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Sample records for aggressive tumor characteristics

  1. Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0056 TITLE: Tumor Tension Induces Persistent Inflammation and Promotes Breast Cancer Aggression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Breast Cancer Aggression 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ori Maller and Valerie M. Weaver email...ECM stiffening cooperate with inflammatory signaling to facilitate immune evasion and promote breast cancer aggression . In this progress report, I

  2. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    component involved application and further refinement of optical tomographic imaging using independent component analysis ( OPTICA ) for locating and cross...section imaging of a tumor in a model cancerous breast assembled using ex vivo breast tissue specimens. The OPTICA approach was able to detect...infrared imaging, optical tomography using independent component analysis ( OPTICA ), training, molecular imaging, cancer biology 16. SECURITY

  3. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Optical Techniques for Actuation, Sensing , and Imaging of Biological Systems Multi-functional tumor...Time Reversal Optical Tomography Non-negative Matrix Factorization- based Optical Tomography Optical Tomography based on Principal Component...of the two targets 3.9. Estimated size and absorption coefficient of the targets 4.1. Positions and optical strengths retrieved using ICA, PCA and

  4. Patient characteristics associated with aggression in mental health units.

    PubMed

    Podubinski, Tegan; Lee, Stuart; Hollander, Yitzchak; Daffern, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Aggression in mental health units is a significant and pervasive problem. However, the characteristics of patients associated with increased aggression propensity remain unclear and there are few attempts to expand understanding of these characteristics by drawing upon contemporary aggression theory. This study assessed the influence of interpersonal (hostile-dominance) and personality (psychopathy), General Aggression Model-specified (aggressive script rehearsal, attitudes towards violence, and trait anger), and clinical (psychiatric symptoms) factors on aggression during psychiatric hospitalization in 200 inpatients (132 men and 68 women; 19-64 years, M=38.32 years, S.D.=11.13 years). Patient characteristics were assessed on admission using structured interviews and self-report psychological tests. Patients' files were reviewed and nurses were interviewed after patients were discharged to establish whether patients were aggressive during their hospital stay. Results of univariate analyses showed that higher levels of interpersonal hostile-dominance, psychopathy and aggressive script rehearsal, positive attitudes towards violence, trait anger, and disorganized and excited type psychiatric symptoms all predicted aggression. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, only hostile-dominance remained as a significant predictor of aggressive behavior. This important personality characteristic should be considered in violence risk assessments and aggression prevention strategies.

  5. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    approaches for detection of breast tumors in early stages of growth when those are more amenable to treatment; and (b) training of CCNY researchers at...classification method of Multiple Signal Classification ( MUSIC ). It provided the locations of small absorptive and scattering targets within a turbid...targets, the locations are determined using the MUSIC pseudo spectrum [11]     2 22 ( ) ( ) j T s p s p s p j s pP g g v g    X X X X

  6. Aggressive tumor recurrence after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lim, Hyo Keun; Cha, Dong Ik

    2017-03-01

    Image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an evolving and growing treatment option for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic metastasis. RFA offers significant advantages as it is less invasive than surgery and carries a low risk of major complications. However, serious complications, including aggressive tumor recurrence, may be observed during follow-up, and recently, mechanical or thermal damage during RFA has been proposed to be one of the causes of this kind of recurrence. Although the exact mechanism of this still remains unclear, physicians should be familiar with the imaging features of aggressive tumor recurrence after RFA for HCC and its risk factors. In addition, in order to prevent or minimize this newly recognized tumor recurrence, a modified RFA technique, combined RFA treatments with transarterial chemoembolization, and cryoablation can be used as alternative treatments. Ultimately, combining an understanding of this potential complication of RFA with an understanding of the possible risk factors for aggressive tumor recurrence and choosing alternative treatments are crucial to optimize clinical outcomes in each patient with HCC.

  7. Aggressive tumor recurrence after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lim, Hyo Keun; Cha, Dong Ik

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an evolving and growing treatment option for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic metastasis. RFA offers significant advantages as it is less invasive than surgery and carries a low risk of major complications. However, serious complications, including aggressive tumor recurrence, may be observed during follow-up, and recently, mechanical or thermal damage during RFA has been proposed to be one of the causes of this kind of recurrence. Although the exact mechanism of this still remains unclear, physicians should be familiar with the imaging features of aggressive tumor recurrence after RFA for HCC and its risk factors. In addition, in order to prevent or minimize this newly recognized tumor recurrence, a modified RFA technique, combined RFA treatments with transarterial chemoembolization, and cryoablation can be used as alternative treatments. Ultimately, combining an understanding of this potential complication of RFA with an understanding of the possible risk factors for aggressive tumor recurrence and choosing alternative treatments are crucial to optimize clinical outcomes in each patient with HCC. PMID:28349677

  8. Novel roles of the unfolded protein response in the control of tumor development and aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Dejeans, Nicolas; Barroso, Kim; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Samali, Afshin; Chevet, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The hallmarks of cancer currently define the molecular mechanisms responsible for conferring specific tumor phenotypes. Recently, these characteristics were also connected to the status of the secretory pathway, thereby linking the functionality of this cellular machinery to the acquisition of cancer cell features. The secretory pathway ensures the biogenesis of proteins that are membrane-bound or secreted into the extracellular milieu and can control its own homeostasis through an adaptive signaling pathway named the unfolded protein response (UPR). In the present review, we discuss the specific features of the UPR in various tumor types and the impact of the selective activation of this pathway on cell transformation, tumor development and aggressiveness.

  9. [Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schuwey-Hayoz, Aline; Needham, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Characteristics of patient aggression in a psychiatric hospital in Switzerland Patient aggression in psychiatry is a prominent problem for all concerned. In this prospective survey we registered and analysed all violent incidents of patients in a cantonal psychiatric hospital in Switzerland in order to determine the characteristics of aggression. The Staff Observation Aggression Scale Revised (SOAS-R) was utilised. During the study period 815 patients were admitted to the hospital. 71 (63.4%) of the 110 violent incidents were perpetrated by male patients. The majority of aggressive incidents were perpetrated in the vicinity of the rooms of the patients and were triggered mainly by the refusal to adhere to the demands of the patient or by patients' use of toxic substances. The most frequent type of aggression was of a verbally aggressive nature and the principal target was nursing personnel who felt threatened in most of the cases. In order to terminate the aggression the most predominant measure was communication with the patient and coercive measures. This study demonstrates clearly that aggression concerns psychiatric nursing personnel and points to the recommendation to reinforce measures of security and to predictive measures to ameliorate the management of aggression.

  10. MMSET is overexpressed in cancers: Link with tumor aggressiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Klein, Bernard Moreaux, Jerome

    2009-02-20

    MMSET is expressed ubiquitously in early development and its deletion is associated with the malformation syndrome called Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. It is involved in the t(4; 14) (p16; q32) chromosomal translocation, which is the second most common translocation in multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with the worst prognosis. MMSET expression has been shown to promote cellular adhesion, clonogenic growth and tumorigenicity in multiple myeloma. MMSET expression has been recently shown to increase with ascending tumor proliferation activity in glioblastoma multiforme. These data demonstrate that MMSET could be implicated in tumor emergence and/or progression. Therefore, we compared the expression of MMSET in 40 human tumor types - brain, epithelial, lymphoid - to that of their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database. We found significant overexpression of MMSET in 15 cancers compared to their normal counterparts. Furthermore MMSET is associated with tumor aggressiveness or prognosis in many types of these aforementioned cancers. Taken together, these data suggest that MMSET potentially acts as a pathogenic agent in many cancers. The identification of the targets of MMSET and their role in cell growth and survival will be key to understand how MMSET is associated with tumor development.

  11. Tumor reactive stroma in cholangiocarcinoma: The fuel behind cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brivio, Simone; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive epithelial malignancy still carrying a dismal prognosis, owing to early lymph node metastatic dissemination and striking resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Although mechanisms underpinning CCA progression are still a conundrum, it is now increasingly recognized that the desmoplastic microenvironment developing in conjunction with biliary carcinogenesis, recently renamed tumor reactive stroma (TRS), behaves as a paramount tumor-promoting driver. Indeed, once being recruited, activated and dangerously co-opted by neoplastic cells, the cellular components of the TRS (myofibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) continuously rekindle malignancy by secreting a huge variety of soluble factors (cyto/chemokines, growth factors, morphogens and proteinases). Furthermore, these factors are long-term stored within an abnormally remodeled extracellular matrix (ECM), which in turn can deleteriously mold cancer cell behavior. In this review, we will highlight evidence for the active role played by reactive stromal cells (as well as by the TRS-associated ECM) in CCA progression, including an overview of the most relevant TRS-derived signals possibly fueling CCA cell aggressiveness. Hopefully, a deeper knowledge of the paracrine communications reciprocally exchanged between cancer and stromal cells will steer the development of innovative, combinatorial therapies, which can finally hinder the progression of CCA, as well as of other cancer types with abundant TRS, such as pancreatic and breast carcinomas.

  12. [Radiation-induces increased tumor cell aggressiveness of tumors of the glioblastomas?].

    PubMed

    Falk, Alexander T; Moncharmont, Coralie; Guilbert, Matthieu; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Alphonse, Gersende; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Rivoirard, Romain; Gilormini, Marion; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiform is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with a worse prognostic. Ionizing radiation is a cornerstone in the treatment of glioblastome with chemo-radiation association being the actual standard. As a paradoxal effect, it has been suggested that radiotherapy could have a deleterious effect on local recurrence of cancer. In vivo studies have studied the effect of radiotherapy on biological modification and pathogenous effect of cancer cells. It seems that ionizing radiations with photon could activate oncogenic pathways in glioblastoma cell lines. We realized a review of the literature of photon-enhanced effect on invasion and migration of glioblastoma cells by radiotherapy.

  13. Hyperpolarized 13C MR Markers of Renal Tumor Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    reliably distinguish renal cancer aggressiveness for optimal triage of therapies . Hyperpolarized (HP) 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI...reliably distinguish renal cancer aggressiveness for optimal triage of therapies . Hyperpolarized (HP) 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is... cancer and normal tissues were obtained from nephrectomy specimens and sliced using Krumdieck slicer. With a precision gauge micrometer, the slice

  14. Frequency, Characteristics and Management of Adolescent Inpatient Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ≥1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI−: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI−: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136

  15. RB loss contributes to aggressive tumor phenotypes in MYC-driven triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Erik S; McClendon, A Kathleen; Franco, Jorge; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by multiple genetic events occurring in concert to drive pathogenic features of the disease. Here we interrogated the coordinate impact of p53, RB, and MYC in a genetic model of TNBC, in parallel with the analysis of clinical specimens. Primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) with defined genetic features were used to delineate the combined action of RB and/or p53 in the genesis of TNBC. In this context, the deletion of either RB or p53 alone and in combination increased the proliferation of mMEC; however, the cells did not have the capacity to invade in matrigel. Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of each tumor suppressor has effects related to proliferation, but RB loss in particular leads to alterations in gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The overexpression of MYC in combination with p53 loss or combined RB/p53 loss drove rapid cell growth. While the effects of MYC overexpression had a dominant impact on gene expression, loss of RB further enhanced the deregulation of a gene expression signature associated with invasion. Specific RB loss lead to enhanced invasion in boyden chambers assays and gave rise to tumors with minimal epithelial characteristics relative to RB-proficient models. Therapeutic screening revealed that RB-deficient cells were particularly resistant to agents targeting PI3K and MEK pathway. Consistent with the aggressive behavior of the preclinical models of MYC overexpression and RB loss, human TNBC tumors that express high levels of MYC and are devoid of RB have a particularly poor outcome. Together these results underscore the potency of tumor suppressor pathways in specifying the biology of breast cancer. Further, they demonstrate that MYC overexpression in concert with RB can promote a particularly aggressive form of TNBC.

  16. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation.

  17. Parotid gland solitary fibrous tumor with mandibular bone destruction and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    González-Otero, Teresa; Castro-Calvo, Alejandro; Ruiz-Bravo, Elena; Burgueño, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor is associated with serosal surfaces. Location in the salivary glands is extremely unusual. Extrathoracic tumors have an excellent prognosis associated with their benign clinical behavior. We report an aggressive and recurrent case of this tumor. We review the clinical presentation, inmunohistochemical profiles and therapeutic approaches. Case Report: A 73-years-old woman presented a mass in her right parotid gland. She had a past history of right superficial parotidectomy due to a neurilemoma. FNAB and magnetic resonance were non-specific. After a tumor resection, microscopic findings were spindled tumor cells with reactivity to CD34, bcl-2 and CD99 and the tumor was diagnosed as Solitary Fibrous Tumor. The patient suffered two recurrences and the tumor had a histological aggressive behavior and a destruction of the cortical bone of the mandible adjacent to the mass. A marginal mandibulectomy with an alveolar inferior nerve lateralization was performed. Conclusions: Solitary fibrous tumor is a very rare tumor. Usually, they are benign, but occasionally they can be aggressive. Complete resection is the most important prognostic factor and no evidence supports the efficacy of any therapy different to surgery. Due to the unknown prognosis and to the small number of cases reported, a long-term follow-up is guaranteed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid mass, parotid gland, salivary gland, rare tumors. PMID:25136435

  18. Giant cell tumor of the bone: aggressive case initially treated with denosumab and intralesional surgery.

    PubMed

    von Borstel, Donald; A Taguibao, Roberto; A Strle, Nicholas; E Burns, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive benign tumor, which has historically been treated with wide surgical excision. We report a case of a 29-year-old male with histology-proven GCTB of the distal ulna. The initial imaging study was a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the left wrist, which was from an outside facility performed before presenting to our institution. On the initial MRI, the lesion had homogenous T2-hyperintense and T1-hypointense signal with expansive remodeling of the osseous contour. A radiographic study performed upon presentation to our institution 1 month later showed progression of the lesion with atypical imaging characteristics. After confirming the diagnosis, denosumab therapy was implemented allowing for reconstitution of bone and intralesional treatment. The patient was treated with five doses of denosumab over the duration of 7 weeks. Therapeutic changes of the GCTB were evaluated by radiography and a post-treatment MRI. This MRI was interpreted as suspicious for worsening disease due to the imaging appearance of intralesional signal heterogeneity, increased perilesional fluid-like signal, and circumferential cortical irregularity. However, on subsequent intralesional curettage and bone autografting 6 weeks later, no giant cells were seen on the specimen. Thus, the appearance on the MRI, rather than representing a manifestation of lesion aggressiveness or a non-responding tumor, conversely represented the imaging appearance of a positive response to denosumab therapy. On follow-up evaluation, 5 months after intralesional treatment, the patient had recurrent disease and is now scheduled for wide-excision with joint prosthesis.

  19. The nested variant of urothelial carcinoma: an aggressive tumor closely simulating benign lesions.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Emine; Acikalin, Mustafa Fuat; Can, Cavit

    2006-01-01

    The "nested" variant is a rare form of urothelial carcinoma and its biologic behavior is highly aggressive. Herein two new cases of nested variant of urothelial carcinoma with immunohistochemical examination are presented. In one of the cases, the tumor extended through the bladder wall into the perivesicular soft tissue, prostatic urethra and left vesicula seminalis, and metastasized to obturator lymph nodes. In the other case, invasion of muscular layer was observed and three recurrences were developed during a follow-up period of 23 months. Both tumors of our study demonstrated high p53 and Ki-67 indices, supporting the aggressive nature of such tumors.

  20. Temozolomide (Temodar®) and capecitabine (Xeloda®) treatment of an aggressive corticotroph pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Thearle, Marie S; Freda, Pamela U; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Isaacson, Steven R; Lee, Yoomi; Fine, Robert L

    2011-12-01

    Only rarely do corticotroph pituitary tumors become invasive leading to symptoms caused by compression of cranial nerves and other local structures. When aggressive pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do develop, conventional treatment options are of limited success. A 50-year-old man developed a giant invasive corticotroph pituitary tumor 2 years after initial presentation. His tumor and symptoms failed to respond to maximal surgical, radio-surgical, radiation and medical therapy and a bilateral adrenalectomy was done. He subsequently developed rapid growth of his tumor leading to multiple cranial nerve deficits. He was administered salvage chemotherapy with capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM), a novel oral chemotherapy regimen developed at our institution for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. After two cycles of CAPTEM, his tumor markedly decreased in size and ACTH levels fell by almost 90%. Despite further decreases in ACTH levels, his tumor recurred after 5 months with increased avidity on PET scan suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive phenotype. Temozolomide had been reported to be effective against other pituitary tumors and this case adds to this literature demonstrating its use along with capecitabine (CAPTEM) against a corticotroph tumor. Further evaluation of the CAPTEM regimen in patients with pituitary neuroendocrine tumors which fail to respond to classic treatments is warranted.

  1. The effects of drivers’ aggressive characteristics on traffic stability from a new car-following model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed by considering the drivers’ aggressive characteristics. The stable condition and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are obtained by the linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, which show that the drivers’ aggressive characteristics can improve the stability of traffic flow. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the drivers’ aggressive characteristics increase the stable region of traffic flow and can reproduce the evolution and propagation of small perturbation.

  2. Hyperpolarized 13C MR Markers of Renal Tumor Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    lactate in the media. We observed three fold higher rate of lactate secreted into the media by the ccRCC tissue compared to the normal kidney (figure...imaging sequences with higher spatial resolution as well as sensitivity to generate contrast between the mouse kidney and the tumor grafts. This will...signal in the tumor grafts compared to the high background signal arising from the mouse kidney , several optimizations were explored, such as diffusion

  3. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

  4. 3D Silicon Microstructures: A New Tool for Evaluating Biological Aggressiveness of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Giuliano; Carpignano, Francesca; Surdo, Salvatore; Aredia, Francesca; Panini, Nicolò; Torchio, Martina; Erba, Eugenio; Danova, Marco; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Barillaro, Giuseppe; Merlo, Sabina

    2015-10-01

    In this work, silicon micromachined structures (SMS), consisting of arrays of 3- μ m-thick silicon walls separated by 50- μm-deep, 5- μ m-wide gaps, were applied to investigate the behavior of eight tumor cell lines, with different origins and biological aggressiveness, in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. Several cell culture experiments were performed on 3D-SMS and cells grown on silicon were stained for fluorescence microscopy analyses. Most of the tumor cell lines recognized in the literature as highly aggressive (OVCAR-5, A375, MDA-MB-231, and RPMI-7951) exhibited a great ability to enter and colonize the narrow deep gaps of the SMS, whereas less aggressive cell lines (OVCAR-3, Capan-1, MCF7, and NCI-H2126) demonstrated less penetration capability and tended to remain on top of the SMS. Quantitative image analyses of several fluorescence microscopy fields of silicon samples were performed for automatic cell recognition and count, in order to quantify the fraction of cells inside the gaps, with respect to the total number of cells in the examined field. Our results show that higher fractions of cells in the gaps are obtained with more aggressive cell lines, thus supporting in a quantitative way the observation that the behavior of tumor cells on the 3D-SMS depends on their aggressiveness level.

  5. Vascular patterns provide therapeutic targets in aggressive neuroblastic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tadeo, Irene; Bueno, Gloria; Berbegall, Ana P.; Fernández-Carrobles, M. Milagro; Castel, Victoria; García-Rojo, Marcial; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, nevertheless, in NB, results between different studies on angiogenesis have yielded contradictory results. An image analysis tool was developed to characterize the density, size and shape of total blood vessels and vascular segments in 458 primary neuroblastic tumors contained in tissue microarrays. The results were correlated with clinical and biological features of known prognostic value and with risk of progression to establish histological vascular patterns associated with different degrees of malignancy. Total blood vessels were larger, more abundant and more irregularly-shaped in tumors of patients with associated poor prognostic factors than in the favorable cohort. Tumor capillaries were less abundant and sinusoids more abundant in the patient cohort with unfavorable prognostic factors. Additionally, size of post-capillaries & metarterioles as well as higher sinusoid density can be included as predictive factors for survival. These patterns may therefore help to provide more accurate pre-treatment risk stratification, and could provide candidate targets for novel therapies. PMID:26918726

  6. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  7. Tumor-initiating cell frequency is relevant for glioblastoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Richichi, Cristina; Osti, Daniela; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Patanè, Monica; Pollo, Bianca; DiMeco, Francesco; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells (TICs). The arduous assessment of TIC frequencies challenges the prognostic role of TICs in predicting the clinical outcome in GBM patients. We estimated the TIC frequency in human GBM injecting intracerebrally in mice dissociated cells without any passage in culture. All GBMs contained rare TICsand were tumorigenic in vivo but only 54% of them grew in vitro as neurospheres. We demonstrated that neurosphere formation in vitro did not foretell tumorigenic ability in vivo and frequencies calculated in vitro overestimated the TIC content. Our findings assert the pathological significance of GBM TICs. TIC number correlated positively with tumor incidence and inversely with survival of tumor-bearing mice. Stratification of GBM patients according to TIC content revealed that patients with low TIC frequency experienced a trend towards a longer progression free survival. The expression of either putative stem-cell markers or markers associated with different GBM molecular subtypes did not associate with either TIC content or neurosphere formation underlying the limitations of TIC identification based on the expression of some putative stem cell-markers. PMID:27582543

  8. Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Tumors Reveals Differences Indicative of Aggressive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Alexander S.; Fischer, Andrew; Miller, Daniel H.; Vang, Souriya; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Yu, Jovian; Steinhoff, Margaret; Collins, Colin; Smith, Peter J. S.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Brard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and genetics of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasis, the form of the disease lethal to patients, is poorly understood. The unique properties of metastases are critical to understand to improve treatments of the disease that remains in patients after debulking surgery. We sought to identify the genetic and phenotypic landscape of metastatic progression of EOC to understand how metastases compare to primary tumors. DNA copy number and mRNA expression differences between matched primary human tumors and omental metastases, collected at the same time during debulking surgery before chemotherapy, were measured using microarrays. qPCR and immunohistochemistry validated findings. Pathway analysis of mRNA expression revealed metastatic cancer cells are more proliferative and less apoptotic than primary tumors, perhaps explaining the aggressive nature of these lesions. Most cases had copy number aberrations (CNAs) that differed between primary and metastatic tumors, but we did not detect CNAs that are recurrent across cases. A six gene expression signature distinguishes primary from metastatic tumors and predicts overall survival in independent datasets. The genetic differences between primary and metastatic tumors, yet common expression changes, suggest that the major clone in metastases is not the same as in primary tumors, but the cancer cells adapt to the omentum similarly. Together, these data highlight how ovarian tumors develop into a distinct, more aggressive metastatic state that should be considered for therapy development. PMID:24732363

  9. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  10. Gene expression profiles of metabolic aggressiveness and tumor recurrence in benign meningioma.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Morales, José Manuel; Mata, Manuel; Gonzalez-Darder, José; San Miguel, Teresa; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel; Monleon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors.

  11. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  12. Phyllodes tumor: review of key imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Michael Jonathan; Swintelski, Cara; Yaziji, Hadi; Torres-Salichs, Manuel; Esserman, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is rare and often resembles the more commonly seen fibroadenoma at imaging and histologically. As core biopsy cannot always distinguish the two, assessing radiologic-pathologic concordance is essential to guide appropriate clinical management. We review the imaging characteristics of phyllodes tumor at mammography, ultrasound, and MRI to help the interpreting radiologist be aware of key imaging features that should alert him to the possibility of a phyllodes tumor even if not verified by initial core biopsy.

  13. Rat Prostate Tumor Cells Progress in the Bone Microenvironment to a Highly Aggressive Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Sofia Halin; Rudolfsson, Stina H; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer generally metastasizes to bone, and most patients have tumor cells in their bone marrow already at diagnosis. Tumor cells at the metastatic site may therefore progress in parallel with those in the primary tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy is often the first-line treatment for clinically detectable prostate cancer bone metastases. Although the treatment is effective, most metastases progress to a castration-resistant and lethal state. To examine metastatic progression in the bone microenvironment, we implanted androgen-sensitive, androgen receptor–positive, and relatively slow-growing Dunning G (G) rat prostate tumor cells into the tibial bone marrow of fully immune-competent Copenhagen rats. We show that tumor establishment in the bone marrow was reduced compared with the prostate, and whereas androgen deprivation did not affect tumor establishment or growth in the bone, this was markedly reduced in the prostate. Moreover, we found that, with time, G tumor cells in the bone microenvironment progress to a more aggressive phenotype with increased growth rate, reduced androgen sensitivity, and increased metastatic capacity. Tumor cells in the bone marrow encounter lower androgen levels and a higher degree of hypoxia than at the primary site, which may cause high selective pressures and eventually contribute to the development of a new and highly aggressive tumor cell phenotype. It is therefore important to specifically study progression in bone metastases. This tumor model could be used to increase our understanding of how tumor cells adapt in the bone microenvironment and may subsequently improve therapy strategies for prostate metastases in bone. PMID:26992916

  14. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the uterus: clinical and pathologic review of 10 cases including a subset with aggressive clinical course.

    PubMed

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Quick, Charles M; Howitt, Brooke E; Dal Cin, Paola; Quade, Bradley J; Nucci, Marisa R

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is currently regarded as a neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and a wide anatomic distribution. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the female genital tract are rare, and to date reported cases behaved indolently. We describe, herein, 10 cases of uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, 3 of which had an aggressive clinical course. Subject age ranged from 29 to 73 years. Tumors were composed of spindle and epithelioid myofibroblastic cells admixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in a variably myxoid stroma. Two growth patterns, myxoid and fascicular (leiomyoma-like), were noted. All tumors were positive for ALK expression by immunohistochemistry, which was stronger in the myxoid areas. Smooth muscle marker and CD10 expression was variable in extent, but typically positive. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK rearrangements was positive in both fascicular and myxoid areas in all 8 cases tested. Three subjects showed clinical evidence of tumor aggressiveness as defined by extrauterine spread, local recurrence, or distant metastasis. Aggressive tumors were larger, had a higher proportion of myxoid stroma, and higher mitotic activity than indolent tumors. Tumor cell necrosis was seen only in cases with adverse outcome. This is the first report to describe aggressive biological behavior in uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. This diagnosis is often underappreciated and merits inclusion in the differential diagnosis of myxoid mesenchymal lesions of the uterus, particularly because patients with an aggressive course may benefit from targeted therapy.

  15. 'Salvage Treatment' of Aggressive Giant Cell Tumor of Bones with Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) presents as a lytic lesion of epiphyseometaphyseal regions of the long bones usually during the second to the fourth decade with female predilection. Histologically, they are formed of neoplastic mononuclear cells with a higher receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression responsible for the aggressive osteolytic nature of the tumour. RANKL helps in the formation and functioning of osteoclasts. A newer molecule, Denosumab, is a monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL and thus prevents the formation and function of osteoclasts. Management of refractory, multicentric, recurrent, or metastatic GCTB remains challenging as achieving a tumor-free margin surgically is not always possible. Denosumab may play a crucial role, especially in the management of such difficult lesions. We present three cases of locally aggressive GCTB (involving proximal humerus, sacrum, and proximal femur) that were treated and responded very well to Denosumab therapy.

  16. 'Salvage Treatment' of Aggressive Giant Cell Tumor of Bones with Denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) presents as a lytic lesion of epiphyseometaphyseal regions of the long bones usually during the second to the fourth decade with female predilection. Histologically, they are formed of neoplastic mononuclear cells with a higher receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression responsible for the aggressive osteolytic nature of the tumour. RANKL helps in the formation and functioning of osteoclasts. A newer molecule, Denosumab, is a monoclonal antibody directed against RANKL and thus prevents the formation and function of osteoclasts. Management of refractory, multicentric, recurrent, or metastatic GCTB remains challenging as achieving a tumor-free margin surgically is not always possible. Denosumab may play a crucial role, especially in the management of such difficult lesions. We present three cases of locally aggressive GCTB (involving proximal humerus, sacrum, and proximal femur) that were treated and responded very well to Denosumab therapy. PMID:26251767

  17. Metabolic coupling in urothelial bladder cancer compartments and its correlation to tumor aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Julieta; Santos, Lúcio L.; Morais, António; Amaro, Teresina; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    abstract Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are vital for intracellular pH homeostasis by extruding lactate from highly glycolytic cells. These molecules are key players of the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, and evidence indicates a potential contribution in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) aggressiveness and chemoresistance. However, the specific role of MCTs in the metabolic compartmentalization within bladder tumors, namely their preponderance on the tumor stroma, remains to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the immunoexpression of MCTs in the different compartments of UBC tissue samples (n = 111), assessing the correlations among them and with the clinical and prognostic parameters. A significant decrease in positivity for MCT1 and MCT4 occurred from normoxic toward hypoxic regions. Significant associations were found between the expression of MCT4 in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma. MCT1 staining in normoxic tumor areas, and MCT4 staining in hypoxic regions, in the tumor stroma and in the blood vessels were significantly associated with UBC aggressiveness. MCT4 concomitant positivity in hypoxic tumor cells and in the tumor stroma, as well as positivity in each of these regions concomitant with MCT1 positivity in normoxic tumor cells, was significantly associated with an unfavourable clinicopathological profile, and predicted lower overall survival rates among patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. Our results point to the existence of a multi-compartment metabolic model in UBC, providing evidence of a metabolic coupling between catabolic stromal and cancer cells’ compartments, and the anabolic cancer cells. It is urgent to further explore the involvement of this metabolic coupling in UBC progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26636903

  18. Do Friends' Characteristics Moderate the Prospective Links between Peer Victimization and Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarche, Veronique; Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This study examined (a) the predictive link between peer victimization and children's reactive and proactive aggression, and (b) the potential moderating effect of reciprocal friends' reactive and proactive aggression in this context. The study also examined whether these potential moderating effects of friends' characteristics were stronger with…

  19. Biallelic BRCA2 Mutations Shape the Somatic Mutational Landscape of Aggressive Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Brennan; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Davis, Brian W.; Karlins, Eric; Tillmans, Lori S.; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2016-01-01

    To identify clinically important molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa), we characterized the somatic landscape of aggressive tumors via deep, whole-genome sequencing. In our discovery set of ten tumor/normal subject pairs with Gleason scores of 8–10 at diagnosis, coordinated analysis of germline and somatic variants, including single-nucleotide variants, indels, and structural variants, revealed biallelic BRCA2 disruptions in a subset of samples. Compared to the other samples, the PCa BRCA2-deficient tumors exhibited a complex and highly specific mutation signature, featuring a 2.88-fold increased somatic mutation rate, depletion of context-specific C>T substitutions, and an enrichment for deletions, especially those longer than 10 bp. We next performed a BRCA2 deficiency-targeted reanalysis of 150 metastatic PCa tumors, and each of the 18 BRCA2-mutated samples recapitulated the BRCA2 deficiency-associated mutation signature, underscoring the potent influence of these lesions on somatic mutagenesis and tumor evolution. Among all 21 individuals with BRCA2-deficient tumors, only about half carried deleterious germline alleles. Importantly, the somatic mutation signature in tumors with one germline and one somatic risk allele was indistinguishable from those with purely somatic mutations. Our observations clearly demonstrate that BRCA2-disrupted tumors represent a unique and clinically relevant molecular subtype of aggressive PCa, highlighting both the promise and utility of this mutation signature as a prognostic and treatment-selection biomarker. Further, any test designed to leverage BRCA2 status as a biomarker for PCa must consider both germline and somatic mutations and all types of deleterious mutations. PMID:27087322

  20. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  1. Oncogenic Properties of Apoptotic Tumor Cells in Aggressive B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Catriona A.; Petrova, Sofia; Pound, John D.; Voss, Jorine J.L.P.; Melville, Lynsey; Paterson, Margaret; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Gallimore, Awen M.; Cuff, Simone; Wheadon, Helen; Dobbin, Edwina; Ogden, Carol Anne; Dumitriu, Ingrid E.; Dunbar, Donald R.; Murray, Paul G.; Ruckerl, Dominik; Allen, Judith E.; Hume, David A.; van Rooijen, Nico; Goodlad, John R.; Freeman, Tom C.; Gregory, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cells undergoing apoptosis are known to modulate their tissue microenvironments. By acting on phagocytes, notably macrophages, apoptotic cells inhibit immunological and inflammatory responses and promote trophic signaling pathways. Paradoxically, because of their potential to cause death of tumor cells and thereby militate against malignant disease progression, both apoptosis and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often associated with poor prognosis in cancer. We hypothesized that, in progression of malignant disease, constitutive loss of a fraction of the tumor cell population through apoptosis could yield tumor-promoting effects. Results Here, we demonstrate that apoptotic tumor cells promote coordinated tumor growth, angiogenesis, and accumulation of TAMs in aggressive B cell lymphomas. Through unbiased “in situ transcriptomics” analysis—gene expression profiling of laser-captured TAMs to establish their activation signature in situ—we show that these cells are activated to signal via multiple tumor-promoting reparatory, trophic, angiogenic, tissue remodeling, and anti-inflammatory pathways. Our results also suggest that apoptotic lymphoma cells help drive this signature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, upon induction of apoptosis, lymphoma cells not only activate expression of the tumor-promoting matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP12 in macrophages but also express and process these MMPs directly. Finally, using a model of malignant melanoma, we show that the oncogenic potential of apoptotic tumor cells extends beyond lymphoma. Conclusions In addition to its profound tumor-suppressive role, apoptosis can potentiate cancer progression. These results have important implications for understanding the fundamental biology of cell death, its roles in malignant disease, and the broader consequences of apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25702581

  2. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics That Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C J

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associated with risk for the development of aggressive behavior problems in elementary school (aggressive-disruptive behaviors at home, attention problems, and social cognitions) in a sample of 755 first-grade children in four demographically diverse American communities. Two school characteristics associated with student aggressive-disruptive behavior problems (low-quality classroom context, school poverty levels) were also assessed. Linear and multilevel analyses showed that both child and school characteristics made independent and cumulative contributions to the development of student aggressive-disruptive behavior at school. Although rates of student aggressive-disruptive behavior varied by gender and race, the predictive model generalized across all groups of children in the study.

  3. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  4. Expression of EGFR Under Tumor Hypoxia: Identification of a Subpopulation of Tumor Cells Responsible for Aggressiveness and Treatment Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Hoogen, Franciscus J.A. van den

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and tumor hypoxia have been shown to correlate with worse outcome in several types of cancer including head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Little is known about the combination and possible interactions between the two phenomena. Methods and Materials: In this study, 45 cases of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were analyzed. All patients received intravenous infusions of the exogenous hypoxia marker pimonidazole prior to biopsy. Presence of EGFR, pimonidazole binding, and colocalization between EGFR and tumor hypoxia were examined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Of all biopsies examined, respectively, 91% and 60% demonstrated EGFR- and pimonidazole-positive areas. A weak but significant association was found between the hypoxic fractions of pimonidazole (HFpimo) and EGFR fractions (F-EGFR) and between F-EGFR and relative vascular area. Various degrees of colocalization between hypoxia and EGFR were found, increasing with distance from the vasculature. A high fraction of EGFR was correlated with better disease-free and metastasis-free survival, whereas a high degree of colocalization correlated with poor outcome. Conclusions: Colocalization of hypoxia and EGFR was demonstrated in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas, predominantly at longer distances from vessels. A large amount of colocalization was associated with poor outcome, which points to a survival advantage of hypoxic cells that are also able to express EGFR. This subpopulation of tumor cells might be indicative of tumor aggressiveness and be partly responsible for treatment resistance.

  5. Loss of RasGAP Tumor Suppressors Underlies the Aggressive Nature of Luminal B Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sarah Naomi; Wronski, Ania; Castaño, Zafira; Dake, Benjamin; Malone, Clare; De Raedt, Thomas; Enos, Miriam; DeRose, Yoko S; Zhou, Wenhui; Guerra, Stephanie; Loda, Massimo; Welm, Alana; Partridge, Ann H; McAllister, Sandra S; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Cichowski, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Luminal breast cancers are typically estrogen receptor-positive and generally have the best prognosis. However, a subset of luminal tumors, namely luminal B cancers, frequently metastasize and recur. Unfortunately, the causal events that drive their progression are unknown, and therefore it is difficult to identify individuals who are likely to relapse and should receive escalated treatment. Here, we identify a bifunctional RasGAP tumor suppressor whose expression is lost in almost 50% of luminal B tumors. Moreover, we show that two RasGAP genes are concomitantly suppressed in the most aggressive luminal malignancies. Importantly, these genes cooperatively regulate two major oncogenic pathways, RAS and NF-κB, through distinct domains, and when inactivated drive the metastasis of luminal tumors in vivo Finally, although the cooperative effects on RAS drive invasion, NF-κB activation triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is required for metastasis. Collectively, these studies reveal important mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of luminal B tumors and provide functionally relevant prognostic biomarkers that may guide treatment decisions.

  6. Prolactinoma ErbB receptor expression and targeted therapy for aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Odelia; Mamelak, Adam; Bannykh, Serguei; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien; Lim, Stephen; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Ben-Shlomo, Anat

    2014-06-01

    As ErbB signaling is a determinant of prolactin synthesis, role of ErbB receptors was tested for prolactinoma outcomes and therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize ErbB receptor expression in prolactinomas and then perform a pilot study treating resistant prolactinomas with a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Retrospective analysis of prolactinomas and pilot study for dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas in tertiary referral center. We performed immunofluorescent staining of a tissue array of 29 resected prolactinoma tissues for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 correlated with clinical features. Two patients with aggressive resistant prolactinomas enrolled and completed trial. They received lapatinib 1,250 mg daily for 6 months with tumor and hormone assessments. Main outcome measures were positive tumor staining of respective ErbB receptors, therapeutic reduction of prolactin levels and tumor shrinkage. Treated PRL levels and tumor volumes were suppressed in both subjects treated with TKI. EGFR expression was positive in 82 % of adenomas, ErbB2 in 92 %, ErbB3 in 25 %, and ErbB4 in 71 %, with ErbB2 score > EGFR > ErbB4 > ErbB3. Higher ErbB3 expression was associated with optic chiasm compression (p = 0.03), suprasellar extension (p = 0.04), and carotid artery encasement (p = 0.01). Higher DA response rates were observed in tumors with higher ErbB3 expression. Prolactinoma expression of specific ErbB receptors is associated with tumor invasion, symptoms, and response to dopamine agonists. Targeting ErbB receptors may be effective therapy in patients with resistant prolactinomas.

  7. Role of miR-139 as a surrogate marker for tumor aggression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongyan; Gallagher, Dan; Schmitt, Sarah; Pessetto, Ziyan Y; Fan, Fang; Godwin, Andrew K; Tawfik, Ossama

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNAs are non-protein coding molecules that play a key role in oncogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis in many types of malignancies including breast cancer. In the current study, we studied the expression of microRNA-139-5p (miR-139) in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and correlated its expression with tumor grade, molecular subtype, hormonal status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, proliferation index, tumor size, lymph node status, patient's age, and overall survival in 74 IDC cases. In addition, we compared and correlated miR-139 expression in 18 paired serum and tissue samples from patients with IDC to assess its value as a serum marker. Our data showed that miR-139 was down-regulated in all tumor tissue samples compared with control. More pronounced down-regulation was seen in tumors that were higher grade, estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, more proliferative, or larger in size (P < .05). Although not statistically significant, lower miR-139 level was frequently associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression. In addition, significantly lower miR-139 tissue level was seen in patients who were deceased (P = .027), although older age (>50 years) and positive local nodal disease did not adversely affect miR-139 expression. In contrast, serum miR-139 profile of the patients appeared similar to that of normal control. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-139 was associated with aggressive tumor behavior and disease progression in breast cancer. miR-139 may serve as a risk assessment biomarker in tailoring treatment options.

  8. Phenotypic changes of acid adapted cancer cells push them toward aggressiveness in their evolution in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Damaghi, Mehdi; Gillies, Robert

    2016-09-16

    The inter- and intra-tumoral metabolic phenotypes of tumors are heterogeneous, and this is related to microenvironments that select for increased glycolysis. Increased glycolysis leads to decreased pH, and these local microenvironment effects lead to further selection. Hence, heterogeneity of phenotypes is an indirect consequence of altering microenvironments during carcinogenesis. In early stages of growth, tumors are stratified, with the most aggressive cells developing within the acidic interior of the tumor. However, these cells eventually find themselves at the tumor edge, where they invade into the normal tissue via acid-mediated invasion. We believe acid adaptation during the evolution of cancer cells in their niche is a Rubicon that, once crossed, allows cells to invade into and outcompete normal stromal tissue. In this study, we illustrate some acid-induced phenotypic changes due to acidosis resulting in more aggressiveness and invasiveness of cancer cells.

  9. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    PubMed

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2016-07-22

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.

  10. Characteristic clinical features associated with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y J; Hong, K E; Yum, H R; Lee, J H; Kim, K S; Youn, Y A; Park, S H

    2017-02-24

    PurposeTo identify the risk factors for, and clinical features and treatment outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in Korean infants.MethodsAmong 770 premature infants who underwent screening, 105 infants (198 eyes, 13.63%) received treatment for ROP. A total of 24 infants (48 eyes, 3.12%) developed APROP while 81 infants (150 eyes, 10.52%) developed non-APROP treatment-requiring type. The medical records of ROP-treated infants were reviewed retrospectively. The associated systemic and maternal risk factors were analyzed and anatomical outcomes were compared according to the severity of ROP and treatment modalities.ResultsThe mean gestational age and birth weight at birth in the APROP group were significantly lower than those in the non-APROP group (P=0.019, P<0.001, respectively). Infants who were born small for their GA developed APROP more frequently than non-APROP patients (P<0.001). Chorioamnionitis-positive infants also showed higher incidence rate of APROP (APROP vs non-APROP; P<0.001 and zone I APROP vs posterior zone II APROP; P=0.036, respectively). Infants with APROP required heavier laser treatment with a higher retreatment rate compared to infants with non-APROP. Favorable anatomical outcomes were achieved in 95.3% from treatment-requiring non-APROP group, 85.7% from zone I APROP and 84.6% from posterior zone II APROP group.ConclusionIntrauterine growth restriction and chorioamnionitis were associated with development of APROP. These findings suggest that perinatal maternal environment inhibiting normal retinal vascular growth in utero may contribute to increasing the risk of APROP in premature infants.Eye advance online publication, 24 February 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.18.

  11. Pancoast tumors: characteristics and preoperative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasilios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Prokakis, Christos; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Hatzimichalis, Antonios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kesisis, Georgios; Siminelakis, Stavros; Madesis, Athanasios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors (SSTs), or as otherwise known Pancoast tumors, make up a clinically unique and challenging subset of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung (NSCLC). Although the outcome of patients with this disease has traditionally been poor, recent developments have contributed to a significant improvement in prognosis of SST patients. The combination of severe and unrelenting shoulder and arm pain along the distribution of the eighth cervical and first and second thoracic nerve trunks, Horner’s syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis) and atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles comprises a clinical entity named as “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome”. Apart NSCLC, other lesions may, although less frequently, result in Pancoast syndrome. In the current review we will present the main characteristics of the disease and focus on the preoperative assessment. PMID:24672686

  12. Generalized hostile interpretation bias regarding facial expressions: Characteristic of pathological aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Smeijers, Danique; Rinck, Mike; Bulten, Erik; van den Heuvel, Thom; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2017-02-12

    Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this "hostile attribution bias" is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others' intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED). However, there is little knowledge to what extent this bias is displayed by each of these patient groups. The present study investigated whether a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions was displayed by forensic psychiatric outpatients (FPOs) and whether it was associated with ASPD and BPD in general or, more specifically, with a disposition to react with pathological aggression. Participants of five different groups were recruited: FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED, non-forensic patients with BPD (nFPOs-BPD), and healthy, non-aggressive controls (HCs). Results suggest that solely FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED exhibit a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions. Moreover, this bias was associated with type and severity of aggression, trait aggression, and cognitive distortions. The results suggest that a HIB regarding facial expressions is an important characteristic of pathological aggressive behavior. Interventions that modify the HIB might help to reduce the recurrence of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-12, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sexual Coercion and Aggression on Campus: Characteristics of Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W.; And Others

    This study investigated the social, moral/ethical, and personality characteristics, and the social beliefs/attitudes differentiating male college students who engage in sexual assault or coercion from those who do not. Subjects consisted of a random sample of 243 male university students. The Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Koss & Oros, 1982) was…

  14. AT9283, a novel aurora kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaobing; Cooke, Laurence S; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Squires, Matthew; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2012-06-15

    Aurora kinases are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in regulating the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Auroras are overexpressed in numerous tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are validated oncology targets. AT9283, a pan-aurora inhibitor inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that AT9283 had potent activity against Aurora B in a variety of aggressive B-(non-Hodgkin lymphoma) B-NHL cell lines. Cells treated with AT9283 exhibited endoreduplication confirming the mechanism of action of an Aurora B inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with AT9283 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner and inhibited cell proliferation with an IC(50) < 1 μM. It is well known that inhibition of auroras (A or B) synergistically enhances the effects of microtubule targeting agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis. We evaluated whether AT9283 in combination with docetaxel is more efficient in inducing apoptosis than AT9283 or docetaxel alone. At very low doses (5 nM) apoptosis was doubled in the combination (23%) compared to AT9283 or docetaxel alone (10%). A mouse xenograft model of mantle cell lymphoma demonstrated that AT9283 at 15 mg/kg and docetaxel (10 mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, AT9283 at 20 mg/kg and AT9283 (15 or 20 mg/kg) plus docetaxel (10 mg/kg) demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival. Together, our results suggest that AT9283 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in B-cell NHL and warrant early phase clinical trial evaluation.

  15. Pregnane X receptor activation induces FGF19-dependent tumor aggressiveness in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Li, Hao; Goetz, Regina; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Biswas, Arunima; Zhu, Liang; Kaubisch, Andreas; Wang, Lei; Pullman, James; Whitney, Kathleen; Kuro-o, Makoto; Roig, Andres I; Shay, Jerry W; Mohammadi, Moosa; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is activated by a range of xenochemicals, including chemotherapeutic drugs, and has been suggested to play a role in the development of tumor cell resistance to anticancer drugs. PXR also has been implicated as a regulator of the growth and apoptosis of colon tumors. Here, we have used a xenograft model of colon cancer to define a molecular mechanism that might underlie PXR-driven colon tumor growth and malignancy. Activation of PXR was found to be sufficient to enhance the neoplastic characteristics, including cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, of both human colon tumor cell lines and primary human colon cancer tissue xenografted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, we were able to show that this PXR-mediated phenotype required FGF19 signaling. PXR bound to the FGF19 promoter in both human colon tumor cells and "normal" intestinal crypt cells. However, while both cell types proliferated in response to PXR ligands, the FGF19 promoter was activated by PXR only in cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicate that colon cancer growth in the presence of a specific PXR ligand results from tumor-specific induction of FGF19. These observations may lead to improved therapeutic regimens for colon carcinomas.

  16. Molecular apocrine breast cancers are aggressive estrogen receptor negative tumors overexpressing either HER2 or GCDFP15

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Molecular apocrine (MA) tumors are estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers characterized by androgen receptor (AR) expression. We analyzed a group of 58 transcriptionally defined MA tumors and proposed a new tool to identify these tumors. Methods We performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) for ESR1, AR, FOXA1 and AR-related genes, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), CK5/6, CK17, EGFR, Ki67, AR, FOXA1 and GCDFP15 and we analyzed clinical features. Results MA tumors were all characterized by ESR1(-) AR(+) FOXA1(+) and AR-related genes positive mRNA profile. IHC staining on these tumors showed 93% ER(-), only 58% AR(+) and 90% FOXA1(+). 67% and 57% MA tumors were HER2(3+) and GCDFP15(+), respectively. Almost all MA tumors (94%) had the IHC signature HER2(3+) or GCDFP15(+) but none of the 13 control basal-like (BL) tumors did. Clinically, MA tumors were rather aggressive, with poor prognostic factors. Conclusion MA tumors could be better defined by their qRT-PCR-AR profile than by AR IHC. In addition, we found that HER2 or GCDFP15 protein overexpression is a sensitive and specific tool to differentiate MA from BL in the context of ER negative tumors. A composite molecular and IHC signature could, therefore, help to identify MA tumors in daily practice. PMID:23663520

  17. An unusually large aggressive adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of maxilla involving the third molar: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Khandelwal, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare tumor comprising only 3% of all odontogenic tumors. It is a benign, encapsulated, noninvasive, nonaggressive, slowly growing odontogenic lesion associated with an impacted tooth. These lesions may go unnoticed for years. The usual treatment is enucleation and curettage, and the lesion does not recur. Here, we present a rare case of an unusually large aggressive AOT of maxilla associated with impacted third molar. The authors also discuss clinical, radiographic, histopathologic, and therapeutic features of the case. Subtotal maxillectomy with simultaneous reconstruction of the surgical defect with temporalis myofascial flap was planned and carried out. PMID:27095910

  18. Proposed therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma based on aggressive tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ikuta, Soko; Komori, Takashi; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Tamura, Manabu; Saito, Taiichi; Okamoto, Saori; Chernov, Mikhail; Hayashi, Motohiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    significantly correlated with patient survival; thus, one should aim for maximum tumor resection. In addition, patients with a higher EOR can be safely observed without adjuvant therapy. For patients with partial resection, postoperative chemotherapy should be administered for those with oligodendroglial subtypes, and repeat resection should be considered for those with astrocytic tumors. More aggressive treatment with RT and chemotherapy may be required for patients with a poor prognosis, such as those with diffuse astrocytoma, 1p/19q nondeleted tumors, or IDH1 wild-type oligodendroglial tumors with partial resection.

  19. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken's embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  20. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken’s embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  1. Gastric type endocervical adenocarcinoma: an aggressive tumor with unusual metastatic patterns and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Karamurzin, Yevgeniy S.; Kiyokawa, Takako; Parkash, Vinita; Jotwani, Anjali R.; Patel, Prusha; Pike, Malcolm C.; Soslow, Robert A.; Park, Kay J.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (GAS) is a rare variant of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma not etiologically associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) at the well-differentiated end of the morphologic spectrum. These tumors are reported to have worse prognosis than usual HPV-associated endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA). A retrospective review of GAS was performed from the pathology databases of three institutions spanning 20 years. Stage, metastatic patterns, and overall survival were documented. Forty GAS cases were identified, with clinical follow-up data available for 38. The tumors were subclassified as MDA (n=13) and non-MDA GAS (n=27). Two patients were syndromic (one Li-Fraumeni, one Peutz-Jeghers). At presentation, 59% were advanced stage (FIGO II–IV), 50% had lymph node metastases, 35% had ovarian involvement, 20% had abdominal disease, 39% had at least one site of metastasis at the time of initial surgery, and 12% of patients experienced distant recurrence. The metastatic sites included lymph nodes, adnexa, omentum, bowel, peritoneum, diaphragm, abdominal wall, bladder, vagina, appendix, and brain. Follow-up ranged from 1.4 to 136.0 months (mean, 33.9 months); 20/38 (52.6%) had no evidence of disease, 3/38 (7.9%) were alive with disease, and 15/38 (39.5%) died of disease. Disease specific survival at 5 years was 42% for GAS vs. 91% for UEA. There were no survival differences between MDA and non-MDA GAS. GAS represents a distinct, biologically aggressive type of endocervical adenocarcinoma. The majority of patients present at advanced stage and pelvic, abdominal, and distant metastases are not uncommon. PMID:26457350

  2. Mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: an aggressive counterpart to conventional pure mucinous tumors.

    PubMed

    Barbashina, Violetta; Corben, Adriana D; Akram, Muzaffar; Vallejo, Christina; Tan, Lee K

    2013-08-01

    Mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast, also described as "pure mucinous carcinoma with micropapillary pattern," has recently come to attention as an unusual form of invasive breast cancer exhibiting dual mucinous and micropapillary differentiation. Despite increasing awareness of this morphologic variant, its clinical significance has not yet been elucidated. Here, we present 15 additional examples of these rare tumors to highlight some important differences between mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and ordinary pure mucinous carcinomas. The key features of mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast included (a) largely or entirely mucinous appearance (>90% mucinous morphology), (b) distinctive micropapillary arrangement of the neoplastic cells, (c) intermediate to high nuclear grade, (d) "hobnail" cells, and (e) frequent psammomatous calcifications. In contrast to ordinary pure mucinous carcinomas, 20% of mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast were characterized by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positivity, and 23% were p53 positive. More than half of mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast (60%) demonstrated lymphovascular invasion, sometimes extensive. Synchronous axillary lymph node metastases were detected in 33% of patients and, on 2 occasions, involved more than 10 nodes. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, we identified 1 patient (7%) with chest wall recurrence of mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast after mastectomy. We conclude that mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast constitute a clinically aggressive subset of mucin-producing breast carcinomas characterized by an increased capacity for lymphatic invasion and regional lymph node metastasis, reflective of their dual phenotype. Recognition of the morphologic and biologic heterogeneity within breast cancer subtypes should allow for a more accurate classification of the individual tumors and better patient stratification for

  3. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  4. Individual Characteristics, Early Adolescent Peer Affiliations, and School Dropout: An Examination of Aggressive and Popular Group Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Leung, Man-Chi; Trott, Hollister; Bishop, Jennifer; Cairns, Beverley D.

    2003-01-01

    Individual characteristics and peer group membership type in 7th grade was examined in relation to school dropout. Peer group type was characterized according to the proportion of group members who were high on teacher-rated aggression and popularity. Both aggressive and popular group types were linked to dropping out. (Contains 43 references and…

  5. Sub-100 nm Gold Nanomatryoshkas Improve Photo-thermal Therapy Efficacy in Large and Highly Aggressive Triple Negative Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bishnoi, Sandra; Urban, Alexander; Charron, Heather; Mitchell, Tamika; Shea, Martin; Nanda, Sarmistha; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi; Joshi, Amit

    2014-01-01

    There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or nectrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100 nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising of concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150 nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000 mm3) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5X accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy. PMID:25051221

  6. Sub-100nm gold nanomatryoshkas improve photo-thermal therapy efficacy in large and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Urban, Cordula; Bishnoi, Sandra; Urban, Alexander; Charron, Heather; Mitchell, Tamika; Shea, Martin; Nanda, Sarmistha; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi; Joshi, Amit

    2014-10-10

    There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or necrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000mm(3)) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5× accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy.

  7. Clinical Activity of the γ-Secretase Inhibitor PF-03084014 in Adults With Desmoid Tumors (Aggressive Fibromatosis).

    PubMed

    Kummar, Shivaani; O'Sullivan Coyne, Geraldine; Do, Khanh T; Turkbey, Baris; Meltzer, Paul S; Polley, Eric; Choyke, Peter L; Meehan, Robert; Vilimas, Rasa; Horneffer, Yvonne; Juwara, Lamin; Lih, Ann; Choudhary, Amul; Mitchell, Sandra A; Helman, Lee J; Doroshow, James H; Chen, Alice P

    2017-03-28

    Purpose Desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis) arise from connective tissue cells or fibroblasts. In general, they are slow growing and do not metastasize; however, locally aggressive desmoid tumors can cause severe morbidity and loss of function. Disease recurrence after surgery and/or radiation and diagnosis of multifocal desmoid tumors highlight the need to develop effective systemic treatments for this disease. In this study, we evaluate objective response rate after therapy with the γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 in patients with recurrent, refractory, progressive desmoid tumors. Patients and Methods Seventeen patients with desmoid tumors received PF-03084014 150 mg orally twice a day in 3-week cycles. Response to treatment was evaluated at cycle 1 and every six cycles, that is, 18 weeks, by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) version 1.1. Patient-reported outcomes were measured at baseline and at every restaging visit by using the MD Anderson Symptoms Inventory. Archival tumor and blood samples were genotyped for somatic and germline mutations in APC and CTNNB1. Results Of 17 patients accrued to the study, 15 had mutations in APC or CTNNB1 genes. Sixteen patients (94%) were evaluable for response; five (29%) experienced a confirmed partial response and have been on study for more than 2 years. Another five patients with prolonged stable disease as their best response remain on study. Patient-reported outcomes confirmed clinician reporting that the investigational agent was well tolerated and, in subgroup analyses, participants who demonstrated partial response also experienced clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in symptom burden. Conclusion PF-03084014 was well tolerated and demonstrated promising clinical benefit in patients with refractory, progressive desmoid tumors who receive long-term treatment.

  8. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  9. The pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor variation with disease progression and aggressiveness in colorectal cancer depends on tumor location

    PubMed Central

    PAPAGIORGIS, PETROS C.; ZIZI, ADAMANTIA E.; TSELENI, SOPHIA; OIKONOMAKIS, IOANNIS N.; NIKITEAS, NIKOLAOS I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis remains unclear despite the recent development of anti-EGFR treatments for metastatic disease. The heterogeneity of CRC may account for this discrepancy; proximal and distal CRC has been found to be genetically and clinicopathologically different. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tumor location on the association of EGFR with the conventional prognostic indicators (stage and grade) in CRC. Immunohistochemical assessment of EGFR was retrospectively performed in 119 primary CRC specimens and data were correlated with tumor stage and grade in the proximal and distal tumor subset. The molecular combination of EGFR with p53 (previously assessed in this sample) was similarly analyzed. EGFR positivity was detected in 34, 30 and 35% of the entire cohort, proximal and distal tumors, respectively. The pattern of EGFR clinicopathological correlation was found to differ by site. A reduction in the frequency of EGFR(+) with progression of stage and/or worsening of grade was observed proximally, whereas an opposite trend was recorded distally. Proximal tumors with stage I or with indolent features (stage I, well-differentiated) exhibited a significantly higher proportion of EGFR positivity than other tumors of this location (p=0.023 and p=0.022, respectively) or corresponding distal tumors (p=0.018 and p=0.035, respectively). Moreover, the co-existence of EGFR and high p53 staining (accounting for 11% of cases) was found in a significantly higher proportion of stage IV tumors compared to other stages (p=0.004), although only for the distal subset. Proximal and distal tumors showed various patterns of EGFR variation with disease progression and aggressiveness. This disparity provides further support to the hypothesis that these particular subsets of CRC are distinct tumor entities. It may also be suggestive of a potentially different therapeutic approach according to

  10. Receptor-Independent Ectopic Activity of Prolactin Predicts Aggressive Lung Tumors and Indicates HDACi-Based Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Le Bescont, Aurore; Vitte, Anne-Laure; Debernardi, Alexandra; Curtet, Sandrine; Buchou, Thierry; Vayr, Jessica; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Ito, Akihiro; Guardiola, Philippe; Brambilla, Christian; Yoshida, Minoru; Brambilla, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Ectopic activation of tissue-specific genes accompanies malignant transformation in many cancers. Prolactin (PRL) aberrant activation in lung cancer was investigated here to highlight its value as a biomarker. Results: PRL is ectopically activated in a subset of very aggressive lung tumors, associated with a rapid fatal outcome, in our cohort of 293 lung tumor patients and in an external independent series of patients. Surprisingly PRL receptor expression was not detected in the vast majority of PRL-expressing lung tumors. Additionally, the analysis of the PRL transcripts in lung tumors and cell lines revealed systematic truncations of their 5′ regions, including the signal peptide-encoding portions. PRL expression was found to sustain cancer-specific gene expression circuits encompassing genes that are normally responsive to hypoxia. Interestingly, this analysis also indicated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could counteract the PRL-associated transcriptional activity. Innovation and Conclusion: Altogether, this work not only unravels a yet unknown oncogenic mechanism but also indicates that the specific category of PRL-expressing aggressive lung cancers could be particularly responsive to an HDAC inhibitor-based treatment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1–14. PMID:24512221

  11. ERK-dependent downregulation of the atypical chemokine receptor D6 drives tumor aggressiveness in Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Savino, Benedetta; Caronni, Nicoletta; Anselmo, Achille; Pasqualini, Fabio; Borroni, Elena Monica; Basso, Gianluca; Celesti, Giuseppe; Laghi, Luigi; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Boneschi, Vinicio; Brambilla, Lucia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Vago, Gianluca; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2014-07-01

    D6 is an atypical chemokine receptor acting as a decoy and scavenger for inflammatory CC chemokines expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we report that D6 is expressed in Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a tumor ontogenetically related to the lymphatic endothelium. Both in human tumors and in an experimental model, D6 expression levels were inversely correlated with tumor aggressiveness and increased infiltration of proangiogenic macrophages. Inhibition of monocyte recruitment reduced the growth of tumors, while adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not CCR2(-/-) macrophages, increased the growth rate of D6-competent neoplasms. In the KS model with the B-Raf V600E-activating mutation, inhibition of B-Raf or the downstream ERK pathway induced D6 expression; in progressing human KS tumors, the activation of ERK correlates with reduced levels of D6 expression. These results indicate that activation of the K-Ras-B-Raf-ERK pathway during KS progression downregulates D6 expression, which unleashes chemokine-mediated macrophage recruitment and their acquisition of an M2-like phenotype supporting angiogenesis and tumor growth. Combined targeting of CCR2 and the ERK pathway should be considered as a therapeutic option for patients with KS.

  12. Adhesion Characteristics on Anodized Titanium and its Durability Under Aggressive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sabbir; Chakrabarty, Debabrata; Mukherjee, Subroto; Bhowmik, Shantanu

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the interfacial adhesion characteristics of titanium (Ti) surface at elevated temperature and in aqueous salt solution. In order to ensure the presence of titanium oxide coating on the surface of titanium, anodization on titanium was carried out by sodium hydroxide. This oxide coating etches the surfaces of titanium. These etching surfaces of titanium increase the surface energy and surface roughness of the titanium. Physicochemical characteristics of surface modified titanium were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study and the results reveal that there is a significant increase in oxygen functionalities due to anodization. The oxide etching on the surface of anodized titanium is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The contact angle and surface energy are measured by the use of two liquids namely water and glycerol. It is observed that the formation of oxide not only improves the surface energy of titanium but also protects the surface of titanium when exposed to aggressive environments. The lap-shear tensile strengths of two anodized titanium surfaces were fabricated by adhesive. There has been significant improvement in the adhesive bond strength, and subsequently in the durability of adhesive bonded joint, of titanium when exposed to aggressive environments.

  13. Are the Pathological Characteristics of Prostate Cancer More Aggressive or More Indolent Depending upon the Patient Age?

    PubMed

    Ji, Guangjie; Huang, Cong; Song, Gang; Xiong, Gengyan; Fang, Dong; Wang, He; Hao, Han; Cai, Lin; He, Qun; He, Zhisong; Zhou, Liqun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To identify pathological characteristics of prostate cancer according to patient age at diagnosis. Methods. A retrospective review of 2,929 men diagnosed with prostate cancer was performed. Pathological characteristics were compared across age groups: ≤55, 56-75, and >75 years. Results. The study cohort included 133 patients (4.5%), 2,033 patients (69.5%), and 763 patients (26.0%) in the three age groups, respectively. The median pathological Gleason sums in the three age groups were 8, 7, and 8, respectively. The Gleason sum, primary Gleason score, and second primary Gleason score were significantly different among the three age groups (Z = 12.975, p = 0.002; Z = 9.264, p = 0.010; Z = 6.692, p = 0.035, resp.). The percentages of Gleason pattern 5 tumors for the three age groups were 44.4%, 32.3%, and 36.8%, respectively; they were significantly different (χ(2) = 11.641, p = 0.003). The percentages of tumors with Gleason score grade groups 3-5 for the three age groups were 66.9%, 60.5%, and 66.3%, respectively; they were significantly different (χ(2) = 9.401, p = 0.009). Conclusions. The present study indicated that men aged ≤55 years or >75 years show higher levels of clinically significant prostate cancer compared to patients between the ages of 55 and 75 years. Younger and more elderly male patients are more likely to have a more aggressive disease.

  14. Are the Pathological Characteristics of Prostate Cancer More Aggressive or More Indolent Depending upon the Patient Age?

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guangjie; Huang, Cong; Fang, Dong; Wang, He; Hao, Han; Cai, Lin; He, Qun; He, Zhisong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To identify pathological characteristics of prostate cancer according to patient age at diagnosis. Methods. A retrospective review of 2,929 men diagnosed with prostate cancer was performed. Pathological characteristics were compared across age groups: ≤55, 56–75, and >75 years. Results. The study cohort included 133 patients (4.5%), 2,033 patients (69.5%), and 763 patients (26.0%) in the three age groups, respectively. The median pathological Gleason sums in the three age groups were 8, 7, and 8, respectively. The Gleason sum, primary Gleason score, and second primary Gleason score were significantly different among the three age groups (Z = 12.975, p = 0.002; Z = 9.264, p = 0.010; Z = 6.692, p = 0.035, resp.). The percentages of Gleason pattern 5 tumors for the three age groups were 44.4%, 32.3%, and 36.8%, respectively; they were significantly different (χ2 = 11.641, p = 0.003). The percentages of tumors with Gleason score grade groups 3–5 for the three age groups were 66.9%, 60.5%, and 66.3%, respectively; they were significantly different (χ2 = 9.401, p = 0.009). Conclusions. The present study indicated that men aged ≤55 years or >75 years show higher levels of clinically significant prostate cancer compared to patients between the ages of 55 and 75 years. Younger and more elderly male patients are more likely to have a more aggressive disease. PMID:28265568

  15. [Prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Villaseñor, E G; Linares-González, L M; Delgado-Cedillo, E A; González-Guzmán, R; Rico-Martínez, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of giant cell tumors reported in the literature is very variable. Considering that our population has its own features, which distinguish it from the Anglo-Saxon and Asian populations, we think that both the frequency and the clinical characteristics of giant cell tumors in our population are different. The major aim of this paper was to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors of the bone. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of the cases diagnosed at our service as giant cell tumors of the bone from January to December 2013. The electronic clinical records, radiologic records and histologic slides from each case were reviewed. Giant cell tumors represented 17% of total bone tumors and 28% of benign tumors. Patients included 13 females and 18 males. The most frequent locations of giant cell tumors were: the proximal tibia, 9 cases (29%), and the distal femur, 6 cases (19%). Forty-five percent of giant cell tumors were associated with aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) (14 cases) and one case (3%) was malignant. The frequency of giant cell tumors in this case series was intermediate, that is, higher than the one reported in Anglo-Saxon countries (usually low), but without reaching the frequency rates reported in Asian countries (high).

  16. Overexpression of homeobox B-13 correlates with angiogenesis, aberrant expression of EMT markers, aggressive characteristics and poor prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lu-Lu; Wu, Yang; Cai, Chong-Yang; Tang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of homeobox B (Hoxb)-13 and analyze its relationship with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated markers (E-cadherin and vimentin), clinicopathologic data and prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the level of Hoxb-13 expression in tumor tissues and surrounding non-tumor tissues from 85 subjects with pancreatic carcinoma. Besides, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, E-cadherin and vimentin were also detected in tumor tissues by immunostaining. We found that the level of Hoxb-13 expression was significantly higher in pancreatic carcinoma tissues than in paracarcinomatous tissues (P < 0.05). Hoxb-13 staining was positively correlated with VEGF (r = 0.429, P < 0.001) and microvessel density (MVD) (r = 0.454, P < 0.001). Likewise, Hoxb-13 staining was positively correlated with vimentin (r = 0.448, P < 0.001); while it was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (r = -0.405, P < 0.001). High Hoxb-13 expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, worse disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.001) and worse overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that Hoxb-13 was an independent predictor for poor DFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.002). In conclusion, our data show that overexpressed Hoxb-13 is correlated with tumor angiogenesis, aberrant expression of EMT-associated markers and aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, and serves as a promising marker for unfavourable prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

  17. βIII-tubulin overexpression is linked to aggressive tumor features and genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Andrea; Chaker, Aref; Burdelski, Christian; Koop, Christina; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Steurer, Stefan; Rink, Michael; Eichenauer, Till Simon; Wilczak, Waldemar; Wittmer, Corinna; Fisch, Margit; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Büschek, Franziska; Clauditz, Till; Minner, Sarah; Jacobsen, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Development of genetic instability is a hallmark of tumor progression. Type III β-tubulin (TUBB3) is a component of microtubules involved in chromosome segregation. Its overexpression has been linked to adverse features of urinary bladder cancer. To investigate the role of TUBB3 for development of genetic instability, we compared TUBB3 expression with histopathological features and surrogate markers of genetic instability and tumor aggressiveness; copy number changes of HER2, TOP2A, CCND1, RAF1, and FGFR1; nuclear accumulation of p53, and cell proliferation in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 700 bladder cancers. TUBB3 expression was linked to high-grade and advanced-stage cancers (P<.0001), rapid cell proliferation (P<.0001), presence of multiple gene copy number alterations (P=.0008), and nuclear accumulation of p53 (P=.0008). Strong TUBB3 staining was found in 43% of urothelial cancers harboring copy number alterations as compared with 28% of genetically stable cancers, and in 50% of p53-positive cancers as compared with 30% of p53-negative tumors. The fraction of tumors with concomitant TUBB3 and p53 positivity increased with tumor stage and grade: 2% in pTaG1-2, 11% in pTaG3, 17% in pT1G2, 23% in pT1G3, and 32% in pT2-4 cancers (P<.0001). Importantly, strong TUBB3 overexpression was detectable in about 20% of low-grade, noninvasive cancers. In summary, our study demonstrates that TUBB3 overexpression is linked to an aggressive subtype of urinary bladder cancers, which is characterized by increased genetic instability, p53 alterations, and rapid cell proliferation. Detection of TUBB3 overexpression in genetically stable, low-grade, and noninvasive bladder cancers may be clinically useful to identify patients requiring particular close monitoring.

  18. Presence of sst5TMD4, a truncated splice variant of the somatostatin receptor subtype 5, is associated to features of increased aggressiveness in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Adrados, Magdalena; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Culler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors, and their biological behavior is not well known. We studied the presence and potential functional roles of somatostatin receptors (sst1-5), focusing particularly on the truncated variants (sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5) and on their relationships with the angiogenic system (Ang/Tie-2 and VEGF) in human GEP-NETs. Experimental Design We evaluated 42 tumor tissue samples (26 primary/16 metastatic) from 26 patients with GEP-NETs, and 30 non-tumoral tissues (26 from adjacent non-tumor regions and 4 from normal controls) from a single center. Expression of sst1-5, sst5TMD4, sst5TMD5, Ang1-2, Tie-2 and VEGF was analyzed using real-time qPCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were associated with tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes. Functional role of sst5TMD4 was analyzed in GEP-NET cell lines. Results sst1 exhibited the highest expression in GEP-NET, whilst sst2 was the most frequently observed sst-subtype (90.2%). Expression levels of sst1, sst2, sst3, sst5TMD4, and sst5TMD5 were significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumoral tissue. Lymph-node metastases expressed higher levels of sst5TMD4 than in its corresponding primary tumor tissue. sst5TMD4 was also significantly higher in intestinal tumor tissues from patients with residual disease of intestinal origin compared to those with non-residual disease. Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of sst5TMD4 was associated to enhanced malignant features in GEP-NET cells. Angiogenic markers correlated positively with sst5TMD4, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical/fluorescence studies. Conclusions sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in GEP-NETs and is associated to enhanced aggressiveness, suggesting its potential value as biomarker and target in GEP-NETs. PMID:26673010

  19. Effects of structural and dynamic family characteristics on the development of depressive and aggressive problems during adolescence. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J

    2014-06-01

    Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.

  20. Analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment of pancreatic cystic tumors

    PubMed Central

    You, Lei; Xiao, Jianchun; Cao, Zhe; Zhang, Wanying; Liao, Quan; Dai, Menghua; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize experience in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Methods This is a retrospective study of 207 patients who were diagnosed with pancreatic cystic tumors at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between Jan 2009 and Mar 2014. Clinical data, such as clinical manifestations, radiological and pathological images and surgical recordings, were collected. Results Of the 207 included patients, females accounted for 76.81%, and the mean patient age was 52.04 years. Malignancy was more common in older patients who presented with marasmus and jaundice. Other risk factors included solid components in the tumor, a large tumor size, and elevated levels of tumor markers. Surgical treatment was required when a malignant tumor was suspected. The operation approach was selected based on the location, size and characteristics of the tumor. The position of the tumor relative to the pancreatic duct also played a significant role. Conclusions No specific symptoms were observed for the patients with pancreatic cystic tumors. Imaging played an important role in making a differential diagnosis. Furthermore, surgical treatment should be proposed for patients with significant symptoms and potentially malignant tumors. The tumor resection rate is high, suggestive of good prognosis. PMID:27877011

  1. Nuclear maspin expression correlates with the CpG island methylator phenotype and tumor aggressiveness in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Nam-Yun; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Rhee, Ye-Young; Lee, Hye Seung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear expression of maspin (mammary serine protease inhibitor; also known as SERPINB5) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with proximal colonic tumor location, mucinous and poorly differentiated histology, microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), and poor prognosis. Based on these findings, there may be a potential association between nuclear maspin expression and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in CRC, but no study has elucidated this issue. Here, we evaluated maspin protein expression status by immunohistochemistry in 216 MSI-H CRCs. CIMP status was also determined by methylation-specific quantitative PCR method (MethyLight) using eight CIMP markers (MLH1, NEUROG1, CRABP1, CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), IGF2, SOCS1, and RUNX3) in 216 MSI-H CRCs. Associations between maspin expression status and various pathological, molecular, and survival data were statistically analyzed. Among the 216 MSI-H CRCs, 111 (51%) cases presented nuclear maspin-positive tumors. Nuclear maspin-positive MSI-H CRCs were significantly associated with proximal tumor location (P = 0.003), tumor budding (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.001), perineural invasion (P = 0.008), absence of peritumoral lymphoid reaction (P = 0.045), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003), distant metastasis (P = 0.005), advanced AJCC/UICC stage (stage III/IV) (P = 0.001), and CIMP-high (CIMP-H) status (P < 0.001). Patients with nuclear maspin-positive tumors showed worse disease-free survival than patients with nuclear maspin-negative tumors (log-rank P = 0.025). In conclusion, nuclear maspin expression is molecularly associated with CIMP-H rather than MSI-H, and clinicopathologically correlates with tumor aggressiveness in CRC.

  2. Targeting the Metabolic Reprogramming That Controls Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Aggressive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Andrea; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process allows the trans-differentiation of a cell with epithelial features into a cell with mesenchymal characteristics. This process has been reported to be a key priming event for tumor development and therefore EMT activation is now considered an established trait of malignancy. The transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming that governs EMT has been extensively characterized and reviewed in the last decade. However, increasing evidence demonstrates a correlation between metabolic reprogramming and EMT execution. The aim of the current review is to gather the recent findings that illustrate this correlation to help deciphering whether metabolic changes are causative or just a bystander effect of EMT activation. The review is divided accordingly to the catabolic and anabolic pathways that characterize carbohydrate, aminoacid, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, at the end of each part, we have discussed a series of potential metabolic targets involved in EMT promotion and execution for which drugs are either available or that could be further investigated for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28352611

  3. Targeting the Metabolic Reprogramming That Controls Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Aggressive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Andrea; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process allows the trans-differentiation of a cell with epithelial features into a cell with mesenchymal characteristics. This process has been reported to be a key priming event for tumor development and therefore EMT activation is now considered an established trait of malignancy. The transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming that governs EMT has been extensively characterized and reviewed in the last decade. However, increasing evidence demonstrates a correlation between metabolic reprogramming and EMT execution. The aim of the current review is to gather the recent findings that illustrate this correlation to help deciphering whether metabolic changes are causative or just a bystander effect of EMT activation. The review is divided accordingly to the catabolic and anabolic pathways that characterize carbohydrate, aminoacid, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, at the end of each part, we have discussed a series of potential metabolic targets involved in EMT promotion and execution for which drugs are either available or that could be further investigated for therapeutic intervention.

  4. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  5. Social Psychological Characteristics Associated with Verbal Aggression between Husbands and Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.; Sweet, Stephen

    The last decade has provided considerable research on the causes and effects of physical aggression in the family, but much less has been accomplished on the causes and effects of verbal/symbolic aggression. This verbal/symbolic aggression is defined as a communication, either verbal or nonverbal, intended to cause psychological pain to another…

  6. Altered PTEN, ATRX, CHGA, CHGB & TP53 Expression are Associated with Aggressive VHL-Associated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, Allison B.; Zhang, Lisa; Jain, Meenu; Barak, Stephanie; Quezado, Martha M.; Kebebew, Electron

    2013-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an inherited cancer syndrome in which 8-17% of germline mutation carriers develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). There is limited data on prognostic markers for PNETs other than Ki-67, which is included in the World Health Organization classification system. Recently, specific genes and pathways have been identified by whole exome sequencing which may be involved in the tumorigenesis of PNETs and may be markers of disease aggressiveness. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers of aggressive disease in VHL-associated PNETs. The protein expression of 8 genes (PTEN, CHGA, CHGB, ATRX, DAXX, CC-3, VEGF, TP53) was analyzed in PNETs by immunohistochemistry and compared to clinical data, VHL genotype, functional imaging results, and pathologic findings. Subcellular distribution of PTEN, CHGA and ATRX were significantly different by WHO classifications (p<0.05). There was decreased PTEN nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (p<0.01) and decreased CHGA nuclear expression (p=0.03) in malignant samples as compared to benign. Lower cytoplasmic CHGB expression (p=0.03) was associated with malignant tumors and metastasis. Higher nuclear expression of PTEN was associated with VHL mutations in exon 3 (p=0.04). Higher PTEN and CHGB expression was associated with higher FDG-PET avidity (p<0.05). Cytoplasmic expression of CC-3 was associated with higher serum Chromogranin A levels (σ=0.72, p= 0.02). Lastly, greater cytoplasmic expression of p53 was associated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that altered PTEN, ATRX, CHGA and CHGB expression are associated with aggressive PNET phenotype in VHL and may serve as useful adjunct prognostic markers to Ki-67 in PNETs. PMID:23361940

  7. A new lattice model of traffic flow with the consideration of the drivers' aggressive characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Fang, Kangling; Peng, Guanghan

    2017-02-01

    In real traffic, aggressive driving behaviors often occurs by anticipating the front density of the next-nearest lattice site at next time step to adjust their acceleration in advance. Therefore, a new lattice model is put forward by considering the driver's aggressive effect (DAE). The linear stability condition is derived from the linear stability theory and the modified KdV equation near the critical point is obtained through nonlinear analysis with the consideration of aggressive driving behaviors, respectively. Both the analytical results and numerical simulation indicate that the driver's aggressive effect can increase the traffic stability. Thus driver's aggressive effect should be considered in traffic lattice model.

  8. The biological kinship of hypoxia with CSC and EMT and their relationship with deregulated expression of miRNAs and tumor aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Azmi, Asfar S.; Ali, Shadan; Ahmad, Aamir; Li, Yiwei; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Kong, Dejuan; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is one of the fundamental biological phenomena that are intricately associated with the development and aggressiveness of a variety of solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) function as a master transcription factor, which regulates hypoxia responsive genes and has been recognized to play critical roles in tumor invasion, metastasis, and chemo-radiation resistance, and contributes to increased cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, tumor hypoxia with deregulated expression of HIF and its biological consequence lead to poor prognosis of patients diagnosed with solid tumors, resulting in higher mortality, suggesting that understanding of the molecular relationship of hypoxia with other cellular features of tumor aggressiveness would be invaluable for developing newer targeted therapy for solid tumors. It has been well recognized that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic cells are associated with therapeutic resistance and contribute to aggressive tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and believed to be the cause of tumor recurrence. Interestingly, hypoxia and HIF signaling pathway are known to play an important role in the regulation and sustenance of CSCs and EMT phenotype. However, the molecular relationship between HIF signaling pathway with the biology of CSCs and EMT remains unclear although NF-κB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and Hedgehog signaling pathways have been recognized as important regulators of CSCs and EMT. In this article, we will discuss the state of our knowledge on the role of HIF-hypoxia signaling pathway and its kinship with CSCs and EMT within the tumor microenvironment. We will also discuss the potential role of hypoxia-induced microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumor development and aggressiveness, and finally discuss the potential effects of nutraceuticals on the biology of CSCs and EMT in the context of tumor hypoxia. PMID:22579961

  9. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 promotes tumor proliferation and aggressiveness in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Wen-Lou; Chen, Xu; Wang, Ya-Wen; Shi, Duan-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Hai-Ting; Guo, Xiang-Yu; Hou, Feng; Li, Ming; Gao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 (TMPRSS4) is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is overexpressed in various types of human cancers and has an important function in cancer progression. However, there is a paucity of data available regarding the biological effects of TMPRSS4 on breast cancer (BC) cells and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, expression of TMPRSS4 in BC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between TMPRSS4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics as well as prognosis was evaluated. The effects of TMPRSS4 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in BC cell lines in vitro. Additionally, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were used to determine the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers and TMPRSS4 in BC cell lines. We found that TMPRSS4 was overexpressed in BC tissues and its expression level was closely correlated with tumor size, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage as well as poor survival (all P<0.05) and could be recognized as an independent prognostic factor for BC patients. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells in vitro. Moreover, TMPRSS4 knockdown significantly enhanced the expression of E-cadherin and claudin-1 and inhibited the expression of vimentin and Slug, indicating suppression of EMT. Our results suggest that TMPRSS4 plays a crucial role in the progression of BC. Moreover, TMPRSS4 overexpression promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of BC cells by possibly inducing EMT. To conclude, TMPRSS4 may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. PMID:28259959

  10. Lack of Association between Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Clinically Relevant Molecular or Morphologic Tumor Characteristics at the Leading Edge of Invasive Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Annette; Kraft, Klaus; Wardelmann, Eva; Steinestel, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in the western world, but tumor biology and clinical course show great interindividual variation. Molecular and morphologic tumor characteristics, such as KRAS/BRAF mutation status, mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, tumor growth pattern, and tumor cell budding, have been shown to be of key therapeutic and/or prognostic relevance in CRC. Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored zinc-binding endopeptidase that is expressed at the leading edge of various invasive carcinomas and promotes tumor cell invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between MT1-MMP expression and molecular tumor characteristics as well as morphologic features of tumor aggressiveness in a consecutive series of 79 CRC tissue samples. However, although MT1-MMP was expressed in 41/79 samples (52%), there was no significant association between MT1-MMP expression and KRAS/BRAF mutation status, MMR protein expression, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor growth pattern, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or tumor cell budding in our sample cohort (P > 0.05). Thus, we conclude that although MT1-MMP may play a role in CRC invasion, it is not of key relevance to the current models of CRC invasion and aggressiveness. PMID:26106602

  11. The clinical characteristics of benign oral mucosal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ilana; Gal, Gavriel; Chaushu, Gavriel; Allon, Dror M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pre-biopsy provisional diagnoses of benign oral mucosal tumors. Material and Methods: A 10- year retrospective analysis of all benign tumors of the oral mucosa, from a university- affiliated oral and maxillofacial surgery department. Results: 146 benign tumors were included. The mean age was 49.6 years, with an approximately equal gender distribution. The most prevalent tumor types were lipomatous tumors (27.4%), vascular (23.3%), and salivary gland tumors (16.5%). Tongue, labial and buccal mucosa were the most frequently involved sites. The vast majority (98.6%) presented as non-ulcerated masses. Only 2 (1.4%) presented as ulcerated masses. The clinical provisional diagnosis correctly classified lesions as non-malignant in 93.3%. In only 9 (6.7%) suspicion of malignancy was included in the provisional diagnosis. However, benign neoplasia was unsuspected in 42.1% of tumors. These cases were clinically classified as reactive. Conclusions: Benign tumors were most likely to be clinically correctly classified as non-malignant, but even in the setting of experienced oral surgeons, neoplasia was unsuspected in more than 40% of cases. This data strongly supports the need to biopsy every oral mucosal mass, since inaccurate clinical evaluation of the lesion’s biological nature was a frequent event. Key words:Malignant, benign, reactive, ulcerated mass, non-ulcerated mass, clinical diagnosis. PMID:24316705

  12. Clinical value of digital image analysis in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer, particularly in aggressive tumors: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, T; Monika Dulewicz, A; Borkowski, A; Piętka, D; Radziszewski, P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the project was to evaluate the clinical value of a computer analysis of cytological specimen images obtained from urine and bladder washing samples. Three sample types (voided urine, catheterized urine and bladder washing) from 59 patients with primary or recurrent tumor were analyzed. All patients underwent cystoscopy and biopsy or resection. The histological results were compared with the results of the image analyzing computer system of collected urine samples. The consistency between the computer diagnosis and the clinical or histological diagnosis both in the presence and absence of cancer was as follows: 77% for voided urine samples, 72.5% for catheterized urine samples and 78% for bladder washing samples. The specificity of the method at the standard pathology level was 71%, and the sensitivity was 83%. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87.5% and 63% respectively. The sensitivity for G3 or CIS or T2 or T3 tumors reached nearly 100%. Computer analysis of urine provided correct diagnoses in cancer and control patients with the sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% and gave excellent results in aggressive tumors such as T2, T3, G3 and in CIS.

  13. Central nervous system recurrence of desmoplastic small round cell tumor following aggressive multimodal therapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UMEDA, KATSUTSUGU; SAIDA, SATOSHI; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEKI; OKAMOTO, SHINYA; OKAMOTO, TAKESHI; KATO, ITARU; HIRAMATSU, HIDEFUMI; IMAI, TSUYOSHI; KODAIRA, TAKESHI; HEIKE, TOSHIO; ADACHI, SOUICHI; WATANABE, KEN-ICHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) have an extremely poor outcome despite the use of aggressive therapy. The current study presents the case of 16-year-old male with metastatic DSRCT, in which multimodal therapy, including intensive chemotherapies using frequent autologous stem cell support, gross resection of primary and metastatic lesions, and whole abdominopelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy, was administered. Subsequent to these treatments, there was no evidence of active disease. However, cerebellar and pineal body lesions, and bone metastasis to the left humerus were detected 1 year and 2 months after the initial diagnosis. Combination chemotherapy with irinotecan and temozolomide was initially effective against the central nervous system (CNS) metastatic lesions; however, the patient succumbed due to progressive CNS disease after seven courses of combination chemotherapy. Additional studies are required to accumulate information regarding CNS recurrence of DSRCT. PMID:26870296

  14. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  15. Relationship between family characteristics and aggressive behaviors of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yizhen; Shi, Junxia; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify family factors obviously relevant to aggression, and offer a theoretical foundation for the prevention of aggression, 4010 students from primary and secondary schools in 5 different areas in Hubei province were surveyed. The Child Behavior Checklist " parents' form" (Chinese version) and the four scales of Family Environment Scale were used. A multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. The results showed that maternal education, paternal occupation, family type, parental child-rearing attitude and patterns, students' interpersonal relationship were significantly associated with the children's and adolescents' aggression. The risk factors of aggression were parental child-rearing patterns, peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and family conflicts.

  16. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed.

  17. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Is Associated with Aggressive Clinical Behavior and Poor Survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Brosnan-Cashman, Jacqueline A; An, Soyeon; Kim, Sung Joo; Song, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ju; Hwang, Dae Wook; Meeker, Alan K; Yu, Eunsil; Kim, Song Cheol; Hruban, Ralph H; Heaphy, Christopher M; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism, is strongly associated with ATRX and DAXX alterations and occurs frequently in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET).Experimental Design: In a Korean cohort of 269 surgically resected primary PanNETs and 19 sporadic microadenomas, ALT status and nuclear ATRX and DAXX protein expression were assessed and compared with clinicopathologic factors.Results: In PanNETs, ALT or loss of ATRX/DAXX nuclear expression was observed in 20.8% and 19.3%, respectively, whereas microadenomas were not altered. ALT-positive PanNETs displayed a significantly higher grade, size, and pT classification (all, P < 0.001). ALT also strongly correlated with lymphovascular (P < 0.001) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) and the presence of lymph node (P < 0.001) and distant metastases (P = 0.002). Furthermore, patients with ALT-positive primary PanNETs had a shorter recurrence-free survival [HR = 3.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-6.27; P < 0.001]. Interestingly, when limiting to patients with distant metastases, those with ALT-positive primary tumors had significantly better overall survival (HR = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.68; P = 0.008). Similarly, tumors with loss of ATRX/DAXX expression were significantly associated with ALT (P < 0.001), aggressive clinical behavior, and reduced recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001). However, similar to ALT, when limiting to patients with distant metastases, loss of ATRX/DAXX expression was associated with better overall survival (P = 0.003).Conclusions: Both primary ALT-positive and ATRX/DAXX-negative PanNETs are independently associated with aggressive clinicopathologic behavior and displayed reduced recurrence-free survival. In contrast, ALT activation and loss of ATRX/DAXX are both associated with better overall survival in patients with metastases. Therefore, these biomarkers may be used as prognostic markers depending on the context of

  18. DICER governs characteristics of glioma stem cells and the resulting tumors in xenograft mouse models of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Alamsahebpour, Amir; Burrell, Kelly; Li, Mira; Karabork, Merve; Ekinci, Can; Koch, Elizabeth; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Chang, Jeffery T.; Wouters, Bradly; Aldape, Kenneth; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-01-01

    The RNAse III endonuclease DICER is a key regulator of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and is frequently decreased in a variety of malignancies. We characterized the role of DICER in glioblastoma (GB), specifically demonstrating its effects on the ability of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) to form tumors in a mouse model of GB. DICER silencing in GSCs reduced their stem cell characteristics, while tumors arising from these cells were more aggressive, larger in volume, and displayed a higher proliferation index and lineage differentiation. The resulting tumors, however, were more sensitive to radiation treatment. Our results demonstrate that DICER silencing enhances the tumorigenic potential of GSCs, providing a platform for analysis of specific relevant miRNAs and development of potentially novel therapies against GB. PMID:27421140

  19. NF1-mutated melanoma tumors harbor distinct clinical and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cirenajwis, Helena; Lauss, Martin; Ekedahl, Henrik; Törngren, Therese; Kvist, Anders; Saal, Lao H; Olsson, Håkan; Staaf, Johan; Carneiro, Ana; Ingvar, Christian; Harbst, Katja; Hayward, Nicholas K; Jönsson, Göran

    2017-03-07

    In general, melanoma can be considered as a UV-driven disease with an aggressive metastatic course and high mutational load, with only few tumors (acral, mucosal, and uveal melanomas) not induced by sunlight and possessing a lower mutational load. The most commonly activated pathway in melanoma is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, the prognostic significance of mutational stratification is unclear and needs further investigation. Here, in silico we combined mutation data from 162 melanomas subjected to targeted deep sequencing with mutation data from three published studies. Tumors from 870 patients were grouped according to BRAF, RAS, NF1 mutation or triple-wild-type status and correlated with tumor and patient characteristics. We found that the NF1-mutated subtype had a higher mutational burden and strongest UV mutation signature. Searching for co-occurring mutated genes revealed the RASopathy genes PTPN11 and RASA2, as well as another RAS domain-containing gene RASSF2 enriched in the NF1 subtype after adjustment for mutational burden. We found that a larger proportion of the NF1-mutant tumors were from males and with older age at diagnosis. Importantly, we found an increased risk of death from melanoma (disease-specific survival, DSS; HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.21-3.10; P = 0.046) and poor overall survival (OS; HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.28-2.98; P = 0.01) in the NF1 subtype, which remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, and lesion type (DSS P = 0.03, OS P = 0.06, respectively). Melanoma genomic subtypes display different biological and clinical characteristics. The poor outcome observed in the NF1 subtype highlights the need for improved characterization of this group.

  20. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a three month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. Additionally, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts. PMID:26048213

  1. Background Predictors and Event-Specific Characteristics of Sexual Aggression Incidents: The Roles of Alcohol and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2015-08-01

    Sexual assault in the United States is an important public health concern. Using prospective longitudinal methods and responses from 217 community men, we examined whether background characteristics predicted subsequent sexual aggression (SA) perpetration during a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined event-specific characteristics of reported SA occurrences. Consistent with predictions, SA perpetration history, aggressive and impulsive personality traits, rape myth attitudes, and alcohol expectancies predicted SA (both non- and alcohol-involved) at follow-up. In addition, alcohol-involved assaults occurred more often with casual (vs. steady) partners but were more likely to involve condom use with casual (vs. steady) partners. Results suggest important avenues for future research and SA prevention efforts.

  2. Pituitary tumors contain a side population with tumor stem cell-associated characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Freya; Gremeaux, Lies; Chen, Jianghai; Fu, Qiuli; Willems, Christophe; Roose, Heleen; Govaere, Olivier; Roskams, Tania; Cristina, Carolina; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Jorissen, Mark; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Bex, Marie; van Loon, Johannes; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2015-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas cause significant endocrine and mass-related morbidity. Little is known about the mechanisms that underlie pituitary tumor pathogenesis. In the present study, we searched for a side population (SP) in pituitary tumors representing cells with high efflux capacity and potentially enriched for tumor stem cells (TSCs). Human pituitary adenomas contain a SP irrespective of hormonal phenotype. This adenoma SP, as well as the purified SP (pSP) that is depleted from endothelial and immune cells, is enriched for cells that express 'tumor stemness' markers and signaling pathways, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-linked factors. Pituitary adenomas were found to contain self-renewing sphere-forming cells, considered to be a property of TSCs. These sphere-initiating cells were recovered in the pSP. Because benign pituitary adenomas do not grow in vitro and have failed to expand in immunodeficient mice, the pituitary tumor cell line AtT20 was further used. We identified a SP in this cell line and found it to be more tumorigenic than the non-SP 'main population'. Of the two EMT regulatory pathways tested, the inhibition of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling reduced EMT-associated cell motility in vitro as well as xenograft tumor growth, whereas the activation of TGFβ had no effect. The human adenoma pSP also showed upregulated expression of the pituitary stem cell marker SOX2. Pituitaries from dopamine receptor D2 knockout (Drd2(-/-)) mice that bear prolactinomas contain more pSP, Sox2(+), and colony-forming cells than WT glands. In conclusion, we detected a SP in pituitary tumors and identified TSC-associated characteristics. The present study adds new elements to the unraveling of pituitary tumor pathogenesis and may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  3. NTPDase5/PCPH as a New Target in Highly Aggressive Tumors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bracco, Paula Andreghetto; Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Wink, Márcia Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The protooncogene PCPH was recently identified as being the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5). This protooncogene is converted into an oncogene by a single base pair deletion, resulting in frame change and producing a premature stop codon, leading to a mutated protein (mt-PCPH) with only 27 kDa, which is much smaller than the original 47 kDa protein. Overexpression of the PCPH as well as the mutated PCPH increases the cellular resistance to stress and apoptosis. This is intriguing considering that the active form, that is, the oncogene, is the mutated PCPH. Several studies analyzed the expression of NTPDase5/mt-PCPH in a wide range of tumor cells and evaluated its role and mechanisms in cancer and other pathogenic processes. The main point of this review is to integrate the findings and proposed theories about the role played by NTPDase5/mt-PCPH in cancer progression, considering that these proteins have been suggested as potential early diagnostic tools and therapy targets. PMID:25045656

  4. Social networking in tumor cell communities is associated with increased aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lodillinsky, Catalina; Podsypanina, Katrina; Chavrier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bilayer-enclosed vesicles that contain proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. EVs produced by cells from healthy tissues circulate in the blood and body fluids, and can be taken up by unrelated cells. As they have the capacity to transfer cargo proteins, lipids and nucleic acids (mostly mRNAs and miRNAs) between different cells in the body, EVs are emerging as mediators of intercellular communication that could modulate cell behavior, tissue homeostasis and regulation of physiological functions. EV-mediated cell-cell communications are also proposed to play a role in disease, for example, cancer, where they could contribute to transfer of traits required for tumor progression and metastasis. However, direct evidence for EV-mediated mRNA transfer to individual cells and for its biological consequences in vivo has been missing until recently. Recent studies have reported elegant experiments using genetic tracing with the Cre recombinase system and intravital imaging that visualize and quantify functional transfer of mRNA mediated by EVs in the context of cancer and metastasis. PMID:28243516

  5. Astrocyte Elevated Gene 1 Interacts with Acetyltransferase p300 and c-Jun To Promote Tumor Aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Guan, Hongyu; Li, Yun; Ying, Zhe; Wu, Jueheng; Zhu, Xun; Song, Libing; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng

    2017-03-01

    Astrocyte elevated gene 1 (AEG-1) is an oncoprotein that strongly promotes the development and progression of cancers. However, the detailed underlying mechanisms through which AEG-1 enhances tumor development and progression remain to be determined. In this study, we identified c-Jun and p300 to be novel interacting partners of AEG-1 in gliomas. AEG-1 promoted c-Jun transcriptional activity by interacting with the c-Jun/p300 complex and inducing c-Jun acetylation. Furthermore, the AEG-1/c-Jun/p300 complex was found to bind the promoter of c-Jun downstream targeted genes, consequently establishing an acetylated chromatin state that favors transcriptional activation. Importantly, AEG-1/p300-mediated c-Jun acetylation resulted in the development of a more aggressive malignant phenotype in gliomas through a drastic increase in glioma cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo Consistently, the AEG-1 expression levels in clinical glioma specimens correlated with the status of c-Jun activation. Taken together, our results suggest that AEG-1 mediates a novel epigenetic mechanism that enhances c-Jun transcriptional activity to induce glioma progression and that AEG-1 might be a novel, potential target for the treatment of gliomas.

  6. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  7. Double Jeopardy: Child and School Characteristics that Predict Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…

  8. Do predisposing and family background characteristics modify or confound the relationship between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression? A study of late adolescent and young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Speechley, Mark; Koval, John J

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined whether predisposing and family background characteristics confounded (common cause/general deviance theory) or modified (conditional/interactive theory) the association between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression. A secondary analysis of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was conducted using a composite sample of drinkers, ages 17 to 21, from the 1994, 1996, and 1998 Young Adult surveys (n=602). No evidence of confounding of the relationship between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression was found. In addition, predisposing characteristics did not modify the association between drinking frequency and alcohol-related aggression. However, family background variables (mother's education and any poverty) were important explanatory variables for alcohol-related aggression among males, whereas recent aggression (fights at school or work) was an important predictor for females. Overall, lack of support for the conditional/interactive and common cause theories of the alcohol and aggression relationship suggests that alcohol has an independent explanatory role in alcohol-related aggression. In addition, the gender differences found in the present study highlight the need for more gender-focussed research on predictors of alcohol-related aggression, especially among adolescents and young adults.

  9. The relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Soroush, Ali; Zakiei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Aggression is one of the negative components of emotion and it is usually considered to be the outcome of the activity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS): components which can be considered as predisposing factors for personality differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain behavioral systems and the characteristics of the five factor model of personality with aggression among students. Methods: The present study has a correlation descriptive design. The research population included all of the Razi University students in the academic year of 2012-2013. The sampling was carried out with a random stratified method and 360 people (308 female and 52 male) were studied according to a table of Morgan. The study instruments were Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory (Short Form), and Carver and White scale for BAS/BIS. Finally, SPSS20 was utilized to analyze the data using Pearson correlation, regression analysis, and canonical correlation. Results: The data showed a significant positive relationship between the neurosis and agreeableness personality factors with aggression; but there is a significant negative relationship between the extroversion, openness, and conscientiousness personality factors with aggression. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between all the components of brain behavioral systems (impulsivity, novelty seeking, sensitivity, tender) and aggression. The results of regression analysis indicated the personality characteristics and the brain behavioral systems which can predict 29 percent of the changes to aggression, simultaneously. Conclusions: According to a predictable level of aggressiveness by the personality characteristics and brain behavioral systems, it is possible to identify the personality characteristics and template patterns of brain behavioral systems for the students

  10. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Part I: A review of the effects of child and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M

    1997-12-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed.

  11. Overexpression of the growth-hormone-releasing hormone gene in acromegaly-associated pituitary tumors. An event associated with neoplastic progression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, K.; Kovacs, K.; Stefaneanu, L.; Scheithauer, B.; Killinger, D. W.; Lioyd, R. V.; Smyth, H. S.; Barr, A.; Thorner, M. O.; Gaylinn, B.; Laws, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical behavior of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors is known to vary greatly; however, the events underlying this variability remain poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that tumor overexpression of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene is one prognostically informative event associated with the clinical aggressiveness of somatotroph pituitary tumors. Accumulation of GHRH mRNA transcripts was demonstrated in 91 of a consecutive series of 100 somatotroph tumors by in situ hybridization; these findings were corroborated by Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and protein translation was confirmed by Western blotting. By comparison, transcript accumulation was absent or negligibly low in 30 normal pituitary glands. GHRH transcripts were found to preferentially accumulate among clinically aggressive tumors. Specifically, GHRH mRNA signal intensity was 1) linearly correlated with Ki-67 tumor growth fractions (r = 0.71; P < 0.001), 2) linearly correlated with preoperative serum GH levels (r = 0.56; p = 0.01), 3) higher among invasive tumors (P < 0.001), and 4) highest in those tumors in which post-operative remission was not achieved (P < 0.001). Using multivariate logistic regression, a model of postoperative remission likelihood was derived wherein remission was defined by the single criterion of suppressibility of GH levels to less than 2 ng/ml during an oral glucose tolerance test. In this outcome model, GHRH mRNA signal intensity proved to be the most important explanatory variable overall, eclipsing any and all conventional clinicopathological predictors as the single most significant predictor of postoperative remission; increases in GHRH mRNA signal were associated with marked declines in remission likelihood. The generalizability of this outcome model was further validated by the model's significant performance in predicting postoperative remission in a random sample of 30 somatotroph tumors treated at

  12. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Sampedro-Nuñez, Miguel; Gahete, Manuel D; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-08-14

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value.

  13. In1-ghrelin, a splice variant of ghrelin gene, is associated with the evolution and aggressiveness of human neuroendocrine tumors: Evidence from clinical, cellular and molecular parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gahete, Manuel D.; Ramos-Levi, Ana; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Serrano-Somavilla, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Marazuela, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin system comprises a complex family of peptides, receptors (GHSRs), and modifying enzymes [e.g. ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase (GOAT)] that control multiple pathophysiological processes. Aberrant alternative splicing is an emerging cancer hallmark that generates altered proteins with tumorigenic capacity. Indeed, In1-ghrelin and truncated-GHSR1b splicing variants can promote development/progression of certain endocrine-related cancers. Here, we determined the expression levels of key ghrelin system components in neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) and explored their potential functional role. Twenty-six patients with NETs were prospectively/retrospectively studied [72 samples from primary and metastatic tissues (30 normal/42 tumors)] and clinical data were obtained. The role of In1-ghrelin in aggressiveness was studied in vitro using NET cell lines (BON-1/QGP-1). In1-ghrelin, GOAT and GHSR1a/1b expression levels were elevated in tumoral compared to normal/adjacent tissues. Moreover, In1-ghrelin, GOAT, and GHSR1b expression levels were positively correlated within tumoral, but not within normal/adjacent samples, and were higher in patients with progressive vs. with stable/cured disease. Finally, In1-ghrelin increased aggressiveness (e.g. proliferation/migration) of NET cells. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a potential implication of ghrelin system in the pathogenesis and/or clinical outcome of NETs, and warrant further studies on their possible value for the future development of molecular biomarkers with diagnostic/prognostic/therapeutic value. PMID:26124083

  14. Epigenetic clustering of gastric carcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage: its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoi, Kazuhiro; Arai, Eri; Tian, Ying; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Sasaki, Hiroki; Chiwaki, Fumiko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kushima, Ryoji; Katai, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Sakamoto, Michiie; Kanai, Yae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during gastric carcinogenesis. Single-CpG resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Infinium assay was performed on 109 samples of non-cancerous gastric mucosa (N) and 105 samples of tumorous tissue (T). DNA methylation alterations in T samples relative to N samples were evident for 3861 probes. Since N can be at the precancerous stage according to the field cancerization concept, unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on DNA methylation levels was performed on N samples (βN) using the 3861 probes. This divided the 109 patients into three clusters: A (n = 20), B1 (n = 20), and B2 (n = 69). Gastric carcinomas belonging to Cluster B1 showed tumor aggressiveness more frequently than those belonging to Clusters A and B2. The recurrence-free and overall survival rates of patients in Cluster B1 were lower than those of patients in Clusters A and B2. Sixty hallmark genes for which βN characterized the epigenetic clustering were identified. We then focused on DNA methylation levels in T samples (βT) of the 60 hallmark genes. In 48 of them, including the ADAM23, OLFM4, AMER2, GPSM1, CCL28, DTX1 and COL23A1 genes, βT was again significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness, and the recurrence-free and/or overall survival rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that βT was a significant prognostic factor, being independent of clinicopathological parameters. These data indicate that DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage may be inherited by gastric carcinomas themselves, thus determining tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome. PMID:25740824

  15. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland: characteristic features on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Jikuzono, Tomoo; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of hyalinizing trabecular tumor of the thyroid gland and describe the characteristic ultrasonographic features of this tumor. This was a rare tumor of follicular cell origin with a trabecular pattern of growth and marked intratrabecular hyalinization. The tumor had an irregular shape, a delicately jagged border, and hypoechoic and heterogeneous internal echoes on B-mode ultrasonography. Very rich intratumoral blood flow, the so-called "tumor inferno" was evident on power Doppler ultrasonography. In the clinical management of thyroid nodules, clinicians should be aware of this peculiar type of thyroid tumor and its characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  16. Expression of FAP, ADAM12, WISP1, and SOX11 is heterogeneous in aggressive fibromatosis and spatially relates to the histologic features of tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Skubitz, Amy P N; Carlos Manivel, J; Schmechel, Stephen C; Cheng, Edward Y; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Corless, Christopher L; Skubitz, Keith M

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) represents a group of tumors with a variable and unpredictable clinical course, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. The optimal treatment for AF remains unclear. Identification and validation of genes whose expression patterns are associated with AF may elucidate biological mechanisms in AF, and aid treatment selection. This study was designed to examine the protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of four genes, ADAM12, FAP, SOX11, and WISP1, that were found in an earlier study to be uniquely overexpressed in AF compared with normal tissues. Digital image analysis was performed to evaluate inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, and correlate protein expression with histologic features, including a histopathologic assessment of tumor activity, defined by nuclear chromatin density ratio (CDR). AF tumors exhibited marked inter- and intratumor histologic heterogeneity. Pathologic assessment of tumor activity and digital assessment of average nuclear size and CDR were all significantly correlated. IHC revealed protein expression of all four genes. IHC staining for ADAM12, FAP, and WISP1 correlated with CDR and was higher, whereas SOX11 staining was lower in tumors with earlier recurrence following excision. All four proteins were expressed, and the regional variation in tumor activity within and among AF cases was demonstrated. A spatial correlation between protein expression and nuclear morphology was observed. IHC also correlated with the probability of recurrence following excision. These proteins may be involved in AF pathogenesis and the corresponding pathways could serve as potential targets of therapy.

  17. Anti-thymocyte globulin could improve the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with highly aggressive T-cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J; Cai, Y; Jiang, J L; Wan, L P; Yan, S K; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    The early experiment result in our hospital showed that anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid tumor cells in the T-cell tumors. We used the ATG as the part of the conditioning regimen and to evaluate the long-term anti-leukemia effect, the safety and complication in the patients with highly aggressive T-cell lymphomas. Twenty-three patients were enrolled into this study. At the time of transplant, six patients reached first or subsequent complete response, three patients had a partial remission and 14 patients had relapsed or primary refractory disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of ATG, total body irradiation, toposide and cyclophosphamide. The complete remission rate after transplant was 95.7%. At a median follow-up time of 25 months, 16 (69.6%) patients are alive and free from diseases, including nine patients in refractory and progressive disease. Seven patients died after transplant, five from relapse and two from treatment-related complications. The incidence of grades II–IV acute graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) was 39.1%. The maximum cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 30%. The most frequent and severe conditioning-related toxicities observed in 8 out of 23 patients were grades III/IV infections during cytopenia. Thus, ATG-based conditioning is a feasible and effective alternative for patients with highly aggressive T-cell tumors. PMID:26230956

  18. Heparanase-mediated Loss of Nuclear Syndecan-1 Enhances Histone Acetyltransferase (HAT) Activity to Promote Expression of Genes That Drive an Aggressive Tumor Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Hurst, Douglas R.; Pisano, Claudio; Mizumoto, Shuji; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparanase acts as a master regulator of the aggressive tumor phenotype in part by enhancing expression of proteins known to drive tumor progression (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and RANKL). However, the mechanism whereby this enzyme regulates gene expression remains unknown. We previously reported that elevation of heparanase levels in myeloma cells causes a dramatic reduction in the amount of syndecan-1 in the nucleus. Because syndecan-1 has heparan sulfate chains and because exogenous heparan sulfate has been shown to inhibit the activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes in vitro, we hypothesized that the reduction in nuclear syndecan-1 in cells expressing high levels of heparanase would result in increased HAT activity leading to stimulation of protein transcription. We found that myeloma cells or tumors expressing high levels of heparanase and low levels of nuclear syndecan-1 had significantly higher levels of HAT activity when compared with cells or tumors expressing low levels of heparanase. High levels of HAT activity in heparanase-high cells were blocked by SST0001, an inhibitor of heparanase. Restoration of high syndecan-1 levels in heparanase-high cells diminished nuclear HAT activity, establishing syndecan-1 as a potent inhibitor of HAT. Exposure of heparanase-high cells to anacardic acid, an inhibitor of HAT activity, significantly suppressed their expression of VEGF and MMP-9, two genes known to be up-regulated following elevation of heparanase. These results reveal a novel mechanistic pathway driven by heparanase expression, which leads to decreased nuclear syndecan-1, increased HAT activity, and up-regulation of transcription of multiple genes that drive an aggressive tumor phenotype. PMID:21757697

  19. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Frank A W; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  20. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  1. Fetal tumors: prenatal ultrasonographic findings and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of fetal tumors has been increased due to generalization of prenatal evaluation and improvement of imaging techniques. The early detection of a fetal tumor and understanding of its imaging features are very important for fetal, maternal, and neonatal care. Ultrasonography is usually used for the detection and differential diagnosis of fetal tumors, and magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used as a complementary study. Many fetal tumors have different clinical and imaging features compared with pediatric tumors. Although several fetal tumors may mimic other common anomalies, some specific imaging features may carry early accurate diagnosis of fetal tumors, which may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitate immediate postnatal treatment. PMID:25116458

  2. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  3. The tumoral A genotype of the MGMT rs34180180 single-nucleotide polymorphism in aggressive gliomas is associated with shorter patients' survival.

    PubMed

    Fogli, Anne; Chautard, Emmanuel; Vaurs-Barrière, Catherine; Pereira, Bruno; Müller-Barthélémy, Mélanie; Court, Franck; Biau, Julian; Pinto, Afonso Almeida; Kémény, Jean-Louis; Khalil, Toufic; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Verrelle, Pierre; Costa, Bruno Marques; Arnaud, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Grade III and IV gliomas harboring wild-type IDH1/2 are the most aggressive. In addition to surgery and radiotherapy, concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) significantly improves overall survival (OS). The methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is predictive of TMZ response and a prognostic marker of cancer outcome. However, the promoter regions the methylation of which correlates best with survival in aggressive glioma and whether the promoter methylation status predictive value could be refined or improved by other MGMT-associated molecular markers are not precisely known. In a cohort of 87 malignant gliomas treated with radiotherapy and TMZ-based chemotherapy, we retrospectively determined the MGMT promoter methylation status, genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region and quantified MGMT mRNA expression level. Each of these variables was correlated with each other and with the patients' OS. We found that methylation of the CpG sites within MGMT exon 1 best correlated with OS and MGMT expression levels, and confirmed MGMT methylation as a stronger independent prognostic factor compared to MGMT transcription levels. Our main finding is that the presence of only the A allele at the rs34180180 SNP in the tumor was significantly associated with shorter OS, independently of the MGMT methylation status. In conclusion, in the clinic, rs34180180 SNP genotyping could improve the prognostic value of the MGMT promoter methylation assay in patients with aggressive glioma treated with TMZ.

  4. Polyomavirus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A More Aggressive Subtype Based on Analysis of 282 Cases Using Multimodal Tumor Virus Detection.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Ata S; Doumani, Ryan; Yelistratova, Lola; Blom, Astrid; Lachance, Kristina; Shinohara, Michi M; Delaney, Martha; Chang, Oliver; McArdle, Susan; Thomas, Hannah; Asgari, Maryam M; Huang, Meei-Li; Schwartz, Stephen M; Nghiem, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the proportion of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs) that contain the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and the clinical significance of tumor viral status. To address these controversies, we detected MCPyV large T antigen using immunohistochemistry with two distinct antibodies and MCPyV DNA using quantitative PCR. Tumors were called MCPyV-positive if two or more of these three assays indicated presence of this virus. A total of 53 of 282 (19%) MCC tumors in this cohort were virus-negative using this multimodal system. Immunohistochemistry with the CM2B4 antibody had the best overall performance (sensitivity = 0.882, specificity = 0.943) compared with the multimodal classification. Multivariate analysis including age, sex, and immunosuppression showed that, relative to MCC patients with virus-positive tumors, virus-negative MCC patients had significantly increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-2.62) and death from MCC (hazard ratio = 1.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.89). We confirm that approximately 20% of MCCs are not driven by MCPyV and that such virus-negative MCCs, which can be quite reliably identified by immunohistochemistry using the CM2B4 antibody alone, represent a more aggressive subtype that warrants closer clinical follow-up.

  5. Fluorescence characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque and malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Baert, Luc; Berg, Roger; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Johansson, Jonas; Stenram, Unne; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    1991-06-01

    Two series of investigations utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in characterizing diseased tissue are presented. In one in vitro investigation the fluorescence from normal and atherosclerotically diseased arteries are studied. In another clinical study the fluorescence in vivo from superficial urinary bladder malignancies in patients who had received a low-dose injection of Hematoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) is investigated. Additionally, the fluorescence properties of L-tryptophan, collagen-I powder, elastin powder, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and (beta) -carothene were investigated and compared with the spectra from the tissue samples. A nitrogen laser (337 nm) alone or in connection with a dye laser (405 nm) was used together with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to study the fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence decay characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque were examined utilizing a mode locked argon ion laser, synchronously pumping a picosecond dye laser. A fast detection system based on photon counting was employed. The fluorescence decay curves were evaluated on a PC computer allowing up to three lifetime components to be determined. A fluorescence peak at 390 nm in fibrotic plaque was identified as due to collagen fibers, while a fluorescence peak at 520 nm was connected to (beta) -carotene. The in vivo measurements of urinary bladder malignancies were performed with the optical fiber of the OMA system inserted through the biopsy channel of a cystoscope during the diagnostical procedure. The spectral recordings from urinary bladders, obtained at 337 nm and 405 nm excitation, revealed fluorescence features which can be used to demarcate tumor areas from normal mucosa. The fluorescence emission might also be useful to characterize different degrees of dysplasia.

  6. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts.

  7. IL-4, a direct target of miR-340/429, is involved in radiation-induced aggressive tumor behavior in human carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Su Jin; Han, Young-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Bae, In Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy induces the production of cytokines, thereby increasing aggressive tumor behavior. This radiation effect results in the failure of radiotherapy and increases the mortality rate in patients. We found that interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4Rα (IL-4 receptor) are highly expressed in various human cancer cells subsequent to radiation treatment. In addition, IL-4 is highly overexpressed in metastatic carcinoma tissues compared with infiltrating carcinoma tissues. High expression of IL-4 in patients with cancer is strongly correlated with poor survival. The results of this study suggest that radiation-induced IL-4 contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Radiation-induced IL-4 was associated with tumorigenicity and metastasis. IL-4 expression was downregulated by miR-340 and miR-429, which were decreased by ionizing radiation (IR). Radiation-regulated miR-340/429-IL4 signaling increased tumorigenesis and metastasis by inducing the production of Sox2, Vimentin, VEGF, Ang2, and MMP-2/9 via activating JAK, JNK, β-catenin, and Stat6 in vitro and in vivo. Our study presents a conceptual advance in our understanding of the modification of tumor microenvironment by radiation and suggests that combining radiotherapy with genetic therapy to inhibit IL-4 may be a promising strategy for preventing post-radiation recurrence and metastasis in patients. PMID:27895317

  8. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  9. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment of Aggressive Patients Admitted to the Acute Behavioral Unit of a Community General Hospital: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Reade, Cynthia; Stoltzfus, Jill; Mittal, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aggressive patients are not uncommon in acute inpatient behavioral health units of general hospitals. Prior research identifies various predictors associated with aggressive inpatient behavior. This prospective observational study examines the demographic and clinical characteristics of aggressive inpatients and the routine medications these patients were receiving at discharge. Method: Thirty-six adults diagnosed with a DSM-IV mental disorder who met 2 of 6 established inclusion criteria for high violence risk and a Clinical Global Impressions–Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale score ≥ 4 were observed for a maximum of 28 days on the 23-bed case mix acute behavioral health unit of St Luke’s University Hospital, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, from January 2012 to May 2013. Primary outcome measures were the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) and CGI-S; secondary measures were symptom outcome measures and demographic and clinical characteristics data. Analysis was conducted using repeated measures methodology. Results: Younger males with a history of previous violence, psychiatric admissions, and symptoms of severe agitation were more at risk for aggressive behavior. Positive psychotic symptoms, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, substance use, and comorbid personality disorders also increased risk. Significant improvements from baseline to last visit were observed for the CGI-S and MOAS (P < .001 for both), with a significant correlation between the MOAS and CGI-S at last visit (P < .001). Only the symptom of agitation was significantly correlated to MOAS scores at both baseline and last visit (P < .001). Conclusion: Patients significantly improved over time in both severity of illness and level of aggression. PMID:25317364

  10. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin K; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L; Dal Zotto, Valeria; Carter, James E; Singh, Seema

    2015-05-10

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity.

  11. Resistin and interleukin-6 exhibit racially-disparate expression in breast cancer patients, display molecular association and promote growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells through STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Singh, Ajay P.; Tyagi, Nikhil; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Dyess, Donna L.; Zotto, Valeria Dal; Carter, James E.; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    African-American (AA) women with breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed with more aggressive disease, have higher risk of recurrence and poorer prognosis as compared to Caucasian American (CA) women. Therefore, it is imperative to define the factors associated with such disparities to reduce the unequal burden of cancer. Emerging data suggest that inherent differences exist in the tumor microenvironment of AA and CA BC patients, however, its molecular bases and functional impact have remained poorly understood. Here, we conducted cytokine profiling in serum samples from AA and CA BC patients and identified resistin and IL-6 to be the most differentially-expressed cytokines with relative greater expression in AA patients. Resistin and IL-6 exhibited positive correlation in serum levels and treatment of BC cells with resistin led to enhanced production of IL-6. Moreover, resistin also enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, and treatment of BC cells with IL-6-neutralizing antibody prior to resistin stimulation abolished STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, resistin promoted growth and aggressiveness of BC cells, and these effects were mediated through STAT3 activation. Together, these findings suggest a crucial role of resistin, IL-6 and STAT3 in BC racial disparity. PMID:25868978

  12. Enhancing Image Characteristics of Retinal Images of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Using a Novel Software, (RetiView)

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Vinekar, Anand; Mohanachandra, Poornima; Desai, Samit; Suveer, Amit; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Bauer, Noel; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report pilot data from a novel image analysis software “RetiView,” to highlight clinically relevant information in RetCam images of infants with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP). Methods. Twenty-three imaging sessions of consecutive infants of Asian Indian origin with clinically diagnosed APROP underwent three protocols (Grey Enhanced (GE), Color Enhanced (CE), and “Vesselness Measure” (VNM)) of the software. The postprocessed images were compared to baseline data from the archived unprocessed images and clinical exam by the retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) specialist for anterior extent of the vessels, capillary nonperfusion zones (CNP), loops, hemorrhages, and flat neovascularization. Results. There was better visualization of tortuous loops in the GE protocol (56.5%); “bald” zones within the CNP zones (26.1%), hemorrhages (13%), and edge of the disease (34.8%) in the CE images; neovascularization on both GE and CE protocols (13% each); clinically relevant information in cases with poor pupillary dilatation (8.7%); anterior extent of vessels on the VNM protocol (13%) effecting a “reclassification” from zone 1 to zone 2 posterior. Conclusions. RetiView is a noninvasive and inexpensive method of customized image enhancement to detect clinically difficult characteristics in a subset of APROP images with a potential to influence treatment planning. PMID:26240830

  13. Enhancing Image Characteristics of Retinal Images of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Using a Novel Software, (RetiView).

    PubMed

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Vinekar, Anand; Mohanachandra, Poornima; Desai, Samit; Suveer, Amit; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Bauer, Noel; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report pilot data from a novel image analysis software "RetiView," to highlight clinically relevant information in RetCam images of infants with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP). Methods. Twenty-three imaging sessions of consecutive infants of Asian Indian origin with clinically diagnosed APROP underwent three protocols (Grey Enhanced (GE), Color Enhanced (CE), and "Vesselness Measure" (VNM)) of the software. The postprocessed images were compared to baseline data from the archived unprocessed images and clinical exam by the retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) specialist for anterior extent of the vessels, capillary nonperfusion zones (CNP), loops, hemorrhages, and flat neovascularization. Results. There was better visualization of tortuous loops in the GE protocol (56.5%); "bald" zones within the CNP zones (26.1%), hemorrhages (13%), and edge of the disease (34.8%) in the CE images; neovascularization on both GE and CE protocols (13% each); clinically relevant information in cases with poor pupillary dilatation (8.7%); anterior extent of vessels on the VNM protocol (13%) effecting a "reclassification" from zone 1 to zone 2 posterior. Conclusions. RetiView is a noninvasive and inexpensive method of customized image enhancement to detect clinically difficult characteristics in a subset of APROP images with a potential to influence treatment planning.

  14. En bloc excision and autogenous fibular reconstruction for aggressive giant cell tumor of distal radius: a report of 12 cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell tumor (GCT) of distal radius follows a comparatively aggressive behaviour. Wide excision is the management of choice, but this creates a defect at the distal end of radius. The preffered modalities for reconstruction of such a defect include vascularized/non-vascularized bone graft, osteoarticular allografts and custom-made prosthesis. We here present our experience with wide resection and non-vascularised autogenous fibula grafting for GCT of distal radius. Materials and methods Twelve patients with a mean age of 34.7 years (21-43 years) with Campanacci Grade II/III GCT of distal radius were managed with wide excision of tumor and reconstruction with ipsilateral nonvascularised fibula, fixed with small fragment plate to the remnant of the radius. Primary autogenous iliac crest grafting was done at the fibuloradial junction in all the patients. Results Mean follow up period was 5.8 years (8.2-3.7 years). Average time for union at fibuloradial junction was 33 weeks (14-69 weeks). Mean grip strength of involved side was 71% (42-86%). The average range of movements were 52° forearm supination, 37° forearm pronation, 42° of wrist palmerflexion and 31° of wrist dorsiflexion with combined movements of 162°. Overall revised musculoskeletal tumor society (MSTS) score averaged 91.38% (76.67-93.33%) with five excellent, four good and three satisfactory results. There were no cases with graft related complications or deep infections, 3 cases with wrist subluxation, 2 cases with non union (which subsequently united with bone grafting) and 1 case of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Although complication rate is high, autogenous non-vascularised fibular autograft reconstruction of distal radius can be considered as a reasonable option after en bloc excision of Grade II/III GCT. PMID:21385393

  15. Angiogenesis dependent characteristics of tumor observed on rabbit VX2 hepatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate angiogenesis dependent characteristics of carcinoma proliferation, metastasis and to found if there is tumor vascularity architecture defect. Methods: 36 rabbits were random divided into 2 groups: Experimental group: 18 rabbits liver were implanted with VX2 tumor by surgery operation; Control group: 18 experimental rabbits performed the same surgery operation without tumor implantation, the course of tumor growth and blood vessel invasion was observed by autopsy. One slide was used for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, one slide was used for elastic fiber staining by Victoria blue and Ponceau’s histochemical staining, and one slide was used for vascular endothelial cell immunohistochemical staining with biotinylated-ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I); all three slides were observed under an optical microscopic. One additional slide was systematically observed by electron microscopy. SPSS 19.0 software was used for the statistical analyses of the data. Results: The tumor grew acceleration after tumor angiogenesis, volume of original tumors was correlated with vascular caliber. The central tumor found necrosis without enough blood supply while tumor grew rapidly after tumor angiogenesis. The tumor infiltrated into liver blood sinus, blood vessels in hepatic interstitial tissue, the liver capsular vein and important organs metastasis such as lungs, kidneys, abdominal cavity caused rabbits died. The average vascular density count of 18 experimental rabbits under 400 times light microscope were 43.17 ± 8.68/vessels/High Power Field; Tumor vascular diameter all within 200 μm. Vascular elastic fiber staining presented tumor blood vessels internal, external elastic plate intact, vascular endothelial cells organelles of tumor were integrity without endothelial cells architecture defect found by pathologic observation. Conclusion: Proliferation and metastasis of rabbit VX2 hepatic carcinoma was correlated with tumor angiogenesis and no tumor

  16. Salmonella-Based Therapy Targeting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Coupled with Enzymatic Depletion of Tumor Hyaluronan Induces Complete Regression of Aggressive Pancreatic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Edwin R.; Chen, Jeremy; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Lampa, Melanie G.; Kaltcheva, Teodora I.; Thompson, Curtis B.; Ludwig, Thomas; Chung, Vincent; Diamond, Don J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial-based therapies are emerging as effective cancer treatments and hold promise for refractory neoplasms such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which has not shown significant improvement in therapy for over twenty-five years. Using a novel combination of shIDO-ST, a Salmonella-based therapy targeting the immunosuppressive molecule indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), with an enzyme, PEGPH20, which depletes extracellular matrix hyaluronan, we observed extended survival with frequent total regression of autochthonous and orthotopic PDAC tumors. This was associated with migration and accumulation of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from spleens into tumors, which was not observed using a scrambled control (shScr-ST). Purified splenic PMNs from PEGPH20/shIDO-ST-treated mice exhibited significant IDO knockdown and were able to kill tumor targets ex-vivo through mechanisms involving FasL and serine proteases. In addition, CD8+ T cells were observed to contribute to late control of pancreatic tumors. Collectively, our data demonstrate that entry of shIDO-ST and PMNs into otherwise impermeable desmoplastic tumors is facilitated by PEGPH20-mediated HA removal, further highlighting an important component of effective treatment for PDAC. PMID:26134178

  17. Glucose utilization by intracranial meningiomas as an index of tumor aggressivity and probability of recurrence: a PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Di Chiro, G.; Hatazawa, J.; Katz, D.A.; Rizzoli, H.V.; De Michele, D.J.

    1987-08-01

    Seventeen patients with intracranial meningiomas were studied with positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) to assess the glucose utilization of these tumors. Four meningiomas followed for 3-5 years after PET-FDG and surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. These tumors had significantly lower glucose utilization rates (1.9 mg/dl/min +/- 1.0) than 11 recurrent or regrowing meningiomas (4.5 mg/dl/min +/- 1.96). The glucose metabolic rates of meningiomas correlated with tumor growth, as estimated from changes in tumor size on repeated computed tomographic scans. Histopathologically, a syncytial (atypical) meningioma had the highest glucose utilization rate, followed by a papillary meningioma and an angioblastic meningioma. Individual transitional and syncytial (typical) meningiomas showed marked differences in glucose metabolism despite similar microscopic appearance. Glucose utilization rate appears to be at least as reliable as histologic classification and other proposed criteria for predicting the behavior and recurrence of intracranial meningiomas.

  18. Low VHL mRNA expression is associated with more aggressive tumor features of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Boban; Saenko, Vladimir; Todorovic, Lidija; Petrovic, Nina; Nikolic, Dragan; Zivaljevic, Vladan; Paunovic, Ivan; Nakashima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Dzodic, Radan

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene can cause different hereditary tumors associated with VHL syndrome, but the potential role of the VHL gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been characterized. This study set out to investigate the relationship of VHL expression level with clinicopathological features of PTC in an ethnically and geographically homogenous group of 264 patients from Serbia, for the first time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a strong correlation between low level of VHL expression and advanced clinical stage (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 3.17-10.53, P<0.0001), classical papillary morphology of the tumor (OR = 2.92, 95% CI 1.33-6.44, P = 0.008) and multifocality (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.06-3.62, P = 0.031). In disease-free survival analysis, low VHL expression had marginal significance (P = 0.0502 by the log-rank test) but did not appear to be an independent predictor of the risk for chance of faster recurrence in a proportion hazards model. No somatic mutations or evidence of VHL downregulation via promoter hypermethylation in PTC were found. The results indicate that the decrease of VHL expression associates with tumor progression but the mechanism of downregulation remains to be elucidated.

  19. Low VHL mRNA Expression is Associated with More Aggressive Tumor Features of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Boban; Saenko, Vladimir; Todorovic, Lidija; Petrovic, Nina; Nikolic, Dragan; Zivaljevic, Vladan; Paunovic, Ivan; Nakashima, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Dzodic, Radan

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene can cause different hereditary tumors associated with VHL syndrome, but the potential role of the VHL gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been characterized. This study set out to investigate the relationship of VHL expression level with clinicopathological features of PTC in an ethnically and geographically homogenous group of 264 patients from Serbia, for the first time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a strong correlation between low level of VHL expression and advanced clinical stage (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 3.17–10.53, P<0.0001), classical papillary morphology of the tumor (OR = 2.92, 95% CI 1.33–6.44, P = 0.008) and multifocality (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.06–3.62, P = 0.031). In disease-free survival analysis, low VHL expression had marginal significance (P = 0.0502 by the log-rank test) but did not appear to be an independent predictor of the risk for chance of faster recurrence in a proportion hazards model. No somatic mutations or evidence of VHL downregulation via promoter hypermethylation in PTC were found. The results indicate that the decrease of VHL expression associates with tumor progression but the mechanism of downregulation remains to be elucidated. PMID:25490036

  20. Characteristics of malignant tumors in 230 husband-wife pairs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Xu, Zhijian; Zhang, Kai; Li, Huai; Chang, Sheng; Bi, Xiaofeng; Dai, Min

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a reference point for early detection of tumors in individuals whose spouses were diagnosed with malignant tumors. Data from 230 husband and wife pairs with malignant tumors were collected and analyzed from the family history records of 15,000 people who came to the Department of Cancer Prevention, Cancer Institute/Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences for cancer screening between January 2009 and May 2012. The median diagnosis age was 67 years for husbands and 65 years for wives. A total of 214 cases (46.5 %) had digestive system malignancies. Respiratory system cancers were diagnosed in 64 husbands, of whom 20 (31.3 %) had spouses also with respiratory system cancer. Lung cancer ranked first for the females. The total number of lung cancer and commonly seen female-specific cancers (breast, ovarian, uterine, and cervical) was 127 (55.2 %). The difference in age at diagnosis between spouses was less than 10 years in 134 couples (58.3 %), while 77 (33.5 %) couples had an age difference less than 5 years. A family history of malignant tumors in first-degree relatives was documented in 48.3 % of the husbands and 48.7 % of the wives. The occurrence of cancer in both spouses of the couples studied resulted from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nonhereditary factors such as diet, smoking, passive smoking, and air pollution also contributed to the development of cancers. It is recommended that when husband is diagnosed with cancer, the wife should be screened focusing on lung, breast, and gynecological cancers. If the wife was diagnosed with malignant disease, then screening for lung and digestive system cancers should be emphasized in the husband.

  1. Molecular characteristics of circulating tumor cells resemble the liver metastasis more closely than the primary tumor in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onstenk, Wendy; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Mostert, Bianca; Lalmahomed, Zarina; Bolt-de Vries, Joan B.; van Galen, Anne; Smid, Marcel; Kraan, Jaco; Van, Mai; de Weerd, Vanja; Ramírez-Moreno, Raquel; Biermann, Katharina; Verhoef, Cornelis; Grünhagen, Dirk J.; IJzermans, Jan N.M.; Gratama, Jan W.; Martens, John W.M.; Foekens, John A.; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background CTCs are a promising alternative for metastatic tissue biopsies for use in precision medicine approaches. We investigated to what extent the molecular characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) resemble the liver metastasis and/or the primary tumor from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Results The CTC profiles were concordant with the liver metastasis in 17/23 patients (74%) and with the primary tumor in 13 patients (57%). The CTCs better resembled the liver metastasis in 13 patients (57%), and the primary tumor in five patients (22%). The strength of the correlations was not associated with clinical parameters. Nine genes (CDH1, CDH17, CDX1, CEACAM5, FABP1, FCGBP, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, and MAPT) displayed significant differential expressions, all of which were downregulated, in CTCs compared to the tissues in the 23 patients. Patients and Methods Patients were retrospectively selected from a prospective study. Using the CellSearch System, CTCs were enumerated and isolated just prior to liver metastasectomy. A panel of 25 CTC-specific genes was measured by RT-qPCR in matching CTCs, primary tumors, and liver metastases. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated and considered as continuous variables with r=1 representing absolute concordance and r= -1 representing absolute discordance. A cut-off of r>0.1 was applied in order to consider profiles to be concordant. Conclusions In the majority of the patients, CTCs reflected the molecular characteristics of metastatic cells better than the primary tumors. Genes involved in cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were downregulated in the CTCs. Our results support the use of CTC characterization as a liquid biopsy for precision medicine. PMID:27340863

  2. A Large Scale Study of the Psychometric Characteristics of the IBR Modified Overt Aggression Scale: Findings and Evidence for Increased Self-Destructive Behaviors in Adult Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Tsiouris, John A.; Flory, Michael J.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Freedland, Robert; Heaney, Glenn; Pettinger, Jill; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the IBR Modified Overt Aggression Scale were studied in over 2,000 people with Intellectual Disability (ID). Reliability ranged from good to excellent. Aggression toward others and objects was highest in the youngest adults, in those in the moderate to severe range of ID, and in those with an autism spectrum…

  3. Tumor-specific downregulation and methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes correlate with aggressiveness of human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi Rong; Sano, Toshiaki; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Asa, Sylvia L; Yamada, Shozo; Mizusawa, Noriko; Kudo, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    The gene products of CDH13 and CDH1, H-cadherin and E-cadherin, respectively, play a key role in cell-cell adhesion. Inactivation of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system caused by aberrant methylation is a common finding in human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 and CDH1 function as tumor suppressor and invasion suppressor genes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein in 5 normal pituitary tissues and 69 primary pituitary adenomas including all major types by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Reduced expression of H-cadherin was detected in 54% (28/52) of pituitary tumors and was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression was lost in 30% (21 of 69) and significantly reduced in 32% (22 of 69) of tumors. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in grade II, III, and IV than in grade I adenomas (P=0.015, P=0.029, and P=0.01, respectively). Using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), promoter hypermethylation of CDH13 and CDH1 was detected in 30 and 36% of 69 adenomas, respectively, but not in 5 normal pituitary tissues. Methylation of CDH13 was observed more frequently in invasive adenomas (42%) than in non-invasive adenomas (19%) (P<0.05) and methylation of CDH1 was more frequent in grade IV adenomas compared with grade I adenomas (P<0.05). Methylation of either CDH13 or CDH1 was identified in 35 cases (51%) and was more frequent in grade IV invasive adenomas than in grade I non-invasive adenomas (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). Downregulation of expression was correlated with promoter hypermethylation in CDH13 and CDH1. In conclusion, the tumor-specific downregulation of expression and methylation of CDH13 and CDH1, alone or in combination, may be involved in the development and invasive growth of pituitary adenomas.

  4. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  5. Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

    2008-01-01

    In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

  6. Assessment of tumor characteristic gene expression in cell lines using a tissue similarity index (TSI).

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Rickard; Ernberg, Ingemar

    2005-02-08

    The gene expression profiles of 60 cell lines, derived from nine different tissues, were compared with their corresponding in vivo tumors and tissues. Cell lines expressed few tissue-specific (2%) or tumor-specific (5%) genes when analyzed group-wise. A tissue similarity index (TSI) was designed based upon singular value decomposition that measured in vivo tumor characteristic gene expression in each cell line independently. Only 34 of the 60 cell lines received the highest TSI toward its tumor of origin. In addition, we identified the most appropriate cell lines to be used as model systems for different in vivo tumors. Seven cell lines were identified as being of another origin than the originally presumed one. The proposed TSI will likely become an important tool for the selection of the most appropriate cell lines in pharmaceutical screening programs and experimental and biomedical research.

  7. Examination of Personal and Socio-Behavioral Characteristics as Predictors of Aggressive Behavioral Tendencies of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Heewon; An, Dongsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine university students' aggressive behavioral tendencies. Students ("n" = 405) at a Midwestern University, were selected as study sample. This study hypothesized that demographic variables (e.g., age, gender, class standing, racial minority status, and G.P.A. score) and study variables (e.g.,…

  8. The TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor, Palomid 529, reduces tumor growth and sensitizes to docetaxel and cisplatin in aggressive and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Marampon, Francesco; Petini, Foteini; Biordi, Leda; Sherris, David; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Festuccia, Claudio

    2011-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is the development of chemo-resistant tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Palomid 529 (P529), a novel TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor, in association with docetaxel (DTX) and cisplatin (CP). This work utilizes a wide panel of prostatic cancer cell lines with or without basal activation of Akt as well as two in vivo models of aggressive HRPC. The blockade of Akt/mTOR activity was associated to reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Comparison of IC50 values calculated for PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative cell lines as well as the PTEN transfection in PC3 cells or PTEN silencing in DU145 cells revealed that absence of PTEN was indicative for a better activity of the drug. In addition, P529 synergized with DTX and CP. The strongest synergism was achieved when prostate cancer (PCa) cells were sequentially exposed to CP or DTX followed by treatment with P529. Treatment with P529 before the exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs resulted in a moderate synergism, whereas intermediated values of combination index were found when drugs were administered simultaneously. In vivo treatment of a combination of P529 with DTX or CP increased the percentage of complete responses and reduced the number of mice with tumor progression. Our results provide a rationale for combinatorial treatment using conventional chemotherapy and a Akt/mTOR inhibitor as promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of HRPC, a disease largely resistant to conventional therapies.

  9. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children's Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Granowetter, Linda; Grier, Holcombe E.; Womer, Richard B.; Randall, R. Lor; Marcus, Karen J.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Krailo, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized). We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier) and compared risk across groups (log-rank test). Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI) for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45), 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p < 0.01). Since tumor size was not collected in the last study, the other two were reanalyzed. This model identified age, treatment, tumor location, and tumor size as significant predictors. Conclusion. Age > 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered). PMID:26508901

  10. Aggressive Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes very aggressive. What is the best ... once they are quiet and still reinforces this behavior, so your child learns that time out means “quiet and still.” ...

  11. Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Unusual Thyroid Follicular-Like Morphologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Elmugtaba; Abadeer, Kerolos; Zhai, Qihui (Jim)

    2017-01-01

    We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor—specifically, follicular-like characteristics—immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed. However, all were negative. All imaging studies revealed no evidence of a primary lesion other than the liver mass. In 2008, the patient's liver transplant failed because of ischemic cholangiopathy, and she underwent a second liver transplant. Seven years later, in 2015, she presented with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of intermediate grade to the lung, consistent with metastatic PHNET. She underwent left upper-lobe wedge resection to remove the tumor. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 13 years after initial diagnosis. This rare variant of PHNET had thyroid-like morphologic characteristics but there is no evidence of primary thyroid tumor or thyroid markers in the primary and recurrent hepatic tumors and lung metastasis. PMID:28316853

  12. Quantification of Liver Tumors Using Statistical Characteristics of Ultrasonic RF Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chono, Tomoaki; Ito, Masayasu

    We propose a method for quantification of liver tumors using statistical characteristics of ultrasonic RF signals. Parameters of K distribution show the characteristics of a soft tissue. The proposed method of chi-square test(CST) can estimate the most appropriate parameters of K distribution, which are fitted to an observed amplitude distribution. Method of moment(MOM), method combining maximum likelihood and MOM(ML/MOM), and CST are compared on simulated RF signals. The CST is applied to RF signals of liver tumors including 38 hepatocellular carcinomas(malignancy) and 12 hepatic hemangiomas(benignancy). The accuracy of discriminant analysis are 78% and 50% for malignancy and benignancy, respectively.

  13. Signaling aggression.

    PubMed

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  14. The Characteristics of AD/HD Symptoms, Self-Esteem, and Aggression among Serious Juvenile Offenders in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Naomi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-three inmates of a correctional facility, who committed serious offences, participated in this study. They were all male and aged 14-17 years, with a mean age of 15.5 (SD=1.21) years. Eighty-six age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Some psychological questionnaires such as on self-esteem and aggression were conducted in both groups.…

  15. Tumor necrosis factor-α G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and aggressive periodontitis susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 16 case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yong-Ji; Wu, Lan; Cui, Li-Jun; Hu, Ding-Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-11

    Association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) G-308A (rs1800629) polymorphism and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) were inconsistent, hence we performed this meta-analysis to clarify the association between them using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis v2.2 software. 16 case-control studies were searched from the PubMed, Embase and CNKI databases up to February 2, 2015. The meta-analysis showed a significantly increased risk in A vs. G (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.04-1.44), AA vs. GG (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 1.11-3.87), and AA vs. AG+GG genetic models (OR = 2.09, 95%CI = 1.13-3.86); however, the non-significantly increased risk was shown in AG vs. GG (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85-1.32) and AA+AG vs. GG genetic models (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.85-1.31). Cumulative analysis showed that the association changed from non-significant to significant with new studies accumulated and the CIs became more and more narrow, sensitivity analysis indicated results were statistically robust. Stratified analyses of confirmed of HWE, Asians, Caucasians, and population-based controls obtained results similar to that of overall analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias. In summary, current evidence demonstrates that TNF-a G-308A polymorphism might be associated with AgP susceptibility, especially in Asians and Caucasians.

  16. B-mode and contrast-enhancement characteristics of small nonincidental neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Barbara; Jenssen, Christian; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Hocke, Michael; Will, Uwe; Möller, Kathleen; Ignee, Andre; Dong, Yi; Cui, Xin-Wu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Imaging of the pancreas for detection of neuroendocrine tumors is indicated as surveillance in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or if typical clinical symptoms combined with hormone production raise the suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered the best imaging modality to detect small pancreatic tumors. However, little is known about how small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) present on EUS. Patients and Methods: In this multicenter study, we retrospectively analyzed the endosonographic characteristics of small pNETs which had been detected due to typical biochemistry and clinical symptoms or during surveillance of MEN 1. Only small pancreatic tumors ≤15 mm with histological confirmation as pNET were included. B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound- and EUS patterns were analyzed. Results: Among 32 patients with histologically proven small pNETs, 7 patients had known MEN1. Among the pNETs, 20 were insulinoma, 2 gastrinoma, 3 glucagonoma, 6 nonfunctional in MEN1, and one PPoma. 94% of the pNET appeared hypoechogenic, only 1 isoechogenic and 1 hyperechogenic. After contrast injection, 90% of the pNETS showed hyperenhancement compared to the surrounding pancreatic parenchyma. Conclusion: The high spatial resolution of EUS allows detection and even cytological confirmation of pNET <7 mm diameter. Hypoechogenicity in B-mode and hyperenhancement after injection of contrast agents are endosonographic characteristics of small pNET and present in >90% of pNETs. PMID:28218201

  17. Characteristics of gsp-positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors in Korean acromegalic patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, I; Park, S; Ryu, M; Woo, J; Kim, S; Kim, J; Kim, Y; Choi, Y

    1996-06-01

    A subset of human growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors contains the gsp oncogene that encodes an activation mutation of the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (G(S) alpha). This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency of the gsp oncogene in GH-secreting pituitary tumors in Korean acromegalic patients and to elucidate the clinical characteristics of these patients to endocrine testing. Direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing revealed the gsp oncogene mutation in 9 out of 21 tumors (43%) at amino acid 201 of the G(S) alpha protein. A single nucleotide mutation in the tumors carrying the gsp oncogene was observed, which replaced an arginine (CGT) in the normal protein with cysteine (TGT) in eight tumors and serine (AGT) in one tumor. The patients with the gsp oncogene mutation (group 1) were older (54 +/- 10 vs 41 +/- 11 years, p = 0.0085) than those without the mutation (group 2). Sex, tumor size and grade, basal GH and prolactin levels, the GH response to oral glucose loading, the GH fluctuation and the paradoxical response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone did not differ between the groups. The gsp oncogene was found mostly in somatotroph adenomas. The octreotide-induced GH suppression was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (95 +/- 5% vs 81 +/- 17%, p = 0.0335). The GH response to bromocriptine did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that the G(S) alpha mutations of GH-secreting tumor are observed in Korean acromegalic patients with similar frequency to those of western countries. The patients with gsp oncogene are likely to be older than those without the oncogene, and show excellent response of GH suppression to octreotide.

  18. Estimation of the tumor size at cure threshold among aggressive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs): evidence from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program and the national lung screening trial (NLST).

    PubMed

    Goldwasser, Deborah L

    2017-03-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mortality can be reduced by a program of annual CT screening in high-risk individuals. However, CT screening regimens and adherence vary, potentially impacting the lung cancer mortality benefit. We defined the NSCLC cure threshold as the maximum tumor size at which a given NSCLC would be curable due to early detection. We obtained data from 518,234 NSCLCs documented in the U.S. SEER cancer registry between 1988 and 2012 and 1769 NSCLCs detected in the NLST. We demonstrated mathematically that the distribution function governing the cure threshold for the most aggressive NSCLCs, G(x|Φ = 1), was embedded in the probability function governing detection of SEER-documented NSCLCs. We determined the resulting probability functions governing detection over a range of G(x|Φ = 1) scenarios and compared them with their expected functional forms. We constructed a simulation framework to determine the cure threshold models most consistent with tumor sizes and outcomes documented in SEER and the NLST. Whereas the median tumor size for lethal NSCLCs documented in SEER is 43 mm (males) and 40 mm (females), a simulation model in which the median cure threshold for the most aggressive NSCLCs is 10 mm (males) and 15 mm (females) best fit the SEER and NLST data. The majority of NSCLCs in the NLST were treated at sizes greater than our median cure threshold estimates. New technology is needed to better distinguish and treat the most aggressive NSCLCs when they are small (i.e., 5-15 mm).

  19. Clinical characteristics and prognoses of six patients with multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenglei; Tang, Yawen; Li, Mei; Jiao, Qiong; Zhang, Huizhen; Yang, Qingcheng; Yao, Weiwu

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone (MGCT) is a rare entity whose radiographic, pathological and biological features remain confusing. We retrospectively reviewed six patients (1 male, 5 female; average age, 22.33 years) treated for confirmed MGCT between 2001 and 2015. The patients' clinical information, images from radiographs (n = 14), CT (n = 13), MRI (n = 8), bone scintigraphy (n = 1) and PET-CT (n = 2), as well as histologic features, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. A total of 17 lesions were detected: 4 around the knee joint, 3 in the greater trochanter and head of the femur, 5 in the small bones of the feet, and 2 in flat bones. All these lesions occurred in an ipsilateral extremity. One patient had Paget's disease. On radiographs and CT, 12 lesions exhibited sclerotic margins or patchy sclerosis, 8 showed cortical discontinuity, and 5 showed soft tissue masses. On histopathology, 8 lesions showed signs of sarcomatous transformation and one had transformed into osteosarcoma. Ten lesions in 4 patients were initially treated with surgery, and 3 showed local recurrence. Seven lesions in 3 patients were treated with denosumab. All the patients are currently stable without metastasis. These results suggest MGCT tends to occur in uncommon sites with sclerosis. Because these lesions can be aggressive, patients should be carefully monitored for the recurrence or formation of other lesions, especially in an ipsilateral extremity. PMID:27823978

  20. Preoperative hyponatremia as a clinical characteristic in elderly patients with large pituitary tumor.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, S; Yokoyama, T; Yokota, N; Ohta, S

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the pathophysiology of preoperative hyponatremia in elderly patients with a large pituitary tumor. The tumor size, initial symptoms, and preoperative pituitary hormonal function were analyzed in 96 patients, consisting of 82 younger than 70 years old (mean age 49.7 years) and 14 older than 70 years old (mean age 72.0 years). There was no difference in tumor size between the two age groups. The initial symptom of all younger patients was visual disturbance. Preoperative hormonal evaluations revealed subclinical panhypopituitarism in four patients (4.9%). Five of the 14 older patients had severe hyponatremia (107-117 mEq/l) based on panhypopituitarism, and four of these five patients showed consciousness disturbance as the initial symptom, initiated by physical and/or psychological stress, or occurrence of intratumoral hemorrhage. Preoperative subclinical panhypopituitarism was found in another patient. The overall occurrence rate of preoperative panhypopituitarism in the older patients was 42.9%. The difference in the frequency of preoperative panhypopituitarism was statistically significant between the two groups. Preoperative severe hyponatremia associated with a large pituitary tumor is characteristic of elderly patients. The number of receptors for adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex decreases during the aging process. Additional physical and/or psychological stress prompts pituitary dysfunction in such patients, causing the manifestation of acute symptoms of adrenal insufficiency based on panhypopituitarism. Primary care using high dose hydrocortisone and electrolyte fluid is critical.

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1–mediated characteristic features of cancer cells for tumor radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been attracting increasing attention in the fields of radiation biology and oncology since Thomlinson and Gray detected hypoxic cells in malignant solid tumors and showed that they exert a negative impact on the outcome of radiation therapy. This unfavorable influence has, at least partly, been attributed to cancer cells acquiring a radioresistant phenotype through the activation of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). On the other hand, accumulating evidence has recently revealed that, even though HIF-1 is recognized as an important regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia, it may not become active and induce tumor radioresistance under hypoxic conditions only. The mechanisms by which HIF-1 is activated in cancer cells not only under hypoxic conditions, but also under normoxic conditions, through cancer-specific genetic alterations and the resultant imbalance in intermediate metabolites have been summarized herein. The relevance of the HIF-1–mediated characteristic features of cancer cells, such as the production of antioxidants through reprogramming of the glucose metabolic pathway and cell cycle regulation, for tumor radioresistance has also been reviewed. PMID:26983985

  2. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some throat ...

  3. [Clinical characteristics research of shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system in real world].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan-Chun; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Zhuang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The study was to research the clinical characteristics of Shenmai injection treating tumor based on hospital information system, including the characteristics of the age, the sex, the dosage, the course of the treatment and the combination drugs. The data of tumor patients injected with Shenmai injection was analyzed. The information was collected from the hospital information system (HIS) in twenty hospitals of grade III-A. The method of frequencies and association rules was used in this reaearch. The patients over 45 years old were up to 3 338, about 79.36% of the whole. The ratio of male and female was 1.73: 1. The hospitalization day between 15 and 28 was most. The complications of the hypertension and coronary heart disease happened most. The support was 5.939% and 5.099% respectively. Fifty-five patients had the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome of Qi-Yin deficiency, about 14.78% of the whole. There were 8 491 patients treated with the single dose of 81 to 100 mL, about 48.70% of the whole. The main combination drugs were dexamethasone, tropisetron and maxolon. The confidence was 44.63%, 31.22% and 20.53% respectively. The information from HIS showed that tumor patients used Shenmai injection were most quinquagenarian with smooth condition. The dose of the Shenmai injection sometimes was higher than that of the drug use instructions in clinical. Shenmai injection was most often combined with glucocorticoid, antemetic and nutritional support medicine when treating tumor in clinical.

  4. Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor (GIPACT): gastrointestinal stromal tumors show phenotypic characteristics of the interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed Central

    Kindblom, L. G.; Remotti, H. E.; Aldenborg, F.; Meis-Kindblom, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) form a complex cell network within the gastrointestinal tract wall where they function as a pacemaker system. Expression of the kit proto-oncogene is essential for the development of this system. The aim of our study was to examine the hypothesis that gastrointestinal stromal tumors differentiate toward cells with an ICC phenotype. Ultrastructurally, 58 stromal tumors were characterized and found to share many features with ICC. Seventy-eight stromal tumors were immunophenotyped, particularly with regard to the kit receptor. All 78 tumors revealed strong, homogeneous immunoreactivity for the kit receptor as did ICC of adjacent and control gastrointestinal walls. Focal hyperplasia and hypertrophy of kit receptor positive cells were also observed in the gastrointestinal wall adjacent to the tumors. CD34 immunoreactivity observed in interstitial cells surrounding Auerbach's ganglia suggests that a subpopulation of ICC is CD34 positive and may explain why 56 of 78 stromal tumors were CD34 positive. Thirty control tumors, including gastrointestinal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, were all negative for the kit receptor. We conclude that gastrointestinal stromal tumors show striking morphological and immunophenotypic similarities with ICC and that they may originate from stem cells that differentiate toward a pacemaker cell phenotype. We propose that the noncommittal name "gastrointestinal stromal tumor" be replaced by gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9588894

  5. Aggressive B-cell lymphomas: how many categories do we need?

    PubMed Central

    Said, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas are diverse group of neoplasms that arise at different stages of B-cell development and by various mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. The aggressive B-cell lymphomas include many types, subtypes and variants of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma (BL), mantle cell lymphoma and its blastoid variant, and B lymphoblastic lymphoma. Differences in histology, cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities, as well as the relationship with the tumor microenvironment, help define characteristic signatures for these neoplasms, and in turn dictate potential therapeutic targets. Rather than survey the entire spectrum of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, this report aims to identify and characterize important clinically aggressive subtypes of DLBCL, and explore the relationship of DLBCL to BL and the gray zone between them (B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL). PMID:23154748

  6. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  7. Fibropapillomatosis in green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil: characteristics of tumors and virus.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, C R; Baptistotte, C; Werneck, M R; Pires, T T; Melo, M T D; de Ataíde, M W; Testa, P; Alieve, M M; Canal, C W

    2014-10-16

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a benign neoplasia that affects physiological functions of sea turtles and may lead to death. High prevalence of FP in sea turtle populations has prompted several research groups to study the disease and the associated herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). The present study detected and quantified ChHV5 in 153 fibropapilloma samples collected from green turtles Chelonia mydas on the Brazilian coast between 2009 and 2010 to characterize the relationship between viral load and tumor characteristics. Of the tumor samples collected, 73 and 87% were positive for ChHV5 in conventional PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, and viral loads ranged between 1 and 118.62 copies cell⁻¹. Thirty-three percent of turtles were mildly, 28% were moderately and 39% were severely affected with FP. Skin samples were used as negative control. High viral loads correlated positively with increasing FP severity in turtles sampled on the Brazilian coast and with samples from turtles found dead in the states of São Paulo and Bahia. Six viral variants were detected in tumor samples, 4 of which were similar to the Atlantic phylogenetic group. Two variants were similar to the western Atlantic/eastern Caribbean phylogenetic group. Co-infection in turtles with more than one variant was observed in the states of São Paulo and Bahia.

  8. Duodenal Rare Neuroendocrine Tumor: Clinicopathological Characteristics of Patients with Gangliocytic Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Yokose, Tomoyuki; Motohashi, Osamu; Miyagi, Yohei; Yoshioka, Emi; Suzuki, Masaki; Washimi, Kota; Kawachi, Kae; Nito, Madoka; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Kameda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) has been regarded as a rare benign tumor that commonly arises from the second part of the duodenum. As GP does not exhibit either prominent mitotic activity or Ki-67 immunoreactivity, it is often misdiagnosed as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1. However, the prognosis might be better in patients with GP than in those with NET G1. Therefore, it is important to differentiate GP from NET G1. Moreover, our previous study indicated that GP accounts for a substantial, constant percentage of duodenal NETs. In the present article, we describe up-to-date data on the clinicopathological characteristics of GP and on the immunohistochemical findings that can help differentiate GP from NET G1, as largely revealed in our new and larger literature survey and recent multi-institutional retrospective study. Furthermore, we would like to refer to differential diagnosis and clinical management of this tumor and provide intriguing information about the risk factors for lymph node metastasis on GP. PMID:28096810

  9. Rising thyroid cancer incidence in the United States by demographic and tumor characteristics, 1980–2005

    PubMed Central

    Enewold, Lindsey; Zhu, Kangmin; Ron, Elaine; Marrogi, Aizen J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peoples, George E.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has been rising in the United States, and this trend has often been attributed to heightened medical surveillance and use of improved diagnostics. Thyroid cancer incidence varies by sex and race/ethnicity, and these factors also influence access to and utilization of healthcare. We therefore examined thyroid cancer incidence rates by demographic and tumor characteristics, based on 48,403 thyroid cancer patients diagnosed during 1980–2005 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute. Rates varied by histologic type, sex, and race/ethnicity. Papillary carcinoma was the only histologic type for which incidence rates rose consistently among all racial/ethnic groups. Subsequent analyses focused on the 39,706 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed during this period. Papillary carcinoma rates increased most rapidly among females. Between 1992–1995 and 2003–2005, they rose nearly 100% among White Non-Hispanics and Black females, but only 20–50% among White Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Black males. Increases were most rapid for localized stage and small tumors; however, rates also rose for large tumors and tumors of regional and distant stage. Since 1992–1995, half the overall increase in papillary carcinoma rates was due to rising rates of very small (≤1.0 cm) cancers, 30% to cancers 1.1–2 cm, and 20% to cancers >2 cm. Among White females, the rate of increase for cancers >5 cm almost equaled that for the smallest cancers. Medical surveillance and more sensitive diagnostic procedures cannot completely explain the observed rises in papillary thyroid cancer rates. Thus, other possible explanations should be explored. PMID:19240234

  10. Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  11. A case of aggressive solid pseudopapillary neoplasm: Comparison of clinical and pathologic features with non-aggressive cases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Kojun; Okada, Katsuya; Aikawa, Masayasu; Koyama, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) may have an aggressive clinical course, but clinical predictors of this condition have not been thoroughly evaluated. We performed a retrospective study of 11 cases of SPN managed in our hospital between January 2007 and April 2015. Of these 11 cases, we encountered a single case with an aggressive clinical course. Histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical features were compared to identify predictors of poor prognosis. The 11 patients comprised four women and seven men with a median age of 41 years (range, 26-58 years). Clinical symptoms were nonspecific and the median tumor size was 4.6 cm (range, 1.4-18 cm). The patient with an aggressive clinical course developed multiple liver metastases within three months and died seven months after surgery. Pathological features of the tumor in this case included lymph node metastases, a diffuse growth pattern, extensive tumor necrosis, high mitotic rate, and immunohistochemistry. These features were not observed in patients who survived without recurrence at a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 6-82 months). Characteristic pathological features and a high proliferative index, as assessed by Ki-67 staining, may predict poor outcome in cases of SPN.

  12. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  13. Empathic deficits and alexithymia in trauma-related impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Teten, Andra L; Miller, Lisa A; Bailey, Sara D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Kent, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Our long term interest is to develop a developmental model of impulsive aggression based on a confluence of social, psychological and biological features. This approach incorporates neurobiological research, which has identified language processing deficits as a unique characteristic of impulsive aggressors and extends it to include emotional deficits. As an initial test of this hypothesis, we examined whether empathy and alexithymia were associated with impulsive aggression. Regressions were performed to explore the associations among impaired empathy, alexithymia, impulsive aggression, verbal and physical general aggression. Among impulsive aggressive veterans (n=38) recruited from a VA trauma clinic, alexithymia predicted impulsive aggression and empathic deficits predicted verbal aggression. Neither emotional awareness deficit predicted general physical aggression in this middle-aged sample. Results suggested that empathic deficits were associated with general verbal aggression, but alexithymia was uniquely associated with impulsive aggression. Consideration of alexithymia in impulsive aggression has implications for its etiology, prevention and treatment.

  14. Attenuated expression of menin and p27 (Kip1) in an aggressive case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) associated with an atypical prolactinoma and a malignant pancreatic endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Emi; Yamada, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Yokota, Machiko; Tosaka, Masahiko; Hirato, Junko; Yamada, Shozo; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-01-01

    Tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are generally benign. Since information on the pathogenesis of MEN1 in malignant cases is limited, we conducted genetic analysis and compared the expression of menin, p27(Kip1)(p27)/CDKN1B and p18(Ink4C)(p18)/CDKN2C with levels in benign cases. We describe the case of a 56 year-old male with an atypical prolactinoma and malignant pancreatic neuroenocrine tumor. At age 50, he had undergone transsphenoidal surgery to remove a prolactinoma. However, the tumor relapsed twice. Histological analysis of the recurrent prolactinoma revealed the presence of prolactin, a high MIB-1 index (32.1 %), p53-positive cells (0.2%), and an unusual association with FSH-positive cells. A few years later, he was also found to have a non-functioning pancreatic tumor with probable metastasis to the extradullar region. The metastatic region tested positive for chromogranin and CD56, and negative for prolactin, with 1.2 % of cells p53-positive. Although genetic analyses of the MEN1, p27, and p18 genes demonstrated no mutation, numbers of menin, p27 and p18 immuno-positive cells were significantly down-regulated in the recurrent prolactinoma, but that of p18 was intact in the metastatic region. Furthermore, MEN1 and p27 mRNA levels of the recurrent prolactinoma were down-regulated, particularly the MEN1 mRNA level, compared to levels in 10 cases of benign prolactinoma, while the p18 mRNA level was similar to that of normal pituitary. The tumor in this case may be a subtype of MEN1 showing more aggressive and malignant features probably induced by low levels of menin and p27.

  15. Dissection of Ras-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Aggressive Tumor Growth of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells: Evidence for a Potential Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Plattner, Rina; Der, Channing J.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of multiple signaling pathways is required to trigger the full spectrum of in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits associated with neoplastic transformation by oncogenic Ras. To determine which of these pathways are important for N-ras tumorigenesis in human cancer cells and also to investigate the possibility of cross talk among the pathways, we have utilized a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), which contains an endogenous mutated allele of the N-ras gene, and its derivative (MCH603c8), which lacks the mutant N-ras allele. We have stably transfected MCH603c8 and HT1080 cells with activating or dominant-negative mutant cDNAs, respectively, of various components of the Raf, Rac, and RhoA pathways. In previous studies with these cell lines we showed that loss of mutant Ras function results in dramatic changes in the in vitro phenotypic traits and conversion to a weakly tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. We report here that only overexpression of activated MEK contributed significantly to the conversion of MCH603c8 cells to an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking the constitutive activation of the Raf-MEK, Rac, or RhoA pathway alone is not sufficient to block the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype of HT1080, despite affecting a number of in vitro-transformed phenotypic traits. We have also demonstrated the possibility of bidirectional cross talk between the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and the Rac-JNK or RhoA pathway. Finally, overexpression of activated MEK in MCH603c8 cells appears to result in the activation of an as-yet-unidentified target(s) that is critical for the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:11094080

  16. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition aggressive fibromatosis deep fibromatosis desmoid fibromatosis familial infiltrative fibromatosis ... catenin protein and somatic APC mutations in sporadic aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors). Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug; ...

  17. Evaluation of the nutritional status and tumor characteristics in premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vasiljević, N; Pecelj-Gec, M; Jorga, J; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Branković-Magić, M; Marinković, J; Mitrović, L

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the nutritional status, fat tissue distribution, and tumor characteristics was carried out in patients with primary breast cancer. The patients were classified into two groups according to their menopause: premenopausal and postmenopausal. Breast cancer prevalence was considerably higher in postmenopausal patients (61%). The patients' nutritional status was shown through the body mass index. Based on this indicator, the patients were characterized as nonobese and obese. In the premenopausal group, there was no significant difference between these categories, whereas the number of obese patients was significantly higher (80%) in the postmenopausal group. The analysis of tumor parameters as related to menopause and body size did not yield any significant differences. However, the estrogen receptor content was significantly higher in postmenopausal patients (p < 0.0001). Distribution of fat tissue of the android type was higher in obese postmenopausal women than in premenopausal ones (77%). The investigation showed that the breast cancer incidence odds are 3.5 times higher in obese postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.

  18. Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

  19. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence. PMID:27446562

  20. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence.

  1. Chronic psychological stress and its impact on the development of aggressive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cormanique, Thayse Fachin; de Almeida, Lirane Elize Defante Ferreto; Rech, Cynthia Alba; Rech, Daniel; Herrera, Ana Cristina da Silva do Amaral; Panis, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological findings of women diagnosed with breast cancer and study the impact of chronic psychological stress on the pathological characteristics of these tumors. Methods We investigated a cohort composed of women diagnosed with breast cancer and divided into two groups. One group was categorized as presenting with chronic psychological stress (by using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire − SRQ-20). Another group of women with breast cancer, but with no previous history of chronic psychological stress, comprised the Control Group. Clinical and pathological data were assessed. Results Women presenting with a history of chronic distress were significantly overweight when compared to the Control Group. Furthermore, it was observed that these stressed women also had a significant percentage of aggressive breast cancer subtype, the HER2 amplified tumor, which could be putatively associated with the loss of immunosurveillance. Conclusion Our findings suggested an interaction among chronic psychological stress, overweight, and the development of more aggressive breast tumors. PMID:26466057

  2. Association of SMAD4 mutation with patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarshekeh, Amir Mehrvarz; Advani, Shailesh; Overman, Michael J.; Manyam, Ganiraju; Kee, Bryan K.; Fogelman, David R.; Dasari, Arvind; Raghav, Kanwal; Vilar, Eduardo; Manuel, Shanequa; Shureiqi, Imad; Wolff, Robert A.; Patel, Keyur P.; Luthra, Raja; Shaw, Kenna; Eng, Cathy; Maru, Dipen M.; Routbort, Mark J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2017-01-01

    SMAD4 is an essential mediator in the transforming growth factor-β pathway. Sporadic mutations of SMAD4 are present in 2.1–20.0% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) but data are limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, prognosis, and clinical outcome associated with this mutation in CRC cases. Data for patients with metastatic or unresectable CRC who underwent genotyping for SMAD4 mutation and received treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed. Their tumors were sequenced using a hotspot panel predicted to cover 80% of the reported SMAD4 mutations, and further targeted resequencing that included full-length SMAD4 was performed on mutated tumors using a HiSeq sequencing system. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas data on CRC, the characteristics of SMAD4 and transforming growth factor-β pathway mutations were evaluated according to different consensus molecular subtypes of CRC. Among 734 patients with CRC, 90 (12%) had SMAD4 mutations according to hotspot testing. SMAD4 mutation was associated with colon cancer more so than with rectal cancer (odds ratio 2.85; p<0.001), female sex (odds ratio 1.71; p = 0.02), and shorter overall survival than in wild-type SMAD4 cases (median, 29 months versus 56 months; hazard ratio 2.08; p<0.001 [log-rank test]). SMAD4 mutation was not associated with age, stage at presentation, colonic location, distant metastasis, or tumor grade. A subset of patients with metastatic CRC (n = 44) wild-type for KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF who received anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy with mutated SMAD4 (n = 13) had shorter progression-free survival duration than did patients wild-type for SMAD4 (n = 31) (median, 111 days versus 180 days; p = 0.003 [log-rank test]). Full-length sequencing confirmed that missense mutations at R361 and P356 in the MH2 domain were the most common SMAD4 alterations. In The Cancer Genome Atlas data, SMAD4 mutation frequently occurred

  3. Multimodality Imaging Characteristics of the Common Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: An Analysis of 544 Pathologically Proven Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Winnie; Huang, Guan; Moloo, Zaahir; Girgis, Safwat; Patel, Vimal H; Low, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the characteristic imaging appearances of the common renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes. Materials and Methods: The Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. 520 patients (336 men, 184 women; age range, 22–88 years) underwent preoperative cross-sectional imaging of 544 RCCs from 2008 to 2013. The imaging appearances of the RCCs and clinical information were reviewed. Data analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric statistics, descriptive statistics, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: The RCC subtypes showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in several imaging parameters such as tumor margins, tumor consistency, tumor homogeneity, the presence of a central stellate scar, T2 signal intensity, and the degree of tumor enhancement. Low T2 signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed differentiation of papillary RCC from clear cell and chromophobe RCCs with 90.9% sensitivity and 93.1% specificity. A tumor-to-cortex ratio ≥1 on the corticomedullary phase had 98% specificity for clear cell RCC. Conclusion: The T2 signal intensity of the tumor on MRI and its degree of enhancement are useful imaging parameters for discriminating between the RCC subtypes while gross morphological findings offer additional value in RCC profiling. PMID:28123840

  4. [Characteristics of polyamine biosynthesis regulation and tumor growth rate in hormone-dependant grafted breast tumors of mice and rats].

    PubMed

    Orlovskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the inhibitors of polyamines biosynthesis on completely or partially hormone-dependant breast tumors (mouse Ca755 carcinoma and Walker W-256 carcinosarcoma) is essentially special: in contrary to hormone-dependant tumors, this effect may be not only breaking but stimulating as well. Change-over from one to another mode of reaction is conditioned, most probable, by hormonal status, which is determined by one or another estral cycle phase. Biochemical mechanisms of this change-over are closely connected with polyamines metabolism, namely the degree of polyamines (especially spermine) interconvertion and physiological reactivity level of the system controlling expression of ornithin-decarboxilase. At that, the first of these pathways is predominant for completely hormone-dependant Ca755 and the second one -for partially hormone-dependant W-256.

  5. Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman

    2014-11-01

    ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, ER has a profound impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen

  6. Microarray analysis revealed dysregulation of multiple genes associated with chemoresistance to As(2)O(3) and increased tumor aggressiveness in a newly established arsenic-resistant ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3/AsR.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pei-Shi; Chan, Sui-Yung; Ho, Paul C

    2012-02-14

    The potential of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) for use as a novel therapy for ovarian cancer treatment has been increasingly recognized. In this study, we developed an arsenic-resistant OVCAR-3 subline (OVCAR-3/AsR) and aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways contributing to the development of acquired arsenic chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. OVCAR-3/AsR cells were obtained following continual exposure of parental OVCAR-3 cells to low dose As(2)O(3) for 12months. Cytotoxicity of OVCAR-3/AsR cells to As(2)O(3), paclitaxel and cisplatin was investigated. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution following As(2)O(3) treatment of OVCAR-3/AsR cells was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Subsequently, cDNA microarray analysis was performed from the RNA samples of OVCAR-3 and OVCAR-3/AsR cells in duplicate experiments. Microarray data were analyzed using Genespring® and Pathway Studio® Softwares. OVCAR-3/AsR cells showed 9-fold greater resistance to As(2)O(3) and lack of collateral resistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel. Compared with parental OVCAR-3 cells, OVCAR-3/AsR had significantly lower apoptotic rates following As(2)O(3) treatment. These cells were also arrested at both the S phase and G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle after exposure to high concentrations of As(2)O(3). Gene expression profiling revealed significant differences in expression levels of 397 genes between OVCAR-3/AsR and OVCAR-3 cells. The differentially regulated transcripts genes have functional ontologies related to continued cancer cell growth, cell survival, tumor metastasis and tumor aggressiveness. Additionally, numerous gene targets of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor showed elevated expression in OVCAR-3/AsR cells. Subsequent pathway analysis further revealed a gene network involving interleukin 1-alpha (IL1A) in mediating the arsenic-resistant phenotype. These results showed that changes in multiple genes and an

  7. miRNA expression profiling of inflammatory breast cancer identifies a 5-miRNA signature predictive of breast tumor aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Lerebours, Florence; Cizeron-Clairac, Geraldine; Susini, Aurelie; Vacher, Sophie; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Belichard, Catherine; Brain, Etienne; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Spyratos, Frédérique; Lidereau, Rosette; Bieche, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    IBC (inflammatory breast cancer) is a rare but very aggressive form of breast cancer with a particular phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for IBC remain largely unknown. In particular, genetic and epigenetic alterations specific to IBC remain to be identified. MicroRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs able to regulate gene expression, are deregulated in breast cancer and may therefore serve as tools for diagnosis and prediction. This study was designed to determine miRNA expression profiling (microRNAome) in IBC. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine expression levels of 804 miRNAs in a screening series of 12 IBC compared to 31 non-stage-matched non-IBC and 8 normal breast samples. The differentially expressed miRNAs were then validated in a series of 65 IBC and 95 non-IBC. From a set of 18 miRNAs of interest selected from the screening series, 13 were differentially expressed with statistical significance in the validation series of IBC compared to non-IBC. Among these, a 5-miRNA signature comprising miR-421, miR-486, miR-503, miR-720 and miR-1303 was shown to be predictive for IBC phenotype with an overall accuracy of 89%. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that this signature was an independent predictor of poor Metastasis-Free Survival in non-IBC patients.

  8. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  9. Kupfer-type immunological synapse characteristics do not predict anti-brain tumor cytolytic T-cell function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Sanderson, N S R; Wawrowsky, K; Puntel, M; Castro, M G; Lowenstein, P R

    2010-03-09

    To analyze the in vivo structure of antigen-specific immunological synapses during an effective immune response, we established brain tumors expressing the surrogate tumor antigen ovalbumin and labeled antigen-specific anti-glioma T cells using specific tetramers. Using these techniques, we determined that a significant number of antigen-specific T cells were localized to the brain tumor and surrounding brain tissue and a large percentage could be induced to express IFNgamma when exposed to the specific ovalbumin-derived peptide epitope SIINFEKL. Detailed morphological analysis of T cells immunoreactive for tetramers in direct physical contact with tumor cells expressing ovalbumin indicated that the interface between T cells and target tumor cells displayed various morphologies, including Kupfer-type immunological synapses. Quantitative analysis of adjacent confocal optical sections was performed to determine if the higher frequency of antigen-specific antiglioma T cells present in animals that developed an effective antitumor immune response could be correlated with a specific immunological synaptic morphology. Detailed in vivo quantitative analysis failed to detect an increased proportion of immunological synapses displaying the characteristic Kupfer-type morphology in animals mounting a strong and effective antitumor immune response as compared with those experiencing a clinically ineffective response. We conclude that an effective cytolytic immune response is not dependent on an increased frequency of Kupfer-type immunological synapses between T cells and tumor cells.

  10. Characteristics of intraoperative abnormal hemodynamics during resection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor located on the dorsal medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Kajiwara, Koji; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal hemodynamics during extirpation of a para-medulla oblongata (MO) tumor is common and may be associated with direct vagal stimulation of the medullary circuit. However, resection of tumors on the dorsal MO may also induce hemodynamic instability without direct vagal stimulus. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of hemodynamic instability unrelated to vagal stimulus during dissection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor with attachment to the dorsal MO. A retrospective analysis was performed in 13 patients. Abnormal hemodynamics were defined as a > 20% change from the means of the intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Relationships of intraoperative hemodynamics were evaluated with various parameters, including the volume of the MO. Six patients (46.2%) had intraoperative hypertension during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The maximum MAP and HR in these patients were significantly greater than those in patients with normal hemodynamics (116.0 ± 18.0 mmHg versus 85.6 ± 6.5 mmHg; 124.3 ± 22.8 bpm versus 90.5 ± 14.7 bpm). All six cases with abnormal hemodynamics showed hemodynamic fluctuation during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The preoperative volume of the MO in these patients was 1.11 cc less than that in patients with normal hemodynamics, but the volume after tumor resection was similar in the two groups (5.23 cc and 5.12 cc). This suggests that the MO was compressed by the conglutinate tumor bulk, with resultant fluctuation of hemodynamics. Recognition of and preparation for this phenomenon are important for surgery on a tumor located on the dorsal MO.

  11. The T-cell Receptor Repertoire Influences the Tumor Microenvironment and Is Associated with Survival in Aggressive B-cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Keane, Colm; Gould, Clare; Jones, Kimberley; Hamm, David; Talaulikar, Dipti; Ellis, Jonathan; Vari, Frank; Birch, Simone; Han, Erica; Wood, Peter; Le-Cao, Kim-Anh; Green, Michael R; Crooks, Pauline; Jain, Sanjiv; Tobin, Josh; Steptoe, Raymond J; Gandhi, Maher K

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the intra-tumoral T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of TCR on survival.Experimental Design: We performed high-throughput unbiased TCRβ sequencing on a population-based cohort of 92 patients with DLBCL treated with conventional (i.e., non-checkpoint blockade) frontline "R-CHOP" therapy. Key immune checkpoint genes within the TME were digitally quantified by nanoString. The primary endpoints were 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).Results: The TCR repertoire within DLBCL nodes was abnormally narrow relative to non-diseased nodal tissues (P < 0.0001). In DLBCL, a highly dominant single T-cell clone was associated with inferior 4-year OS rate of 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31.7%-79.6%], compared with 79.8% in patients with a low dominant clone (95% CI, 66.7%-88.5%; P = 0.005). A highly dominant clone also predicted inferior 4-year PFS rate of 46.6% (95% CI, 22.5%-76.6%) versus 72.6% (95% CI, 58.8%-82.4%, P = 0.008) for a low dominant clone. In keeping, clonal expansions were most pronounced in the EBV(+) DLBCL subtype that is known to express immunogenic viral antigens and is associated with particularly poor outcome. Increased T-cell diversity was associated with significantly elevated PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 immune checkpoint molecules.Conclusions: Put together, these findings suggest that the TCR repertoire is a key determinant of the TME. Highly dominant T-cell clonal expansions within the TME are associated with poor outcome in DLBCL treated with conventional frontline therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1820-8. ©2016 AACR.

  12. BRCA1 germ-line mutations and tumor characteristics in eastern Chinese women with familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenming; Wang, Xiaojia; Gao, Yun; Yang, Hongjian; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    Although several studies detected the BRCA1 germ-line mutations in Chinese women with familial breast cancer, most of them did not employ conventional full gene sequencing, especially in eastern China. In addition, the clinicopathological features of BRCA1-associated breast cancer in Chinese women were not well investigated. In this study, we screened the complete coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of BRCA1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing assay. Immunohistochemistry analyses were performed on tumor samples to detect the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), P53, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). Breast cancer patients having one or more affected relatives referred from the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, eastern China during 2008-2011 were selected for the study. A total of 62 familial breast cancer patients received the BRCA1 germ-line mutation screening. Five deleterious mutations were detected in this cohort. The mutation rate was 11.3% (7/62). We found two novel mutations (3414delC and 5,280 C > T) and two recurrent mutations (5,273 G > A and 5589del8). BRCA1 mutation tumors tended to be negative for ER, PR, and HER-2, and exhibited high histological grade compared with tumors without BRCA1 mutations. Our study suggests that recurrent mutations may exist in eastern Chinese women with familial breast cancer and PCR-sequencing assay is a useful tool to screen these mutations. It also suggests that BRCA1-associated breast cancers in Chinese women exhibit an aggressive phenotype.

  13. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  14. Dense and Non-dense Mammographic Area and Risk of Breast Cancer by Age and Tumor Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Scott, Christopher G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron D.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Couch, Fergus J.; Shepherd, John; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Fan, Bo; Wu, Fang-Fang; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor. We previously reported associations of percent MD with larger and node-positive tumors across all ages, and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative status among women ages <55 years. To provide insight into these associations, we examined the components of percent MD (dense area (DA) and non-dense area (NDA) with breast cancer subtypes. Methods Data were pooled from six studies including 4095 breast cancers and 8558 controls. DA and NDA were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms and standardized across studies. Breast cancer odds by density phenotypes and age according to histopathological characteristics and receptor status were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results DA was associated with increased breast cancer risk [odds ratios (OR) for quartiles: 0.65, 1.00(Ref), 1.22, 1.55; p-trend <0.001] and NDA was associated with decreased risk [ORs for quartiles: 1.39, 1.00(Ref), 0.88, 0.72; p-trend <0.001] across all ages and invasive tumor characteristics. There were significant trends in the magnitude of associations of both DA and NDA with breast cancer by increasing tumor size (p-trend<0.001) but no differences by nodal status. Among women <55 years, DA was more strongly associated with increased risk of ER+ vs. ER− tumors [p-heterogeneity (het) = 0.02] while NDA was more strongly associated with decreased risk of ER− vs. ER+ tumors [p-het = 0.03]. Conclusions DA and NDA have differential associations with ER+ vs. ER− tumors that vary by age. Impact DA and NDA are important to consider when developing age- and subtype-specific risk models. PMID:25716949

  15. Biology and Treatment of Metastatic Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Jonathan R.; Nasir, Aejaz; Kvols, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine malignancies of the gastroenteropancreatic axis include carcinoid and pancreatic endocrine tumors. These heterogeneous neoplasms arise from the enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract and the islet cells of the pancreas. Histologically, most well-differentiated endocrine tumors consist of small, round, monomorphic cells, arranged in islands or trabeculae, with a distinct “salt-and-pepper” pattern of nuclear chromatin. Chromogranin and synaptophysin are useful as immunohistochemical markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. Other common features include the capacity to secrete peptide hormones and biogenic amines. A relatively indolent growth rate is characteristic of most gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors, with the exception of poorly differentiated tumors which are usually aggressive. Treatment strategies are designed to limit tumor progression and palliate hormonal syndromes. This article reviews the diverse biologic characteristics of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and current treatment options for metastatic disease. PMID:19259290

  16. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.

    2008-05-06

    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  17. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  18. Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0176 TITLE: Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 July 2015 Annual 01-July 2014 -- 30 Jun 2015 Modeling Aggressive Medulloblastoma Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem...induced pluripotent stem cells by Atoh1 induction can be efficiently transformed by MYC oncogene to form aggressive brain tumors that recapitulate human

  19. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  20. Characteristics of tumor and host cells in 3-D simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, V.; Dinh, T.; Wood, T.; Pellis, N.; Hannigan, E.

    Co-cultures of three-dimensional (3-D) constructs of one cell type with dispersed cells of a second cell type in low-shear rotating suspension cultures in simulated microgravity environment have been used to investigate invasive properties of normal and malignant cell types. We have shown that the epithelial and endothelial cells undergo a switch in characteristics when grown in an in vitro 3-D environment, that mimics the in vivo host environment as compared with conventional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cultures. Histological preparations and immunohistochemical staining procedures of cocultured harvests demonstrated various markers of interest: like collagen vimentin, mucin, elastin, fibrin, fibrinogen, cytokeratin, adhesion molecules and various angiogenic factors by tumor cells from gynecological cancer patients along with fibroblasts, endothelial cells and patient-derived mononuclear cells (n=8). The growth rate was enhanced 10-15 folds by 3-D cocultures of patient-derived cells as compared with 2-D monolayer cultures and 3-D monocultures. The production of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin -8, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and angiogenin was studied by using ELISA and RT- PCR. Human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cell (HUVEC) were used to study the mitogenic response of the conditioned medium collected from 3-D monocultures and cocultures during proliferation and migration assays. The conditioned medium collected from 3-D cocultures of cancer cells also 1) increased the expression of message levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor flt-1 and KDR was observed by HUVEC, and 2) increased the expression of intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules on the surface of HUVEC, when measured by using Live cell ELISA assays and immunofluorescent staining as compared with 3-D monocultures of normal epithelial cells. There was an increase in production of 1) enzymatic activity that

  1. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FAS activity in prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify key metabolic ...intermediates involved in lipid metabolism , mitochondrial function, inflammation, and apoptosis in the prostatectomy samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS : none...vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism , and prostate cancer aggressiveness, our

  2. Thermal survival characteristics of cell subpopulations isolated from a heterogeneous human colon tumor.

    PubMed

    Leith, J T; Heyman, P; DeWyngaert, J K; Dexter, D L; Calabresi, P; Glicksman, A S

    1983-07-01

    Responses of a heterogeneous human colon adenocarcinoma model tumor system to in vitro hyperthermic treatment at various temperatures have been studied. This model tumor system consists of an original tumor line (DLD-1) obtained from surgical biopsy, and two derivative subpopulations termed clones A and D. These 3 tumor cell populations differ in many properties, including karyotype and DNA content, production of specific antigens, and sensitivities to other cytotoxic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs and X-irradiation. In these experiments, exponentially growing tumor cells were exposed to hyperthermia (42.2, 42.5, 43.0, 44.0, or 45.0 degrees) for graded time periods. A single-hit, multitarget equation was used to express the dependence of survival on time at a given temperature, and values for extrapolation numbers, quasi-threshold time (min), and T0 (mean lethal time; min) were obtained for the initial regions of survival. At the lower temperatures of 42.2 and 42.5 degrees, biphasic survival curves were obtained for all three tumor lines and, as a consequence, a second mean lethal time (T0,f) was also determined for the final thermal-resistant portion of the survival curves. Using the T0 values as an index of relative resistance, values at 42.2 and 42.5 degrees indicated that, in this temperature region, the parent (DLD-1) line was the most sensitive, the clone A line showed intermediate sensitivity, and the clone D line was the most resistant. In the thermally resistant portion of the survival curve, T0 values indicated that the clone A subpopulation was the most sensitive, the DLD-1 line showed intermediate sensitivity, and the clone D tumor subpopulation remained the most resistant. At the higher temperatures of 43, 44, and 45 degrees, in which thermotolerance is not observed during heat treatment, values for T0 indicated the parent (DLD-1) tumor line was still the most sensitive tumor line, and the clone A and clone D lines showed approximately equal

  3. Characteristics and biological role of steroid hormone receptors in neuroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Butti, G; Zibera, C; Scerrati, M; Gibelli, N; Roselli, R; Magrassi, L; Sica, G; Rossi, G; Robustelli della Cuna, G

    1990-11-01

    Tissue samples from 57 patients with neuroepithelial tumors (25 glioblastomas, 18 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 14 astrocytomas) were analyzed in order to evaluate the presence of estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoid, and androgen receptors. Glucocorticoid- and androgen-specific binding proteins were present in 38.6% and 21.6% of the cases, respectively. Only a few tumors showed estrogen or progesterone receptors. A correlation was found between grade of anaplasia, patient's sex and age, and presence of glucocorticoid and androgen receptors. The biological role of these two receptors was investigated in 10 primary cell cultures derived from neuroepithelial tumors. For this purpose, dexamethasone and testosterone were added to culture medium at different concentrations (from 50 to 0.016 micrograms/ml). A significant stimulation of the cell growth was observed in four of five glucocorticoid receptor-positive cultures when dexamethasone in doses ranging from 2 to 0.016 microgram/ml was added to the culture. No modulation of the growth was observed in glucocorticoid receptor-negative cultures at the same doses. Higher dexamethasone doses induced a significant decrease of the growth index independently from the glucocorticoid receptor status. All of the cultures tested for testosterone activity were negative for androgen receptors. This hormone induced an inhibition of the growth index at doses ranging from 50 to 0.4 micrograms/ml. The data suggest that neuroepithelial tumors contain specific glucocorticoid and androgen binding proteins. Glucocorticoid receptors modulate the growth of cultured neuroepithelial tumors in the presence of different concentrations of dexamethasone.

  4. Crooke's cell tumors of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Davidson, Jennilee M; Syro, Luis V; Rotondo, Fabio; Montoya, Julian F; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael D; Kovacs, Kalman

    2015-05-01

    Crooke's cell adenomas are a rare type of pituitary neoplasm. They produce adrenocorticotropic hormone causing Cushing's disease or may be endocrinologically silent. These tumors are usually invasive, may exhibit aggressive clinical behavior, and often recur with a low success of cure after reoperation and/or radiotherapy. Due to their rarity, they present great difficulties in assessing prognosis, treatment, and clinical management. Neurosurgeons and physicians dealing with pituitary adenomas diagnosed as Crooke's cell adenomas have to be aware of their potential clinical aggressiveness to plan strict follow-up of patients and eventual multimodality treatment. We review here the published cases of Crooke's cell tumors, as well as the clinical and histopathological characteristics of these unusual neoplasms.

  5. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: an analysis of etiological heterogeneity by multiple tumor characteristics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Roni T; Maas, Paige; Schairer, Catherine; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Mabie, Jerome E; Cunningham, Christopher; Buys, Saundra S; Isaacs, Claudine; Ziegler, Regina G

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Whether associations vary by specific tumor characteristics independent of other characteristics is unclear. We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial cohort (54,562 women aged 55-74 years recruited at 10 US screening centers between 1993 and 2001; median follow-up, 8.9 years; 1,905 invasive breast cancer cases). Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for subtypes defined by histological type and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status were calculated with standard Cox models. A novel 2-stage Cox model assessed heterogeneity in risk for individual tumor characteristics while adjusting for others. Significant trends across categories of alcohol consumption were observed, with hazard ratios for those consuming 7 or more drinks per week versus never drinkers as follows: for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cancer, 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.83); for progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) cancer, 1.64 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.06); for ER+/PR+ cancer, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.05); and for mixed ductal/lobular cancer, 2.51 (95% CI: 1.20, 5.24). For ER+ and PR+ cancers, trends were significant for ductal and mixed ductal/lobular types. PR status explained the positive association with ER status (for ER status, Pheterogeneity=0.70 after adjustment for PR status). Alcohol consumption was not associated with all breast cancer subtypes. Future work should emphasize large collaborative studies, precise definition of subtypes, and adjustment for correlated tumor characteristics.

  6. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  7. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  8. Thoracic Presentations of Small Round Blue Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Annalice; Pfeifer, Kyle; Chen, Peter; Kalra, Vivek; Shin, Myung Soo

    2016-01-01

    The term “small round blue cell” is frequently used as a cursory radiologic pathological correlation of aggressive tumors throughout the body. We present a pictorial essay of common and uncommon subtypes of small round blue cell tumors in the chest illustrating the characteristic radiologic findings of each lesion. In addition, we review the pathologic findings of each tumor subtype with characteristic hematoxylin- and eosin-stained photomicrographs and immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Represented tumors include small cell carcinoma, Ewing sarcoma, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Understanding and ability to recognize these lesions are essential to broaden the radiologist's differential diagnosis and help guide patient care. PMID:27403403

  9. Proteolysis-a characteristic of tumor-initiating cells in murine metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Larissa E.; Bengsch, Fee; Hochrein, Jochen; Hülsdünker, Jan; Bender, Julia; Follo, Marie; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) have been identified and functionally characterized in hematological malignancies as well as in solid tumors such as breast cancer. In addition to their high tumor-initiating potential, TICs are founder cells for metastasis formation and are involved in chemotherapy resistance. In this study we explored molecular pathways which enable this tumor initiating potential for a cancer cell subset of the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mouse model for metastasizing breast cancer. The cell population, characterized by the marker profile CD24+CD90+CD45−, showed a high tumorigenicity compared to non-CD24+CD90+CD45− cancer cells in colony formation assays, as well as upon orthotopic transplantation into the mammary fat pad of mice. In addition, these orthotopically grown CD24+CD90+CD45− TICs metastasized to the lungs. The transcriptome of TICs freshly isolated from primary tumors by cell sorting was compared with that of sorted non-CD24+CD90+CD45− cancer cells by RNA-seq. In addition to more established TIC signatures, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition or mitogen signaling, an upregulated gene set comprising several classes of proteolytic enzymes was uncovered in the TICs. Accordingly, TICs showed high intra- and extracellular proteolytic activity. Application of a broad range of protease inhibitors to TICs in a colony formation assay reduced anchorage independent growth and had an impact on colony morphology in 3D cell culture assays. We conclude that CD24+CD90+CD45− cells of the MMTV- PyMT mouse model possess an upregulated proteolytic signature which could very well represent a functional hallmark of metastatic TICs from mammary carcinomas. PMID:27542270

  10. Early-Stage Breast Cancer in the Octogenarian: Tumor Characteristics, Treatment Choices, and Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Anita; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Neo, Dayna; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Herold, Christina I.; Recht, Abram; Hacker, Michele R.; Sharma, Ranjna

    2016-01-01

    Background Nodal staging with sentinel node biopsy (SLNB), post-lumpectomy radiotherapy (RT), and endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors is valuable in the treatment of early-stage (stages 1 or 2) breast cancer but used less often for elderly women. Methods This retrospective study investigated women referred for surgical evaluation of biopsy-proven primary early-stage invasive breast cancer from January 2001 to December 2010. Clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and outcomes for women ages 80–89 years and 50–59 years were compared. Results The study identified 178 eligible women ages 80–89 years and 169 women ages 50–59 years. The elderly women more often had grade 1 or 2 disease (p = 0.003) and ER+ tumors (p = 0.007) and less frequently had undergone adjuvant therapies (all p ≤ 0.001). Lumpectomy was performed more commonly for the elderly (92 vs. 83 %, p = 0.02), and axillary surgery was less commonly performed (46 vs. 96 %; p < 0.001). Fewer elderly women had undergone post-lumpectomy RT (42 vs. 89 %; p < 0.001) and ET for ER+ tumors (72 vs. 95 %; p < 0.001). During the median follow-up period of 56 months for the 80- to 89-year old group and 98 months for the 50- to 59-year-old group, death from breast cancer was similar (4 vs. 5 %; p = 0.5). The two groups respectively experienced 7 versus 6 locoregional recurrences and 11 versus 13 distant recurrences. Conclusions The octogenarians had disease survivorship similar to that of the younger women despite less frequent use of adjuvant therapies, likely reflecting lower-risk disease features. Whether increased use of axillary surgery, post-lumpectomy RT, and/or ET for ER+ tumors would further improve outcomes is an important area for further study, but treatment should not be deferred solely on the basis of age. PMID:27364507

  11. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R; Monacelli, M; Santoprete, S; Triola, R; Conti, C; Pecoriello, R; Favoriti, P; Di Patrizi, M S; Barillaro, I; Boccolini, A; Avenia, S; D'Ajello, M; Sanguinetti, A; Avenia, N

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice.

  12. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors (Aggressive Fibromatoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his ... topic.cfm?topic=A00188) Editorial Board & Staff Contributors Online Agreements Linking Policy Advertising & Sponsorship Privacy Policy AAOS ...

  13. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    does. To test the efficacy of these two approaches, we carried an experiment using Intralipid -10% suspension in water as a model medium, and two...absorptive targets. The concentration of Intralipid -10% was adjusted to provide a transport mean free path lt ~ 1.43 mm and an absorption coefficient...efficacy is d emonstrated b y imaging t wo targ ets embedded in Intralipid -10% suspension in water. @2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes

  14. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    given source– detector pair is sensitive to a change in the optical properties [10,11]. Compared to Monte Carlo method, reconstruction based on FEM...suspension in water . @2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (110.0113) Imaging through turbid media; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging...However, the overlapping lipid and adjacent water signals obscure lactate in the conventional MRSI. Over the last few years, the double frequency

  15. Photonic Breast Tomography and Tumor Aggressiveness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Optical Imaging III, edited by Andreas H. Hielscher , Paola Taroni, Proc. of SPIE-OSA Biomedical Optics, SPIE Vol. 8088, 80880Y · © 2011 SPIE-OSA · CCC...acoustic mirrors,” in IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings (Montreal, Que., Canada, 1989), vol. 2, pp. 681–686. 27. M. Fink, “Time reversal of... ultrasonic fields. I. Basic principles,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason . Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39(5), 555–566 (1992). 28. M. Fink, “Time reversal mirrors,” J

  16. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  17. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  18. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  19. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  20. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  1. Serotonin and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Serena-Lynn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Decreased serotonin function has consistently been shown to be highly correlated with impulsive aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Such lowered serotonergic indices appear to correlate with the dimension of aggression dyscontrol and/or impulsivity rather than with psychiatric diagnostic categories per se. Implications…

  2. Differentiating Blood, Lymph, and Primo Vessels by Residual Time Characteristic of Fluorescent Nanoparticles in a Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwoo; Lim, Jaekwan; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Kim, SungChul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) which were injected into a tumor tissue flowed out through the blood and lymph vessels. The FNPs in blood vessels remained only in the order for few minutes while those in lymph vessels remained for a long time disappearing completely in 25 hours. We found a primo vessel inside a lymph vessel near a blood vessel, and FNPs remained in the primo vessel for longer than 25 hours. In addition, we examined in detail the residual time characteristics of lymph vessels because it could be useful in a future study of fluid dynamical comparison of the three conduits. These residual time characteristics of FNPs in the three kinds of vessels may have implications for the dynamics of nanoparticle drugs for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23662147

  3. Clinical evaluation of tumor characteristics predisposing serum thyroglobulin to be undetectable in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.Sc.; Schneider, C.

    1988-03-01

    This study delineates tumor characteristics which predispose serum thyroglobulin (TG) to be undetectable in patients in spite of persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer. Three hundred seventy four thyroid carcinoma patients with completed thyroid ablation were investigated by means of conventional diagnostic procedures (iodine-131 total-body scan, x-ray, TG determination) and, in addition, with high-resolution sonographic study of the neck. Sensitivity of TG for the detection of metastases amounted to 83% under TSH stimulation and 50% under thyroxine (T4) treatment. Specificity proved to be 95% under TSH stimulation and 99% under T4 treatment. Common features of the tumors associated with false-negative TG determinations (n = 16) were papillary histologic characteristics, manifestation in lymph nodes of the neck or mediastinum, and small size. It is therefore necessary for the early detection of persistent or recurrent papillary cancer metastases to perform in addition to iodine-131 scans high-resolution sonography of the neck in combination with the determination of TG serum concentrations under endogenous TSH stimulation.

  4. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: correlation of tumor grade and histologic characteristics with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Amy G; Wu, Chin-Lee; Young, Robert H; Braaten, Kristina; Sadow, Peter M; Nielsen, G P; Oliva, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Histologic prognostic parameters in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) are unclear. The aims were to review the clinicopathological features of PRCC, including Fuhrman grade and International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade, and to identify parameters that may be independent prognostic indicators. PRCCs in patients treated by nephrectomy were retrieved from the pathology files from 1984 to 2010. Parameters studied included tumor multifocality, size, PRCC type (1 or 2), Fuhrman grade, ISUP nucleolar grade, presence of necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and stage at presentation. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were used as prognostic measures. Of 154 PRCCs, 112 (73%) were type 1, and 42 (27%), type 2. A total of 125 patients were male, and 29, female, with ages from 26 to 86 (mean, 62.7) years. Fuhrman grade was 1 in 8 (5%), 2 in 95 (62%), 3 in 49 (32%), and 4 in 2 (1%) tumors, respectively. ISUP nucleolar grade was 1 in 47 (31%), 2 in 56 (36%), 3 in 49 (32%), and 4 in 2 (1%) tumors, respectively. Mean follow-up interval was 73.9 months (0.13-222 months). ISUP nucleolar grade was a significant predictor of both CSS and OS in univariate (CSS, P = .001; OS, P = .004) and multivariate (CSS, P = .04; OS, P = .008) analyses, whereas Fuhrman grade was only predictive of CSS in univariate (P = .001) and multivariate (P = .04) analyses. Only ISUP nucleolar grade and lymphovascular invasion were independently prognostic for CSS and OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. Therefore, the ISUP nucleolar grade appears to be superior in predicting survival in patients with PRCC.

  5. From aggressiveness to creativity.

    PubMed

    Mrevlje, Gorazd V

    2004-02-01

    Psychology has a long tradition of considering human creativity as a distinct human characteristic and a special kind of human activity. After explaining the key motives for such an attitude, the author discusses those forms of healthy aggressiveness that stand out as necessary and constitutive elements of the creative process. Taking the well-known statement of C. G. Jung's 'The person who does not build (create), will demolish and destroy' as a starting point, the author compares the basic premises for understanding the process of human creativity, at the same time drawing on Freud's psychology of the individual and Jung's principle of the collective unconscious as well as his notion of 'complexes'. In doing so, the author somewhat boldly paraphrases Jung's dictum: 'In order to be creative, rather than just constructive, one must occasionally also destroy'. With reference to Wallas, Taylor and Neumann (Wallas 1926; Taylor 1959;;Neumann 2001), the author goes on to explore those concepts which help us to investigate the phenomenon of human creativity, drawing distinctions between emergent, expressive, productive, inventive and innovative creativity. The second part of the article discusses the importance of intelligence, originality, nonconformity, subversiveness and free-mindedness for the creative process of human beings. The author concludes with a further explanation of Erich Neumann's argument that human creativity cannot be understood solely as a result of sociogenetic factors, and argues that it is only by taking into consideration Jung's perception of creativity that a global ontological understanding of these processes can be achieved.

  6. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  7. Linneg Sca-1high CD49fhigh prostate cancer cells derived from the Hi-Myc mouse model are tumor-initiating cells with basal-epithelial characteristics and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saha, Achinto; Blando, Jorge; Fernandez, Irina; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2016-05-03

    A cell line was established from ventral prostate (VP) tumors of one-year-old Hi-Myc mice. These cells, called HMVP2 cells, are LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh with high CD44 and CD29 expression and express CK14, Sca-1 and CD49f (but not CK8), suggesting basal-epithelial characteristics. Furthermore, HMVP2 cells form spheroids and both the cells and spheroids produce tumors in syngeneic mice. After four days of culture, HMVP2 spheroids underwent a gradual transition from LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression to LinnegSca-1lowCD49flow while a subpopulation of the cells retained the original LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression pattern. Additional cell subpopulations expressing Lin positive markers were also present suggesting further differentiation of HMVP2 spheroids. Two additional highly tumorigenic cell lines (HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2) were isolated from HMVP2 cells after subsequent tumor formation in FVB/N mice. Concurrently, we also established cell lines from the VP of 6 months old Hi-Myc mice (named as HMVP1) and FVB/N mice (called NMVP) having less aggressive growth properties compared to the other three cell lines. AR expression was reduced in HMVP2 cells compared to NMVP and HMVP1 cells and almost absent in HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2 cells. These cell lines will provide valuable tools for further mechanistic studies as well as preclinical studies to evaluate preventive and/or therapeutic agents for prostate cancer.

  8. Linneg Sca-1high CD49fhigh prostate cancer cells derived from the Hi-Myc mouse model are tumor-initiating cells with basal-epithelial characteristics and differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Irina; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

    2016-01-01

    A cell line was established from ventral prostate (VP) tumors of one-year-old Hi-Myc mice. These cells, called HMVP2 cells, are LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh with high CD44 and CD29 expression and express CK14, Sca-1 and CD49f (but not CK8), suggesting basal-epithelial characteristics. Furthermore, HMVP2 cells form spheroids and both the cells and spheroids produce tumors in syngeneic mice. After four days of culture, HMVP2 spheroids underwent a gradual transition from LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression to LinnegSca-1lowCD49flow while a subpopulation of the cells retained the original LinnegSca-1highCD49fhigh expression pattern. Additional cell subpopulations expressing Lin positive markers were also present suggesting further differentiation of HMVP2 spheroids. Two additional highly tumorigenic cell lines (HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2) were isolated from HMVP2 cells after subsequent tumor formation in FVB/N mice. Concurrently, we also established cell lines from the VP of 6 months old Hi-Myc mice (named as HMVP1) and FVB/N mice (called NMVP) having less aggressive growth properties compared to the other three cell lines. AR expression was reduced in HMVP2 cells compared to NMVP and HMVP1 cells and almost absent in HMVP2A1 and HMVP2A2 cells. These cell lines will provide valuable tools for further mechanistic studies as well as preclinical studies to evaluate preventive and/or therapeutic agents for prostate cancer. PMID:26910370

  9. Aggressive Chordomas: Clinical Outcome of 13 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Pala, Elisa; Calabrò, Teresa; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Katzouraki, Galatia; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Pneumaticos, Spyros G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    The authors reviewed the files of all patients with chordomas who were admitted and treated at their institutions from 1975 to 2012. Patients were categorized by early local recurrence and metastasis. Aggressive clinical behavior was defined as local recurrence and metastasis within 24 months of diagnosis and adequate treatment (wide en bloc resection with microscopically negative tumor margins). According to these criteria, 13 patients (14.3%) had aggressive chordomas, including 7 men and 6 women, with mean age of 54 years (range, 37-65 years) at diagnosis and treatment. All patients had preoperative tumor biopsy, followed by resection with partial (7 patients) or total sacrectomy (6 patients). In all cases, biopsy and histologic analysis of resected tumor specimens showed conventional chordomas. Resection margins were wide (grossly negative) in 6 patients and wide contaminated in 7 patients. Mean maximum tumor diameter was 11.8 cm (range, 5-21 cm). Mean follow-up was 43 months (range, 8-131 months). Rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and death were evaluated. At the last follow-up, all patients had local recurrence at a mean of 13 months (range, 5-22 months). Histologic examination of recurrent tumors showed a dedifferentiated chordoma with a fibrosarcoma component in 2 patients and no histologic change in the remaining patients. In addition, 8 patients had metastases at a mean of 13 months (range, 4-24 months) and died of their disease. All histologic findings of metastatic lesions were similar to those of primary tumors. Early diagnosis of aggressive tumors requires close follow-up of patients with chordomas. Metastasis is common, with resultant poor survival. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e248-e254.].

  10. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes.

  11. Aggression and sport.

    PubMed

    Burton, Robert W

    2005-10-01

    Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.

  12. Chronobiological characteristics of the action of thyroxine of reproduction of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, V.A.; Romanov, Y.A.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the action of thyroxine on cell proliferation in a hyperdiploid strain of Ehrlich's Ascites Tumor (EAT) depending on clock time. Five albino mice were given an injection of tritium-thymidine in a dose of 0.5 u Ci/g body weight (specific radioactivity 4.1 Ci/mmole) one hour before sacrifice. On autoradiographs from each animal, during examination of 3000-5000 cells, the number of dividing and DNA-synthesizing cells was counted and mitotic index and radioactive index were calculated and expressed in promille. Parameters method and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by the Fisher-Student method. Differences were considered significant at the P less than 0.05 level.

  13. A Scary Onset of a Rare and Aggressive Type of Primary Breast Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Inês; Campos, Sara; Rebelo, Teresa; Figueiredo Dias, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Primary breast sarcoma, arising from connective tissue within the breast, is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all primary breast malignancies and no more than 5% of all sarcomas. The rarity of this pathology limits most studies to case reports and small retrospective studies, which has led to a lack of consensus on the clinical management. We report a clinical case of a 52-year-old woman, perimenopausal, previously healthy, with regular breast surveillance, who presented with a large (>20 cm) and rapidly expanding hypervascularized tumor of the left breast developed over 10 days, with a very thin preulcerative skin over the last 4 days. There was no systemic dissemination. The patient was submitted to total mastectomy and excision of axillary adenopathy. The tumor was diagnosed histologically as malignant phyllodes tumor associated with areas of high-grade sarcoma. Due to rapid growth and aggressive histological characteristics, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed. There is a lot of evidence that tumors larger than 5 cm are associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the poor prognosis associated with this aggressive entity, the patient had no recurrence during 5 years of follow-up. We review the relevant literature about primary breast sarcomas. PMID:28101028

  14. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of the Characteristics of Stromal and Parenchymal Components of Colon Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Shulha, A. V.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the dependence of the spectral properties of eosin and hematoxylin (dyes routinely used in histology as contrast agents) on their localization in biological tissues with different levels of pathology: benign and malignant neoplasms and sigmoid colonic crypts. We have analyzed the fluorescent images and fluorescence spectra of the parenchyma and stromal elements. We have established that on going from physiologically normal cells to tumor cells, the contribution to the absorption cross section of histologic sections due to hematoxylin increases. In pathologically altered cells in a colonic crypt, we observe a hypsochromic effect in the fluorescence spectra of the samples with appreciable quenching of the fluorescence, while in the model systems the reverse effect occurs: a shift of the fluorescence maximum toward the red region. We discuss the influence on the indicated effects from local pH and the polarity of the dye environment in the model systems and histologic sections. As the systems modeling the polarity and acidity of the biological media, we use aqueous solutions of the dyes with different pH values and synthetic polyelectrolytes.

  16. Class I major histocompatibility complex antigens and tumor ploidy in breast and bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M; Concha, A; Ruiz-Cabello, F; Morell, M; Esteban, F; Talavera, P; Garrido, F

    1997-01-01

    We determined the frequency of expression of the major histocompatibility complex antigens HLA-A,B,C in tumor cells from 207 primary tumor lesions of breast and bronchogenic carcinomas, to see if the expression of theses antigens was linked with several clinicopathological parameters associated with tumor aggressivity, such as abnormal cellular DNA content. We compared tumor tissues with nonneoplastic tissues and tissues from 15 benign breast lesions. HLA class I expressor and nonexpressor tumor cells were determined by using immunohistochemical stains (PAP and APAAP methods) and antibodies against these antigens. Reduction of HLA class I antigen was detected in 65 tumors (31.7%) and was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation and abnormal cellular DNA content (p < 0.001). These characteristics might define a group of aggressive tumors in which the decrease of HLA class I antigens would enable tumor cells to avoid eliciting host immune responses. On the other hand, the altered regulatory mechanisms, of tumors with abnormal cellular DNA content, might modulate the expression of HLA class I molecules.

  17. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  18. Physical Aggression in Early Marriage: Prerelationship and Relationship Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Predicted spousal physical aggression at 30 months after marriage for 393 young couples. Prerelationship predictor variables were history of violence in family of origin, aggression against others during childhood and adolescence, and personality characteristics. Relationship predictor variables were marital discord and spouse-specific…

  19. Examination of ancestral informative markers and self-reported race with tumor characteristics of breast cancer among Black and White women.

    PubMed

    Reding, Kerryn W; Carlson, Christopher S; Kahsai, Orsalem; Chen, Christina C; McDavid, Andrew; Doody, David R; Chen, Chu; Ornelas, India; Lowe, Kimberly; Bernstein, Leslie; Weiss, Linda; McDonald, Jill A; Simon, Michael S; Strom, Brian; Marchbanks, Polly A; Burkman, Ronald; Spirtas, Robert; Liff, Jonathan M; Malone, Kathleen E

    2012-07-01

    African American (AA) women have a higher mortality from breast cancer (BC) compared to European American (EA) women. This may be due to the higher proportion of AA women with tumors that are diagnosed at more advanced stages and are characterized as being estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-). Our study sought to determine whether self-reported race and percent African ancestry were associated with BC tumor characteristics. In a multi-center, population-based case-control study of BC, we determined percent African ancestry using ancestry informative markers (AIM) among women self-reporting race as AA or Black. BC tumor characteristics were associated with self-reported race (including a 30 % reduction in ER+/PR+ tumors [95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-0.9] and a 1.5-fold increased risk of high grade [95 % CI: 1.2-1.9] for AA women compared to EA women). AIMs among AA women were not associated with BC tumor characteristics (AA women with ≥95 % versus <80 % African ancestry, odds ratio [OR] = 1.0 for ER+/PR+ [95 % CI: 0.6-1.8] and OR = 0.9 for high-grade tumors [95 % CI: 0.6-1.4]). Similar findings were observed for BC stage. While BC subtypes were associated with self-reported race, BC subtypes were not associated with percent African ancestry. These study results suggest that subtle differences in percent African ancestry are less important than the overall presence of African ancestry in relation to BC tumor characteristics.

  20. Aggression Reduction Strategies: Effective and Ineffective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests several intervention qualities (punishment, catharsis, and cohabitation) characteristic of approaches that do and do not yield violence-reducing outcomes. Proposes more effective perspectives on youth violence intervention including complexity, prescriptiveness, situationality, and aggression-as-learned behavior. (Author/JDM)

  1. Differentiating impulsive and premeditated aggression: self and informant perspectives among adolescents with personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Kris J; Furr, R Michael; Mathias, Charles W; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Dougherty, Donald M

    2009-02-01

    Previous research has articulated the conceptual differentiation of impulsive and premeditated aggression. Little, if any, of this research has examined personological differences among adolescents with aggression-oriented pathology, and little, if any, has examined both self and informant perspectives. The current study examined such differentiation within a Conduct Disorder population in which normal and pathological personality characteristics were examined via self- and informant-report. Results indicated the two forms of aggression were independent: high impulsive aggression was associated with high Neuroticism, but high premeditated aggression was associated with low Agreeableness and high Extraversion. Overall, adolescents high in impulsive aggression had a pattern of personality characteristics that are seen as socially-detached and emotionally volatile. In contrast, adolescents high in premeditated aggression had a pattern of characteristics seen as egocentric and socially-engaged but without concern for others. The results have implications for the social and motivational mechanisms producing the two forms of aggression.

  2. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  3. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  4. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  5. Surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Viren S; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Vertebral hemangiomas are common tumors that are benign and generally asymptomatic. Occasionally these lesions can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms. Surgery is often recommended in these cases, especially if symptoms are severe or rapidly progressive. Some surgeons perform decompression alone, others perform gross-total resection, while others perform en bloc resection. Radiation, embolization, vertebroplasty, and ethanol injection have also been used in combination with surgery. Despite the variety of available treatment options, the optimal management strategy is unclear because aggressive vertebral hemangiomas are uncommon lesions, making it difficult to perform large trials. For this reason, the authors chose instead to report their institutional experience along with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A departmental database was searched for patients with a pathological diagnosis of "hemangioma" between 2008 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed to identify patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, and these cases were reviewed in detail. RESULTS Five patients were identified who underwent surgery for treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas during the specified time period. There were 2 lumbar and 3 thoracic lesions. One patient underwent en bloc spondylectomy, 2 patients had piecemeal gross-total resection, and the remaining 2 had subtotal tumor resection. Intraoperative vertebroplasty was used in 3 cases to augment the anterior column or to obliterate residual tumor. Adjuvant radiation was used in 1 case where there was residual tumor as well. The patient who underwent en bloc spondylectomy experienced several postoperative complications requiring additional medical care and reoperation. At an average follow-up of 31 months (range 3-65 months), no patient had any recurrence of disease and all were clinically asymptomatic, except the

  6. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone With Pseudosarcomatous Changes Leading to Premature Denosumab Therapy Interruption: A Case Report With Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Pareja, Andrea; Larousserie, Frédérique; Boudabbous, Sana; Beaulieu, Jean-Yves; Mach, Nicolas; Saiji, Essia; Rougemont, Anne-Laure

    2016-06-01

    Denosumab has shown promising results in the management of giant cell tumor of bone, a primary bone tumor with locally aggressive behaviour. We report a case of premature denosumab interruption due to radiological and clinical tumor expansion of a giant cell tumor of the distal ulna. Although denosumab is known to induce tumor regression, with progressive ossification and loss of the characteristic morphology of giant cell tumor of bone, the ulnar tumor specimen showed a moderately to highly cellular proliferation of short spindle-shaped cells, and no osteoclast-like giant cells. There were no abnormal mitotic figures. We considered the surgical specimen as a giant cell tumor of bone with partial regression after prematurely interrupted denosumab treatment. This case illustrates the diagnostic issues of an initially unfavourable evolution raising concern for malignancy, and the difficulties in histological assessment of a partially treated giant cell tumor of bone, that may mimic osteosarcoma.

  7. Molecular design of conjugated tumor necrosis factor-alpha: synthesis and characteristics of polyvinyl pyrrolidone modified tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kamada, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Tsunoda, S; Kihira, T; Kaneda, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nakagawa, S; Horisawa, Y; Mayumi, T

    1999-04-13

    We conjugated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) with the synthetic polymeric modifier polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to facilitate its clinical use for anti-tumor therapy. TNF-alpha was chemically conjugated with the terminal carboxyl-bearing PVP at one end of its main chain, which was radically polymerized via the formation of an amide bond between the lysine amino groups of TNF-alpha and carboxyl group of PVP. In vitro specific bioactivity of PVP-conjugated TNF-alpha (PVP-TNF-alpha) relative to that of native TNF-alpha gradually decreased with increases in the degree of PVP attachment. In contrast, PVP-TNF-alpha in which 40% of TNF-alpha lysine residues were coupled with PVP (MPVP-TNF-alpha) exhibited the highest anti-tumor activity among the conjugated derivatives examined. MPVP-TNF-alpha had more than 200-fold higher anti-tumor efficacy than native TNF-alpha, and the anti-tumor activity of MPVP- TNF-alpha was more than 5-fold stronger than that MPEG- TNF-alpha which had the highest anti-tumor activity among PEG-conjugated TNF-alphas examined. Additionally, a high dose of native TNF-alpha induced toxic side-effects such as body weight reduction, piloerection and tissue inflammation, while no side effects were observed following i.v. administration of MPVP-TNF-alpha. The plasma half-life of MPVP-TNF-alpha (360 min) was about 80 and 3-fold longer than those of native TNF-alpha (4.6 min) and MPEG-TNF-alpha (122 min), respectively. These results suggested that PVP is a useful polymeric modifier for increasing the anti-tumor activity of PVP.

  8. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  9. Prolactin receptor expression and breast cancer: relationships with tumor characteristics among pre- and post-menopausal women in a population-based case-control study from Poland.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Duggan, Maire A; Sherman, Mark E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Xiaohong R; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Peplonska, Beata; Vonderhaar, Barbara K; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have found an association between elevated circulating prolactin levels and increased risk of breast cancer. Prolactin stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival via binding to the cell-surface prolactin receptor. The association of prolactin receptor expression with breast tumorigenesis remains unclear as studies that have focused on this association have had limited sample size and/or information about tumor characteristics. Here, we examined the association of prolactin expression with tumor characteristics among 736 cases, from a large population-based case-control study of breast cancer conducted in Poland (2000-2003), with detailed risk factor and pathology data. Tumors were centrally reviewed and prepared as tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical analysis of prolactin receptor expression. Association of prolactin receptor expression across strata of tumor characteristics was evaluated using χ (2) analysis and logistic regression. Prolactin receptor expression did not vary by menopausal status; therefore, data from pre- and post-menopausal women were combined in the analyses. Approximately 83 % of breast cancers were categorized as strong prolactin receptor staining. Negative/low prolactin receptor expression was independently associated with poorly differentiated (p = 1.2 × 10(-08)) and larger tumors (p = 0.0005). These associations were independent of estrogen receptor expression. This is the largest study to date in which the association of prolactin receptor expression with tumor characteristics has been evaluated. These data provide new avenues from which to explore the associations of the prolactin/prolactin receptor signaling network with breast tumorigenesis.

  10. Toward a nosology of human aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Eichelman, B; Hartwig, A

    1993-01-01

    General attempts have been made to catalog or categorize research literature on aggressive behavior. In the animal literature this category has been delineated by clearly observed and described patterns of behavior. These include offensive and defensive expressions in animals and the characterization of attack behaviors by typography into defensive and offensive. The human literature is considerably deficient in the description and categorization of human aggressive behavior. Current nosologies offer no utilitarian schema for characterizing violent behavior in clinical populations regarding the typography of the violence, its prediction, or guidance as to its treatment. The generation of databased nosologies may provide a mechanism for the development of research and clinically relevant nosologies based upon cluster analyses of treatment outcomes and behavioral characteristics. This strategy may provide a more effective approach for further research concerning clinical aggressive or destructive behaviors.

  11. Targeting Aggressive Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Nowak, Anna; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12–15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance, and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggest that GSCs share critical signaling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors, SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog homeobox, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse, and achieve a cure for these patients. PMID:26258069

  12. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  13. Aggressiveness and Disobedience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaland, Grete Sorensen; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to conceptualize disobedient pupil behavior within the more general framework of antisocial behavior and to reveal how two forms of aggressiveness are related to disobedience. Disobedience, in the context of this article, covers disruptive pupil behavior or discipline problems when the pupil is aware of breaking a standard set by…

  14. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  15. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  16. Neuroimaging and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shari; Raine, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Brain imaging research allows direct assessment of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and thereby provides an improved methodology for studying neurobiological factors predisposing to violent and aggressive behavior. This paper reviews 20 brain imaging studies using four different types of neuroimaging techniques that were conducted in…

  17. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  18. Cyber Aggression: The Relation between Online Offenders and Offline Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Corrie L.; Cohen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly using computer technologies to engage in acts of aggression against peers, often termed "cyber aggression". Media reports have sensationalized instances of cyber aggression, and social scientists have begun to examine its characteristics and consequences. Using a younger sample of children than most previous research (192…

  19. The reduction of CSF tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in schizophrenia: no correlations with psychopathology and coincident metabolic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haibing; Wang, Danfeng; Liu, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels are correlated with the behavioral syndrome of schizophrenia and/or metabolic abnormalities. Methods Sixty patients with first-onset schizophrenia were recruited. The concentrations of TNF-α in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in 22 schizophrenia patients and ten patients with nonsuppurative appendicitis using a radioimmunoassay. Physiological characteristics such as fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, corrected QT interval, waist circumference, and body mass index were measured prior to CSF collection. Subjects were screened for insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment. The extent of positive and negative behavioral symptoms was scored using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results The CSF TNF-α levels in schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than those in the control group. The age of disease onset was positively correlated with the CSF TNF-α level using Pearson correlation analysis (r=0.37, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in CSF TNF-α levels in terms of age, duration of schizophrenia, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, the CSF TNF-α levels were not significantly correlated with fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance index, triglycerides, corrected QT interval, waist circumference, or body mass index. No significant correlation was found between CSF TNF-α levels and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores or other factors scores. There were also no significant differences in CSF TNF-α levels between patients with schizophrenia types I and II. Conclusion CSF TNF-α levels are decreased in schizophrenia, although this reduction does not correlate with the psychopathology or coincident metabolic characteristics of this disease. PMID:27843322

  20. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  1. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  2. A Case of a Giant Borderline Phyllodes Tumor Early in Pregnancy Treated with Mastectomy and Immediate Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Lori F; Gaillard, William Foster; Wallace, Jodi-Ann; Spiguel, Lisa R P; Alizadeh, Layla; Lentz, Ashley; Shaw, Christiana

    2016-11-01

    Breast tumors in pregnancy are often times diagnosed at advanced stages secondary to difficulty distinguishing between pathologic from normal physiologic changes. Often benign, phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial stromal tumors of the breast, most commonly diagnosed in the 4th and 5th decades of life. However, these tumors may be characterized by malignancy with metastases in 10% of cases. In this paper, we report a novel case of a young woman presenting at 8 weeks gestation with a large borderline phyllodes tumor. An exceedingly rare condition, with only nine previously reported cases, phyllodes tumors in pregnancy frequently display more aggressive characteristics with larger median tumor size, more malignant potential, and more rapid growth rate. Here, we describe our experience safely and effectively treating this rare condition in a young gravid women with mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction in the second trimester.

  3. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  4. Endolymphatic sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Wick, Cameron C; Manzoor, Nauman F; Semaan, Maroun T; Megerian, Cliff A

    2015-04-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are slow-growing, locally aggressive, low-grade malignancies that originate from the epithelium of the endolymphatic duct and sac. ELST often present with sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo, which may mimic Meniere disease. Large tumors may present with additional cranial neuropathies. Management is primarily via microsurgical excision. Radiation therapy has a limited role for residual or unresectable disease. Early detection may enable hearing preservation techniques. ELST have an association with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  5. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Misir Krpan, Ana; Dusek, Tina; Rakusic, Zoran; Solak, Mirsala; Kraljevic, Ivana; Bisof, Vesna; Ozretic, David; Kastelan, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma.

  6. A Rapid Biochemical and Radiological Response to the Concomitant Therapy with Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in an Aggressive ACTH Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma. PMID:28357143

  7. Aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma on atypical localization

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Tayfur, Mahir; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cimen, Orhan; Eken, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare sweat gland tumor that is found on the fingers, toes, and the digits. To date, <100 cases have been reported in the literature. Apart from 1 case reported in the thigh, all of them were on digital or nondigital acral skin. Case presentation: A 67-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital due to a mass on the scalp. This lesion was present for almost a year. It was a semimobile cyctic mass that elevated the scalp. There was no change in the skin color. Its dimensions were 1.5 × 1 × 0.6 cm. The laboratory, clinic, and radiologic findings (head x-ray) of the patient were normal. It was evaluated as a benign lesion such as lipoma or epidermal cyst by a surgeon due to a small semimobile mass and no erosion of the skull. It was excised by a local surgery excision. The result of the pathologic examination was aggressive papillary adenocarcinoma. This diagnosis is synonymous with ADPA. Conclusion: In our case, localization was scalp. This localization is the first for this tumor in the literature. In addition, another atypical localization of this tumor (ADPA) is thigh in the literature. This case was presented due to both the rare and atypical localizations. That is why, in our opinion, revision of “digital” term in ADPA is necessary due to seem in atypical localizations like thigh and scalp. PMID:27428196

  8. [Classic and aggressive Kaposi sarcoma with bone involvement].

    PubMed

    Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; El Alaoui, Adil; El Bardai, Mohammed; Mezzani, Amine; Lahrach, Kamal; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a multifocal rare tumor originating from vascular endothelial cells with progressive evolution and little malignant predisposition. Although Kaposi sarcoma with extensive visceral involvement is sometimes observed among HIV-positive patients, tumor dissemination to visceral lymph nodes in classic SK remains very rare. We report a rare case of aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma of the hand with a rapid and destructive development.

  9. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  10. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is

  11. Aggressive behavior and anaplasia in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a plea for a revision of the current WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Kahramancetin, Nesibe; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-11-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm that commonly affects children and young adults, and presents with seizures. PXA is typically supratentorial with a predilection to the temporal lobe, and often involves the cortex and the meninges. PXAs have a favorable prognosis with a 10-year survival probability of >70%, and are WHO grade II neoplasms. Recent observations and studies demonstrate that PXAs are clinically, histologically and genetically distinct. Some PXAs recur and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior. In such cases, certain histological and clinical factors could account for the aggressive behavior. However, the histological features that predict adverse outcome are poorly defined. In the current WHO classification of CNS tumors, there is no option for a high-grade PXA, even if the tumor had numerous recurrences and poor outcome. In this review, we focus on aggressive clinical behavior and anaplasia in PXA, and discuss how our current experience suggests modifications in the current WHO classification. We also review recent discoveries on the molecular characteristics of PXA that could help us better understand their biological behavior.

  12. Differentiated thyroid tumors: surgical indications

    PubMed Central

    LUCCHINI, R.; MONACELLI, M.; SANTOPRETE, S.; TRIOLA, R.; CONTI, C.; PECORIELLO, R.; FAVORITI, P.; DI PATRIZI, M.S.; BARILLARO, I.; BOCCOLINI, A.; AVENIA, S.; D’AJELLO, M.; SANGUINETTI, A.; AVENIA, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Thyroid gland tumors represent 1% of malignant tumors. In Italy their incidence is in constant growth. The aggressiveness depends on the histological type. The relative non-aggressive grade of different forms of tumors is the basis for discussing the treatment of choice: total thyroidectomy vs lobectomy with or without lymphadenectomy of the sixth level in the absence of metastasis. Authors report about their experience, and they advocate, given the high percentage of multicentric forms, total thyroidectomy as treatment of choice. PMID:23837952

  13. Impact of epidemiological characteristics of supratentorial gliomas in adults brought about by the 2016 world health organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haihui; Cui, Yong; Wang, Junmei; Lin, Song

    2016-11-24

    The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) integrates both histological and molecular features in the definition of diagnostic entities. This new approach enrolls novel entities of gliomas. In this study, we aimed to reveal the epidemiological characteristics, including age at diagnosis, gender ratio, tumor distribution and survival, of these new entities. We retrospectively reclassified 1210 glioma samples according to the 2016 CNS WHO diagnostic criteria. In our cohort, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with wildtype isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) was the most common malignant tumor in the brain. Almost all gliomas were more prevalent in males, especially in the cluster of WHO grade III gliomas and IDH-wildtype GBM. Age at diagnosis was directly proportional to tumor grade. With respect to the distribution by histology, we found that gliomas concurrent with IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted or with single IDH-mutant were mainly distributed in frontal lobe, while those with IDH-wildtype were dominant in temporal lobe. Lesions located in insular lobe were more likely to be IDH-mutant astrocytoma. In summary, our results elucidated the epidemiological characteristics as well as the regional constituents of these new gliomas entities, which could bring insights into tumorigenesis and personalized treatment of Chinese glioma population.

  14. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    this application, we propose to build upon our current work to determine the association between fatty acid synthase (FAS) overexpression and...Mechanisms linking fatty acid synthase overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using...INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence suggests that dysregulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the rate limiting multienzyme in the de novo formation of free

  15. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  16. The use of optical trap and microbeam to investigate the mechanical and transport characteristics of tunneling nanotubes in tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Patheja, Pooja; Dasgupta, Raktim; Dube, Alok; Ahlawat, Sunita; Verma, Ravi Shanker; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The use of optical trap and microbeam for investigating mechanical and transport properties of inter cellular tunneling nanotubes (TnTs) in tumor spheroids has been demonstrated. TnTs in tumor spheroids have been visualized by manipulating TnT connected cells using optical tweezers. Functionality of the TnTs for transferring cytoplasmic vesicles and injected dye molecules by optoporation method has been studied. Further, the TnTs could be longitudinally stretched by manipulating the connected cells and their elastic response was studied. Manipulation of cells at the surface of tumor spheroid using optical tweezers and injection of fluorescent dye into a trapped cell using optoporation technique.

  17. Victim reactions in aggressive erotic films as a factor in violence against women.

    PubMed

    Donnerstein, E; Berkowitz, L

    1981-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether the behavioral characteristics of the people in erotic films and the nature of the targets available for aggression afterward can affect subsequent aggression. In Experiment 1, male subjects were angered by a male or female confederate. They were then shown a neutral film or one of three erotic films. The erotic films differed in terms of their aggressive content (two were aggressive and one was nonaggressive) and the reactions of the female victim in the two aggressive films (positive vs. negative). Subjects were then allowed to aggress against the confederate via electric shock. Results indicated that films had no effect on male targets whereas both types of aggressive erotic films increased aggression toward the female. In Experiment 2, the effects of the above films on nonangry viewers were investigated with only female confederates. Results indicated that angered male subjects were more aggressive toward the female after viewing either aggressive erotic film but that only the positive-outcome aggressive film increased aggression in nonangered subjects. Both the theoretical and applied aspects of aggressive and nonaggressive erotica are discussed.

  18. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach.

  19. Molecular subtype and tumor characteristics of breast cancer metastases as assessed by gene expression significantly influence patient post-relapse survival

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, N. P.; Harrell, J. C.; Lövrot, J.; Egyhazi Brage, S.; Frostvik Stolt, M.; Carlsson, L.; Einbeigi, Z.; Linderholm, B.; Loman, N.; Malmberg, M.; Walz, T.; Fernö, M.; Perou, C. M.; Bergh, J.; Hatschek, T.; Lindström, L. S.; Hatschek, Thomas; Fernö, Mårten; Lindström, Linda Sofie; Hedenfalk, Ingrid; Brandberg, Yvonne; Carstensen, John; Egyhazy, Suzanne; Stolt, Marianne Frostvik; Skoog, Lambert; Hellström, Mats; Maliniemi, Maarit; Svensson, Helene; Åström, Gunnar; Bergh, Jonas; Bjöhle, Judith; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Rotstein, Sam; Wallberg, Birgitta; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Carlsson, Per; Linderholm, Barbro; Walz, Thomas; Loman, Niklas; Malmström, Per; Söderberg, Martin; Malmberg, Martin; Carlsson, Lena; Umeå; Lindh, Birgitta; Sundqvist, Marie; Malmberg, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background We and others have recently shown that tumor characteristics are altered throughout tumor progression. These findings emphasize the need for re-examination of tumor characteristics at relapse and have led to recommendations from ESMO and the Swedish Breast Cancer group. Here, we aim to determine whether tumor characteristics and molecular subtypes in breast cancer metastases confer clinically relevant prognostic information for patients. Patients and methods The translational aspect of the Swedish multicenter randomized trial called TEX included 111 patients with at least one biopsy from a morphologically confirmed locoregional or distant breast cancer metastasis diagnosed from December 2002 until June 2007. All patients had detailed clinical information, complete follow-up, and metastasis gene expression information (Affymetrix array GPL10379). We assessed the previously published gene expression modules describing biological processes [proliferation, apoptosis, human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) and estrogen (ER) signaling, tumor invasion, immune response, and angiogenesis] and pathways (Ras, MAPK, PTEN, AKT-MTOR, PI3KCA, IGF1, Src, Myc, E2F3, and β-catenin) and the intrinsic subtypes (PAM50). Furthermore, by contrasting genes expressed in the metastases in relation to survival, we derived a poor metastasis survival signature. Results A significant reduction in post-relapse breast cancer-specific survival was associated with low-ER receptor signaling and apoptosis gene module scores, and high AKT-MTOR, Ras, and β-catenin module scores. Similarly, intrinsic subtyping of the metastases provided statistically significant post-relapse survival information with the worst survival outcome in the basal-like [hazard ratio (HR) 3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–10.9] and HER2-enriched (HR 4.4; 95% CI 1.5–12.8) subtypes compared with the luminal A subtype. Overall, 25% of the metastases were basal-like, 32% HER2-enriched, 10% luminal A, 28% luminal B

  20. Transperineal aggressive angiomyxoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro; Melo Abreu, Elisa; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Rolim, Inês

    2017-04-11

    A 45-year-old woman with a history of total hysterectomy with adnexal preservation for uterine leiomyomas presented to our hospital with a right gluteal palpable mass, which she first noticed 6 months before and had progressively enlarged since then.Radiological studies revealed a 14 cm lesion with translevator growth that displaced rather than invaded adjacent structures, with a peculiar whorled pattern on T2-weighted MRI, which enhanced following gadolinium administration. CT-guided biopsy was performed, and in conjunction with imaging features the diagnosis of an aggressive angiomyxoma was assumed and confirmed following surgical excision.

  1. Aggression between siblings: Associations with the home environment and peer bullying.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, verbal, stealing and teasing, and combined into composite measures of victimization and perpetration. Regression analysis identified associations with demographic characteristics, family and sibling composition, parent-child relationships and socioeconomic status and explored the link between sibling aggression and involvement in peer bullying. Using a broad definition, sibling aggression was found to be widespread, with 46% of all participants being victimized and 36% perpetrating aggression. Household and family characteristics, including a large family size, male siblings, and financial difficulties were associated with greater rates of sibling aggression. Parenting behavior showed the strongest relationship: harsh parenting increased the risk of sibling aggression while positive parenting protected against it. Sibling aggression was also homotypically related to involvement in peer bullying. Victimization by siblings significantly increased the odds of being a victim of peer bullying, and perpetrators of sibling aggression were more likely to be both peer bullies and bully-victims. Considering the adverse effects of sibling aggression on physical and mental health, the study provides pointers for efforts to reduce the risk of sibling aggression. Furthermore, the link with peer bullying suggests that school anti-bullying efforts should also take account of children's sibling relationships. Aggr. Behav. 41:14-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The clinical characteristics of secondary primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Lei, Hao; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ling; Qu, Song; Liang, Xia; Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical characteristics associated with the risk of developing secondary primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Data from 527 patients with biopsy-proven nonmetastatic NPC who were treated with IMRT between January 2007 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The cumulative incidence of SPTs after IMRT completion was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Intergroup differences in the cumulative incidence were determined using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to confirm the risk factors associated with IMRT-induced SPTs. The median follow-up duration was 45.5 months (range, 4–97 months). Of the 527 patients, 12 (2.3%) developed posttreatment SPTs (9 men, 3 women), 6 of which were located in the irradiation field. SPTs were mostly located in the upper aerodigestive tract (n = 7), head and neck (n = 6), lungs (n = 3), and tongue (n = 2). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative SPT risk rates were 0.4%, 1.4%, and 3.1%, respectively, and the mean annual growth in cumulative incidence was approximately 0.6%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative in-field SPT risk rates were 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%, respectively, and the mean annual growth in the in-field cumulative incidence was approximately 0.3%. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that sex, age, clinical stage, chemotherapy, and overall IMRT duration did not significantly affect SPT risk. However, the history of smoking was the independent risk factor associated with SPT. The 5-year SPT incidence among patients with NPC after IMRT is concordant with or lower than that in previous 2-dimensional radiotherapy studies study. Among patients with NPC who underwent IMRT, the upper aerodigestive tract was the most common SPT site, and lung cancer was the most common pathology. Smoking history, but not sex, age, clinical stage, chemotherapy, and

  3. The Simpson grading revisited: aggressive surgery and its place in modern meningioma management.

    PubMed

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent advances in radiotherapy and neuroimaging have called into question the traditional role of aggressive resections in patients with meningiomas. In the present study the authors reviewed their institutional experience with a policy based on maximal safe resections for meningiomas, and they analyzed the impact of the degree of resection on functional outcome and progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 901 consecutive patients with primary meningiomas (716 WHO Grade I, 174 Grade II, and 11 Grade III) who underwent resections at the University Hospital of Bonn between 1996 and 2008. Clinical and treatment parameters as well as tumor characteristics were analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS The median follow-up was 62 months. PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.6% and 86.0%, respectively. Younger age, higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, and convexity tumor location, but not the degree of resection, were identified as independent predictors of a good functional outcome (defined as KPS Score 90-100). Independent predictors of PFS were degree of resection (Simpson Grade I vs II vs III vs IV), MIB-1 index (< 5% vs 5%-10% vs >10%), histological grade (WHO I vs II vs III), tumor size (≤ 6 vs > 6 cm), tumor multiplicity, and location. A Simpson Grade II rather than Grade I resection more than doubled the risk of recurrence at 10 years in the overall series (18.8% vs 8.5%). The impact of aggressive resections was much stronger in higher grade meningiomas. CONCLUSIONS A policy of maximal safe resections for meningiomas prolongs PFS and is not associated with increased morbidity.

  4. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  5. Pancreatic ducts as an important route of tumor extension for acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ban, Daisuke; Shimada, Kazuaki; Sekine, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kosuge, Tomoo; Kanai, Yae; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is very rare, which usually grows expansively. Recently, a variant of ACC with predominant growth in the pancreatic ducts has been proposed, and is speculated to have potentially less aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate how the pancreatic duct system is related to the growth and extension of ACC. We reviewed the detailed gross and histologic features of 13 cases of ACC, of which 7 (54%) showed intraductal polypoid growth (IPG) of the tumor in the large pancreatic ducts with a mean IPG length of 24.8 mm. Tumors with IPG were found to spread characteristically along the pancreatic ducts as extending polypoid projections, filling the ducts and destroying the duct walls, although tumors did not tend to extend beyond the pancreatic parenchyma. Comparison of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed that ACC with IPG had less infiltrative features including lymphatic, venous, and neural invasion, formation of tumor thrombus in the portal vein, nodal metastasis, and invasion beyond the pancreas to the surrounding organs; death in only 1 case (14%) of ACC with IPG was the result of ACC itself. In contrast, ACC without IPG frequently showed more infiltrative growth, and was the cause of death in 50% of patients with this type of tumor. Intraductal dissemination of ACC in pancreatic ducts was proven in 1 case of ACC with IPG. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of ACC shows IPG, which is potentially linked to less aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics.

  6. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  7. A Brief Report of Immunohistochemical Markers to Identify Aggressive Hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivekanand; Manalang, Michelle; Singh, Meenal; Apte, Udayan

    2017-02-09

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. Although survival of patients has improved significantly over the last 2 decades, a significant number of patients do not respond to standard chemotherapy. We conducted a pilot study to understand if there was immunophenotypic difference between tumors that respond well to chemotherapy versus that do not. We selected 10 cases of HB from children presenting at our hospital. All patients had initial tissue diagnosis, underwent chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. The cases were divided into 2 groups: aggressive group with 5 cases (all of which had a poor response to chemotherapy); and a good clinical outcome group with 5 cases (all of which responded well to chemotherapy). We excluded the small cell variant of HB from the study because its poor clinical outcome is well known. To be placed in the aggressive group we used the following criteria: <70% necrosis following chemotherapy or recurrence/distant metastasis following chemotherapy. From tissue obtained before chemotherapy, 1 representative block of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was selected for immunohistochemistry. Following review of published literature, antibodies were selected to detect Survivin, PLK-1, Cytokeratin19 (CK19), N-Myc, Yap, Notch2, Hes1, Hes5, and C-Myc. Our results show that Survivin, CK19, and Yap have a diffuse (>75%) positive staining of tumor cells in the aggressive tumors compared with good outcome tumors. However, staining for Yap was weak. Interestingly, there was loss of nuclear expression of C-Myc in majority of tumor cells in aggressive tumors, whereas nuclear staining was retained in most tumor cells of good responders. The N-Myc and PLK-1 immunostains did not reveal any significant differences in the 2 groups of HB. The immunostains for Notch2, Hes1, and Hes5 showed weak to moderately strong staining in tumor cells, but there was no obvious difference in the 2 groups. Our pilot study

  8. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  9. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, G.; Swinnen, L.; Bayer, R.; Rosenfeld, S.; Salzman, D.; Paleologos, N.; Kaminer, L.; Forsyth, P.; Stewart, D.; Peterson, K.; Hu, W.; Macdonald, D.; Ramsay, D.; Smith, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the duration of tumor control and the toxicities of dose-intense myeloablative chemotherapy for patients with recurrent oligodendrogliomas. Patients with previously irradiated oligodendrogliomas, either pure or mixed, that were contrast enhancing, measurable, and behaving aggressively at recurrence were eligible for this study. Only complete responders or major partial responders (75 % reduction in tumor size) to induction chemotherapy--either intensive-dose procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or cisplatin plus etoposide-could receive high-dose thiotepa (300 mg/m2/day for 3 days) followed by hematopoietic reconstitution using either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Thirty-eight patients began induction chemotherapy and 20 (10 men, 10 women; median age 46 years; median Karnofsky score 80) received high-dose thiotepa. For the high-dose group, the median event-free, progression-free, and overall survival times from recurrence were 17, 20, and 49 months, respectively. Tumor control in excess of 2 years was observed in 6 patients (30%). Four patients (20%) are alive and tumor free 27 to 77 months (median, 42 months) from the start of induction therapy; however, fatal treatment-related toxicities also occurred in 4 patients (20%). Three patients died as a result of a progressive encephalopathy which, in 2 instances, was accompanied by a wasting syndrome; 1 patient died as a consequence of an intracerebral (intratumoral) hemorrhage. Fatal toxicities occurred in patients with pretreatment Karnofsky scores of 60 or 70. High-dose thiotepa to consolidate response was a disappointing treatment strategy for patients with recurrent aggressive oligodendroglial neoplasms, although several patients had durable responses. Moreover, as prescribed, high-dose thiotepa had significant toxic effects in previously irradiated patients, especially those with poorer performance status. PMID:11303620

  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors - quantitative detection of the Ki-67, TPX2, TOP2A, and hTERT telomerase subunit mRNA levels to determine proliferation activity and a potential for aggressive biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Kalfusova, A; Hilska, I; Krskova, L; Kalinova, M; Linke, Z; Kodet, R

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have an unpredictable biological potential ranging from benign to malignant. Molecular markers involved in the mechanisms of proliferation and cellular senescence may provide additional information about biological behavior of the tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate Ki-67, TPX2, TOP2A and hTERT mRNA expression levels in specimens from patients with GISTs to define relationships between proliferation activity and biological potential and progression of the disease. We measured Ki-67, TPX2, TOP2A and hTERT mRNA levels using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RQ RT PCR). The highest Ki-67, TPX2, TOP2A and hTERT mRNA expression levels were found in the highly proliferative BLs (18 specimens), in comparison with GISTs (137 specimens) and LMSs (9 specimens). Patients with GISTs and adequate information about mitotic activity, tumor size and anatomical site (84 specimens) were divided into two groups - GISTs with benign (29 patients) and with malignant (55 patients) potential. We observed association between higher Ki-67, TPX2 and hTERT mRNA levels and the GISTs with malignant potential. Univariate analysis (57 patients with available follow-up information) of survival (Kaplan Meier curves method) revealed a correlation between higher levels of TPX2, Ki-67 and hTERT markers and shorter event-free survival (EFS) or poorer overall survival (OS). The results demonstrate the importance of quantitative assessment of the proliferation activity in GISTs. Proliferation markers of Ki-67, TPX2, TOP2A and hTERT are suitable markers for detection the proliferation activity and telomerase activity of these tumors. Furthermore, the assessment of TPX2, Ki-67 and hTERT expression levels is appropriate for determination of malignant potential of GISTs.

  11. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, E Rajendra; Kumar, M Suresh; Aduri, Rajesh; Sreelakshmi, N

    2013-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a relatively uncommon osteolytic-pigmented neoplasm that primarily affects the jaws of infants. The early onset and its rapid disfiguring spread necessitate early diagnosis. A 4-month-old male child reported with the complaint of swelling in the right back tooth region of the upper jaw, which rapidly increased in size causing disfigurement of the face. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse osteolytic radiolucent lesion in the right maxilla and displacement and dysmorphic changes in the developing primary tooth buds. Wide surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological report revealed characteristic large pigmented epitheloid cells (melanocyte like cells). The biphasic tumor cell population arranged in a background of fibrous connective tissue stroma is suggestive of MNTI involving the cancellous bone. Early diagnosis and management of such aggressive tumors precludes significant morbidity of the patient. PMID:24403811

  12. Transcriptional activation of hedgehog pathway components in aggressive hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Wendling-Keim, Danielle S; Wanie, Lynn; Grantzow, Rainer; Kappler, Roland

    2017-03-31

    Infantile hemangioma is a vascular neoplasm and is one of the most common tumors diagnosed in young children. Although most hemangiomas are harmless and involute spontaneously, some show severe progression, leading to serious complications, such as high output cardiac failure, ulcerations, compression of the trachea or deprivation amblyopia, depending on their size and localization. However, the pathogenesis and cause of hemangioma are largely unknown to date. The goal of this study was to identify markers that could predict hemangiomas with aggressive growth and severe progression that would benefit from early intervention. By using a PCR-based screening approach, we first confirmed that previously known markers of hemangioma, namely FGF2 and GLUT1, are highly expressed in hemangioma. Nevertheless, these genes did not show any differential expression between severely progressing tumors and mild tumors. However, transcriptional upregulation of several Hedgehog signaling components, comprising the ligand Sonic Hedgehog (SHH),the transcription factor GLI2 and its target gene FOXA2 were detected in extremely aggressive hemangioma specimens during the proliferation phase. Notably, GLI2 was even overexpressed in involuting hemangiomas if they showed an aggressive growth pattern. In conclusion, our data suggest that overexpression of the Hedgehog components SHH, GLI2 and FOXA2 might be used as markers of an aggressive hemangioma that would benefit from too early intervention, while FGF2 and GLUT1 are more general markers of hemangiomas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Treatment Shrinks Ovarian Tumors in Mice

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have developed a new approach for treating tumors that express mutant versions of the p53 protein, which are present in more than half of all cancers, including an aggressive and common subtype of ovarian cancer.

  14. Adolescent Aggression: Effects of Gender and Family and School Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Perez, Sergio Murgui; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Ruiz, David Moreno

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of family and classroom environments on the development of particular individual characteristics, including level of empathy, attitude to institutional authority and perceived social reputation, and the role these characteristics may in turn play in school aggression. Participants were 1319 adolescents aged…

  15. Reduction of Aggressive Behavior in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Ulrike

    1988-01-01

    Discusses what may be considered aggressive behavior, what motivates aggressive students, and possible teacher responses to aggressive behavior. Describes four points on which teachers can focus to diminish the attractiveness of aggression and ensure that it is not rewarded. Identifies learning activities which provide aggressive students with the…

  16. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  17. The relationship between cultural individualism-collectivism and student aggression across 62 countries.

    PubMed

    Bergmüller, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between countries' dominant cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and (a) school principals' perceptions of aggressive student behavior and (b) students' self-reports of being aggressively victimized in school. Data on student aggression and victimization were collected across 62 countries in nationally representative samples of fourth and eighth graders (N = 428,566) and their principals (N = 15,043) by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. Students were asked about three forms of aggressive victimization: physical, verbal, and relational; principals about two forms of aggressive student behavior: physical and verbal. Country-level regression analyses revealed that the level of cultural individualism, according to the individualism index (IDV) by Hofstede, Hofstede, and Minkov (2010), was not significantly related to either form of student-reported victimization. However, school principals reported aggressive student behavior more often the more individualist, and hence less collectivist, their country's culture. This relation was evident in the principals' reports on 4th and 8th grade students' aggressive behavior for both physical and verbal aggression. Multilevel analyses revealed that cultural individualism was still a powerful predictor of principal-reported aggressive student behavior after controlling for school and country characteristics. The discussion outlines reasons why principals' reports of aggressive student behavior are probably more valid indicators of student aggression than student self-reports of victimization, thereby supporting the hypothesis of culture-dependency of aggression.

  18. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  20. Prefrontal brain asymmetry and aggression in imprisoned violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; van der Heiden, Linda; Várkuti, Bálint; Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-05-02

    Anterior brain asymmetry, assessed through the alpha and beta band in resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is associated with approach-related behavioral dispositions, particularly with aggression in the general population. To date, the association between frontal asymmetry and aggression has not been examined in highly aggressive groups. We examined the topographic characteristics of alpha and beta activity, the relation of both asymmetry metrics to trait aggression, and whether alpha asymmetry was extreme in anterior regions according to clinical standards in a group of imprisoned violent offenders. As expected, these individuals were characterized by stronger right than left-hemispheric alpha activity, which was putatively extreme in anterior regions in one third of the cases. We also report that in line with observations made in the general population, aggression was associated with stronger right-frontal alpha activity in these violent individuals. This suggests that frontal alpha asymmetry, as a correlate of trait aggression, might be utilizable as an outcome measure in studies which assess the effects of anti-aggressiveness training in violent offenders.

  1. Metastasis-Free Interval Is Closely Related to Tumor Characteristics and Has Prognostic Value in Breast Cancer Patients with Distant Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Ahn, Sung Gwe; Lee, Hak Min; Park, Jong Tae; Han, Kyunghwa; Lee, Seung Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the relationships between metastasis-free interval (MFI) and tumor characteristics, and assessed the prognostic value of MFI for survival after metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, we compared MFI among the subtypes. Methods We identified 335 patients with postoperative tumor recurrence at distant site(s). All patients underwent curative resection and had a MFI of at least 6 months. MFI was categorized as short (<2 years), intermediate (≥2 years and <5 years), or long (≥5 years). Overall survival after metastasis (OSM) was estimated. Results Patients with a shorter MFI were younger, more likely to have initial metastasis to visceral organs, and had a larger tumor with a higher stage and grade as well as a higher rate of nodal involvement at initial diagnosis. Among 136 patients with known disease subtypes, shorter MFI was associated with the triple-negative subtype while longer MFI was associated with the hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative subtype. Mortality after metastasis declined sharply with increasing MFI up to approximately 2 years, and continued gradually declining between 2 and 5 years. An MFI longer than 5 years did not add any survival benefit. MFI was a significant prognostic factor for OSM independent of nodal status, stage, metastatic site, and hormone receptor status of the metastasized cancer. Conclusion MFI is closely related to biological characteristics of both primary tumors and their metastases, and has a prognostic value for survival after metastasis. We therefore suggest investigation into treatments targeting improvement of MFI as a potential novel strategy. PMID:26770244

  2. Primary Tumor Characteristics Are Important Prognostic Factors for Sorafenib-Treated Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Lee, Sang Eun; Seo, Ill Young; Kim, Tae Nam; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Seo, Seong Il; Song, Kanghyon; Kwak, Cheol

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify prognostic factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated with sorafenib. We investigated 177 patients, including 116 who received sorafenib as first-line therapy, using the Cox regression model. During a median follow-up period of 19.2 months, the PFS and OS were 6.4 and 32.6 months among all patients and 7.4 months and undetermined for first-line sorafenib-treated patients, respectively. Clinical T3-4 stage (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56) and a primary tumor size >7 cm (HR 0.34) were significant prognostic factors for PFS among all patients, as were tumor size >7 cm (HR 0.12), collecting system invasion (HR 5.67), and tumor necrosis (HR 4.11) for OS (p < 0.05). In first-line sorafenib-treated patients, ≥4 metastatic lesions (HR 28.57), clinical T3-4 stage (HR 4.34), collecting system invasion (univariate analysis HR 2.11; multivariate analysis HR 0.07), lymphovascular invasion (HR 13.35), and tumor necrosis (HR 6.69) were significant prognosticators of PFS, as were bone metastasis (HR 5.49) and clinical T3-4 stages (HR 4.1) for OS (p < 0.05). Our study thus identified a number of primary tumor-related characteristics as important prognostic factors in sorafenib-treated mRCC patients. PMID:28271073

  3. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  4. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action. PMID:26465707

  5. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  6. Beliefs about aggression moderate alcohol's effects on aggression.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether permissive beliefs about aggression moderate the relation between acute alcohol intoxication and aggression in two large experiments. Participants in Study 1 were 328 (163 men and 165 women) social drinkers and those in Study 2 were 518 (252 men and 266 women) social drinkers. Beliefs about aggression were assessed using a well-validated self-report measure. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory task in which electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the combined mean responses for shock intensity and duration across all trials. Our central finding was that alcohol increased aggression in persons with more approving beliefs about aggression than in those who did not hold such beliefs. Our results are discussed within the context of Huesmann's (1988) cognitive script model of aggression. Suggestions for violence prevention efforts are put forth as well.

  7. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  8. Epithelioid/rhabdoid glioblastoma: a highly aggressive subtype of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Ideguchi, Makoto; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Kajiwara, Koji; Imoto, Hirochika; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishii, Aya; Kawano, Hiroo; Ikeda, Eiji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-04-01

    Epithelioid glioblastoma (GBM) and rhabdoid GBM are rare variants that are morphologically similar, but there is no consensus on the characteristics of each disease. These tumors have aggressive features of early recurrence and leptomeningeal dissemination and tend to develop in younger patients compared to typical GBM. The prognosis is normally worse than typical GBM, even with intensive chemoradiotherapy after surgical resection. Thus, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy for epithelioid/rhabdoid GBM are required. Four consecutive patients aged 16-48 years were diagnosed with epithelioid/rhabdoid GBM by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis at Yamaguchi University Hospital from 2006 to 2012. Two of these patients had relatively long-term survival (19 and 23 months after diagnosis). Two cases had a BRAF V600E mutation, whereas no ATRX mutation was present in any cases. All patients suffered leptomeningeal and/or spinal dissemination that worsened their prognosis. These results illustrate the need for a new therapeutic approach, such as molecular targeted drug therapy like BRAF inhibition, in addition to standard chemoradiotherapy for typical GBM.

  9. Daycare Center Attendance Buffers the Effects of Maternal Authoritarian Parenting Style on Physical Aggression in Children.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2017-01-01

    A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.

  10. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Dill, K E

    2000-04-01

    Two studies examined violent video game effects on aggression-related variables. Study 1 found that real-life violent video game play was positively related to aggressive behavior and delinquency. The relation was stronger for individuals who are characteristically aggressive and for men. Academic achievement was negatively related to overall amount of time spent playing video games. In Study 2, laboratory exposure to a graphically violent video game increased aggressive thoughts and behavior. In both studies, men had a more hostile view of the world than did women. The results from both studies are consistent with the General Affective Aggression Model, which predicts that exposure to violent video games will increase aggressive behavior in both the short term (e.g., laboratory aggression) and the long term (e.g., delinquency).

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIALIZATION OF PHYSICAL AGGRESSION IN VERY YOUNG BOYS.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Carolyn Joy; Malone, Johanna C

    2017-01-01

    The expression of physical aggression is normative in early child development; it peaks in the second year of life, with steep declines for most children by the third and fourth years as children learn alternatives to aggression. Some children, however, fail to demonstrate declines in aggressive acts, and many of these are boys. The current review uses a dynamic systems (DS) approach to identify early individual and contextual factors that may dynamically influence trajectories of aggression as a characteristic way of engaging within communities and relationships. Within the DS framework, we focus on the parent-infant relationship as central to the development of adaptive emotion-regulation capacities of the infant and young child. Biological sex differences that may influence this early relationship are highlighted, as is the influence of contextual processes such as family violence. Clinical implications suggested by both the empirical and theoretical literatures are then described.

  12. Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor of the scrotum: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoqing; Yu, Yanlan; Jin, Mei; Xu, Jingyao; Zhang, Zhigen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to increase the knowledge of angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF)-like tumors in males by describing the second case of this rare lesion in the Chinese population with a long period of follow-up and by reviewing the literature. AMF-like tumor is a rare, circumscribed, slow-growing mesenchymal tumor that occurs predominantly in the vulva, perineum and pelvis of females. The present report presents a case of left scrotal AMF-like tumor in a 37-year-old male. Complete surgical excision was performed. The tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells and small vessels proliferating in the edematous stroma. Immunohistologically, the tumor cells stained positive for smooth muscle actin and negative for S-100, CD34 and actin. Following seven years of follow-up the patient was asymptomatic and no evidence of tumor was found. In addition, the current literature was reviewed and the characteristics of this tumor were summarized. AMF-like tumors must also be distinguished from spindle cell lipoma, solitary fibrous tumor and aggressive angiomyxoma.

  13. [The effect of media violence on aggression: is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions?].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.

  14. Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Jaime A; Jabeen, Shakila; Batra, Richa; Papaleo, Elena; Haakensen, Vilde; Timmermans Wielenga, Vera; Møller Talman, Maj-Lis; Brunner, Nils; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gromov, Pavel; Helland, Åslaug; Kristensen, Vessela N; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is composed of many immune cell subpopulations and is an important factor in the malignant progression of neoplasms, particularly breast cancer (BC). However, the cytokine networks that coordinate various regulatory events within the BC interstitium remain largely uncharacterized. Moreover, the data obtained regarding the origin of cytokine secretions, the levels of secretion associated with tumor development, and the possible clinical relevance of cytokines remain controversial. Therefore, we profiled 27 cytokines in 78 breast tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) samples, 43 normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples, and 25 matched serum samples obtained from BC patients with Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Eleven cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels in the TIF samples compared with the NIF samples: interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-13, interferon (IFN)γ-inducible protein (IP-10), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-β, IL-1β, chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-12. An immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that IL-1RA, IP-10, IL-10, PDGF-β, RANTES, and VEGF are widely expressed by both cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), whereas IP-10 and RANTES were preferentially abundant in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) compared to Luminal A subtype cancers. The latter observation corresponds with the high level of TILs in the TNBC samples. IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, and PDGFβ also exhibited a correlation between the TIF samples and matched sera. In a survival analysis, high levels of IL-5, a hallmark TH2 cytokine, in the TIF samples were associated with a worse prognosis. These findings have important implications for BC immunotherapy research.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the canine brachial plexus in 18 dogs.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Susan; Ehrhart, E J; Gall, David; Klopp, Lisa; Gavin, Patrick; Tucker, Russ; Bagley, Rod; Kippenes, Hege; DeHaan, Constance; Pedroia, Vince; Partington, Beth; Olby, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from 18 dogs with a histologically confirmed peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) of the brachial plexus were assessed retrospectively. Almost half (8/18) had a diffuse thickening of the brachial plexus nerve(s), six of which extended into the vertebral canal. The other 10/18 dogs had a nodule or mass in the axilla (1.2-338 cm3). Seven of those 10 masses also had diffuse nerve sheath thickening, three of which extended into the vertebral canal. The majority of tumors were hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images. Eight of 18 PNSTs had only minimal to mild contrast enhancement and many (13/18) enhanced heterogeneously following gadolinium DTPA administration. Transverse plane images with a large enough field of view (FOV) to include both axillae and the vertebral canal were essential, allowing in-slice comparison to detect lesions by asymmetry of structures. Higher resolution, smaller FOV, multiplanar examination of the cervicothoracic spine was important for appreciating nerve root and foraminal involvement. Short tau inversion recovery, T2-weighted, pre and postcontrast T1-weighted pulse sequences were all useful. Contrast enhancement was critical to detecting subtle diffuse nerve sheath involvement or small isointense nodules, and for accurately identifying the full extent of disease. Some canine brachial plexus tumors can be challenging to detect, requiring a rigorous multiplanar multi-pulse sequence MRI examination.

  16. Cytopathologic characteristics of the primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary: a case report with emphasis on differential diagnostic considerations.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Miyai, Yumi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Makiko; Bando, Kenji; Matsunaga, Toru; Hata, Toshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary (SCTO) is an extremely rare entity, though the survival rate is excellent if the disease is confined to one ovary. A case is presented here in which intraoperative squash smears in a 45-year-old woman with a left adnexal mass revealed dispersed or small clusters of neoplastic cells forming loosely cohesive gland-like structures with abundant cytoplasm. The nuclear chromatin was finely granular with a "salt and pepper" appearance and occasional tiny nucleoli. The position of the nucleus presented a vaguely plasmacytoid appearance. Small fragments of thyroidal colloid-like structures were also identified. A cytopathologic diagnosis of a SCTO was suggested. Further evaluation and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Cords or nests of uniform cells with abundant cytoplasm, and eccentric nuclei with coarse chromatin and occasional colloidal tissue were identified on H&E sections. The tumor cells showed diffuse and strong cytoplasmic staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and vimentin but were negative for calretinin, α-inhibin or CDX2. The proliferative index with MIB-1 was around 3%. Thyroidal colloid-like structures were immunoreactive for thyroglobulin and TTF-1 stains. The diagnosis of primary SCTO was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical results, and the location of the tumor. Awareness of the cytopathological findings of SCTO can assist in diagnosing this rare entity correctly.

  17. Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: feasibility and characteristics of the physical absorbed dose distribution for deep-seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnica-Garza, H. M.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotherapy using kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with contrast agents incorporated into the tumor, gold nanoparticles in particular, could represent a potential alternative to current techniques based on high-energy linear accelerators. In this paper, using the voxelized Zubal phantom in conjunction with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to model a prostate cancer treatment, it is shown that in combination with a 360° arc delivery technique, tumoricidal doses of radiation can be delivered to deep-seated tumors while still providing acceptable doses to the skin and other organs at risk for gold concentrations in the tumor within the range of 7-10 mg-Au per gram of tissue. Under these conditions and using a x-ray beam with 90% of the fluence within the range of 80-200 keV, a 72 Gy physical absorbed dose to the prostate can be delivered, while keeping the rectal wall, bladder, skin and femoral heads below 65 Gy, 55 Gy, 40 Gy and 30 Gy, respectively. However, it is also shown that non-uniformities in the contrast agent concentration lead to a severe degradation of the dose distribution and that, therefore, techniques to locally quantify the presence of the contrast agent would be necessary in order to determine the incident x-ray fluence that best reproduces the dosimetry obtained under conditions of uniform contrast agent distribution.

  18. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  19. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  20. Effect of tumor characteristics and duplication of the muscularis mucosae on the endoscopic staging of superficial Barrett esophagus-related neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Forcione, David G; Brugge, William R; Nishioka, Norman S; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2009-04-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is being advocated as a diagnostic, staging, and therapeutic technique for the management of Barrett esophagus (BE)-related neoplasia. With the emergence of new endoluminal therapy including EMR for the treatment of BE-related superficial adenocarcinomas, accurate staging has become crucial to select patients for different treatment arms. Intramucosal adenocarcinomas can be successfully treated by endoluminal techniques, whereas submucosal invasive tumors with a greater risk of lymph node metastasis are likely candidates for esophagectomy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used to stage superficial BE-related neoplasms, yet endoscopic staging can be incongruent to that obtained after pathologic examination. In this study, we sought to determine morphologic factors, which may influence EUS staging in 35 cases with intramucosal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by subsequent EMR, focusing on tumor characteristics and structural changes associated with BE. Among the latter duplication of the muscularis mucosae, either fragmented or well-organized, was seen in 64% of 11 cases that were overstaged as having submucosal invasion by EUS, compared with 38% of those accurately staged. A greater vertical thickness of the tumor was also associated with overstaging by EUS (1.61+/-0.75 mm in the discordant vs. 1.16+/-0.67 mm in the concordant groups, P=0.028). The results illustrate how morphologic factors may affect EUS staging of superficial esophageal adenocarcinomas. EUS alone is not sufficient for staging these neoplasms precisely, and to accurately stratify patients into different treatment arms, EMR should play a role as a complementary staging modality.

  1. More aggressive cartoons are funnier.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C; Woods, K; Coolidge, C; Kulick, W

    1983-04-01

    Independent rankings of humor and aggressiveness were obtained for sets of cartoons drawn randomly from two different magazines. The correlation of median humor and median aggressiveness rankings ranged from .49 to .90 in six studies involving six different sets of cartoons and six different groups of subjects, including children and adults, high and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, and native- and foreign-born individuals. This correlation is consistent with Freudian, arousal, and superiority theories of humor. Another prediction of Freudian theory, that high-SES subjects should be more appreciative of aggressive humor than low-SES subjects, was not supported.

  2. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences.

  3. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0535 TITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate...different between aggressive and indolent tumors. For the third year of the grant, we evaluated the gene expression of these 8 CTAs in PCa and benign

  4. [Pathophysiology of aggressive behavior: evaluation and management of pathological aggression].

    PubMed

    Pompili, E; Carlone, C; Silvestrini, C; Nicolò, G

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk. The affective aggressor, however, shows increased probability of treatment response, with more predictability of violent actions in reaction to situations perceived as threatening and, therefore, greater management of future violence risk. Those who act affective violence tend to show a wide range of emotional and cognitive problems, while those who act with predatory patterns show greater inclination to aggression and antisocial behavior. Aggression that occurs in psychiatry mostly appears to be affective, therefore susceptible to modulation through treatments.

  5. IGF-1R inhibition in mammary epithelia promotes canonical Wnt signaling and Wnt1-driven tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Lauren M.; Albanito, Lidia; Shin, Marcus E.; Goyeneche, Corey L.; Shushanov, Sain; Gallagher, Emily J.; LeRoith, Derek; Lazzarino, Deborah A.; Wood, Teresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are an aggressive disease subtype which unlike other subtypes lack an effective targeted therapy. Inhibitors of the insullin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have been considered for use in treating TNBC. Here we provide genetic evidence that IGF-1R inhibition promotes development of Wnt1-mediated murine mammary tumors that offer a model of TNBC. We found that in a double transgenic mouse model carrying activated Wnt-1 and mutant IGF-1R, a reduction in IGF-1R signaling reduced tumor latency and promoted more aggressive phenotypes. These tumors displayed a squamal cell phenotype with increased expression of keratins 5/6 and β-catenin. Notably, cell lineage analyses revealed an increase in basal (CD29hi/CD24+) and luminal (CD24+/CD61+/CD29lo) progenitor cell populations, along with increased Nanog expression and decreased Elf5 expression. In these doubly transgenic mice, lung metastases developed with characteristics of the primary tumors, unlike MMTV-Wnt1 mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that pharmacological inhibition of the IGF-1R in vitro was sufficient to increase the tumorsphere-forming efficiency of MMTV-Wnt1 tumor cells. Tumors from doubly transgenic mice also exhibited an increase in the expression ratio of the IGF-II-sensitive, A isoform of the insulin receptor vs the IR-B isoform, which in vitro resulted in enhanced expression of β-catenin. Overall, our results revealed that in Wnt-driven tumors an attenuation of IGF-1R signaling accelerates tumorigenesis and promotes more aggressive phenotypes, with potential implications for understanding TNBC pathobiology and treatment. PMID:25092896

  6. [An analysis of the relationship between aggressiveness and personality traits of children].

    PubMed

    Soga, Sachiko; Shimai, Satoshi; Otake, Keiko

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the concept of aggressiveness of children through an analysis of the relationship between aggressiveness and personality traits. A total of 1,206 elementary school children were enrolled in the study. In order to investigate the correlation, a path analysis was performed using multiple regression analyses in which 4 variables of aggressiveness (irritability, hostility, physical aggression and verbal aggression) were employed as dependent variables and 5 variables of personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotionality, openness and extroversion) were used as independent variables. The results of the analysis indicated that significantly positivepath was observed from extroversion to all four variables of aggressiveness. Extroversion indicated especially strong influence on irritability and physical aggression. A significantly negativepath was observed from agreeableness to irritability and hostility. From conscientiousness, a negative path was observed towards physical aggression and a positive path towards verbal aggression. A significantly negative path was observed from emotionality only towards verbal aggression. It was assumed that each of the four inferior characteristics of aggressiveness of children had a complex nature to be influenced by multiple personality traits.

  7. Anger under Control: Neural Correlates of Frustration as a Function of Trait Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression. PMID:24205247

  8. Myeloid Leukemias and Virally Induced Lymphomas in Miniature Inbred Swine: Development of a Large Animal Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Matar, Abraham J; Huang, Christene A

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in major histocompatibility characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  9. Description of the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus): 100 cases (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Keel, M Kevin; Goldsmith, Dayna; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, histologic characteristics, concomitant abnormalities, and outcomes for various types of mammary gland tumors in companion rats (Rattus norvegicus). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 100 client-owned rats. PROCEDURES Medical records of companion rats that had an SC mass and were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed. Information regarding the signalment, age at mass detection, reproductive sterilization status, histologic diagnosis of the SC mass, location of the initial and all subsequent SC masses, treatments administered, and clinical outcomes was extracted from each record and summarized. RESULTS 105 SC masses were initially detected in 100 rats. The most prevalent SC mass identified was mammary gland fibroadenoma (56/105 [53%]), followed by mammary gland carcinoma (13/105 [12%]). Overall, 26 of 105 (25%) masses were malignant. Sexually intact males were more likely to have nonmammary SC tumors than sexually intact females. In rats receiving no adjunctive treatment after excision of a mammary gland fibroadenoma (n = 16), a second fibroadenoma was detected 1 to 8 months after initial excision, at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. A concomitant pituitary gland tumor was identified in most rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma (21/28 [75%]) and other types of mammary gland tumors (10/17 [59%]). Fourteen of 35 (40%) rats with mammary gland fibroadenoma had concomitant reproductive tract abnormalities. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, like other species, companion rats with SC masses should undergo a thorough diagnostic workup that includes histologic examination of the excised mass.

  10. Role of patient and tumor characteristics in sentinel lymph node metastasis in patients with luminal early breast cancer: an observational study.

    PubMed

    La Verde, Nicla; Biagioli, Elena; Gerardi, Chiara; Cordovana, Andrea; Casiraghi, Chiara; Floriani, Irene; Bernardin, Elena; Farina, Gabriella; Di Cosimo, Serena; Dazzani, Maria Chiara; Gherardi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the risk of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis is important for clinical decision-making in the setting of early breast cancer (EBC). This study is aimed to identify tumor and patient characteristics that influenced the SLN metastatic involvement, with a focus on luminal subtypes. An observational study including women treated for EBC from 2005 to 2013 was conducted. Regression analyses were used to assess the association between SLN metastasis and age, menopausal status, tumor size, histological grading, presence of extensive "in situ" carcinoma components, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and expression of Ki-67, hormone receptors, and HER2. Of 345 women, 84 (24.3 %) had at least one SLN metastasis; 63.1 % were macrometastases. Among all patients, 31.6 % exhibited LVI. In univariate analyses, tumor size, histological grade, and LVI were associated with SLN metastasis. The multivariate model confirmed only the association between LVI and SLN status (OR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.85-5.68; p < 0.0001). Luminal subtypes were detected in 86.1 % of women. In this subgroup, the multivariate model confirmed a significant relationship between LVI and SLN status (OR 3.47, 95 % CI 1.90-6.33; p < 0.0001). Since a proper histopathological assessment of LVI is not possible prior to surgery, this factor cannot be used to guide decisions on performing SLN biopsies. Nevertheless, when a SLN biopsy is refused or contraindicated, an LVI assessment on an excisional biopsy of the tumor could facilitate prognosis determination and treatment management.

  11. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  12. Non-functioning pituitary tumors: 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Cámara Gómez, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are the most common pituitary macroadenomas in adults, accounting for approximately 14%-28% of all clinically relevant pituitary tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of tumors that cause symptoms by compression and/or hormone deficiencies. The possibility of tumor growth is increased in macroadenomas and solid tumors as compared to microadenomas and cystic tumors. Diagnosis is based on imaging procedures (magnetic resonance imaging), but there are studies reporting promising potential biomarkers. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first therapeutic option for large tumors with compressive symptoms. There is no evidence that endoscopic procedures improve outcomes, but they decrease morbidity. There is no unanimity in finding prognostic predictors of recurrence. Radiosurgery achieves tumor control and, sometimes, adenoma size reduction. Its adverse effects increase with higher doses and tumor sizes>4cm(3). Drug treatment is of little value. In aggressive non-functioning tumors, temozolomide (TMZ) may be used with caution because no controlled studies are available. TMZ achieves tumor control in 38%-40% of aggressive non-functioning tumors. The optimal treatment regimen and duration have not been defined yet. Lack of response to TMZ after 3 cycles predicts for treatment resistance, but initial response does not ensure optimal mid or long-term results. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression has a limited predictive value of response to treatment with TMZ in aggressive non-functioning tumors. It should therefore not be a determinant factor in selection of patients to be treated with TMZ.

  13. Aggressiveness Niche: Can It Be the Foster Ground for Cancer Metastasis Precursors?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between tumor initiation and tumor progression can follow a linear projection in which all tumor cells are equally endowed with the ability to progress into metastasis. Alternatively, not all tumor cells are equal genetically and/or epigenetically, and only few cells are induced to become metastatic tumor cells. The location of these cells within the tumor can also impact the fate of these cells. The most inner core of a tumor where an elevated pressure of adverse conditions forms, such as necrosis-induced inflammation and hypoxia-induced immunosuppressive environment, seems to be the most fertile ground to generate such tumor cells with metastatic potential. Here we will call this necrotic/hypoxic core the “aggressiveness niche” and will present data to support its involvement in generating these metastatic precursors. Within this niche, interaction of hypoxia-surviving cells with the inflammatory microenvironment influenced by newly recruited mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and other types of cells and the establishment of bidirectional interactions between them elevate the aggressiveness of these tumor cells. Additionally, immune evasion properties induced in these cells most likely contribute in the formation and maintenance of such aggressiveness niche. PMID:27493669

  14. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  15. Vasopressin/oxytocin and aggression.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin/oxytocin and related peptides comprise a phylogenetically old superfamily of chemical signals in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Each peptide isoform has its own distinct receptor subtype and specific cellular action. The conservation and dispersion of vasopressin/oxytocin signalling systems across the animal kingdom attests to their functional significance in evolution. Indeed, they are involved in the physiology of fluid balance, carbohydrate metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and reproduction. In addition, these peptides evolved a role in social behaviours related to aggression and affiliation. The focus of this chapter is the role of vasopressin/oxytocin as chemical signals in the brain altering aggressive responding in a context- and species-dependent manner. There is compelling evidence from several mammalian species including humans that vasopressin enhances aggression. The activity of the vasopressin appears linked to the serotonin system providing a mechanism for enhancing and suppressing aggressive behaviour.

  16. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  17. Regulation of UHRF1 by dual-strand tumor-suppressor microRNA-145 (miR-145-5p and miR-145-3p): inhibition of bladder cancer cell aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Ryosuke; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Enokida, Hideki; Goto, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Yonemori, Masaya; Inoguchi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Seki, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    In microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, the guide-strand of miRNA integrates into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), whereas the passenger-strand is inactivated through degradation. Analysis of our miRNA expression signature of bladder cancer (BC) by deep-sequencing revealed that microRNA (miR)-145-5p (guide-strand) and miR-145-3p (passenger-strand) were significantly downregulated in BC tissues. It is well known that miR-145-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer. However, the impact of miR-145-3p on cancer cells is still ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-145-3p and BC oncogenic pathways and targets regulated by miR-145-5p/miR-145-3p. Ectopic expression of either miR-145-5p or miR-145-3p in BC cells significantly suppressed cancer cell growth, migration and invasion and it also induced apoptosis. The gene encoding ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) was a direct target of these miRNAs. Silencing of UHRF1 induced apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in BC cells. In addition, overexpressed UHRF1 was confirmed in BC clinical specimens, and the high UHRF1 expression group showed a significantly poorer cause specific survival rate in comparison with the low expression group. Taken together, our present data demonstrated that both strands of miR-145 (miR-145-5p: guide-strand and miR-145-3p: passenger-strand) play pivotal roles in BC cells by regulating UHRF1. The identification of the molecular target of a tumor suppressive miRNAs provides novel insights into the potential mechanisms of BC oncogenesis and suggests novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27072587

  18. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway as well as the family of RAS oncogenes and BRAF as a member of the RAF protein family and the aberrant expression of microRNAs miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b all play major roles in tumor initiation and progression of aggressive PTC. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC. PMID:24955023

  19. Role of Radiotherapy in Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Laurence; Prieto, Victor G; Ivan, Doina; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Curry, Jonathan L; Bell, Diana; Moon, Bryan S; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Aung, Phyu P

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is a rare and often misdiagnosed malignant tumor of the sweat glands, most commonly encountered on the extremities. Due to the relatively high metastatic potential of the tumor, aggressive surgical treatment, including amputation, is generally recommended. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with an over 10-year history of a skin lesion on the right hand in the web space between the index and the middle finger. Histologically, the lesion revealed a malignant epithelioid neoplasm with features consistent with ADPA. The lesion was treated with 5-weeks preoperative radiation (total 5000 cGy) followed by surgical resection. There was no evidence of residual disease confirmed by pathological study of re-excision specimen as well as imaging studies. This is, to the best of knowledge, the first report of complete regression of an ADPA after radiotherapy.

  20. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  1. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  2. Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Gunilla M

    2008-05-01

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation.

  3. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression.

  4. The effect of trauma on stress reactivity in aggressive youth.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iliyani; Yehuda, Rachel; Greenblatt, Edward; Davidow, Jennifer; Makotkine, Iouri; Alfi, Lea; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-30

    To address gaps in the literature related to the contribution of childhood trauma on aggression, we evaluated salivary cortisol and heart rate changes to psychological challenge in aggressive children with various degrees of trauma. We hypothesized that traumatized and aggressive youths will exhibit higher responsiveness to an active challenge (Violent film-VF) than aggressive youth with no trauma but will not differ when viewing a Non-Violent film (NVF). A total of 25 children (aged 9-12; M=15, F=9) with history of aggression were assessed for trauma exposure. Children viewed the two films in randomized order. Four salivary cortisol and pulse measurements were obtained before (T1), 15 min after the start (T2), at the end (T3), and 15 min following the end of the movie (T4). Repeated measures Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using Film (VF/NVF), Cortisol/Time at T1-T4, Group (Trauma/Non-Trauma), and Film Order were performed with age and gender as covariates. There were significant main effects for Group and Cortisol/Time for the Trauma group showing greater cortisol responsiveness than the Non-Trauma group that was most pronounced during the NVF. These results suggest that aggressive youth with personal history of trauma may exhibit unique biological characteristics, which may have important implications for classification and treatment.

  5. Impaired Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Dissociates Social Investigation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Workman, Joanna L.; Jessen, Ruth; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    A combination of social withdrawal and increased aggression is characteristic of several mental disorders. Most previous studies have investigated the neurochemical bases of social behavior and aggression independently, as opposed to how these behaviors are regulated in concert. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces gaseous nitric oxide, which functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect several types of behavior including mating and aggression. Compared with wild-type mice, we observed that nNOS knockout mice showed reduced behavioral responses to an intruder behind a wire barrier. Similar results were observed in mice treated with the selective nNOS inhibitor 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3BrN). In habituation–dishabituation tests, treatment with 3BrN did not block recognition of male urine but did attenuate investigation time compared with oil-treated animals. Finally, nNOS knockout mice and 3BrN treated mice were significantly more aggressive than wild-type and oil-treated males, respectively. In general, these behavioral effects are less pronounced in pair-housed males compared with singly-housed males. Thus, nNOS inhibition results in a phenotype that displays reduced social investigation and increased aggression. These data suggest that further study of nNOS signaling is warranted in mental disorders characterized by social withdrawal and increased aggression. PMID:17469926

  6. Highly Aggressive Women in a Forensic Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Beck, Niels C; Hammer, Joseph H; Robbins, Sharon; Tubbesing, Tara; Menditto, Anthony; Pardee, Alicia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we compared three groups of women admitted to a public forensic inpatient facility over the course of a two-year period. Detailed and systematic examination of social and psychiatric histories revealed that the group with the most persistent levels of aggression differed from the other two groups with respect to frequency of self-harming behavior, intellectual impairment, hypothyroidism, a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and age of onset of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms. The high-aggression group also had the highest rate of childhood physical and sexual abuse, but the difference between that group and the two lower aggression groups did not achieve statistical significance. From the standpoint of childhood adversity, 94 percent of those in the high-aggression group had been placed outside of the original home by age 11. Eighty-nine percent were intellectually impaired. At admission, physical examinations revealed that 50 percent had a history of hypothyroidism and two-thirds were obese. Before admission, most had manifested severe aggression and emotional dysregulation, as evinced by high levels of self-harm, suicide attempts, and aggressive behavior in previous institutional settings that was both frequent and intense. Patients who share these characteristics are currently placed on a ward at the hospital with a milieu and individual therapy programs that are based on a dialectical behavior therapy approach that targets key symptoms of emotional and behavioral dysregulation.

  7. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  8. Aggressive angiomyxoma of transplanted kidney mimicking posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Naranje, Priyanka; Rathi, Manish; Nada, Ritambhara; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    Angiomyxoma is a scarce neoplasm arising from the soft tissues of perineum and pelvis, more commonly seen in the females. For such a tumor to arise in a renal allograft is rare and has previously been reported only in few case. We report a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising de novo in the renal allograft nine-year posttransplantation. We describe its imaging features on ultrasound and computed tomography which closely mimic the more usual tumor of the transplanted kidney, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and suggest that angiomyxoma may be considered as a differential diagnosis in a case of soft tissue mass arising within the renal allograft.

  9. Impulsive Aggression as a Comorbidity of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Birgit H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when

  10. Multiple Breast Cancer Cell-Lines Derived from a Single Tumor Differ in Their Molecular Characteristics and Tumorigenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mosoyan, Goar; Nagi, Chandandeep; Marukian, Svetlana; Teixeira, Avelino; Simonian, Anait; Resnick-Silverman, Lois; DiFeo, Analisa; Johnston, Dean; Reynolds, Sandra R.; Roses, Daniel F.; Mosoian, Arevik

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer cell lines are widely used tools to investigate breast cancer biology and to develop new therapies. Breast cancer tissue contains molecularly heterogeneous cell populations. Thus, it is important to understand which cell lines best represent the primary tumor and have similarly diverse phenotype. Here, we describe the development of five breast cancer cell lines from a single patient’s breast cancer tissue. We characterize the molecular profiles, tumorigenicity and metastatic ability in vivo of all five cell lines and compare their responsiveness to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) treatment. Methods Five breast cancer cell lines were derived from a single patient’s primary breast cancer tissue. Expression of different antigens including HER2, estrogen receptor (ER), CK8/18, CD44 and CD24 was determined by flow cytometry, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, a Fuorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay for HER2 gene amplification and p53 genotyping was performed on all cell lines. A xenograft model in nude mice was utilized to assess the tumorigenic and metastatic abilities of the breast cancer cells. Results We have isolated, cloned and established five new breast cancer cell lines with different tumorigenicity and metastatic abilities from a single primary breast cancer. Although all the cell lines expressed low levels of ER, their growth was estrogen-independent and all had high-levels of expression of mutated non-functional p53. The HER2 gene was rearranged in all cell lines. Low doses of 4-OHT induced proliferation of these breast cancer cell lines. Conclusions All five breast cancer cell lines have different antigenic expression profiles, tumorigenicity and organ specific metastatic abilities although they derive from a single tumor. None of the studied markers correlated with tumorigenic potential. These new cell lines could serve as a model for detailed genomic and proteomic analyses to identify mechanisms

  11. Expression of the HOX genes and HOTAIR in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors and other pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Chakravadhanula, Madhavi; Ozols, Victor V; Hampton, Chris N; Zhou, Li; Catchpoole, Daniel; Bhardwaj, Ratan D

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric brain tumors such as atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are highly aggressive and predominantly occur in young children. A characteristic feature of ATRT is aberrations of the SMARCB1 (hSNF5/INI1) gene. Developmental gene defects may play an important role in the biology of pediatric brain tumors. HOX genes are transcription factors that play a pivotal role in anterior-posterior body axis patterning and are misexpressed in tumors such as lung carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and glioma. HOX genes are also known to be associated with long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) such as HOTAIR, which induces transcriptional silencing of the HOXD locus by recruiting polycomb repressive complex 2 to the HOXD locus. In this study, transcriptome analysis using the nanoString platform was performed, and expression of the HOX and HOTAIR genes was studied in pediatric tumors: 20 ATRTs, 10 ependymomas, 10 medulloblastomas, six glioblastoma multiforme, and nine juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPAs). Results indicate that in ATRTs, medulloblastomas, and JPAs, the HOTAIR and HOXC genes are highly expressed; however, HOXD8-10 genes are not silenced. In ependymomas, there is low expression of the HOXC, HOTAIR, and HOXD8-10 genes. These interesting results need to be elucidated further so that the functions of these genes in pediatric tumors is understood.

  12. Hollingsworth - Aggressive vs Indolent 2012 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Study Overview. We will examine DNA extracted from FFPE sections from approximately 200 different surgically resected primary pancreatic tumors from the UNMC Department of Pathology and Microbiology. DNA will be purified from those sections and subjected to deep sequencing for the entire TP53 locus. Expected Outcomes We expect to find a difference in the p53 mutation status between tumor samples from patients that ultimately experienced tumor recurrence (more aggressive) compared to those that did not. Parallel studies to develop ICP will enable us to rapidly develop a low cost platform to extend these studies to larger patient populations for future validation studies. Future Studies The experiments proposed in this application represent a state-of-the-art approach to identify molecular markers that will help clinicians to ascertain the tumor recurrence risk for their pancreatic cancer patients who have undergone a Whipple procedure. If our initial studies support the hypothesis that p53 mutations are associated with early metastasis of pancreatic cancer, these studies would be extended to other cohorts of patient samples that are available at other major centers that see pancreatic cancer patients. Development of ICE COLD-PCR platforms to screen for these mutations will facilitate a reliable, rapid and low cost method for predicting tumor aggressiveness in these patients, which will be deployed in future studies should the hypothesis be supported.

  13. Dicer1 dysfunction promotes stemness and aggression in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Fei-Zhou; Tong, Huan; Ke, Jie-Qi; Li, Yi-Ran; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Yan, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Fang-Yuan; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies, but the molecular events involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma remain unclear. Dicer1 and cancer stem cells play important roles in cell motility and survival. This study investigated the role of the let-7 family and Dicer1 in the stemness of endometrial carcinoma cells. We profiled Dicer1 expression in clinical samples and explored its relationship with stem cell-associated markers and clinical parameters. We showed that Dicer1 dysfunction leads to the enrichment of tumor stemness features and tumor aggression both in vitro and in vivo. We also identified the mechanism related to this potential tumor-predisposing phenotype: loss of Dicer1 induced abnormal expression of the let-7 family, which comprises well-known tumor suppressors, thus regulating stemness in endometrial carcinoma cells.

  14. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  15. An Implicit Theories of Personality Intervention Reduces Adolescent Aggression in Response to Victimization and Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…

  16. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  17. Mental Health Correlates of Aggression in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talerico, Karen Amann; Evans, Lois K.; Strumpf, Neville E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aggression continues to challenge caregivers of persons with dementia, and identification of foci for effective interventions is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of (a) the resident characteristics of depression, communication, and cognition and (b) behavior management strategies on aggression in a group of…

  18. The Confluence Model of Sexual Aggression: Combining Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A model of the characteristics of sexually aggressive men which emphasizes the convergence of several interrelated factors is described. The model explores the role of sexual and power motives underlying rape and other forms of sexual aggression. Also describes a risk analysis which illustrates the potential relevance of the model to clinical…

  19. Linking Psychopathy and School Aggression in a Nonclinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and school aggression in youth has been linked with affective, interpersonal, self-attributional, and behavioral characteristics; these traits have often been associated with psychopathic behaviors among adults. Psychopathic traits were examined in nonclinically-referred youth exhibiting antisocial and aggressive behavior.…

  20. Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Children's Peer Victimization and Aggressive Behavior in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kopp, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the extent to which characteristics of the teacher-child relationship (closeness, dependency, and conflict) are predictive of changes in children's peer victimization and aggressive behavior over the course of a school year. Relational and physical forms of victimization and aggression were studied, and changes in peer…

  1. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in Mice under Various Ratio- and Time-Based Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression…

  2. Neuropsychological Factors in the Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    This paper addresses the neuropsychological evaluation of impulsive aggression in emotionally disturbed students. Specific complications of organic aggressive syndrome include its unpredictable nature and basis in organic etiology. Characteristically, there is a sudden onset of unprovoked rage and violence accompanied by a drastic change in…

  3. Tumor-specific peptide-based vaccines containing the conformationally biased, response-selective C5a agonists EP54 and EP67 protect against aggressive large B cell lymphoma in a syngeneic murine model.

    PubMed

    Kollessery, Gayathri; Nordgren, Tara M; Mittal, Amit K; Joshi, Shantaram S; Sanderson, Sam D

    2011-08-11

    Vaccines to large B cell lymphoma were made by the covalent attachment of an epitope from the gp70 glycoprotein (SSWDFITV) to the N-termini of the conformationally biased, response-selective C5a agonists EP54 (YSFKPMPLaR) and EP67 (YSFKDMP(MeL)aR). Syngeneic Balb/c mice were immunized with these EP54/EP67-containing vaccines and challenged with a lethal dose of the highly liver metastatic and gp70-expressing lymphoma cell line RAW117-H10 to evaluate the ability of these vaccines to induce protective immune outcomes. All mice immunized with SSWDFITVRRYSFKPMPLaR (Vaccine 2) and SSWDFITVRRYSFKDMP(MeL)aR (Vaccine 3) were protected to a lethal challenge of RAW117-H10 lymphoma (>170 days survival) and exhibited no lymphoma infiltration or solid tumor nodules in the liver relative to unvaccinated controls (<18 days survival). Vaccines 2 and 3 contained the protease-sensitive double-Arg (RR) linker sequence between the epitope and the EP54/EP67 moieties in order to provide a site for intracellular proteases to separate the epitope from the EP54/EP67 moieties once internalized by the APC and, consequently, enhance epitope presentation in the context of MHC I/II. These protected mice exhibited an immune outcome consistent with increased involvement of CD8(+) and/or CD4(+) T lymphocytes relative to controls and mice that did not survive or showed low survival rates as with Vaccines 1 and 4, which lacked the RR linker sequence. CD8(+) T lymphocytes activated in response to Vaccines 2 and 3 express cytotoxic specificity for gp70-expressing RAW117-H10 lymphoma cells, but not antigen-irrelevant MDA-MB231A human breast cancer cells. Results are discussed against the backdrop of the ability of EP54/EP67 to selectively target antigens to and activate C5a receptor-bearing antigen presenting cells and the prospects of using such vaccines therapeutically against lymphoma and other cancers.

  4. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  5. Transcriptional analysis of aggressiveness and heterogeneity across grades of astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunjing; Funk, Cory C; Eddy, James A; Price, Nathan D

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most common glioma, accounting for half of all primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Late detection and the aggressive nature of high-grade astrocytomas contribute to high mortality rates. Though many studies identify candidate biomarkers using high-throughput transcriptomic profiling to stratify grades and subtypes, few have resulted in clinically actionable results. This shortcoming can be attributed, in part, to pronounced lab effects that reduce signature robustness and varied individual gene expression among patients with the same tumor. We addressed these issues by uniformly preprocessing publicly available transcriptomic data, comprising 306 tumor samples from three astrocytoma grades (Grade 2, 3, and 4) and 30 non-tumor samples (normal brain as control tissues). Utilizing Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC), a network-based classification approach, we examined the global and individual patterns of network regulation across tumor grades. Additionally, we applied gene-based approaches to identify genes whose expression changed consistently with increasing tumor grade and evaluated their robustness across multiple studies using statistical sampling. Applying DIRAC, we observed a global trend of greater network dysregulation with increasing tumor aggressiveness. Individual networks displaying greater differences in regulation between adjacent grades play well-known roles in calcium/PKC, EGF, and transcription signaling. Interestingly, many of the 90 individual genes found to monotonically increase or decrease with astrocytoma grade are implicated in cancer-affected processes such as calcium signaling, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis. The fact that specific genes monotonically increase or decrease with increasing astrocytoma grade may reflect shared oncogenic mechanisms among phenotypically similar tumors. This work presents statistically significant results that enable better characterization of different human astrocytoma grades

  6. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  7. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  8. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Troy A. W.; Ohan, Jeneva L.; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex. PMID:23446839

  9. A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie

    2012-07-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association.

  10. Sex differences in structural brain asymmetry predict overt aggression in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Visser, Troy A W; Ohan, Jeneva L; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    The devastating social, emotional and economic consequences of human aggression are laid bare nightly on newscasts around the world. Aggression is principally mediated by neural circuitry comprising multiple areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus. A striking characteristic of these regions is their structural asymmetry about the midline (i.e. left vs right hemisphere). Variations in these asymmetries have been linked to clinical disorders characterized by aggression and the rate of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients. Here, we show for the first time that structural asymmetries in prefrontal cortical areas are also linked to aggression in a normal population of early adolescents. Our findings indicate a relationship between parent reports of aggressive behavior in adolescents and structural asymmetries in the limbic and paralimbic ACC and OFC, and moreover, that this relationship varies by sex. Furthermore, while there was no relationship between aggression and structural asymmetries in the amygdala or hippocampus, hippocampal volumes did predict aggression in females. Taken together, the results suggest that structural asymmetries in the prefrontal cortex may influence human aggression, and that the anatomical basis of aggression varies substantially by sex.

  11. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  12. PI3K/AKT/mTOR and sonic hedgehog pathways cooperate together to inhibit human pancreatic cancer stem cell characteristics and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narinder; Nanta, Rajesh; Sharma, Jay; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Singh, Karan P; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2015-10-13

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. It is evident from growing reports that PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathways are aberrantly reactivated in pancreatic CSCs. Here, we examined the efficacy of combining NVP-LDE-225 (PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ-235 (Smoothened inhibitor) on pancreatic CSCs characteristics, microRNA regulatory network, and tumor growth. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting pancreatic CSC's characteristics and tumor growth in mice by acting at the level of Gli. Combination of NVP-LDE-225 and NVP-BEZ-235 inhibited self-renewal capacity of CSCs by suppressing the expression of pluripotency maintaining factors Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2 and c-Myc, and transcription of Gli. NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 to inhibit Lin28/Let7a/Kras axis in pancreatic CSCs. Furthermore, a superior interaction of these drugs was observed on spheroid formation by pancreatic CSCs isolated from Pankras/p53 mice. The combination of these drugs also showed superior effects on the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In addition, NVP-LDE-225 co-operated with NVP-BEZ-235 in inhibiting EMT through modulation of cadherin, vimentin and transcription factors Snail, Slug and Zeb1. In conclusion, these data suggest that the combined inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Shh pathways may be beneficial for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  13. A Case Report of Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy: Do Hormones Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi-Son; Vitez, Sally F.; Van Gurp, James; Misra, Neeti

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive tumor that generally affects the perineum and pelvis of reproductive age females. Aggressive angiomyxoma is often misdiagnosed, resulting in the delay of the treatment. Case reports show increased growth of the tumor during pregnancy, thus suggesting a hormonal dependency. We report this rare condition in a 29-year-old primigravid female with a growing mass on the right labium majus at 20 weeks' gestation. The patient also developed a smaller mass on the left labium majus at 37 weeks' gestation. The patient underwent a primary cesarean section with resection of the right labial mass, with a final diagnosis of aggressive angiomyxoma. The lesion on her left labium majus resolved spontaneously postpartum. This case report supports a hormonal involvement in this tumor. PMID:27974982

  14. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia for treatment of Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice: toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Yamamoto, Kelly Reis; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Matos, Breno Noronha; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; de Souza Filho, José; Fernandes, Juliana Menezes Soares; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2014-04-01

    Dextran-functionalized maghemite fluid (DexMF) has been tested to treat Ehrlich-solid-tumor-bearing mice, evidencing its potential use in mediating magnetohyperthermia in breast cancer treatment. However, although magnetic nanoparticles tend to accumulate in tumor tissues, part of the nanomaterial can reach the blood stream, and then the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute systemic effects of the intratumoral injection of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in the treatment of an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, assessed through histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, heart and spleen, comet assay, micronucleus test, hemogram, and serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea. The tumor's histopathology and morphometry were used to assess its aggressiveness and regression. DexMF mediating hyperthermia was effective in containing tumor aggressiveness and in inducing tumor regression, besides showing no toxic effects. Its physical characteristics also suggest that it is safe to use in other biomedical applications.

  15. TU-CD-BRB-09: Prediction of Chemo-Radiation Outcome for Rectal Cancer Based On Radiomics of Tumor Clinical Characteristics and Multi-Parametric MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, K; Yue, N; Shi, L; Hu, X; Chen, Q; Sun, X; Niu, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the tumor clinical characteristics and quantitative multi-parametric MR imaging features for prediction of response to chemo-radiation treatment (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients (59.7±6.9 years, from 09/2013 – 06/2014) receiving neoadjuvant CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. All underwent MRI including anatomical T1/T2, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE)-MRI and Diffusion-Weighted MRI (DWI) prior to the treatment. A total of 151 quantitative features, including morphology/Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture from T1/T2, enhancement kinetics and the voxelized distribution from DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DWI, along with clinical information (carcinoembryonic antigen CEA level, TNM staging etc.), were extracted for each patient. Response groups were separated based on down-staging, good response and pathological complete response (pCR) status. Logistic regression analysis (LRA) was used to select the best predictors to classify different groups and the predictive performance were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Individual imaging category or clinical charateristics might yield certain level of power in assessing the response. However, the combined model outperformed than any category alone in prediction. With selected features as Volume, GLCM AutoCorrelation (T2), MaxEnhancementProbability (DCE-MRI), and MeanADC (DWI), the down-staging prediciton accuracy (area under the ROC curve, AUC) could be 0.95, better than individual tumor metrics with AUC from 0.53–0.85. While for the pCR prediction, the best set included CEA (clinical charateristics), Homogeneity (DCE-MRI) and MeanADC (DWI) with an AUC of 0.89, more favorable compared to conventional tumor metrics with an AUC ranging from 0.511–0.79. Conclusion: Through a systematic analysis of multi-parametric MR imaging features, we are able to build models with

  16. Mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index: A potential biomarker to predict progression from indolent to aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Landar, Aimee

    2015-12-15

    Mitochondrial function is influenced by alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and changes in the microenvironment occurring during tumorigenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitochondrial function will be stably and dynamically altered at each stage of the prostate tumor development. We tested this hypothesis in RWPE-1 cells and its tumorigenic clones with progressive malignant characteristics (RWPE-1 < WPE-NA22 < WPE-NB14 < WPE-NB11 < WPE-NB26) using high-throughput respirometry. Our studies demonstrate that mitochondrial content do not change with increasing malignancy. In premalignant cells (WPE-NA22 and WPE-NB14), OXPHOS is elevated in presence of glucose or glutamine alone or in combination compared to RWPE-1 cells and decreases with increasing malignancy. Glutamine maintained higher OXPHOS than glucose and suggests that it may be an important substrate for the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells. Glycolysis significantly increases with malignancy and follow a classical Warburg phenomenon. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is significantly lower in tumorigenic clones and invasive WPE-NB26 does not utilize FAO at all. In this paper, we introduce for the first time the mitochondrial oncobioenergetic index (MOBI), a mathematical representation of oncobioenergetic profile of a cancer cell, which increases significantly upon transformation into localized premalignant form and rapidly falls below the normal as they become aggressive in prostate tumorigenesis. We have validated this in five prostate cancer cell lines and MOBI appears to be not related to androgen dependence or mitochondrial content, but rather dependent on the stage of the cancer. Altogether, we propose that MOBI could be a potential biomarker to distinguish aggressive cancer from that of indolent disease.

  17. Aggressive thyroid cancer: targeted therapy with sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Alda; Ferrari, Silvia M; Politti, Ugo; Mazzi, Valeria; Miccoli, Mario; Materazzi, Gabriele; Antonelli, Alessandro; Ulisse, Salvatore; Fallahi, Poupak; Miccoli, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Sorafenib (Nexavar), is a multikinase inhibitor, which has demonstrated both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the activity of targets present in the tumoral cells (c-RAF [proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase], BRAF, (V600E)BRAF, c-KIT, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) and in tumor vessels (c-RAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β). Sorafenib was initially approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sorafenib has both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, against thyroid cancer cells. Furthermore, several completed (or ongoing) studies have evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in patients with papillary, follicular and medullary aggressive thyroid cancer. The results of the different studies showed good clinical responses and stabilization of the disease and suggested that sorafenib is a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced thyroid cancer that is not responsive to traditional therapeutic strategies (such as radioiodine). Currently, USA Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of sorafenib for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer.

  18. Aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis - a clinicians dilemma case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

    2013-11-01

    Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient's post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12-year-old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis.

  19. Aggressive Desmoplastic Fibromatosis - A Clinicians Dilemma Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Adesh S; Narang, Ramandeep S; Arora, Preeti Chawla; Singh, Balwinder; Walia, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Fibromatoses are a heterogeneous group of distinct entities which differ in biological behaviour, but arehistologically very similar. This group of fibrous tumor or tumor like lesions, present considerable difficulties in pathologic diagnosis. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) of the oral or para-oral structures is a very uncommon finding and its intra-osseous component is even relatively unusual. Such lesions with their origin from within the bone are termed desmoplastic fibromatosis (DF). These lesions must be distinguished from other fibroblastic tumors of the head and neck such as benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH), fibrosarcoma, nerve sheath tumors and tumors of muscular origin. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of fibromatosis is to avoid an overdiagnosis of fibrosarcoma or an underdiagnosis of reactive fibrosis.Problems of differential diagnosis concern a wide range of diseases and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful in diagnosis. With respect to the patient’s post-operative well-being and if periodic follow-ups are guaranteed, the tumor should be carefully resected with only narrow safety margins. A rare case of aggressive desmoplastic fibromatosis in a 12–year–old girl is presented in this article with emphasis on the need and challenges for diagnosing such lesions as they have to be differentiated from other soft tissue tumors which display borderline pathological features regarding benign or malignant behaviour. Synonyms listed for the same include extra-abdominal desmoids, extra-abdominal fibromatosis, desmoids tumor, aggressive fibromatosis, juvenile desmoids-type fibromatosis, infantile fibromatosis. PMID:24392428

  20. Human Breast Cancer Invasion and Aggression Correlates with ECM Stiffening and Immune Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, I; Cassereau, L; Dean, I; Shi, Q; Au, A; Park, C; Chen, YY; Liphardt, J; Hwang, ES; Weaver, VM

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are stiff and data suggest that the extracellular matrix stiffening that correlates with experimental mammary malignancy drives tumor invasion and metastasis. Nevertheless, the relationship between tissue and extracellular matrix stiffness and human breast cancer progression and aggression remains unclear. We undertook a biophysical and biochemical assessment of stromal-epithelial interactions in noninvasive, invasive and normal adjacent human breast tissue and in breast cancers of increasingly aggressive subtype. Our analysis revealed that human breast cancer transformation is accompanied by an incremental increase in collagen deposition and a progressive linearization and thickening of interstitial collagen. The linearization of collagen was visualized as an overall increase in tissue birefringence and was most striking at the invasive front of the tumor where the stiffness of the stroma and cellular mechanosignaling were the highest. Amongst breast cancer subtypes we found that the stroma at the invasive region of the more aggressive Basal-like and Her2 tumor subtypes was the most heterogeneous and the stiffest when compared to the less aggressive Luminal A and B subtypes. Intriguingly, we quantified the greatest number of infiltrating macrophages and the highest level of TGF beta signaling within the cells at the invasive front. We also established that stroma stiffness and the level of cellular TGF beta signaling positively correlated with each other and with the number of infiltrating tumor-activated, macrophages, which was highest in the more aggressive tumor subtypes. These findings indicate that human breast cancer progression and aggression, collagen linearization and stromal stiffening are linked and implicate tissue inflammation and TGF beta. PMID:25959051

  1. Hypocholesterolaemia in dogs with dominance aggression.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, S; Yalçin, E; Pentürk, S

    2003-09-01

    Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with dominance aggression in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio and dominance aggression in dogs. Levels of serum TC, triglyceride and HDL-C were significantly lower in dogs with dominance aggression compared with non-aggressive dogs (P < 0.001). These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

  2. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of aggression. The state of the art on aggression in Drosophila and the many opportunities provided by this model organism to unravel the genetic and neurobiological basis of aggression are reviewed. PMID:22513455

  3. An Aggressive Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphoma With c-MYC Translocation and CDKN2A (9p21) Deletion: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Hamilton C; Mathew, Susan; Magro, Cynthia M

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma of the skin is most commonly represented by diffuse large cell variants of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and the leg-type lymphoma. In a minority of cases, the infiltrates are an expression of stage 4 disease of established extracutaneous B-cell lymphoma. We describe 1 female patient 85 years of age with an aggressive form of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma manifesting in multiple firm erythematous indurated solid nodules 1-2 cm each symmetrically on the face periorbitally and on the upper extremities bilaterally. The tumor was a de novo presentation of this aggressive form of lymphoma. The disease demonstrated an aggressive course with only transient improvement of skin lesions after chemotherapy. Punch biopsy taken from a left arm skin lesion showed a diffuse and nodular large cell lymphocytic infiltrate in the 15-20 μm range exhibiting round to oval nuclei and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Phenotypically, the tumor cells were CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, and CD43 positive with a residuum of a follicular dendritic cell network revealed by CD21 staining. There was c-MYC rearrangement and CDKN2A deletion in this sample. The importance in reporting this case is to emphasize that in the context of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma, the 9p21 deletion while characteristic of the leg-type lymphoma is not a unique signature of the leg-type lymphoma and is not exclusionary to lymphomas falling under the designation of follicle center lymphoma. As with the leg-type lymphoma, however, this cytogenetic abnormality is a critical determinant to a more aggressive clinical course.

  4. Pathophysiological Basis for the Formation of the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Michael R.; Vaupel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Poor microenvironmental conditions are a characteristic feature of solid tumors. Such conditions occur because the tumor vascular supply, which develops from the normal host vasculature by the process of angiogenesis, is generally inadequate in meeting the oxygen and nutrient demands of the growing tumor mass. Regions of low oxygenation (hypoxia) is believed to be the most critical deficiency, since it has been well documented to play a significant role in influencing the response to conventional radiation and chemotherapy treatments, as well as influencing malignant progression in terms of aggressive growth and recurrence of the primary tumor and its metastatic spread. As a result, significant emphasis has been placed on finding clinically applicable approaches to identify those tumors that contain hypoxia and realistic methods to target this hypoxia. However, most studies consider hypoxia as a single entity, yet we now know that it is multifactorial. Furthermore, hypoxia is often associated with other microenvironmental parameters, such as elevated interstitial fluid pressure, glycolysis, low pH, and reduced bioenergetic status, and these can also influence the effects of hypoxia. Here, we review the various aspects of hypoxia, but also discuss the role of the other microenvironmental parameters associated with hypoxia. PMID:27148472

  5. Rectal carcinoid tumor metastasis to a skull base meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jennifer; Gupta, Amit; Badve, Chaitra; Cohen, Mark L; Wolansky, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that most frequently develop in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs and have high potential for metastasis. Metastasis to the brain is rare, but to another intracranial tumor is extremely rare. Of the intracranial tumors, meningiomas are the most common to host metastases, which may be related to its rich vascularity and E-cadherin expression. We describe the case of a 65-year-old female with active chemotherapy-treated neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with left-sided facial numbness, headaches, and blurry vision. Initial imaging revealed a 1 cm irregular dural-based left petrous apex mass suggestive of a meningioma that was re-imaged four months later as a rapidly enlarging, extra-axial, mass extending into the cavernous sinus, effacing Meckel’s cave that resembled a trigeminal schwannoma. Pathology revealed a carcinoid tumor metastatic to meningioma. While the mass displayed characteristic imaging findings of a schwannoma, rapid growth in the setting of known active malignancy should prompt the clinician to consider mixed pathology from metastatic disease or a more aggressive meningioma. PMID:26825133

  6. Multimodality Treatment in Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumors of the Maxilla and Maxillary Sinus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mamot, Christoph; Krasniqi, Fatime; Metternich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) encompasses a group of highly aggressive, morphologically similar, malignant neoplasms sharing a common spontaneous genetic translocation that affect mostly children and young adults. These predominantly characteristic, small round-cell tumors include Ewing's sarcoma of the bone and soft tissue, as well as primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) involving the bone, soft tissue, and thoracopulmonary region (Askin's tumor). Extraosseous ESFTs are extremely rare, especially in the head and neck region, where literature to date consists of sporadic case reports and very small series. We hereby present a review of the literature published on ESFTs reported in the maxilla and maxillary sinus region from 1968 to 2016. PMID:27413360

  7. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  8. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  9. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  10. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  11. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  12. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  13. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  14. Molecular Targeted Therapies of Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Politti, Ugo; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) that arise from follicular cells account >90% of thyroid cancer (TC) [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts <5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC, and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts toward the development of new drugs. Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the past few decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET)/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the aforementioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local, and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds and to personalize the therapy in

  15. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third of patients appeared disease- ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more than a ...

  16. Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Kathryne E; Barling, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined factors that lead to and prevent aggression toward supervisors at work using two samples: doctoral students and correctional service guards. The results supported that perceived interpersonal injustice mediates the relationship between perceptions of supervisory control over work performance and psychological aggression directed at supervisors, and further that psychological aggression toward supervisors is positively associated with physical acts of aggression directed at supervisors, supporting the notion of an escalation of aggressive workplace behaviors. Moreover, employees' perceptions of organizational sanctions (i.e., negative consequences for disobeying organizational policies) against aggression appear to play an important role in the prevention of workplace aggression by moderating the relationship between injustice and aggression targeting supervisors.

  17. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle.

    PubMed

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-02

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo. For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells.

  18. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle

    PubMed Central

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo. For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin–Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells. PMID:26019631

  19. Aggression as positive reinforcement in mice under various ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2009-03-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules.

  20. AGGRESSION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN MICE UNDER VARIOUS RATIO- AND TIME-BASED REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES

    PubMed Central

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident–intruder model of aggression as a positive reinforcer. A nose poke response on an operant conditioning panel was reinforced under fixed-ratio (FR 8), fixed-interval (FI 5-min), progressive ratio (PR 2), or differential reinforcement of low rate behavior reinforcement schedules (DRL 40-s and DRL 80-s). In the FR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression and extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. There were long postreinforcement pauses followed by bursts of responses with short interresponse times (IRTs). In the FI conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, occurred more frequently as the interval elapsed, and extinguished when the contingency was removed. In the PR conditions, nose pokes were maintained by aggression, postreinforcement pauses increased as the ratio requirement increased, and responding was extinguished when the aggression contingency was removed. In the DRL conditions, the nose poke rate decreased, while the proportional distributions of IRTs and postreinforcement pauses shifted toward longer durations as the DRL interval increased. However, most responses occurred before the minimum IRT interval elapsed, suggesting weak temporal control of behavior. Overall, the findings suggest aggression can be a positive reinforcer for nose poke responses in mice on ratio- and time-based reinforcement schedules. PMID:19794833

  1. Violent video games stress people out and make them more aggressive.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Youssef; Bègue, Laurent; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that violent video games increase aggression, and that stress increases aggression. Many violent video games can be stressful because enemies are trying to kill players. The present study investigates whether violent games increase aggression by inducing stress in players. Stress was measured using cardiac coherence, defined as the synchronization of the rhythm of breathing to the rhythm of the heart. We predicted that cardiac coherence would mediate the link between exposure to violent video games and subsequent aggression. Specifically, we predicted that playing a violent video game would decrease cardiac coherence, and that cardiac coherence, in turn, would correlate negatively with aggression. Participants (N = 77) played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 min. Cardiac coherence was measured before and during game play. After game play, participants had the opportunity to blast a confederate with loud noise through headphones during a reaction time task. The intensity and duration of noise blasts given to the confederate was used to measure aggression. As expected, violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence levels and higher aggression levels than did nonviolent game players. Cardiac coherence, in turn, was negatively related to aggression. This research offers another possible reason why violent games can increase aggression-by inducing stress. Cardiac coherence can be a useful tool to measure stress induced by violent video games. Cardiac coherence has several desirable methodological features as well: it is noninvasive, stable against environmental disturbances, relatively inexpensive, not subject to demand characteristics, and easy to use.

  2. Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived annexin A6+ extracellular vesicles support pancreatic cancer aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Leca, Julie; Martinez, Sébastien; Lac, Sophie; Nigri, Jérémy; Secq, Véronique; Rubis, Marion; Bressy, Christian; Lavaut, Marie-Noelle; Dusetti, Nelson; Loncle, Céline; Roques, Julie; Pietrasz, Daniel; Bousquet, Corinne; Garcia, Stéphane; Granjeaud, Samuel; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Bachet, Jean Baptiste; Iovanna, Juan L.; Zimmermann, Pascale; Vasseur, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The intratumoral microenvironment, or stroma, is of major importance in the pathobiology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and specific conditions in the stroma may promote increased cancer aggressiveness. We hypothesized that this heterogeneous and evolving compartment drastically influences tumor cell abilities, which in turn influences PDA aggressiveness through crosstalk that is mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we have analyzed the PDA proteomic stromal signature and identified a contribution of the annexin A6/LDL receptor-related protein 1/thrombospondin 1 (ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1) complex in tumor cell crosstalk. Formation of the ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1 complex was restricted to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and required physiopathologic culture conditions that improved tumor cell survival and migration. Increased PDA aggressiveness was dependent on tumor cell–mediated uptake of CAF-derived ANXA6+ EVs carrying the ANXA6/LRP1/TSP1 complex. Depletion of ANXA6 in CAFs impaired complex formation and subsequently impaired PDA and metastasis occurrence, while injection of CAF-derived ANXA6+ EVs enhanced tumorigenesis. We found that the presence of ANXA6+ EVs in serum was restricted to PDA patients and represents a potential biomarker for PDA grade. These findings suggest that CAF–tumor cell crosstalk supported by ANXA6+ EVs is predictive of PDA aggressiveness, highlighting a therapeutic target and potential biomarker for PDA. PMID:27701147

  3. Review of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Furuya, M; Nagashima, Y; Gotohda, H; Kawakami, F; Moritani, S; Ota, S; Hora, M; Michal, M; Hes, O; Nakatani, Y

    2014-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by clinical features of skin lesions, pulmonary lesions and renal tumor. The gene responsible for this syndrome is located on chromosome 17p11.2 and designated as FLCN. In this article, we review renal tumors associated with BHDS with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Renal tumors often occur multifocally or bilaterally in the imaging analyses or gross examination. Histological examination of renal tumors includes a variety of subtypes such as hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), oncocytoma, clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. The histologic discordance in multiple tumors seems to be characteristic of this syndrome. Oncocytosis is observed histologically in about half of the cases. Several investigations have elucidated that folliculin may be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway recently. Renal tumors composed of clear cells may behave in an aggressive fashion. However, renal tumors including hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma behave mostly in an indolent fashion.

  4. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability) while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships). Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females. PMID:23864299

  5. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Aggressive digital papillary adenoma-adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos G; Miller, Gavin; Revelos, Kyriakos; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Page, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma and aggressive digital papillary adenoma are rare tumours of the sweat glands. They are most common in the most distal part of the fingers and are locally aggressive with a 50% local recurrence rate; 14% of tumours metastasize. We present two cases.

  7. Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

    1985-01-01

    Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

  8. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  9. Hyperpolarized 13C MR Markers of Renal Tumor Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Criekinge, Ailin Hansen, Bertram Koelsch, Jeremy Gordon, Celine Baligand, Robert Bok, Dan B. Vigneron, David M. Wilson, Peder Larson, Kayvan R. Keshari...Sep. 2013. Published OnlineFirst November 30, 2012.Cancer Res Kayvan R. Keshari, Renuka Sriram, Bertram L. Koelsch, et al. Rapid Lactate...Resonance Reveals Rapid Lactate Export in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinomas Kayvan R. Keshari1, Renuka Sriram1, Bertram L. Koelsch2, Mark Van Criekinge1

  10. Elevated β-hCG associated with aggressive Osteoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morris, Carol D; Hameed, Meera R; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Hwang, Sinchun

    2017-04-10

    We present a unique case of an aggressive scapular osteoblastoma that produced β-hCG as a paraneoplastic manifestation in a 20-year-old woman. Serum β-hCG was found to be elevated during presurgical workup and consequently delayed surgical resection of the increasingly painful tumor because of suspected pregnancy. The paraneoplastic production of β-hCG was later proven by positive immunohistochemical stain of β-hCG in a curettage specimen and normalization of β-hCG levels after surgical resection of the aggressive osteoblastoma. Production of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has been reported in several carcinomas and sarcomas but, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in osteoblastoma in the English-language literature.

  11. Brachytherapy in the treatment of recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Almefty, Kaith K; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Arvold, Nils D; Devlin, Phillip M; Reardon, David A; Loeffler, Jay S; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas are uncommon tumors that recur despite receiving extensive surgery and radiation therapy (RT). We have utilized brachytherapy as a salvage treatment in two such patients with a unique implantation technique. Both patients had recurrence of WHO Grade II falcine meningiomas despite multiple prior surgical and RT treatments. Radioactive I-125 seeds were made into strands and sutured into a mesh implant, with 1 cm spacing, in a size appropriate to cover the cavity and region of susceptible falcine dura. Following resection the vicryl mesh was implanted and fixed to the margins of the falx. Implantation in this interhemispheric space provides good dose conformality with targeting of at-risk tissue and minimal radiation exposure to normal neural tissues. The patients are recurrence free 31 and 10 months after brachytherapy treatment. Brachytherapy was an effective salvage treatment for the recurrent aggressive falcine meningiomas in our two patients.

  12. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  13. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  14. SU-C-BRE-05: PTV Margin Determination Based On Tumor Radiobiological Characteristics and Geometric Uncertainties Derived From Daily Cone- Beam CT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine required PTV margins for ≤1% loss in mean population TCP using systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors calculated from daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of head and neck patients. Methods: Daily CBCT images were acquired for 50 head and neck patients. The CBCT image sets acquired at each fraction were registered with planning CT to obtain positional errors for each patient for each fraction. Systematic and random errors were calculated from data collected for 50 patients as described in IPEM On Target report. CTV delineation uncertainty of 2mm is added quadratically to systematic error. Assuming a spherical target volume, the dose in each voxel of target volume is summed for each fraction in the treatment by shifting the dose grid to calculate mean population TCP inclusive of geometric uncertainties using a Monte Carlo method. These simulations were repeated for the set of Σ and σ in each axis for different PTV margins and drop in TCP for each margin are obtained. In order to study the effect of dose-response curve on PTV margins, two different σα of 0.048 Gy-1 and 0.218 Gy-1 representing steep and shallow dose-response curves are studied. Σ were 2.5, 2.5, 2.1 mm and σ were 0.3, 0.3 0.2 mm respectively in x, y and z axis respectively. Results: PTV margins based on tumor radiobiological characteristics are 4.8, 4.8 and 4 mm in x, y and z axis assuming 25 treatment fractions for σα 0.048 Gy-1 (steep) and 4.2,4.2 and 2.2 for σα of 0.218 Gy-1 (shallow). While the TCP-based margins did not differ much in x and y axis, it is considerably smaller in z axis for shallow DRC. Conclusion: TCP based margins are substantially smaller than physical dose-based margin recipes. This study also demonstrates the importance of considering tumor radiobiological characteristics while deriving margins.

  15. Read anything mean lately? associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Laura A; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non-recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed.

  16. RD3 loss dictates high-risk aggressive neuroblastoma and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faizan H; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Aravindan, Sheeja; Natarajan, Mohan; Azadi, Seifollah; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-11-03

    Clinical outcomes for high-risk neuroblastoma patients remains poor, with only 40-50% 5-Year overall survival (OS) and <10% long-term survival. The ongoing acquisition of genetic/molecular rearrangements in undifferentiated neural crest cells may endorse neuroblastoma progression. This study recognized the loss of Retinal Degeneration protein 3, RD3 in aggressive neuroblastoma, and identified its influence in better clinical outcomes and defined its novel metastasis suppressor function. The results showed ubiquitous expression of RD3 in healthy tissues, complete-loss and significant TNM-stage association of RD3 in clinical samples. RD3-loss was intrinsically associated with reduced OS, abridged relapse-free survival, aggressive stage etc., in neuroblastoma patient cohorts. RD3 was transcriptionally and translationally regulated in metastatic site-derived aggressive (MSDAC) cells (regardless of CSC status) ex vivo and in tumor manifolds from metastatic sites in reproducible aggressive disease models in vivo. Re-expressing RD3 in MSDACs reverted their metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely muting RD3 in neuroblastoma cells not only heightened invasion/migration but also dictated aggressive disease with metastasis. These results demonstrate the loss of RD3 in high-risk neuroblastoma, its novel, thus-far unrecognized metastasis suppressor function and further imply that RD3-loss may directly relate to tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcomes.

  17. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  18. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  19. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica R

    2006-08-01

    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  20. [New surgical treatment options for bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Andreou, D; Henrichs, M P; Gosheger, G; Nottrott, M; Streitbürger, A; Hardes, J

    2014-11-01

    Primary bone neoplasms can be classified into benign, locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing and malignant tumors. Patients with benign tumors usually undergo surgical treatment in cases of local symptoms, mainly consisting of pain or functional deficits due to compression of important anatomical structures, such as nerves or blood vessels. Locally/aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern, so that surgical treatment is necessary to prevent further destruction of bone leading to local instability. Finally, the surgical treatment of malignant tumors is, with few exceptions, considered to be a prerequisite for long-term survival, either alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Whereas the main objective of surgery in the treatment of benign tumors is relief of local symptoms with a minimum amount of damage to healthy tissue and minimizing the risk of local recurrence while ensuring bone stability in locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing tumors, the primary goal in the operative treatment of bone sarcomas is the resection of the tumor with clear surgical margins followed by defect reconstruction and the preservation of function. This review examines the current developments in the surgical treatment of primary bone neoplasms with respect to the management of the tumors and novel reconstructive options.

  1. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  2. Racial Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Survival: To What Extent Are Racial Disparities Explained by Differences in Treatment, Tumor or Hospital Characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    White, Arica L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Franzini, Luisa; Du, Xianglin L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival have been documented throughout the literature. However, the reasons for these disparities are difficult to decipher. The objective of this analysis was to determine to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in survival are explained by differences in socio-demographics, tumor characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and hospital characteristics. METHODS A cohort of 37,769 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I-III CRC from 1992 to 2002 and residing in 16 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) regions of the United States was identified in the SEER-Medicare linked database. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of mortality and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS Blacks had worse CRC-specific survival than Whites but this was reduced after adjustment (aHR=1.24; 95%CI:1.14-1.35). Asians had better survival than Whites after adjusting for covariates (aHR=0.80; 95%CI: 0.70-0.92) for stages I-III CRC. Relative to Asians, Blacks and Whites had worse survival after adjustment (aHR=1.55; 95% CI:1.33-1.81; aHR=1.25; 95%CI:1.09-1.43, respectively). Comorbidities and SES were associated with a reduction in the mortality difference between Blacks and Whites and Blacks and Asians. CONCLUSION Comorbidities and SES appear to be more important factors contributing to Blacks’ poorer survival relative to Whites and Asians. However, racial/ethnic differences in CRC survival were not fully explained by differences in a number of factors. Future research should further examine the role of quality of care, the benefit of treatment and post-treatment surveillance in survival disparities. PMID:20626015

  3. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, N.; Woolkalis, M.; Thermos, K.; Carlson, K.; Manning, D.; Reisine, T.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog (125I)CGP 23996. (125I)CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity (125I)CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of (125I)CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect (125I)CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with (125I) CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to (125I)CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors.

  4. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  5. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  6. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  7. Functional analysis and treatment of aggressive behavior following resection of a craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennifer L; Hall, Scott S

    2015-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a relatively rare, benign tumor that most often affects pre-adolescent children. Surgical resection is a common form of treatment, which may result in adverse physical, neurological, and behavioral effects, most notably, aggressive behavior. In this case study we describe a typically developing 6-year-old female who had resection of craniopharyngioma and subsequently developed severe aggressive behavior that interfered significantly with her recovery and functioning. Results of a functional analysis indicated that her aggression was maintained by contingent escape from task demands and access to preferred food items. A highly structured behavioral intervention, consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors, together with extinction targeted to each function of the behavior, was effective in reducing her aggression to below 88% of baseline levels. Her adaptive behaviors also increased significantly. These results suggest that assessment and treatment utilizing principles of applied behavior analysis can ameliorate the occurrence of problem behavior following craniopharyngioma resection. PMID:21232057

  8. An aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva - A rare entity - A case report

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bishnu Prasad; Baruah, Dipankar; Medhi, Kaberee Bhuyan; Talukder, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive mesenchymal tumor predominantly presenting in women of reproductive age and also having a moderate-to-high risk for local relapse. Hence, it needs to be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors occurring in this region. We present here a case of a 40-year-old female presenting with a large, fleshy, pedunculated mass on the right labia majora. PMID:27721642

  9. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  10. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression: Physiological Regulatory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Timmons, Adela C.; Miller, Kelly F.; Han, Sohyun C.

    2015-01-01

    Children who grow up in aggressive households are at risk of having problems with physiological regulation, but researchers have not investigated physiology as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of aggression. In this article, we posit that physiological regulation, particularly during stressful interpersonal interactions, may shed light on sensitivity to conflict, It can also inform our understanding of associations between childhood exposure to aggression in families of origin and aggression against partners in adolescence or adulthood. In support of this model, we highlight findings showing that childhood exposure to family aggression relates to physiological regulation across the life span, and that reactions to physiological stress concurrently relate to aggression against intimate partners. Emerging evidence from research on biological processes during stressful interpersonal interactions raises questions about what is adaptive for individuals from aggressive families, particularly as past family experiences intersect with the challenges of new relationships. PMID:26929773

  12. Intracranial aggressive fibromatosis presenting as panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, A; Cesur, M; Aktaş, B; Utkan, G; Gedik, V Tonyukuk; Erdogan, Mf; Kamel, N

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a rare, locally aggressive, proliferative fibroblastic lesion affecting musculoaponeurotic structures, most often, of the limbs and trunk. Intracranial AF is extremely rare and requires aggressive treatment to prevent recurrence. We present a case of a 34 year-old male with AF involving intracranial structures causing panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. Patient was admitted to hospital because of polyuria, polydipsia, and loss of libido, impotence, hearing loss, and gait disturbance. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging, the lesion extended through the sphenoid sinus into the both pterygoid recesses, destroying the left lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus and invading the retroorbital area. There was also a distinct lesion in the hypothalamic area. The tumor was markedly isointense on both T2- and T1-weighted images relative to gray matter, and enhanced strongly after administration of gadolinium. The patient underwent partial resection of the lesion via a transcranial approach. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as AF. No other sites were found to be involved by thorax and abdominal tomography. Hormonal assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction revealed panhypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus. Replacement therapy was instituted. In this case, standard treatment of wide-field surgical resection was impossible. On the basis of reports that radiotherapy is an effective treatment for this kind of tumor, we administered radiation to the affected area, since chemotherapy and hormonal treatment of non-resectable tumors are not satisfactory. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of AF presenting as panhypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus.

  13. Alternative pharmacologic therapy for aggressive central giant cell granuloma: denosumab.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Willem H; Coumou, Annet W; Kessler, Peter A H W; de Lange, Jan

    2014-07-01

    In the search for new pharmacologic therapies for central giant cell granuloma (CGCG), proteins that are essential to osteoclastogenesis are intriguing potential targets. In the present case report, we describe a 25-year-old patient with an aggressive CGCG of the maxilla, who was successfully treated with the antiresorptive agent denosumab, after other pharmacologic treatment had failed to achieve regression or stabilization of the tumor. Denosumab could be a promising alternative to potentially mutilating surgery for CGCG. However, more research is needed before definite conclusions can be drawn about the potential role of this agent in the treatment of CGCG.

  14. Expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) 1 and 2 is a characteristic feature of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed

    Izban, K F; Ergin, M; Martinez, R L; Alkan, S

    2000-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are a recently established group of proteins involved in the intracellular signal transduction of several members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. Recently, specific members of the TRAF family have been implicated in promoting cell survival as well as activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We investigated the constitutive expression of TRAF1 and TRAF2 in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells from archived paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 21 patients diagnosed with classical Hodgkin's disease (HD). In a selective portion of cases, examination of HRS cells for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA was performed by in situ hybridization, and the results were compared with the magnitude of TRAF1 and TRAF2 staining. We also determined the TRAF profile in the classical HD cell lines L428, KMH2, and HS445 by Western blotting using a series of antibodies that specifically recognize the six individual TRAF family proteins (TRAF1-TRAF6). Moderate to high constitutive expression of TRAF1 and TRAF2 were found in 19 of 21 and 20 of 21 cases of classical HD, respectively. Of the remaining cases, one case showed weak expression of TRAF1, and another case showed weak expression of both proteins. No relationship was found between the staining intensity of the TRAF proteins and EBV expression in HRS cells. Strong constitutive expression of TRAF1 was also identified in the HD cell line L428, compared with the relatively weak expression observed in KMH2 and HS445. All three HD cell lines showed strong expression of TRAF2 protein and moderate, comparatively equal expression of TRAF4 and TRAF6. In contrast, TRAF3 was not expressed in the HD cell lines. Although KMH2 showed weak expression, the remaining HD cell lines also lacked TRAF5 protein. These data demonstrate that constitutive expression of TRAF1 and TRAF2 is a characteristic feature of HRS cells from both patient and cell line

  15. Hypoxia in Astrocytic Tumors and Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos, David A.; Brenner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM, Grade IV astrocytoma) is the most common and most aggressive of the primary malignant brain tumors in adults. Hypoxia is a distinct feature in GBM and plays a significant role in tumor progression, resistance to treatment and poor outcomes. This review considers the effects of hypoxia on astrocytic tumors and the mechanisms that contribute to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, with a focus on the vascular changes, chemotaxic signaling pathways and metabolic alterations involved. PMID:26094595

  16. Symplastic/pseudoanaplastic giant cell tumor of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Agaram, Narasimhan; Hwang, Sinchun; Lu, Chao; Wang, Lu; Healey, John; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Objective Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumor. Its malignant counterpart is quite rare. Rarely, a conventional GCTB shows marked nuclear atypia, referred to as symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, which can mimic sarcomatous transformation. Recently, somatic driver mutations of histone H3.3 exclusively in H3F3A have been described in GCTB. We report a series of 9 cases of GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, along with analysis of H3F3A variants. Materials and methods Nine cases of GCTB with symplastic change were identified. Clinico-radiological features, morphological features, and immunohistochemical stain for Ki-67 stain were reviewed. H3F3A variants were also analyzed using Sanger sequencing. Results Histologically, conventional giant cell tumor areas with scattered foci of markedly atypical cells were seen in all of the cases and all showed rare if any Ki-67 labeling. One patient had received denosumab treatment and another radiation therapy. Radiological features were characteristic of conventional GCTB. Mutation in H3F3A (p.Gly34Trp [G34W]) was found in 6 of the 7 cases. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 208 months. Local recurrences were seen in 4 cases (44 %). Conclusions GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change is an uncommon variant of conventional GCTB, which can mimic primary sarcoma or sarcomatous transformation. These tumors possess the same missense mutation in histone H3.3 as conventional GCTB. PMID:27020452

  17. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  18. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  19. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-08

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast.

  20. Intergroup Biases in Fear-induced Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Simunovic, Dora; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent. Participants decide whether or not to attack another participant, who also has the same capability. The decision is made in real time, using a computer. We discuss theoretical implications of our findings on the evolutionary foundations of intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression. The evolutionary model of intergroup aggression, or the parochial altruism model, posits that intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression have co-evolved, and thus it predicts both intragroup cooperation and intergroup aggression to emerge even in a minimal group devoid of a history of intergroup relationships. The finding that only intragroup cooperation but not intergroup aggression emerged in the minimal group experiments strongly suggests that intergroup aggression involves a psychological mechanism that is independent from that of intragroup cooperation. We further discuss the implications of these findings on real-world politics and military strategy. PMID:28174553

  1. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  2. Neuromodulation and Strategic Action Choice in Drosophila Aggression.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Kenta

    2017-03-24

    In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes. I suggest a consensus effect of each neuromodulatory molecule on Drosophila aggression, as well as effects of receptor proteins where relevant data are available. Lastly, I consider neuromodulation in the context of strategic action choices during agonistic interactions. Genetic components of neuromodulatory systems are highly conserved across animals, suggesting that molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling Drosophila aggression can shed light on neural principles governing action choice during social interactions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  3. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains.

  4. How and Why Children Change in Aggression and Delinquency from Childhood to Adolescence: Moderation of Overreactive Parenting by Child Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Haan, A. D.; Prinzie, P.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examines how and why children change in aggression and delinquency from age 6 to 15 years. Besides assessing the shape of the developmental trajectories of aggression and delinquency, we investigated whether child personality characteristics, parenting, and interactions between these two predict the development of…

  5. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  6. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  7. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    PubMed

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  8. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  9. Understanding the diagnostic yield of current endoscopic biopsy for gastric neoplasm: A prospective single-center analysis based on tumor characteristics stratified by biopsy number and site.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Won G; Ho, Won J; Kim, Jae H; Lee, Jin H; Kim, Eo J; Kang, Hyoun W; Lee, Jun K

    2016-07-01

    Although there are general guidelines on endoscopic biopsy for diagnosing gastric neoplasms, they are predominantly based on outdated literature obtained with fiberscopes without analyses specific to tumor characteristics.This study aims to comprehensively characterize the contemporary endoscopic biopsy by determining the diagnostic yield across different lesion morphologies and histological stages, especially exploring how the number and site of biopsy may influence the overall yield.Biopsy samples from suspected gastric neoplasms were collected prospectively from May 2011 to August 2014 in a tertiary care medical center. A standardized methodology was used to obtain a total of 6 specimens from 2 defined sites per lesion. Rate of positive diagnosis based on the biopsy number and site was assessed for specific gastric lesion morphologies and histological stages.A total of 1080 biopsies from 180 pathologically diagnosed neoplastic lesions in 176 patients were obtained during the study. For depressed/ulcerative and polypoid lesions, the yield was already >99% by the fourth biopsy without further gain from additional biopsies. Lower overall yield was observed for infiltrative lesions (57.1% from 4 biopsies). The site of biopsy did not influence the diagnostic yield except for with infiltrative lesions in which biopsies from thickened mucosal folds were of higher yield than erosive regions.Obtaining 4 specimens may be sufficient for accurate diagnosis of a depressed/ulcerative or polypoid gastric lesion regardless of its histological stage. For infiltrative lesions, at least 5 to 6 biopsies per lesion with more representative sampling from thickened mucosal folds may be preferable.

  10. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  11. Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2004-11-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to determine whether executive functioning (EF) would moderate the alcohol-aggression relation. Participants were 310 (152 men and 158 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF as well as non-EF skills were measured with 13 validated neuropsychological tests. Following the consumption of either an alcoholic or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (S. Taylor, 1967), in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. EF was negatively related to aggressive behavior for men, regardless of beverage group, even when controlling for non-EF skills. Furthermore, alcohol increased aggression only for men with lower EF scores. Finally, the mere belief that alcohol was consumed suppressed aggression for women but not for men.

  12. Sense of control and adolescents' aggression: The role of aggressive cues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xucheng; Egan, Vincent; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-12-01

    The misperception of aggressive cues is considered a risk factor for inducing adolescent aggression. Poor coping with life stress is also considered a major influence on aggression. The current study examined the relationship between subjective sense of control and adolescent aggression, considering influences upon the perception of these aggressive cues. In Study 1, 60 participants took part in a 2 (sense of control: high sense of control vs. low sense of control) × 2 (aggressive cue: aggressive vs. neutral) between-subjects contextual experiment. The result found that a lower sense of control led to an increase in adolescents' aggression; only in the low-sense-of-control condition did exposure to aggressive cues boost aggression. In Study 2, the catalytic effect of aggressive cues was further explored by an experiment in which 40 adolescents were randomly assigned to a low- or high-sense-of-control condition to test the importance of aggressive cues. The results suggest that adolescents in the low-sense-of-control condition show a higher salience for aggressive cues.

  13. Netrin-1 acts as a survival factor for aggressive neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Fitamant, Julien; Paradisi, Andrea; Cappellen, David; Douc-Rasy, Setha; Raquin, Marie-Anne; Stupack, Dwayne; Nakagawara, Akira; Rousseau, Raphaël; Combaret, Valérie; Puisieux, Alain; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Bénard, Jean; Bernet, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most frequent solid tumor of early childhood, is diagnosed as a disseminated disease in >60% of cases, and several lines of evidence support the resistance to apoptosis as a prerequisite for NB progression. We show that autocrine production of netrin-1, a multifunctional laminin-related molecule, conveys a selective advantage in tumor growth and dissemination in aggressive NB, as it blocks the proapoptotic activity of the UNC5H netrin-1 dependence receptors. We show that such netrin-1 up-regulation is a potential marker for poor prognosis in stage 4S and, more generally, in NB stage 4 diagnosed infants. Moreover, we propose that interference with the netrin-1 autocrine loop in malignant neuroblasts could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy, as disruption of this loop triggers in vitro NB cell death and inhibits NB metastasis in avian and mouse models. PMID:19349462

  14. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  15. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  16. Do competitive martial arts attract aggressive children?

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Lorant, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether children beginning martial arts training were more aggressive than their peers. 150 8-yr.-old children were administered the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis showed that children beginning martial arts training did not score more aggressive than their peers but scored higher on the Anger scale. This difference, however, appeared only in children practicing judo.

  17. Genetics of human aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian W; Halton, Kelly E

    2009-07-01

    A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

  18. Aggressive lymphoma in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, S M

    2000-02-01

    Persons 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the United States population. Over the next 30 years they will comprise approximately 20% of the population. There will be a parallel rise in the number of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Age has long been known to be an adverse prognostic factor. Clinical trials of older patients are complicated by the effect of comorbid illness, particularly its effect on overall survival. CHOP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone) remains the standard therapy for all patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There are a number of regimens which may be beneficial for older patients with significant comorbidity and poor performance status. The randomized trials in the elderly has reaffirmed CHOP and emphasize the need for adequate dosing, maintaining schedule and anthracyclines. Relapsed patients have a poor prognosis but selected fit older patients may benefit from aggressive reinduction regimens and possibly bone marrow transplantation. Future research should include defining the role of comorbidity, measurement of organ dysfunction and assessment of performance status with geriatric functional scales. New drug treatments should also be explored.

  19. The Antihelmintic Drug Pyrvinium Pamoate Targets Aggressive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Lacerda, Lara; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Solley, Travis N.; Li, Li; Orton, Darren; McMurray, John S.; Hang, Brian I.; Lee, Ethan; Klopp, Ann H.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, James M.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    WNT signaling plays a key role in the self-renewal of tumor initiation cells (TICs). In this study, we used pyrvinium pamoate (PP), an FDA-approved antihelmintic drug that inhibits WNT signaling, to test whether pharmacologic inhibition of WNT signaling can specifically target TICs of aggressive breast cancer cells. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line, and SUM-159, a metaplastic basal-type breast cancer cell line, were used in these studies. We found that PP inhibited primary and secondary mammosphere formation of cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, at least 10 times less than the dose needed to have a toxic effect on cancer cells. A comparable mammosphere formation IC50 dose to that observed in cancer cell lines was obtained using malignant pleural effusion samples from patients with IBC. A decrease in activity of the TIC surrogate aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed in PP-treated cells, and inhibition of WNT signaling by PP was associated with down-regulation of a panel of markers associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vivo, intratumoral injection was associated with tumor necrosis, and intraperitoneal injection into mice with tumor xenografts caused significant tumor growth delay and a trend toward decreased lung metastasis. In in vitro mammosphere-based and monolayer-based clonogenic assays, we found that PP radiosensitized cells in monolayer culture but not mammosphere culture. These findings suggest WNT signaling inhibition may be a feasible strategy for targeting aggressive breast cancer. Investigation and modification of the bioavailability and toxicity profile of systemic PP are warranted. PMID:24013655

  20. Temozolomide therapy in patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas or carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Losa, Marco; Bogazzi, Fausto; Cannavo, Salvo; Ceccato, Filippo; Curtò, Lorenzo; De Marinis, Laura; Iacovazzo, Donato; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mazza, Elena; Minniti, Giuseppe; Nizzoli, Maurizio; Reni, Michele; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-02-01

    Temozolomide is effective in some patients with progressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. We report a survey study of Italian patients treated with Temozolomide because of aggressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma resistant to standard therapies. Italian endocrinologists were surveyed and asked to participate into the study. A questionnaire was sent to all those who agreed and had used Temozolomide in at least one patient with pituitary tumor. Database was closed in December 2013. A literature review was also performed. Thirty-one patients were included into the analysis. Mean age at start of Temozolomide treatment was 58.3 ± 1.9 years (± standard error). Six of the 31 (19.4%) Italian patients had a pituitary carcinoma. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) had disease control during Temozolomide treatment, while 6 patients (19.4%) had disease progression. Median follow-up after beginning Temozolomide was 43 months. Thirteen patients had tumor growth after stopping Temozolomide. The 2-year progression-free survival was 47.7% (95% CI 29.5-65.9%), while the 2-year disease control duration was 59.1% (95% CI 39.1-79.1%). Eleven patients died of progressive disease and other two patients of unrelated causes. The 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 83.9% (95% CI 70.7-97.1%) and 59.6% (95% CI 40.0-79.2%), respectively. Temozolomide is an additional effective therapeutic option for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. The drug is well tolerated and causes few severe adverse effects. Recurrence of the tumor can occur after an initial positive response and usually portends a grim outcome.

  1. Orthotopic xenografts of RCC retain histological, immunophenotypic and genetic features of tumors in patients

    PubMed Central

    Grisanzio, Chiara; Seeley, Apryle; Chang, Michelle; Collins, Michael; Di Napoli, Arianna; Cheng, Su-Chun; Percy, Andrew; Beroukhim, Rameen; Signoretti, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited responsiveness to existing treatments. In vivo models of human cancer, including RCC, are critical for developing more effective therapies. Unfortunately, current RCC models do not accurately represent relevant properties of the human disease. The goal of this study was to develop clinically relevant animal models of RCC for preclinical investigations. We transplanted intact human tumor tissue fragments orthotopically in immunodeficient mice. The xenografts were validated by comparing the morphologic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of the kidney tumor tissues before and after implantation. Twenty kidney tumors were transplanted into mice. Successful tumor growth was detected in 19 cases (95%). The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the xenografts and those of the original tumors largely overlapped in all the cases. Evaluation of genetic alterations in a subset of 10 cases demonstrated that the grafts largely retained the genetic features of the pre-implantation RCC tissues. Indeed, primary tumors and corresponding grafts displayed identical VHL mutations. Moreover, an identical pattern of DNA copy amplification or loss was observed in 6 of 10 cases (60%). In summary, orthotopic engrafting of RCC tissue fragments can be successfully used to generate animal models that closely resemble RCC in patients. These models will be invaluable for in vivo preclinical drug testing, and for deeper understanding of kidney carcinogenesis. PMID:21710693

  2. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  3. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  4. Intimate partner aggression and women's work outcomes.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick

    2014-10-01

    Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.

  5. Aggressive situational cues among Israeli security personnel.

    PubMed

    Bensimon, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    The present study enriches our knowledge on the relationship between security personnel and situational cues that may provoke aggression, such as arms and uniforms. The study examined 259 security personnel who completed an aggression questionnaire (AGQ). The study aimed (a) to compare the tendency toward aggression of security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform and (b) to compare the tendency toward aggression of men and women security personnel who carry or do not carry arms and/or wear a uniform. The findings indicated no main effect for aggression cueing classification. However, uniformed men had higher scores of physical aggression than women, and women scored significantly higher on anger than men when not carrying any aggressive cues. The findings also revealed that in general, men security personnel reported much higher physical aggression than women, while women showed slightly higher means of verbal aggression than men. The findings are discussed in light of the gender theory and research.

  6. Men’s Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Feingold, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal course of men’s physical and psychological aggression toward a partner across 10 years, using a community sample of young couples (N = 194) from at-risk backgrounds. Findings indicated that men’s aggression decreased over time and that women’s antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms predicted changes in men’s aggression. This suggests the importance of studying social processes within the dyad to have a better understanding of men’s aggression toward a partner. PMID:19122790

  7. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  8. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) arising from the acoustic nerve in a young adult: a case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Liu, Xueyong; Lin, Zhixiong; Chen, Yupeng; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare, highly malignant central nervous system tumors that predominantly occur in young children. A 22-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of relapsing tinnitus and gradual hearing loss. Neuroimaging revealed an enhanced intrinsic left internal auditory canal mass. The patient underwent radiotherapy treatment. Three years later, the tumor size continued to increase, as observed by imaging, and ultimately evolved into the left cerebellopontine angle. As a consequence, a total tumor resection was performed, and a pathological diagnosis of AT/RT was made. Aggressive radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment continued; however, the tumor recurred within 11 months after the total tumor resection. The patient died within 4 months of the second operation. Histopathologically, the tumor contained characteristic rhabdoid cells with areas that resembled a classical primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Immunostaining showed loss of INI1 protein expression in tumor cells, and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a hemizygous deletion of the hSNF5/INI1 gene region on 22q11.2. This is the first report of an AT/RT that arised from the acoustic nerve in a young adult. Despite manifold diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the prognosis of patients with AT/RT remains poor.

  9. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  10. Initial slope of radiation survival curves is characteristic of the origin of primary and established cultures of human tumor cells and fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Malaise, E.P.; Fertil, B.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Chavaudra, N.; Brock, W.A.

    1987-08-01

    The published survival curves of 110 human tumor cell lines and 147 nontransformed human fibroblast strains have been reanalyzed using three different statistical methods: the single hit multitarget model, the linear-quadratic model, and the mean inactivation dose. The 110 tumor cell lines were classified in two ways: (a) into three categories defined by clinical radiocurability criteria, and (b) into seven categories based on histopathology. The 147 fibroblast strains were divided into eight genetic groups. Differences in the radiosensitivities of both the tumor cell and fibroblast groups could be demonstrated only by parameters that describe the slopes of the initial part of the survival curves. The capacity of the survival level to identify significant differences between groups was dose dependent over the range 1 to 6 Gy. This relationship showed a bell-shaped curve with a maximum at 1.5 Gy for the tumor cell lines and 3 Gy for the fibroblasts. Values for intrinsic radiosensitivity for a number of groups of tumors have also been obtained by primary culture of tumor cells. These values are strictly comparable to those obtained by clonogenic methods. This confirms that intrinsic radiosensitivity is a determinant of the response of tumor cells to radiotherapy and suggests that tissue culture methods may be used as a predictive assay.

  11. Image based modeling of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Meghdadi, N; Soltani, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F

    2016-09-01

    Tumors are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the efforts of the clinical and research communities, little has been achieved in the past decades in terms of improving the treatment of aggressive tumors. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor growth and evaluating the effects of different therapies are valuable steps in predicting the survival time and improving the patients' quality of life. Several studies have been devoted to tumor growth modeling at different levels to improve the clinical outcome by predicting the results of specific treatments. Recent studies have proposed patient-specific models using clinical data usually obtained from clinical images and evaluating the effects of various therapies. The aim of this review is to highlight the imaging role in tumor growth modeling and provide a worthwhile reference for biomedical and mathematical researchers with respect to tumor modeling using the clinical data to develop personalized models of tumor growth and evaluating the effect of different therapies.

  12. Giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a challenging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rachna; Punyani, Silky Rajesh; Raj, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor, although a benign lesion, is peculiarly aggressive with a high recurrence rate. Its involvement with the maxillary antrum is atypical. We report the unusual case of a 20-year-old male patient with an extensive antral tumor associated with an impacted third molar, which was initially misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic aspects were analyzed to provide useful information for the correct diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27818958

  13. The PD1/PDL1 axis, a promising therapeutic target in aggressive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Mamessier, Emilie

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of PDL1 mRNA expression in ∼5,500 breast cancers showed PDL1 upregulation in 38% of basal tumors and 38% of inflammatory breast cancers (IBC). Upregulation, associated with signs of strong cytotoxic local immune response, was associated with a better survival in the basal or triple-negative subtypes, and with a better pathological response to chemotherapy in these subtypes and IBC. Reactivation of dormant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by PD1/PDL1-inhibitors represents a promising strategy in these aggressive tumors.

  14. The PD1/PDL1 axis, a promising therapeutic target in aggressive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Mamessier, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of PDL1 mRNA expression in ∼5,500 breast cancers showed PDL1 upregulation in 38% of basal tumors and 38% of inflammatory breast cancers (IBC). Upregulation, associated with signs of strong cytotoxic local immune response, was associated with a better survival in the basal or triple-negative subtypes, and with a better pathological response to chemotherapy in these subtypes and IBC. Reactivation of dormant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by PD1/PDL1-inhibitors represents a promising strategy in these aggressive tumors. PMID:27141340

  15. Computed tomographic characteristics of odontogenic neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Amory, Joseph T; Reetz, Jennifer A; Sánchez, Melissa D; Bradley, Charles W; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic neoplasms are locally invasive oral tumors in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT characteristics for varying histopathologic types of canine odontogenic neoplasms. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of histologic findings reviewed and scored imaging studies. A total of 29 dogs were included in the study. Twenty-three of these dogs had concurrent dental radiographs. The most common CT characteristics for all tumor types were a direct association with or in the region of multiple teeth in 96.4% (27/28), contrast enhancement in 96.3% (26/27), alveolar bone lysis in 93.1% (27/29), and mass-associated tooth displacement in 85.2% (23/27). Mass-associated cyst-like structures were identified in 53.6% (15/28) and were only present in tumors containing odontogenic epithelium. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas (n = 15) appeared as extra-osseous (10/15) or intra-osseous (5/15) masses. Intra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas were more likely to have mass-associated cyst-like structures and were subjectively more aggressive when compared with extra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors (n = 3) had subjectively uniform CT imaging characteristics and consisted of round soft tissue and mineral attenuating masses with multiple associated cyst-like structures. Fibromatous epulides of periodontal ligament origin (n = 4) were contrast enhancing extra-osseous masses that were rarely referred for CT examinations and 25% (1/4) were not visible with CT. Other odontogenic tumors were less represented or had more variable CT imaging characteristics. Mass-associated tooth destruction was appreciated more often with dental radiographs and extra-oral tumor extension was identified more often with CT.

  16. Study of aggressiveness prediction of mammary adenocarcinoma by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade Bitar, Renata; da Silva Martinho, Herculano; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; dos Santos Junior, Arnaldo Rodrigues; Silva Ramalho, Fernando; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton A.

    2012-01-01

    Although there are many articles focused on in vivo or ex vivo Raman analysis for cancer diagnosis, to the best of our knowledge its potential to predict the aggressiveness of tumor has not been fully explored yet. In this work Raman spectra in the finger print region of ex vivo breast tissues of both healthy mice (normal) and mice with induced mammary gland tumors (abnormal) were measured and associated to matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP-19) immunohistochemical exam. It was possible to verify that normal breast, benign lesions, and adenocarcinomas spectra, including the subtypes (cribriform, papillary and solid) could have their aggressiveness diagnosed by vibrational Raman bands. By using MMP- 19 exam it was possible to classify the samples by malignant graduation in accordance to the classification results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The spectra NM /MH were classified correctly in 100% of cases; CA/CPA group had 60 % of spectra correctly classified and for PA/AS 54% of the spectra were correctly classified.

  17. The Relationship of Aggression and Bullying to Social Preference: Differences in Gender and Types of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju

    2009-01-01

    With 338 fifth-grade students as subjects, this study found the variations in the relation between school bullying and social preference as a function of gender and types of aggressive behavior utilized. Aggressive boys were likely to be rejected by peers, whereas aggressive girls were both rejected and accepted by peers. Children nominated…

  18. Predicting Aggressive Behavior in Children with the Help of Measures of Implicit and Explicit Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumm, Mandy; Hein, Sascha; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior between children in schools is a topic that receives much interest as violence and aggressive behavior cause many maladaptive social outcomes in the school setting. In the current study the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was adapted as a measure of children's implicit aggression, by assessing the association of the self…

  19. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically…

  1. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  2. Stability of Aggression during Early Adolescence as Moderated by Reciprocated Friendship Status and Friend's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…

  3. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  4. Ghost Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Jason; Cohen, Molly D; Ramer, Naomi; Payami, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ghost cell tumors are a family of lesions that range in presentation from cyst to solid neoplasm and in behavior from benign to locally aggressive or metastatic. All are characterized by the presence of ameloblastic epithelium, ghost cells, and calcifications. This report presents the cases of a 14-year-old girl with a calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) and a 65-year-old woman with a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) with dysplastic changes, a rare locally invasive tumor of odontogenic epithelium. The first patient presented with a 1-year history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph displayed a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion. An incisional biopsy yielded a diagnosis of CCOT. Decompression of the mass was completed; after 3 months, it was enucleated and immediately grafted with bone harvested from the anterior iliac crest. The second patient presented with a 3-month history of slowly progressing pain and swelling at the left body of the mandible. Initial panoramic radiograph depicted a mixed radiolucent and radiopaque lesion with saucerization of the buccal mandibular cortex. An incisional biopsy examination suggested a diagnosis of DGCT because of the presence of ghost cells, dentinoid, and islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Excision of the mass with peripheral ostectomy was completed. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted.

  5. Antiepileptics for aggression and associated impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Huband, Nick; Ferriter, Michael; Nathan, Rajan; Jones, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background Aggression is a major public health issue and is integral to several mental health disorders. Antiepileptic drugs may reduce aggression by acting on the central nervous system to reduce neuronal hyper-excitability associated with aggression. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing aggression and associated impulsivity. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov to April 2009. We also searched Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s register of trials on aggression, National Research Record and handsearched for studies. Selection criteria Prospective, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs taken regularly by individuals with recurrent aggression to reduce the frequency or intensity of aggressive outbursts. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently selected studies and two authors independently extracted data. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs), with odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data. Main results Fourteen studies with data from 672 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five different antiepileptic drugs were examined. Sodium valproate/divalproex was superior to placebo for outpatient men with recurrent impulsive aggression, for impulsively aggressive adults with cluster B personality disorders, and for youths with conduct disorder, but not for children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. Carbamazepine was superior to placebo in reducing acts of self-directed aggression in women with borderline personality disorder, but not in children with conduct disorder. Oxcarbazepine was superior to placebo for verbal aggression and aggression against objects in adult outpatients. Phenytoin was superior to placebo on the frequency of aggressive acts in male prisoners and in outpatient men including those with personality disorder, but not on the frequency of ‘behavioral incidents’ in

  6. Genetics of aggressive behavior: An overview.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Zhang-James, Yanli; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia; Bakker, Mireille J; Cormand, Bru; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) address three types of aggression: frustrative non-reward, defensive aggression and offensive/proactive aggression. This review sought to present the evidence for genetic underpinnings of aggression and to determine to what degree prior studies have examined phenotypes that fit into the RDoC framework. Although the constructs of defensive and offensive aggression have been widely used in the animal genetics literature, the human literature is mostly agnostic with regard to all the RDoC constructs. We know from twin studies that about half the variance in behavior may be explained by genetic risk factors. This is true for both dimensional, trait-like, measures of aggression and categorical definitions of psychopathology. The non-shared environment seems to have a moderate influence with the effects of shared environment being unclear. Human molecular genetic studies of aggression are in an early stage. The most promising candidates are in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems along with hormonal regulators. Genome-wide association studies have not yet achieved genome-wide significance, but current samples are too small to detect variants having the small effects one would expect for a complex disorder. The strongest molecular evidence for a genetic basis for aggression comes from animal models comparing aggressive and non-aggressive strains or documenting the effects of gene knockouts. Although we have learned much from these prior studies, future studies should improve the measurement of aggression by using a systematic method of measurement such as that proposed by the RDoC initiative.

  7. Renal Medullary Carcinoma with an Aggressive Clinical Course: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalavar, Madhumati R.; Ali, Sami; Safarpour, Damoun; Kunnakkat, Saroj Davi

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, yet aggressive malignancy of the kidney that is found predominantly in young patients with African descent and sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and most specifically sickle cell trait. Due to its aggressive nature, most cases have metastasis or local invasion at the time of diagnosis. Prognosis is extremely poor with survival less than 1 year after diagnosis. Here we present a case of metastatic RMC in a 29-year-old African female. Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel, and initial shrinkage of the tumor, the patient died 5 months after diagnosis. PMID:28203160

  8. Tumor cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  9. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND IMPULSIVE AGGRESSION IN INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Coccaro, Emil F.; Solis, Oscar; Fanning, Jennifer; Lee, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) relates to one's ability to recognize and understand emotional information and then, to use it for planning and self-management. Given evidence of abnormalities of emotional processing in impulsively aggressive individuals, we hypothesized that EI would be reduced in subjects with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 43) compared with healthy (n = 44) and psychiatric (n = 44) controls. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess both Experiential EI and Strategic EI. Strategic, but not Experiential, EI was lower in IED compared with control subjects. These differences were not accounted for demographic characteristics, cognitive intelligence, or the presence of clinical syndromes or personality disorder. In contrast,