effects on the skin cancer incidence are still significant after adjusting the effect of UV exposure. Research findings yield deepened understanding of spatiotemporal distribution of melanoma incidence rates and a greater appreciation for the complexity and heterogeneity of melanoma risk factors especially the UV-B exposure at different temporal and spatial scales.

  3. High School Students' Perceptions of How Major Global Environmental Effects Might Cause Skin Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Quantifies beliefs of high school students about links between skin cancer and global environmental effects. Some students confused the action of heat rays with that of ultraviolet rays and also thought that raised temperatures are culpable. Only one in 10 held the scientifically correct model: that ozone depletion via higher penetration of…

  4. Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaper, Harry; Velders, Guus J. M.; Daniel, John S.; de Gruijl, Frank R.; van der Leun, Jan C.

    1996-11-01

    DEPLETION of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale1, and is probably related to halocarbon emissions. Ozone depletion increases the biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the Earth, which leads to a variety of adverse effects, including an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. The 1985 Vienna Convention provided the framework for international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances. The consequences of such restrictions have not yet been assessed in terms of effects avoided. Here we present a new method of estimating future excess skin cancer risks which is used to compare effects of a 'no restrictions' scenario with two restrictive scenarios specified under the Vienna Convention: the Montreal Protocol, and the much stricter Copenhagen Amendments. The no-restrictions and Montreal Protocol scenarios produce a runaway increase in skin cancer incidence, up to a quadrupling and doubling, respectively, by the year 2100. The Copenhagen Amendments scenario leads to an ozone minimum around the year 2000, and a peak relative increase in incidence of skin cancer of almost 10% occurring 60 years later. These results demonstrate the importance of the international measures agreed upon under the Vienna Convention.

  5. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  6. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  7. Diffuse reflectance imaging for non-melanoma skin cancer detection using laser feedback interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah L.; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. P.; Rakić, Aleksandar D.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a compact, self-aligned, low-cost, and versatile infrared diffuse-reflectance laser imaging system using a laser feedback interferometry technique with possible applications in in vivo biological tissue imaging and skin cancer detection. We examine the proposed technique experimentally using a three-layer agar skin phantom. A cylindrical region with a scattering rate lower than that of the surrounding normal tissue was used as a model for a non-melanoma skin tumour. The same structure was implemented in a Monte Carlo computational model. The experimental results agree well with the Monte Carlo simulations validating the theoretical basis of the technique. Results prove the applicability of the proposed technique for biological tissue imaging, with the capability of depth sectioning and a penetration depth of well over 1.2 mm into the skin phantom.

  8. Genetic Variations in SLCO Transporter Genes Contributing to Racial Disparity in Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0453 TITLE: Genetic Variations in SLCO Transporter Genes Contributing to Racial Disparity in Aggressiveness of...COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Genetic Variations in SLCO Transporter Genes Contributing to Racial Disparity in...proposed studies are expected to (1) identify genetic variations in the genes of androgen transporters that are associated with the racial differences in

  9. Estimating cancer risk from dental cone-beam CT exposures based on skin dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, Ruben; Cockmartin, Lesley; Ivanauskaité, Deimante; Urbonienė, Ausra; Gavala, Sophia; Donta, Catherine; Tsiklakis, Kostas; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bosmans, Hilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Horner, Keith; SEDENTEXCT Project Consortium, The

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure entrance skin doses on patients undergoing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations, to establish conversion factors between skin and organ doses, and to estimate cancer risk from CBCT exposures. 266 patients (age 8-83) were included, involving three imaging centres. CBCT scans were acquired using the SCANORA 3D (Soredex, Tuusula, Finland) and NewTom 9000 (QR, Verona, Italy). Eight thermoluminescent dosimeters were attached to the patient's skin at standardized locations. Using previously published organ dose estimations on various CBCTs with an anthropomorphic phantom, correlation factors to convert skin dose to organ doses were calculated and applied to estimate patient organ doses. The BEIR VII age- and gender-dependent dose-risk model was applied to estimate the lifetime attributable cancer risk. For the SCANORA 3D, average skin doses over the eight locations varied between 484 and 1788 µGy. For the NewTom 9000 the range was between 821 and 1686 µGy for Centre 1 and between 292 and 2325 µGy for Centre 2. Entrance skin dose measurements demonstrated the combined effect of exposure and patient factors on the dose. The lifetime attributable cancer risk, expressed as the probability to develop a radiation-induced cancer, varied between 2.7 per million (age >60) and 9.8 per million (age 8-11) with an average of 6.0 per million. On average, the risk for female patients was 40% higher. The estimated radiation risk was primarily influenced by the age at exposure and the gender, pointing out the continuing need for justification and optimization of CBCT exposures, with a specific focus on children.

  10. Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Esteva, Andre; Kuprel, Brett; Novoa, Roberto A; Ko, Justin; Swetter, Susan M; Blau, Helen M; Thrun, Sebastian

    2017-02-02

    Skin cancer, the most common human malignancy, is primarily diagnosed visually, beginning with an initial clinical screening and followed potentially by dermoscopic analysis, a biopsy and histopathological examination. Automated classification of skin lesions using images is a challenging task owing to the fine-grained variability in the appearance of skin lesions. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) show potential for general and highly variable tasks across many fine-grained object categories. Here we demonstrate classification of skin lesions using a single CNN, trained end-to-end from images directly, using only pixels and disease labels as inputs. We train a CNN using a dataset of 129,450 clinical images-two orders of magnitude larger than previous datasets-consisting of 2,032 different diseases. We test its performance against 21 board-certified dermatologists on biopsy-proven clinical images with two critical binary classification use cases: keratinocyte carcinomas versus benign seborrheic keratoses; and malignant melanomas versus benign nevi. The first case represents the identification of the most common cancers, the second represents the identification of the deadliest skin cancer. The CNN achieves performance on par with all tested experts across both tasks, demonstrating an artificial intelligence capable of classifying skin cancer with a level of competence comparable to dermatologists. Outfitted with deep neural networks, mobile devices can potentially extend the reach of dermatologists outside of the clinic. It is projected that 6.3 billion smartphone subscriptions will exist by the year 2021 (ref. 13) and can therefore potentially provide low-cost universal access to vital diagnostic care.

  11. Estimating cancer risk from dental cone-beam CT exposures based on skin dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ruben; Cockmartin, Lesley; Ivanauskaité, Deimante; Urbonienė, Ausra; Gavala, Sophia; Donta, Catherine; Tsiklakis, Kostas; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bosmans, Hilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Horner, Keith

    2014-07-21

    The aim of this study was to measure entrance skin doses on patients undergoing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examinations, to establish conversion factors between skin and organ doses, and to estimate cancer risk from CBCT exposures. 266 patients (age 8-83) were included, involving three imaging centres. CBCT scans were acquired using the SCANORA 3D (Soredex, Tuusula, Finland) and NewTom 9000 (QR, Verona, Italy). Eight thermoluminescent dosimeters were attached to the patient's skin at standardized locations. Using previously published organ dose estimations on various CBCTs with an anthropomorphic phantom, correlation factors to convert skin dose to organ doses were calculated and applied to estimate patient organ doses. The BEIR VII age- and gender-dependent dose-risk model was applied to estimate the lifetime attributable cancer risk. For the SCANORA 3D, average skin doses over the eight locations varied between 484 and 1788 µGy. For the NewTom 9000 the range was between 821 and 1686 µGy for Centre 1 and between 292 and 2325 µGy for Centre 2. Entrance skin dose measurements demonstrated the combined effect of exposure and patient factors on the dose. The lifetime attributable cancer risk, expressed as the probability to develop a radiation-induced cancer, varied between 2.7 per million (age >60) and 9.8 per million (age 8-11) with an average of 6.0 per million. On average, the risk for female patients was 40% higher. The estimated radiation risk was primarily influenced by the age at exposure and the gender, pointing out the continuing need for justification and optimization of CBCT exposures, with a specific focus on children.

  12. Aggressiveness Niche: Can It Be the Foster Ground for Cancer Metastasis Precursors?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between tumor initiation and tumor progression can follow a linear projection in which all tumor cells are equally endowed with the ability to progress into metastasis. Alternatively, not all tumor cells are equal genetically and/or epigenetically, and only few cells are induced to become metastatic tumor cells. The location of these cells within the tumor can also impact the fate of these cells. The most inner core of a tumor where an elevated pressure of adverse conditions forms, such as necrosis-induced inflammation and hypoxia-induced immunosuppressive environment, seems to be the most fertile ground to generate such tumor cells with metastatic potential. Here we will call this necrotic/hypoxic core the “aggressiveness niche” and will present data to support its involvement in generating these metastatic precursors. Within this niche, interaction of hypoxia-surviving cells with the inflammatory microenvironment influenced by newly recruited mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and other types of cells and the establishment of bidirectional interactions between them elevate the aggressiveness of these tumor cells. Additionally, immune evasion properties induced in these cells most likely contribute in the formation and maintenance of such aggressiveness niche. PMID:27493669

  13. Nicotinic Acid Receptor Abnormalities in Human Skin Cancer: Implications for a Role in Epidermal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Yira; Benavente, Claudia A.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Coyle, W. Russell; Jacobson, Myron K.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through Gi-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. Results Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional Gi-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. Conclusions The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s) of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis. PMID:21655214

  14. Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Venna, Suraj S.; Boisvert, Marc E.; Flanagan, Katherine E.; Jordan, Marion H.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-07-01

    Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin--simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed.

  15. Characterization of Desmoglein Expression in the Normal Prostatic Gland. Desmoglein 2 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Alison G.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Christiano, Angela M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The expression of desmogleins (DSGs), which are known to be crucial for establishing and maintaining the cell-cell adhesion required for tissue integrity, has been well characterized in the epidermis and hair follicle; however, their expression in other epithelial tissues such as prostate is poorly understood. Although downregulation of classical cadherins, such as E-cadherin, has been described in prostate cancer tissue samples, the expression of desmogleins has only been previously reported in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study we characterized desmoglein expression in normal prostate tissues, and further investigated whether Desmoglein 2 (DSG2) expression specifically can serve as a potential clinical prognostic factor for patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer. Experimental Design We utilized immunofluorescence to examine DSG2 expression in normal prostate (n = 50) and in a clinically well-characterized cohort of prostate cancer patients (n = 414). Correlation of DSG2 expression with clinico-pathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence was analyzed to assess its clinical significance. Results These studies revealed that DSG2 and DSG4 were specifically expressed in prostatic luminal cells, whereas basal cells lack their expression. In contrast, DSG1 and DSG3 were not expressed in normal prostate epithelium. Further analyses of DSG2 expression in prostate cancer revealed that reduced levels of this biomarker were a significant independent marker of poor clinical outcome. Conclusion Here we report for the first time that a low DSG2 expression phenotype is a useful prognostic biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and may serve as an aid in identifying patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:24896103

  16. Imaging nonmelanoma skin cancers with combined ultrasound-photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunar, Ulas; Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Morgan, Janet; Zeitouni, Natalie

    2013-03-01

    PDT has become a treatment of choice especially for the cases with multiple sites and large areas. However, the efficacy of PDT is limited for thicker and deeper tumors. Depth and size information as well as vascularity can provide useful information to clinicians for planning and evaluating PDT. High-resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging can provide information regarding skin structure and vascularity. We utilized combined ultrasound-photoacoustic microscopy for imaging a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumor pre-PDT and the results indicate that combined ultrasound-photoacoustic imaging can be useful tool for PDT planning by providing both structural and functional contrasts.

  17. LASP1-S100A11 axis promotes colorectal cancer aggressiveness by modulating TGFβ/Smad signaling

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya; Shao, Ziyun; Wang, Hui; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Feifei; Luo, Yuhao; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Yanqing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    LIM and SH3 protein 1(LASP1) can promote colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that LASP1 interacts with S100 calcium binding protein A11(S100A11) and enhances its expression in CRC. LASP1-S100A11 axis is essential for TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell aggressive phenotype. Clinically, S100A11 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of CRC cells. Overexpression of S100A11 in cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular compartments is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Introduction of cytoplasmic and nuclear S100A11 promotes aggressive phenotypes of CRC cells in vitro as well as growth and metastasis of CRC xenografts, whereas suppressing S100A11 abrogates these effects. Furthermore, we identify flotillin-1 (FLOT1) and histone H1 as downstream factors for cytoplasmic and nuclear pathway of S100A11, which are required for LASP1-S100A11 axis-mediated EMT and CRC progression. These findings indicate S100A11, combined with LASP1, plays a critical role in promoting CRC metastasis via its subcellular effectors, FLOT1 and histone H1. PMID:27181092

  18. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Johan; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen; Dahlback, Arne; Setlow, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is the main cause of skin cancers. However, it also is a main source of vitamin D for humans. Because the optimal status of vitamin D protects against internal cancers and a number of other diseases, a controversy exists: Will increased sun exposure lead to net health benefits or risks? We calculated the relative yield of vitamin D photosynthesis as a function of latitude with a radiative transfer model and cylinder geometry for the human skin surface. The annual yield of vitamin D is 3.4 and 4.8 times larger below the equator than in the U.K. and Scandinavia, respectively. In populations with similar skin types, there are clear latitude gradients of all major forms of skin cancer, indicating a north–south gradient in real sun exposure. Surprisingly, the incidence rates of major internal cancers also increase from north to south. However, the survival prognosis also improves significantly from north to south. Reasons for these findings are discussed in view of the role of vitamin D. In Norway, melanoma rates increased by a factor of 6 from 1960 to 1990, while the prognosis improved in the same period. After 1990, melanoma rates have remained constant or even decreased in age groups <50 years, whereas the prognosis has not improved further. These data, together with those for internal cancers and the beneficial effects of an optimal vitamin D status, indicate that increased sun exposure may lead to improved cancer prognosis and, possibly, give more positive than adverse health effects. PMID:18180454

  19. IKKα regulates the stratification and differentiation of the epidermis: implications for skin cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Josefa P.; Navarro, Manuel; Ramírez, Ángel; Page, Angustias; Suárez-Cabrera, Cristian; Moreno-Maldonado, Rodolfo; Paramio, Jesús M.; del Carmen Fariña, María; Río, Marcela Del; Fernández-Aceñero, María Jesús; Bravo, Ana; de los Llanos Casanova, María

    2016-01-01

    IKKα plays a mandatory role in keratinocyte differentiation and exerts an important task in non-melanoma skin cancer development. However, it is not fully understood how IKKα exerts these functions. To analyze in detail the role of IKKα in epidermal stratification and differentiation, we have generated tridimensional (3D) cultures of human HaCaT keratinocytes and fibroblasts in fibrin gels, obtaining human skin equivalents that comprise an epidermal and a dermal compartments that resembles both the structure and differentiation of normal human skin. We have found that IKKα expression must be strictly regulated in epidermis, as alterations in its levels lead to histological defects and promote the development of malignant features. Specifically, we have found that the augmented expression of IKKα results in increased proliferation and clonogenicity of human keratinocytes, and leads to an accelerated and altered differentiation, augmented ability of invasive growth, induction of the expression of oncogenic proteins (Podoplanin, Snail, Cyclin D1) and increased extracellular matrix proteolytic activity. All these characteristics make keratinocytes overexpressing IKKα to be at a higher risk of developing skin cancer. Comparison of genetic profile obtained by analysis of microarrays of RNA of skin equivalents from both genotypes supports the above described findings. PMID:27732959

  20. TNRC9 downregulates BRCA1 expression and promotes breast cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jingxuan; Dsouza, Shoba P; Bakhru, Sasha; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Ascierto, Maria L; Sastry, Konduru S; Bedri, Shahinaz; Kizhakayil, Dhanya; Aigha, Idil I; Malek, Joel; Al-Bozom, Issam; Gehani, Salah; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2013-05-01

    Although the linkage between germline mutations of BRCA1 and hereditary breast/ovarian cancers is well established, recent evidence suggests that altered expression of wild-type BRCA1 might contribute to the sporadic forms of breast cancer. The breast cancer gene trinucleotide-repeat-containing 9 (TNRC9; TOX3) has been associated with disease susceptibility but its function is undetermined. Here, we report that TNRC9 is often amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, particularly in advanced breast cancer. Gene amplification was associated with reduced disease-free and metastasis-free survival rates. Ectopic expression of TNRC9 increased breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival after exposure to apoptotic stimuli. These phenotypes were associated with tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling, protein analysis, and in silico assays of large datasets of breast and ovarian cancer samples suggested that TNRC9 and BRCA1 expression were inversely correlated. Notably, we found that TNRC9 bound to both the BRCA1 promoter and the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) complex, a regulator of BRCA1 transcription. In support of this connection, expression of TNRC9 downregulated expression of BRCA1 by altering the methylation status of its promoter. Our studies unveil a function for TNRC9 in breast cancer that highlights a new paradigm in BRCA1 regulation.

  1. Novel Nuclear Localization of Fatty Acid Synthase Correlates with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Allison A.; Rycyna, Kevin J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Datiri, Yeipyeng J.; Basudan, Ahmed M.; Sobek, Kathryn M.; Cummings, Jessica L.; Basse, Per H.; Bacich, Dean J.; O'Keefe, Denise S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase not only increases production of fatty acids in tumors but also contributes to the transformed phenotype by conferring growth and survival advantages. In addition, increased fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer correlates with poor prognosis, although the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are not completely understood. Because fatty acid synthase is expressed at low levels in normal cells, it is currently a major target for anticancer drug design. Fatty acid synthase is normally found in the cytosol; however, we have discovered that it also localizes to the nucleus in a subset of prostate cancer cells. Analysis of the fatty acid synthase protein sequence indicated the presence of a nuclear localization signal, and subcellular fractionation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of patient prostate tumor tissue and LNCaPs confirmed nuclear localization of this protein. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of prostate cancer tissue indicated that nuclear localization of fatty acid synthase correlates with Gleason grade, implicating a potentially novel role in prostate cancer progression. Possible clinical implications include improving the accuracy of prostate biopsies in the diagnosis of low- versus intermediate-risk prostate cancer and the uncovering of novel metabolic pathways for the therapeutic targeting of androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:24907642

  2. Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Migden, Michael R.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Ross, Merrick I.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of a multimodal spectral diagnosis (SD) for in vivo noninvasive disease diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We acquired reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients using custom-built optical fiber-based clinical systems. Biopsies of lesions were classified using standard histopathology as malignant melanoma (MM), nonmelanoma pigmented lesion (PL), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Using multiple diagnostically relevant principal components, we built leave-one-out logistic regression classifiers. Classification results were compared with histopathology of the lesion. Sensitivity/specificity for classifying MM versus PL (12 versus 17 lesions) was 100%/100%, for SCC and BCC versus AK (57 versus 14 lesions) was 95%/71%, and for AK and SCC and BCC versus normal skin (71 versus 71 lesions) was 90%/85%. The best classification for nonmelanoma skin cancers required multiple modalities; however, the best melanoma classification occurred with Raman spectroscopy alone. The high diagnostic accuracy for classifying both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions demonstrates the potential for SD as a clinical diagnostic device. PMID:25375350

  3. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors

    PubMed Central

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein–ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy. PMID:26604686

  4. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  5. Chemoprevention of skin cancer using low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-fluorouracil: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is difficult due to its serious adverse effects and extremely low bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to develop and evaluate low HLB surfactant nanoemulsion of 5-FU for topical chemoprevention of skin cancer. Low HLB surfactant nanoemulsions were prepared by oil phase titration method. Thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions were characterized in terms of droplet size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity and refractive index. Selected formulations and control were subjected to in vitro skin permeation studies through rat skin using Franz diffusion cells. Optimized formulation F9 was subjected to stability and in vitro cytotoxic studies on melanoma cell lines. Enhancement ratio was found to be 22.33 in formulation F9 compared with control and other formulations. The values of steady state flux and permeability coefficient for formulation F9 were found to be 206.40 ± 14.56 µg cm(-2) h(-1) and 2.064 × 10(-2) ± 0.050 × 10(-2 )cm h(-1), respectively. Optimized formulation F9 was found to be physical stable. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on SK-MEL-5 cancer cells indicated that 5-FU in optimized nanoemulsion is much more efficacious than free 5-FU. From these results, it can be concluded that the developed nanoemulsion might be a promising vehicle for chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  6. Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Migden, Michael R.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Ross, Merrick I.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of a multimodal spectral diagnosis (SD) for in vivo noninvasive disease diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We acquired reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients using custom-built optical fiber-based clinical systems. Biopsies of lesions were classified using standard histopathology as malignant melanoma (MM), nonmelanoma pigmented lesion (PL), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Using multiple diagnostically relevant principal components, we built leave-one-out logistic regression classifiers. Classification results were compared with histopathology of the lesion. Sensitivity/specificity for classifying MM versus PL (12 versus 17 lesions) was 100%;/100%;, for SCC and BCC versus AK (57 versus 14 lesions) was 95%;/71%, and for AK and SCC and BCC versus normal skin (71 versus 71 lesions) was 90%/85%. The best classification for nonmelanoma skin cancers required multiple modalities; however, the best melanoma classification occurred with Raman spectroscopy alone. The high diagnostic accuracy for classifying both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions demonstrates the potential for SD as a clinical diagnostic device.

  7. BTG1 expression correlates with pathogenesis, aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric cancer: a potential target for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua-chuan; Li, Jing; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Wu, Ya-zhou; Takano, Yasuo; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Gou, Wen-feng

    2015-08-14

    Here, we found that BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, induced G2/M arrest, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis in BGC-823 and MKN28 cells (p < 0.05). BTG1 transfectants showed a higher mRNA expression of Cyclin D1 and Bax, but a lower mRNA expression of cdc2, p21, mTOR and MMP-9 than the control and mock (p < 0.05). After treated with cisplatin, MG132, paclitaxel and SAHA, both BTG1 transfectants showed lower mRNA viability and higher apoptosis than the control in both time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05) with the hypoexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (slug, CD147, GRP78, GRP94, FBXW7 TOP1, TOP2 and GST-π). BTG1 expression was restored after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in gastric cancer cells. BTG1 expression was statistically lower in gastric cancer than non-neoplastic mucosa and metastatic cancer in lymph node (p < 0.05). BTG1 expression was positively correlated with depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and worse prognosis (p < 0.05). The diffuse-type carcinoma showed less BTG1 expression than intestinal- and mixed-type ones (p < 0.05). BTG1 overexpression suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that down-regulated BTG1 expression might promote gastric carcinogenesis partially due to its promoter methylation. BTG1 overexpression might reverse the aggressive phenotypes and be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of gastric cancer.

  8. Genetic Variations in Mitochondria and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness and Progression in Caucasian and African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Mitochondrial DNAs prostate cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 6 19a. NAME OF...6 4 Introduction The mitochondrial genome is highly polymorphic among individuals and exhibits significant... mitochondrial DNA sequencing to identify novel genetic variants in AA and CA prostate cancer patients. A subset of the study population from PCaP

  9. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  10. Rapidly Developed Multiple Face and Neck Skin Cancers in a Patient with Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Lean San; Lai, Ji-Ching; Lian, Je Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Skin cancer Symptoms: Skin Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic, systemic disorder of an autoimmune nature, and its primary etiopathogenetic events are not known. Previous studies have found elevated incidence of malignancies in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. However, there are few reports regarding the association of Sjögren’s syndrome with skin cancers, especially with multiple skin cancers developed within a short time. Case Report: We reported an unusual case of a patient with primary Sjögren’s syndrome who suffered from rapidly developed facial and neck skin cancers within two years. Conclusions: Sjögren’s syndrome associated with skin cancer is rare. Our case report suggests that Sjögren’s syndrome patients require continuous follow-up with conventional cancer examination, including skin biopsy for suspected skin lesions. PMID:28373638

  11. Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours, tanning attitudes and associations with skin cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Richard G; MacMillan, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Hubbard, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours and tanning attitudes and assess associations with skin cancer awareness. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 20 state secondary schools in one Scottish local authority (Glasgow City). Participants 2173 adolescents (females: 50.7%, n=1102) with a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.55). Outcome measures Sun-related behaviour (suntan, sunbathing, sunburn, sunscreen use, sunbed use), tanning attitudes, skin cancer-related symptom and risk factor awareness. Results Adolescents reported poor sun-related practice: 51% of adolescents reported sunburn the previous summer of whom 38% indicated sunburn on more than one occasion. Skin cancer awareness was low: 45% recognised ‘change in the appearance of a mole’ as a cancer symptom, and 39% agreed that ‘getting sunburnt more than once as a child’ increased cancer risk. 42% and 26% of adolescents, respectively, reported that friends and family held protanning attitudes. Compared with males, females were statistically significantly more likely to: report sunbathing (p<0.001), use of lotions or oil to aid tanning (p=0.009) and sunburn (p<0.001); know that changes in the appearance of a mole was a skin cancer symptom (p=0.036) and sunburn more than once as a child was a skin cancer risk factor (p=0.005); perceive their friends to hold protanning attitudes (p<0.001) and indicate that a tan made them feel better about themselves (p<0.001), more attractive to others (p=0.011) and healthier (p<0.001). Conclusions Scottish adolescents had poor sun protection practice and low skin cancer awareness. Girls adopted riskier sun-related behaviour despite greater awareness of skin cancer-related risk. Urgent action is required to promote positive sun-related behaviour and increase skin cancer awareness among Scottish adolescents. However, further research is needed to inform the development of effective sun-safe interventions. PMID:24793258

  12. Ultraviolet induced DNA damage and hereditary skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Francis, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Clearly, cells from normal individuals possess the ability to repair a variety of damage to DNA. Numerous studies indicate that defects in DNA repair may increase an individual's susceptibility to cancer. It is hoped that continued studies of the exact structural changes produced in the DNA by environmental insults, and the correlation of specific DNA changes with particulr cellular events, such as DNA repair, will lead to a better understanding of cell-killing, mutagenesis and carbinogenesis. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Prolonged and repetitive exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis increases aggressiveness of oral cancer cells by promoting acquisition of cancer stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Hee; Woo, Bok Hee; Kim, Da Jeong; Ha, Eun Sin; Choi, Jeom Il; Kim, Sung Jo; Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2015-12-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition occurring in the human oral cavity, but our knowledge on its contribution to oral cancer is rather limited. To define crosstalk between chronic periodontitis and oral cancer, we investigated whether Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis, plays a role in oral cancer progression. To mimic chronic irritation by P. gingivalis in the oral cavity, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells were infected with P. gingivalis twice a week for 5 weeks. Repeated infection of oral cancer cells by P. gingivalis resulted in morphological changes of host cancer cells into an elongated shape, along with the decreased expression of epithelial cell markers, suggesting acquisition of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. The prolonged exposure to P. gingivalis also promoted migratory and invasive properties of OSCC cells and provided resistance against a chemotherapeutic agent, all of which are described as cellular characteristics undergoing EMT. Importantly, long-term infection by P. gingivalis induced an increase in the expression level of CD44 and CD133, well-known cancer stem cell markers, and promoted the tumorigenic properties of infected cancer cells compared to non-infected controls. Furthermore, increased invasiveness of P. gingivalis-infected OSCC cells was correlated with enhanced production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-10 that was stimulated by interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. This is the first report demonstrating that P. gingivalis can increase the aggressiveness of oral cancer cells via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes and the acquisition of stemness, implicating P. gingivalis as a potential bacterial risk modifier.

  14. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer. PMID:24757666

  15. New Enlightenment of Skin Cancer Chemoprevention through Phytochemicals: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhulika; Suman, Shankar; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Skin overexposure to ultraviolet irradiations, chemicals, and several viruses has a capability to cause severe skin-related disorders including immunosuppression and skin cancer. These factors act in sequence at various steps of skin carcinogenesis via initiation, promotion, and/or progression. These days cancer chemoprevention is recognized as the most hopeful and novel approach to prevent, inhibit, or reverse the processes of carcinogenesis by intervention with natural products. Phytochemicals have antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and carcinogen detoxification capabilities thereby considered as efficient chemopreventive agents. Considerable efforts have been done to identify the phytochemicals which may possibly act on one or several molecular targets that modulate cellular processes such as inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Till date several phytochemicals in the light of chemoprevention have been studied by using suitable skin carcinogenic in vitro and in vivo models and proven as beneficial for prevention of skin cancer. This revision presents a comprehensive knowledge and the main molecular mechanisms of actions of various phytochemicals in the chemoprevention of skin cancer.

  16. Dye-enhanced multimodal confocal microscopy for noninvasive detection of skin cancers in mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jesung; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2010-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer. Its early diagnosis and timely treatment is of paramount importance for dermatology and surgical oncology. In this study, we evaluate the use of reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy for detecting skin cancers in an in-vivo trial with B16F10 melanoma and SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma in mice. For the experiments, the mice are anesthetized, then the tumors are infiltrated with aqueous solution of methylene blue and imaged. Reflectance images are acquired at 658 nm. Fluorescence is excited at 658 nm and registered in the range between 690 and 710 nm. After imaging, the mice are sacrificed. The tumors are excised and processed for hematoxylin and eosin histopathology, which is compared to the optical images. The results of the study indicate that in-vivo reflectance images provide valuable information on vascularization of the tumor, whereas the fluorescence images mimic the structural features seen in histopathology. Simultaneous dye-enhanced reflectance and fluorescence confocal microscopy shows promise for the detection, demarcation, and noninvasive monitoring of skin cancer development.

  17. Tumors of the skin and soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

  18. Trends in the Frequency of Original Research in Acne Vulgaris, Rosacea, Dermatitis, Psoriasis, Skin Cancer, and Skin Infections, 1970–2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young M; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-01-01

    Context: Medical journals have allowed researchers to share their latest discoveries, especially in the most common diseases affecting patients worldwide. Objective: To analyze trends in the frequency of original research into common dermatologic diseases from 1970 to 2010. Design: A retrospective review of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology and the Archives of Dermatology was performed using the MEDLINE database. All original research articles published between 1970 and 2010, by quinquennium, dealing with acne vulgaris, rosacea, skin cancer, dermatitis, psoriasis, or skin infections were included. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The frequency of research into acne vulgaris and rosacea decreased from 24% in 1970 to 5.1% in 2010. Psoriasis research increased in frequency from 17.6% to 26.5% from 2000 to 2010, and skin cancer research increased from 4% in 1970 to 48% in 2010. Conclusions: Topics that experienced early advancements in research, such as acne vulgaris and rosacea, demonstrated a decreasing trend in the frequency of publication. Published psoriasis research has increased in frequency since 2000, most likely because of the discovery of biologics. Finally, skin cancer research has continued to increase in frequency of publication, paralleling the increasing incidence of skin cancer. PMID:25663204

  19. Fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives as a technique for mapping nonmelanoma skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavsky, Anna N; Salomatina, Elena V; Neel, Victor; Anderson, Rox; Flotte, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer, often resulting in high morbidity. Low visual contrast of these tumors makes their delineation a challenging problem. Employing a linearly polarized monochromatic light source and a wide-field CCD camera, we have developed a technique for fluorescence polarization imaging of the nonmelanoma cancers stained using antibiotics from the tetracycline family. To determine the feasibility of the method, fluorescence polarization images of 86 thick, fresh cancer excisions were studied. We found that the level of endogenous fluorescence polarization was much lower than that of exogenous, and that the average values of fluorescence polarization of tetracycline derivatives were significantly higher in cancerous as compared to normal tissue. Out of 86 tumors [54 stained in demeclocycline (DMN) and 32 in tetracycline (TCN)], in 79 cases (51-DMN, 28-TCN) the location, size, and shape of the lesions were identified accurately. The results of this trial indicate that nonmelanoma skin tumors can be distinguished from healthy tissue based on the differences in exogenous fluorescence polarization of TCN and/or DMN. Therefore, the developed technique can provide an important new tool for image-guided cancer surgery.

  20. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk

    PubMed Central

    Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome. PMID:26209181

  1. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    PubMed

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  2. Role of androgen metabolism genes CYP1B1, PSA/KLK3, and CYP11alpha in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Mine S; Liu, Xin; Casey, Graham; Witte, John S

    2005-09-01

    Candidate genes involved with androgen metabolism have been hypothesized to affect the risk of prostate cancer. To further investigate this, we evaluated the relationship between prostate cancer and multiple potentially functional polymorphisms in three genes involved in androgen metabolism: CYP1B1 (two single nucleotide polymorphisms: 355G/T and 4326C/G), prostate-specific antigen (PSA/KLK3 (three single nucleotide polymorphisms: -158A/G, -4643G/A, and -5412C/T), and CYP11alpha [(tttta)(n) repeat], using a moderately large (n = 918) sibling-based case-control population. When looking at all subjects combined, no association was observed between any polymorphism-or their haplotypes-and prostate cancer risk. However, among men with more aggressive prostate cancer, the CYP1B1 355G/T variant was positively associated with disease: carrying one or two T alleles gave odds ratios (OR) of 1.90 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09-3.31; P = 0.02] and 3.73 (95% CI, 1.39-10.0; P = 0.009), respectively. Similarly, carrying the CYP1B1 355T-4326C haplotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with high aggressive disease (P = 0.01). In addition, the PSA -158G/-158G genotype was positively associated with prostate cancer among men with less aggressive disease (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.06-6.94; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that CYP1B1 and PSA variants may affect the risk of prostate cancer and tumor aggressiveness.

  3. Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue?

    PubMed Central

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim K.; Golubov, Andrey; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Woycicki, Rafal; Hegmann, Frank A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is non-ionizing. We show that exposure of artificial human skin tissue to intense, picosecond-duration THz pulses affects expression levels of numerous genes associated with non-melanoma skin cancers, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Genes affected by intense THz pulses include nearly half of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) members. EDC genes, which are mapped to the chromosomal human region 1q21, encode for proteins that partake in epidermal differentiation and are often overexpressed in conditions such as psoriasis and skin cancer. In nearly all the genes differentially expressed by exposure to intense THz pulses, the induced changes in transcription levels are opposite to disease-related changes. The ability of intense THz pulses to cause concerted favorable changes in the expression of multiple genes implicated in inflammatory skin diseases and skin cancers suggests potential therapeutic applications of intense THz pulses. PMID:23917523

  4. Novel treatment options for nonmelanoma skin cancer: focus on electronic brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Michael E; Chaudhary, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an increasing health care issue in the United States, significantly affecting quality of life and impacting health care costs. Radiotherapy has a long history in the treatment of NMSC. Shortly after the discovery of X-rays and 226Radium, physicians cured patients with NMSC using these new treatments. Both X-ray therapy and brachytherapy have evolved over the years, ultimately delivering higher cure rates and lower toxicity. Electronic brachytherapy for NMSC is based on the technical and clinical data obtained from radionuclide skin surface brachytherapy and the small skin surface applicators developed over the past 25 years. The purpose of this review is to introduce electronic brachytherapy in the context of the history, data, and utilization of traditional radiotherapy and brachytherapy. PMID:26648763

  5. Epidemiology of skin cancer arisen from the burn scars in Nigerian Ibos.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Wilson I B

    2006-08-01

    During the period 20 February 1970-19 February 2000, burns resulting in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin were documented by using a histopathology data pool of surgical specimens kept by the author as regards his Ibos ethnic group in Nigeria, West Africa. There were 21 cases. The males outnumbered the females in the ratio of 3:1. The youngest patient was aged 8 years and the oldest 75 years (mean age 39 years). Most of the antecedent injuries occurred during childhood. The two etiologic agents of albinism and burns were combined in one patient while another rarity was the presentation of the cancer within keloids. In conclusion, in dark skinned races, research should be directed on the comparative role of burns in predisposing to squamous cell carcinoma in individuals whose skin is compromised by either albinism or keloids.

  6. Spectral analysis of delayed luminescence as a tool to discriminate between normal and cancer skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Tudisco, S.; Privitera, S.; Applegate, L. A.; Niggli, H. J.

    2005-08-01

    Photobiological research in the last decades has shown the existence of Delayed Luminescence in biological tissue, which presents an excitation spectrum with a peak within the UVA region and can be detected with sophisticated photomultiplier systems. Based on these findings, a new and powerful tool able to measure the UV-A-laser-induced Delayed Luminescence emission of cultured cells was developed, with the intention to detect biophysical changes between carcinogenic and normal cells. Indeed noticeable differences have been found in the time resolved emission spectrum of delayed luminescence of cell cultures of human fibroblast and human melanoma. This new, powerful and non-invasive technique, in principle, could be applied in all fields of skin research, such as the investigation of skin abnormalities and to test the effect of products involved in regeneration, anti-aging and UV-light protection in order to prevent skin cancer.

  7. Light - Instead of UV Protection: New Requirements for Skin Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Zastrow, Leonhard; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The requirements on sunscreens have essentially changed, since some years ago it was demonstrated that approximately 50% of free radicals, that are formed in the skin by solar radiation, originate from the visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum. In addition, a critical radical concentration threshold could be found. If this concentration, the free radical threshold value (FRTV), is exceeded, sunburn, immunosuppression and skin cancer may develop. Application of sunscreens and lotions protects against sunburn in the UV region of the solar spectrum and therefore is frequently used to extend people's stay in the sun. However, this behaviour can enhance the concentration of free radicals formed in the visible and infrared regions of the solar spectrum, so that the critical radical threshold is exceeded and the skin may be damaged.

  8. Down regulation of ADAM33 as a Predictive Biomarker of Aggressive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Graciele C. M.; Ribeiro, Caroline F.; Oliveira, Marco A. S. de; Pereira, Isabela T.; Chequin, Andressa; Ramos, Edneia A. S.; Klassen, Liliane M. B.; Sebastião, Ana Paula M.; Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Zanata, Silvio M.; Noronha, Lucia De; Rabinovich, Iris; Costa, Fabricio F.; Souza, Emanuel M.; Klassen, Giseli

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with differences in its clinical, molecular and biological features. Traditionally, immunohistochemical markers together with clinicopathologic parameters are used to classify breast cancer and to predict disease outcome. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particular type of breast cancer that is defined by a lack of expression of hormonal receptors and the HER2 gene. Most cases of TNBC also have a basal-like phenotype (BLBC) with expression of cytokeratin 5/6 and/or EGFR. A basal marker alone is insufficient for a better understanding of the tumor biology of TNBC. In that regard, the ADAM33 gene is silenced by DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer, which suggests that ADAM33 might be useful as a molecular marker. In the present study, we have produced monoclonal antibodies against the ADAM33 protein and have investigated the role of ADAM33 protein in breast cancer. We used 212 breast tumor samples and lower levels of ADAM33 were correlated with TNBC and basal-like markers. A lower level of ADAM33 was also correlated with shorter overall survival and metastasis-free survival and was considered an independent prognostic factor suggesting that ADAM33 is a novel molecular biomarker of TNBC and BLBC that might be useful as a prognostic factor. PMID:28294120

  9. Down regulation of ADAM33 as a Predictive Biomarker of Aggressive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Manica, Graciele C M; Ribeiro, Caroline F; Oliveira, Marco A S de; Pereira, Isabela T; Chequin, Andressa; Ramos, Edneia A S; Klassen, Liliane M B; Sebastião, Ana Paula M; Alvarenga, Larissa M; Zanata, Silvio M; Noronha, Lucia De; Rabinovich, Iris; Costa, Fabricio F; Souza, Emanuel M; Klassen, Giseli

    2017-03-15

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with differences in its clinical, molecular and biological features. Traditionally, immunohistochemical markers together with clinicopathologic parameters are used to classify breast cancer and to predict disease outcome. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particular type of breast cancer that is defined by a lack of expression of hormonal receptors and the HER2 gene. Most cases of TNBC also have a basal-like phenotype (BLBC) with expression of cytokeratin 5/6 and/or EGFR. A basal marker alone is insufficient for a better understanding of the tumor biology of TNBC. In that regard, the ADAM33 gene is silenced by DNA hypermethylation in breast cancer, which suggests that ADAM33 might be useful as a molecular marker. In the present study, we have produced monoclonal antibodies against the ADAM33 protein and have investigated the role of ADAM33 protein in breast cancer. We used 212 breast tumor samples and lower levels of ADAM33 were correlated with TNBC and basal-like markers. A lower level of ADAM33 was also correlated with shorter overall survival and metastasis-free survival and was considered an independent prognostic factor suggesting that ADAM33 is a novel molecular biomarker of TNBC and BLBC that might be useful as a prognostic factor.

  10. A systematic review of clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with skin cancer spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Sankey, Eric W; Liu, Ann; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Lo, Sheng-Fu L; Fisher, Charles G; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Surgical procedures and/or adjuvant therapies are effective modalities for the treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. However, clinical results specific to the skin cancer spinal metastasis cohort are generally lacking. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for treatments, clinical outcomes, and survival following the diagnosis of a skin cancer spinal metastasis and evaluate prognostic factors in the context of spinal skin cancer metastases stratified by tumor subtype. METHODS The authors performed a literature review using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify articles since 1950 that reported survival, clinical outcomes, and/or prognostic factors for the skin cancer patient population with spinal metastases. The methodological quality of reviews was assessed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) tool. RESULTS Sixty-five studies met the preset criteria and were included in the analysis. Of these studies, a total of 25, 40, 25, and 12 studies included patients who underwent some form of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or observation alone, respectively. Sixty-three of the 65 included studies were retrospective in nature (Class of Evidence [CoE] IV), and the 2 prospective studies were CoE II. Based on the studies analyzed, the median overall survival for a patient with a spinal metastasis from a primary skin malignancy is 4.0 months; survival by tumor subtype is 12.5 months for patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 4.0 months for those with melanoma, 4.0 months for those with squamous cell carcinoma, 3.0 months for those with pilomatrix carcinoma, and 1.5 months for those with Merkel cell carcinoma (p < 0.0001). The overall percentage of known continued disease progression after spine metastasis diagnosis was 40.1% (n = 244/608, range 25.0%-88.9%), the rate of known recurrence of the primary skin cancer lesion was 3.5% (n = 21/608, range 0

  11. Patients are happy to be informed of their final non-melanoma skin cancer results by post.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Penelope; Palamaras, Ioulios; Hill, Virginia; Robles, Wanda; Stevens, Howard

    2010-01-15

    During the past year, because of increasing pressure to see more patients, we have started to write to our patients informing them in a letter of their final skin cancer histology results following surgery for non-melanoma skin cancers: basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma only. A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess whether patients were happy to receive information concerning their non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosis in a carefully worded letter. One-hundred fifty patients were involved with a diagnosis of "completely excised non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)" that had previously received their final diagnosis by post. Seventy-seven (51.3%) patients responded to the questionnaire. Eighty-seven percent felt that they had been given the cancer diagnosis in an appropriate manner; 90 percent reported that they had understood the explanation about their skin cancer. In addition, 81 percent stated that they had been sufficiently involved in the discussion about their skin cancer and its treatment. Patients gave an average rating of 7.76 (1 = poor and 10 = excellent) for the overall experience of care that they had received. By writing to the patient with their final histology results, we have reduced the number of follow-up appointments without reducing the quality of patient care.

  12. Kaempferol targets RSK2 and MSK1 to suppress UV radiation-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ke; Chen, Hanyong; Liu, Kangdong; Langfald, Alyssa; Yang, Ge; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Li, Haitao; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Hong-Gyum; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2014-09-01

    Solar UV (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The MAPK cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAPK cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was upregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SUV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples, and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition, and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate SUV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of SUV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of CREB, c-Fos, and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1.

  13. Is a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer associated with increased or decreased risk of other cancers?

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Fischer, Alexander H

    2014-03-01

    Two conflicting hypotheses have been tested concerning the association between a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and risk of other malignancies. One hypothesis is that as a marker of extensive sunlight exposure and hence vitamin D status, NMSC should be inversely associated with risk of other cancers. Alternatively, under the multiple primary cancer model, NMSC is postulated to be an informative first cancer to study as a marker of increased risk of subsequent primary cancer diagnoses. In this journal issue, Ong and colleagues report the results of a large-scale study in the United Kingdom with findings that NMSC was significantly associated with increased risk of a broad spectrum of other malignancies, with the associations stronger the younger the age of onset of NMSC. These results are consistent with the larger body of evidence on this topic, which is highly asymmetrical in favor of the multiple primary cancer hypothesis. Two divergent hypotheses have been tested, with the empirical evidence unequivocally indicating that NMSC is a marker of a high cancer risk phenotype. Future research is warranted to better characterize this association, to understand why NMSC is a marker of excess risk of other cancers, and to determine whether this association is clinically relevant.

  14. Validating the use of Medicare Australia billing data to examine trends in skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Perera, Marlon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background:  Epidemiological data surrounding non-melanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) is highly variable, in part due to the lack of government cancer registries. Several studies employ the use of Medical Australia (MA) rebate data in assessing such trends, the validity of which has not been studied in the past. Conversely, melanoma skin cancer is a notifiable disease, and thus, MA and cancer registry data is readily available. The aim of the current study is to assess the use of MA for epidemiological measures for skin cancers, by using melanoma as a disease sample. Methods:  Following ethics approval, data from MA and Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) from 2004-2008 were extracted. Incidence of MA and VCR unique melanoma cases were compared and stratified by age and local government area (LGA). Regression and a paired-samples t-test were performed. Results: During the study period; 15,150 and 13,886 unique melanoma patients were identified through VCR and MA data sources respectively. An outlier in the >80­ year age group was noted between MA and VCR data. When stratified by age, significant correlation between MA and VCR was observed for all patients (gradient 0.91, R²= 0.936) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.96, R²= 0.995). When stratified by LGA, a high degree of observation was observed for all patients (gradient 0.94, R²= 0.977) and following exclusion of >80 patients (gradient 0.996, R²= 0.975). Conclusion: Despite the inclusion of outlier data groups, acceptable correlation between MA and VCR melanoma data was observed, suggesting that MA may be suitable for assessing epidemiological trends. Such principals may be used to validate the use of MA data for similar calculations assessing NMSC trends. PMID:26937270

  15. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase targeting by the β galactoside binding protein cytokine negates akt gene expression and leads aggressive breast cancer cells to apoptotic death

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Valerie; Mallucci, Livio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-activated signalling has a critical role in the evolution of aggressive tumourigenesis and is therefore a prime target for anticancer therapy. Previously we have shown that the β galactoside binding protein (βGBP) cytokine, an antiproliferative molecule, induces functional inhibition of class 1A and class 1B PI3K. Here, we have investigated whether, by targeting PI3K, βGBP has therapeutic efficacy in aggressive breast cancer cells where strong mitogenic input is fuelled by overexpression of the ErbB2 (also known as HER/neu, for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) oncoprotein receptor and have used immortalised ductal cells and non-aggressive mammary cancer cells, which express ErbB2 at low levels, as controls. Methods Aggressive BT474 and SKBR3 cancer cells where ErbB2 is overexpressed, MCF10A immortalised ductal cells and non-invasive MCF-7 cancer cells which express low levels of ErbB2, both in their naive state and when forced to mimic aggressive behaviour, were used. Class IA PI3K was immunoprecipitated and the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) assessed by ELISA. The consequences of PI3K inhibition by βGBP were analysed at proliferation level, by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, by akt gene expression and by apoptosis. Apoptosis was documented by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, alteration of the plasma membrane, caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Phosphorylated and total ERK were measured by Western blot analysis and akt mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. The results obtained with the BT474 and SKBR3 cells were validated in the MCF10A ductal cells and in non-invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells forced into mimicking the in vitro behaviour of the BT474 and SKBR3 cells. Results In aggressive breast cancer cells, where mitogenic signalling is enforced by the ErbB2 oncoprotein receptor

  16. High-dose Rate Electronic Brachytherapy: A Nonsurgical Treatment Alternative for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rakesh; Werschler, William Philip; Ceilley, Roger I.; Strimling, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The authors summarized data from a group of physicians with experience using high-dose rate electronic brachytherapy for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The data have been published or presented in abstract format at national dermatology and radiation oncology meetings. The data included 1,822 treated lesions from 2009 to 2014 in patients ranging in age from 52 to 104 years. Most lesions were basal cell carcinoma (57%) or squamous cell carcinoma (38%) less than 2cm in size (97%). Median follow-up at the various centers ranged from 4 to 16 months, and results yielded an extremely low recurrence rate of less than one percent. Results show that within the confines of this follow up period, electronic brachytherapy is an effective, convenient, nonsurgical treatment option for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer with few recurrences and excellent cosmetic results. PMID:28210385

  17. The Wavelengths in Sunlight Effective in Producing Skin Cancer: A Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Setlow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    DNA is taken as the target for skin cancer induced by ultraviolet light, and the known data on the sensitivity of DNA as a function of wavelength are summarized. The sun's spectrum at the surface of the earth and the DNA action spectrum are used to calculate the carcinogenic effectiveness as a function of wavelength. The most effective wavelengths at 30°N latitude are <305 nm, and a 1% change in atmospheric ozone results in a 2% change in the effective dose of ultraviolet light. Since both the basic biological and physical data are reasonably precise, the major requirement for a quantitative evaluation of the dose response relation for ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in man is better epidemiological data to compare with data from animal models. PMID:4530308

  18. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  19. Oridonin Ring A-Based Diverse Constructions of Enone Functionality: Identification of Novel Dienone Analogues Effective for Highly Aggressive Breast Cancer by Inducing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chunyong; Zhang, Yusong; Chen, Haijun; Yang, Zhengduo; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ester, Corbin D.; Xiong, Ailian; White, Mark A.; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Oridonin (1) has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its unique and safe anticancer pharmacological profile. Nevertheless, it exhibits moderate to poor effects against highly aggressive cancers including triple-negative and drug-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein, we report the rational design and synthesis of novel dienone derivatives with an additional α,β-unsaturated ketone system diversely installed in the A-ring based on this class of natural scaffold that features dense functionalities and stereochemistry-rich frameworks. Efficient and regioselective enone construction strategies have been established. Meanwhile, a unique 3,7-rearrangement reaction was identified to furnish an unprecedented dienone scaffold. Intriguingly, these new analogues have been demonstrated to significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit colony formation with superior antitumor effects against aggressive and drug-resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, while also exhibiting comparable or lower toxicity to normal human mammary epithelial cells in comparison with 1. PMID:24128046

  20. Oridonin ring A-based diverse constructions of enone functionality: identification of novel dienone analogues effective for highly aggressive breast cancer by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyong; Zhang, Yusong; Chen, Haijun; Yang, Zhengduo; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ester, Corbin D; Xiong, Ailian; White, Mark A; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2013-11-14

    Oridonin (1) has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its unique and safe anticancer pharmacological profile. Nevertheless, it exhibits moderate to poor effects against highly aggressive cancers including triple-negative and drug-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein, we report the rational design and synthesis of novel dienone derivatives with an additional α,β-unsaturated ketone system diversely installed in the A-ring based on this class of natural scaffold that features dense functionalities and stereochemistry-rich frameworks. Efficient and regioselective enone construction strategies have been established. Meanwhile, a unique 3,7-rearrangement reaction was identified to furnish an unprecedented dienone scaffold. Intriguingly, these new analogues have been demonstrated to significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit colony formation with superior antitumor effects against aggressive and drug-resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo while also exhibiting comparable or lower toxicity to normal human mammary epithelial cells in comparison with 1.

  1. Nitric Oxide-releasing Sulindac is a Novel Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent for UVB-induced Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Singh, Tripti; Kapur, Puneet; Weng, Zhiping; Arumugam, Aadithya; Elmets, Craig A.; Kopelovich, Levy; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) which have been synthesized to reduce gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular toxicities of NSAIDs, possess anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activities. Here, we show that NO-sulindac inhibited UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical application of NO-sulindac reduced tumor incidence, number (p<0.05) and volume (p<0.005) as compared to UVB (alone)-irradiated vehicle-treated mice. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells in skin lesions was accompanied by the enhanced Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was increased whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 reduced. However, proliferation was identified as the major target of NO-sulindac in this study. A reduced expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 associated with the dampening of cell cycle progression was observed. The mechanism of this inhibition was related to the reduction in UVB-induced Notch signaling pathway. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by NO-sulindac as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK1/2. In this regard, NO-sulindac also inhibited NFκB by enhancing IκBα as evidenced by the reduced expression of iNOS and COX-2, the direct NFκB transcription target proteins. NO-sulindac significantly diminished the progression of benign lesions to invasive carcinomas by suppressing the tumor aggressiveness and retarding epithelial-mesenchymal transition. A marked decrease in the expression of mesenchymal markers such as Fibronectin, N-cadherin, SNAI, Slug and Twist and an increase in epithelial cell polarity marker E-cadherin were noted in NO-sulindac-treated tumors. Our data suggest that NO-sulindac is a potent inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and acts by targeting proliferation-regulatory pathways. PMID:23274568

  2. MC1R, eumelanin and pheomelanin: their role in determining the susceptibility to skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Nasti, Tahseen H; Timares, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is due to the accumulation of two types of melanin granules in the keratinocytes. Besides being the most potent blocker of ultraviolet radiation, the role of melanin in photoprotection is complex. This is because one type of melanin called eumelanin is UV absorbent, whereas the other, pheomelanin, is photounstable and may even promote carcinogenesis. Skin hyperpigmentation may be caused by stress or exposure to sunlight, which stimulates the release of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) from damaged keratinocytes. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a key signaling molecule on melanocytes that responds to α-MSH by inducing expression of enzymes responsible for eumelanin synthesis. Persons with red hair have mutations in the MC1R causing its inactivation; this leads to a paucity of eumelanin production and makes red-heads more susceptible to skin cancer. Apart from its effects on melanin production, the α-MSH/MC1R signaling is also a potent anti-inflammatory pathway and has been shown to promote antimelanoma immunity. This review will focus on the role of MC1R in terms of its regulation of melanogenesis and influence on the immune system with respect to skin cancer susceptibility.

  3. Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Esther; Arwert, Esther N; Lal, Rohit; South, Andrew P; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Murrell, Dedee F; Donati, Giacomo; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-09

    The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer.

  4. Tamoxifen-associated skin reactions in breast cancer patients: from case report to literature review.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Peter; Valiani, Sabira; MacIsaac, Jennifer; Mithoowani, Hamid; Verma, Shailendra

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to firstly present the maiden case of tamoxifen-induced acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (ACLE), and secondly, to broaden the discussion into a systematic review of the various tamoxifen-related skin changes documented in patients with breast cancer. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CancerLit, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases using keywords to identify reported cases of tamoxifen-related cutaneous adverse events. Outcomes captured included type of cutaneous reaction, time to adverse event, pathologic mechanism, and possible treatment. From 17 clinical studies identified, over ten distinct types of adverse reactions of the skin were itemized. The character of these cutaneous events ranged from the relatively common hot flashes to the rare, but potentially life-threatening, Steven Johnson syndrome. Overall, tamoxifen is generally a well-tolerated hormone therapy with decades of supporting safety data. Based on current medical literature, we present the first case of tamoxifen-induced ACLE. Our clinical experience of managing this case revealed that despite its broad use and the frequency of associated skin reactions, there is a lack of concise information detailing the cutaneous adverse events associated with tamoxifen. The absence of summarized information concerning tamoxifen-related skin changes prompted us to perform a review herein.

  5. UV irradiance and the risk of skin cancer in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Edvard S.

    1993-11-01

    Solar irradiance in the spectral region 280 to 400 (800) nm was measured with a double monochromator at two Arctic locations, Tromso (70 degree(s)N) and Longyearbyen (78 degree(s)N). During the observational (midnight sun) period in Longyearbyen, the maximum UVB irradiance recorded was less than 0.3 W/m2, and no radiation was detected for wavelengths below 300 nm. Such low levels are believed to be a consequence of the low solar elevation angle and the high ozone content of the Arctic ozone layer, which absorbs the incident UV light. With ozone levels between 280 and 350 DU over the period of study, Tromso and Longyearbyen recorded only one-ninth of the calculated UVB radiation at the equator. Malignant melanoma of the skin is three times higher in Oslo than in the northernmost parts of Norway and the rate of skin cancer is 7-8 times higher in the white population of equatorial countries than in Arctic regions. The low UVB radiation combined with a high protective ozone shield in the Arctic means people are at little risk from sun induced skin damage and development of skin cancer in this region.

  6. Prospects for skin cancer treatment and prevention: the potential contribution of an engineered virus.

    PubMed

    Cafardi, Jennifer A; Shafi, Rubina; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A

    2011-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most common human malignancies. Although typically not lethal, they are responsible for tissue deformity and substantial morbidity, particularly in high-risk populations. Solar UVB radiation-a major etiologic factor for this kind of malignancy-produces DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts in skin. These lesions are removed through nucleotide excision repair because humans lack a DNA glycosylase required to initiate base excision repair of pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts but produce all the other proteins required for this process. In this issue, Johnson et al. show that a DNA glycosylase derived from Chlorella virus and engineered to enhance tissue penetration and nuclear localization can remove UVB-induced DNA lesions in a human skin equivalent model and that the protein can be incorporated into a topical formulation for the prevention and treatment of UVB-induced DNA damage. These results suggest that such an enzyme may be incorporated into regimens for the chemoprevention of skin cancers.

  7. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Norrenberg, Sarah; Gangji, Valérie; Del Marmol, Véronique; Soyfoo, Muhammad S

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM) associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  8. Clinical value of digital image analysis in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer, particularly in aggressive tumors: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, T; Monika Dulewicz, A; Borkowski, A; Piętka, D; Radziszewski, P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate the clinical value of a computer analysis of cytological specimen images obtained from urine and bladder washing samples. Three sample types (voided urine, catheterized urine and bladder washing) from 59 patients with primary or recurrent tumor were analyzed. All patients underwent cystoscopy and biopsy or resection. The histological results were compared with the results of the image analyzing computer system of collected urine samples. The consistency between the computer diagnosis and the clinical or histological diagnosis both in the presence and absence of cancer was as follows: 77% for voided urine samples, 72.5% for catheterized urine samples and 78% for bladder washing samples. The specificity of the method at the standard pathology level was 71%, and the sensitivity was 83%. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87.5% and 63% respectively. The sensitivity for G3 or CIS or T2 or T3 tumors reached nearly 100%. Computer analysis of urine provided correct diagnoses in cancer and control patients with the sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% and gave excellent results in aggressive tumors such as T2, T3, G3 and in CIS.

  9. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  10. Genetic deletion of osteopontin in TRAMP mice skews prostate carcinogenesis from adenocarcinoma to aggressive human-like neuroendocrine cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Giorgio; Jachetti, Elena; Comuzzi, Barbara; Dugo, Matteo; Arioli, Ivano; Miotti, Silvia; Sangaletti, Sabina; Di Carlo, Emma; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein, that belongs to the non-structural extracellular matrix (ECM), and its over expression in human prostate cancer has been associated with disease progression, androgen independence and metastatic ability. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of OPN in prostate tumorigenesis has never been studied. We crossed TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice with OPN deficient (OPN−/−) mice and followed tumor onset and progression in these double mutants. Ultrasound examination detected the early onset of a rapidly growing, homogeneous and spherical tumor in about 60% of OPN−/− TRAMP mice. Such neoplasms seldom occurred in parental TRAMP mice otherwise prone to adenocarcinomas and were characterized for being androgen receptor negative, highly proliferative and endowed with neuroendocrine (NE) features. Gene expression profiling showed up-regulation of genes involved in tumor progression, cell cycle and neuronal differentiation in OPN-deficient versus wild type TRAMP tumors. Down-regulated genes included key genes of TGFa pathway, including SMAD3 and Filamin, which were confirmed at the protein level. Furthermore, NE genes and particularly those characterizing early prostatic lesions of OPN-deficient mice were found to correlate with those of human prostate NE tumours. These data underscore a novel role of OPN in the early stages of prostate cancer gr