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Sample records for aggressive tumour behaviour

  1. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  2. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  3. [Self aggressive-behaviours in prison].

    PubMed

    Ammar, Malek M; Borras, L; Eytan, A

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among prisoners is a relatively well documented public health issue. On the other hand, data about self-aggressive behaviours in prisons are scarce, despite the fact that this problem seems to be highly prevalent. We conducted a retrospective study over a fifteen months period in a remand prison situated in the French speaking area of Switzerland. During this time period, 161 self-aggressive behaviours were recorded, corresponding to 80 inmates. The most frequent acts were self-cuttings and self-mutilations, followed by strangulations. All these patients were male and their mean age was 25. Some of these behaviours (ingesting cutting objects and sewing of the lips) were specific to some ethno-cultural groups. Copycat behaviours play a significant role in closed communities such as prisons. These results underline the necessity of taking into account self-aggressive behaviours in penitentiary institutions. PMID:19024369

  4. Aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within five typologies.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-03-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the individual and those around them. Hence, greater consideration regarding intervention, management, person-centred strategies and prevalence and frequency rates are required in service provision for individuals with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour. This review presents the context of aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within the five typologies of aggressive behaviour: verbal aggression, aggression against others, sexually inappropriate behaviour, self-injurious behaviour and aggression against property, as identified by Crocker et al. (2007). The focus of this review is to report on the prevalence of aggressive behaviour reported for individuals with intellectual disability and consider the ambiguity in defining aggressive behaviour. PMID:24189373

  5. Tumour cell-derived Wnt7a recruits and activates fibroblasts to promote tumour aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Avgustinova, Alexandra; Iravani, Marjan; Robertson, David; Fearns, Antony; Gao, Qiong; Klingbeil, Pamela; Hanby, Andrew M.; Speirs, Valerie; Sahai, Erik; Calvo, Fernando; Isacke, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Stromal fibroblast recruitment to tumours and activation to a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) phenotype has been implicated in promoting primary tumour growth and progression to metastatic disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the tumour:fibroblast crosstalk that drive the intertumoural stromal heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Using in vivo models we identify Wnt7a as a key factor secreted exclusively by aggressive breast tumour cells, which induces CAF conversion. Functionally, this results in extracellular matrix remodelling to create a permissive environment for tumour cell invasion and promotion of distant metastasis. Mechanistically, Wnt7a-mediated fibroblast activation is not dependent on classical Wnt signalling. Instead, we demonstrate that Wnt7a potentiates TGFβ receptor signalling both in 3D in vitro and in vivo models, thus highlighting the interaction between two of the key signalling pathways in development and disease. Importantly, in clinical breast cancer cohorts, tumour cell Wnt7a expression correlates with a desmoplastic, poor-prognosis stroma and poor patient outcome. PMID:26777421

  6. Delay in treatment of primary malignant and aggressive musculoskeletal tumours.

    PubMed

    Pan, K L; Zolqarnain, A; Chia, Y Y

    2006-02-01

    Patients with aggressive musculoskeletal tumours often arrive at specialised treatment centres late. Such a delay could mean disfavour for potentially curable or long-term disease-free outcome of limb preserving surgery. This study was undertaken to identify the underlying problem-related delay with a view to propose solution for solving it. We reviewed 30 patients to determine the periods of delay between onset of the first symptom and the definitive treatment. The delays were categorized as 'patient' delay, 'referral' delay and 'treatment' delay. There was 'patient' delay in 57% of patients (n=17), ranging from 1 to 18 months; 'referral' delay in 67% of patients (n=20) ranging from 1 to 19 months and 23% of patients (n=7) had treatment delay (average 23 days) at the treatment centre. The causes of late arrival are not solely patient-related but are multifactorial. Measures to minimize such delays include enhancing awareness only with high index of suspicion among primary care practitioners, creating a special lane specialized imaging studies and establishing a dedicated musculoskeletal tumour unit. PMID:17042231

  7. Genes and gene networks implicated in aggression related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans

    2014-10-01

    Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712

  8. Aggressive Behaviour and Its Prevalence within Five Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…

  9. No aggression in a 4-year-old boy with an androgen-producing tumour: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    De la Marche, Wouter; Prinsen, Karin; Boot, Annemieke M; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2005-01-01

    Background The androgen testosterone plays a critical role in many aspects of sexual differentiation. Also, it is thought to induce aggressive behaviours or to play a role in social dominance. Case presentation In this case report a 4-year-old boy is described whose testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels were raised to pubertal levels due to a testosterone producing testis tumour. This provided the unique opportunity to examine the effects of elevated levels of androgens on levels of aggression or on social dominance before the onset of puberty. Conclusion The present case report does not support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between testosterone and aggression or between testosterone and social dominance in young children. PMID:16202122

  10. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts reflect the microenvironmental hallmarks of aggressive patient tumours.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Tadeo, Irene; Beckman, Siv; Sandén, Caroline; Jönsson, Jimmie; Erjefält, Jonas S; Berbegall, Ana P; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Øra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Gisselsson, David; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of high-risk childhood neuroblastoma is a clinical challenge which has been hampered by a lack of reliable neuroblastoma mouse models for preclinical drug testing. We have previously established invasive and metastasising patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDXs) from high-risk neuroblastomas that retained the genotypes and phenotypes of patient tumours. Given the important role of the tumour microenvironment in tumour progression, metastasis, and treatment responses, here we analysed the tumour microenvironment of five neuroblastoma PDXs in detail. The PDXs resembled their parent tumours and retained important stromal hallmarks of aggressive lesions including rich blood and lymphatic vascularisation, pericyte coverage, high numbers of cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumour-associated macrophages, and extracellular matrix components. Patient-derived tumour endothelial cells occasionally formed blood vessels in PDXs; however, tumour stroma was, overall, of murine origin. Lymphoid cells and lymphatic endothelial cells were found in athymic nude mice but not in NSG mice; thus, the choice of mouse strain dictates tumour microenvironmental components. The murine tumour microenvironment of orthotopic neuroblastoma PDXs reflects important hallmarks of aggressive and metastatic clinical neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma PDXs are clinically relevant models for preclinical drug testing. PMID:27000989

  11. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  12. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  13. Genome-wide association study of aggressive behaviour in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826

  14. Neuroimaging of Aggressive and Violent Behaviour in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal-directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future. PMID:19862349

  15. Differentially expressed genes for aggressive pecking behaviour in laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level. PMID:19925670

  16. The tumour hypoxia marker pimonidazole reflects a transcriptional programme associated with aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ragnum, H B; Vlatkovic, L; Lie, A K; Axcrona, K; Julin, C H; Frikstad, K M; Hole, K H; Seierstad, T; Lyng, H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypoxia marker pimonidazole is a candidate biomarker of cancer aggressiveness. We investigated the transcriptional programme associated with pimonidazole staining in prostate cancer. Methods: Index tumour biopsies were taken by image guidance from an investigation cohort of 52 patients, where 43 patients received pimonidazole before prostatectomy. Biopsy location within the index tumour was verified for 46 (88%) patients, who were included for gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. Two independent cohorts of 59 and 281 patients were used for validation. Results: Expression of genes in proliferation, DNA repair and hypoxia response was a major part of the transcriptional programme associated with pimonidazole staining. A signature of 32 essential genes was constructed and showed positive correlation to Ki67 staining, confirming the increased proliferation in hypoxic tumours as suggested from the gene data. Positive correlations were also found to tumour stage and lymph node status, but not to blood prostate-specific antigen level, consistent with the findings for pimonidazole staining. The association with aggressiveness was confirmed in validation cohorts, where the signature correlated with Gleason score and had independent prognostic impact, respectively. Conclusions: Pimonidazole staining reflects an aggressive hypoxic phenotype of prostate cancer characterised by upregulation of proliferation, DNA repair and hypoxia response genes. PMID:25461803

  17. Social Networks and Aggressive Behaviour in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific…

  18. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  19. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. PMID:25749197

  20. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  1. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  2. Video game playing and its relations with aggressive and prosocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G

    1998-09-01

    In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313

  3. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Treating Aggressive Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Single Blind Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…

  4. Decreased FOXJ1 expression and its ciliogenesis programme in aggressive ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours.

    PubMed

    Abedalthagafi, Malak S; Wu, Michael P; Merrill, Parker H; Du, Ziming; Woo, Terri; Sheu, Shu-Hsien; Hurwitz, Shelley; Ligon, Keith L; Santagata, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    Well-differentiated human cancers share transcriptional programmes with the normal tissue counterparts from which they arise. These programmes broadly influence cell behaviour and function and are integral modulators of malignancy. Here, we show that the master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, FOXJ1, is highly expressed in cells along the ventricular surface of the human brain. Strong expression is present in cells of the ependyma and the choroid plexus as well as in a subset of cells residing in the subventricular zone. Expression of FOXJ1 and its transcriptional programme is maintained in many well-differentiated human tumours that arise along the ventricle, including low-grade ependymal tumours and choroid plexus papillomas. Anaplastic ependymomas as well as choroid plexus carcinomas show decreased FOXJ1 expression and its associated ciliogenesis programme genes. In ependymomas and choroid plexus tumours, reduced expression of FOXJ1 and its ciliogenesis programme are markers of poor outcome and are therefore useful biomarkers for assessing these tumours. Transitions in ciliogenesis define distinct differentiation states in ependymal and choroid plexus tumours with important implications for patient care. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26690880

  5. Increasing the Teacher Rate of Behaviour Specific Praise and its Effect on a Child with Aggressive Behaviour Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe

    2011-01-01

    A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…

  6. Large cell neuroendocrine – Adenocarcinona mixed tumour of colon: Collision tumour with peculiar behaviour. What do we know about these tumours?

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Bravo, Ana María; Garcia Mahillo, Julio Cesar; Mendoza Moreno, Fernando; Noguelares Fraguas, Fernando; Granell, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mixed glandular-endocrine carcinomas are rare tumours of gastrointestinal tract (MANEC). They are more frequent in stomach and hardly one hundred cases have been described in colon. According to Lewis, they are classified into collision (side by side pattern), composite (intermingled) or amphicrine (neuroendocrine and glandular features inside a same cell). Collision tumours are related to biclonal theory: two simultaneous cancerogenic events. Conversely, multidirectional differentiation from a stem cell is accepted as origin of composite tumours. The aim of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of these tumours, with an especial concern about how these tumours metastasise, and the different theories about carcinogenesis. Presentation of case We report a rare case of collision adenocarcinoma-large cell neuroendocrine tumour of colon that after a three-year period of follow-up has presented a retroperitoneal recurrence that features adenocarcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine components. Discussion After an exhaustive review of the English literature, we found that only two cases of collision tumour of colon with metastases showing glandular and endocrine components have been described up to date, so we report the third case, and the first happening in transverse colon. Conclusion We conclude that not all collision tumours follow the biclonal theory and more studies are needed to clarify the origin of these neoplasms, and consequently, to reach an adequate treatment. PMID:26635955

  7. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  8. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P = 0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P = 0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = 0.003) and lower histological grades (P = 0.031). Patients

  9. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  10. Prevalence and Types of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services…

  11. Aggressive Challenging Behaviour in Adults with Intellectual Disability Following Community Resettlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…

  12. Interspecific Aggressive Behaviour of Invasive Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in Iberian Fresh Waters

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence

  13. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870

  14. Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma: a clinicopathological study of seven additional cases supporting a distinctive variant with aggressive biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Lao, I Weng; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We present our experience with seven cases of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) to further characterise its clinicopathological features. There were five males and two females with ages ranging from 19 to 84 years (mean 56 years). Four tumours occurred in the somatic soft tissue, two in organs and one in the bone. The mean tumour size was 10.7 cm (range 3.5-15 cm). Histologically, six tumours were characterised by sheet-like growth of uniform epithelioid cells with large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, high mitotic activity and moderate to abundant amphophilic-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. One tumour was composed of dyscohesive cells with rhabdoid appearance embedded in a myxoid matrix. Features suggestive of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation were absent. However, immunohistochemical study revealed skeletal muscle differentiation in all cases. Of note, focal expression of epithelial markers with co-expression of neuroendocrine markers was noted in five and three cases, respectively. Of six patients with follow-up, one experienced local recurrence and three developed metastases. To date, three patients have died of disease within 14 months. This study further demonstrates that epithelioid RMS represents a distinct variant of RMS with an aggressive behaviour. It may be misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma due to co-expression of epithelial and neuroendocrine markers. PMID:26517641

  15. Exposure to aggressive behaviour and burnout in direct support providers: The role of positive work factors.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-11-11

    Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. PMID:25462500

  16. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behaviour in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…

  17. [Problems of aggressive behaviour and its measurement in various age levels. Introduction of two questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Csorba, János; Radványi, Katalin; Barthel, Betty; Dinya, Elek

    2013-01-01

    Authors give a detailed overview on aspects of aggressive behaviour in childhood and adolescence especially on the basis of the literature of the last two decades, then. the measurement opportunities of aggression is discussed. The Children's Aggression Scale- parent version (Halperin et al 2002) rated by parents is presented and Hungarian validity data are published. In the second part of the publication, authors focus on the viewpoints of differences between aggressiveness of IQ deficit people and those of having normal intelligence, preliminary experiences are reported about the behavioural dimensions of intellectually disabled (ID) patients rated by the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn et al, 2001) suitable for measuring frequency and severity of behavioural qualities of both ID adolescents and adults. PMID:23689433

  18. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  19. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  20. Profiles and Correlates of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…

  1. Car driver attitudes, perceptions of social norms and aggressive driving behaviour towards cyclists.

    PubMed

    Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists. PMID:26275525

  2. Prevalence of aggressive behaviours among inpatients with psychiatric disorders: A case study analysis from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Y; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Sarayreh, Faris; Nawafleh, Hani; Moxham, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlates of aggression among consumers with mental illness within two psychiatric hospitals in Jordan. This was a descriptive, cross sectional study carried out by auditing consumers' medical records in regards to incidents of aggression before and during admission. Approval was gained from 203 next of kins to review the consumers' medical records. Results from this case analysis, found the prevalence of aggressive behaviours among psychiatric inpatient's in Jordan to be 23.6%, the most common form of aggression was consumer to consumer and that the aggressive act was more likely to be perpetrated by younger consumers. Such findings contribute to the discourse about aggression and understanding who and what causes aggression can go toward identify strategies for early intervention and management. After all, mental health units should be places of safety, that is, an asylum, and everyone who enters that environment deserves to be safe. PMID:26538486

  3. Aggressive behaviour in immature captive Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, in relation to feeding.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, B; Gvaryahu, G; Robinzon, B

    1993-06-01

    This study presents five aspects of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, as observed in five cohorts of 6-18 month-old animals. During this period, the animals grew from a range of 35-55 cm, to a range of 65-115 cm. 1) Stock density related to aggression: decrease in density resulted in significant decrease in the frequency of agonistic events, with 0.64 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 6.7 crocodiles/m2, compared to 0.26 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 4.7 crocodiles/m2. 2) Aggression during feeding: in all five groups, there was a significantly higher level of aggression during feeding times. 3) Aggression related to body size: the largest crocodiles were the most aggressive group in agonistic events, mainly against the smallest ones. The largest group, the medium sized, was the least involved in agonistic events. 4) Aggression related to food preference: crocodile food preference was live fish > live chicks > dead fish > ground meat. Except for one food type (live chicks), a significant (p < 0.05) correlation was found between food preference and feeding related aggression in the prey diet groups. 5) Aggression related to an artificial selection for size: removal of the largest crocodiles (which formed 30% of the stock) from the population caused a dramatic decrease in all forms of aggressive behaviour. PMID:8346299

  4. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  5. Weakly aggressive behaviour towards nymphs in the cockroach Schultesia nitor (Blattaria: Zetoborinae).

    PubMed

    Van Baaren, Joan; Deleporte, Pierre; Vimard, Aurélie; Biquand, Véronique; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes aggressive behaviour in the cockroach Schultesia nitor, a tropical forest species living in bird nests. Young S. nitor nymphs are known to show active dispersal while old nymphs and adults are contrastingly strongly gregarious, a combination of features never observed in other cockroach species. Our laboratory experiments using video recording of confrontations between pairs show that aggressive behaviour towards conspecific nymphs is not exhibited towards nymphs of the species Phoetalia pallida, and thus can be considered species specific in S. nitor. But, it is not kin oriented: the mother and all adults of both sexes in different physiological states exhibit this behaviour as well. Six types of aggressive interactions were discriminated, occurring in age-symmetric pairs of nymphs and adults. Even more frequent aggression was exhibited by adults and last instar nymphs towards younger nymphs of all instars. The frequency of aggressive acts and types of aggressive interactions varied according to sex and size of the two interacting individuals. The possible function and evolution of this behaviour is discussed, with emphasis on the difficulty of interpreting obvious but weak and not kin-biased aggression. PMID:17918279

  6. Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

  7. Pharmacotherapy for Aggressive Behaviours in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Treatment or Mistreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…

  8. Prediction of reduction in aggressive behaviour of growing pigs using skin lesion traits as selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Desire, S; Turner, S P; D'Eath, R B; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Lewis, C R G; Roehe, R

    2016-08-01

    Aggression at regrouping is a common issue in pig farming. Skin lesions are genetically and phenotypically correlated with aggression and have been shown to have a significant heritable component. This study predicts the magnitude of reduction in complex aggressive behavioural traits when using lesion numbers on different body regions at two different time points as selection criteria, to identify the optimum skin lesion trait for selection purposes. In total, 1146 pigs were mixed into new social groups, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 3 weeks (SL3wk) post-mixing, on the anterior, centre and posterior regions of the body. An animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits and 14 aggressive behavioural traits. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and phenotypic values were scaled and standardised to allow direct comparison across multiple traits. Individuals with SL24h and SL3wk EBVs in the least aggressive 10% of the population were compared with the population mean to predict the expected genetic and phenotypic response in aggressive behaviour to selection. At mixing, selection for low anterior lesions was predicted to affect substantially more behavioural traits of aggressiveness than lesions obtained on other body parts, with EBVs between -0.21 and -1.17 SD below the population mean. Individuals with low central SL24h EBVs also had low EBVs for aggressive traits (-0.33 to -0.55). Individuals with high SL3wk EBVs had low EBVs for aggression at mixing (between -0.24 and -0.53 SD below the population mean), although this was predicted to affect fewer traits than selection against SL24h. These results suggest that selection against anterior SL24h would result in the greatest genetic and phenotypic reduction in aggressive behaviour recorded at mixing. Selection for increased SL3wk was predicted to reduce aggression at mixing; however, current understanding about aggressive behaviour under stable social conditions is insufficient

  9. Lateralisation in agonistic encounters: do mirror tests reflect aggressive behaviour? A study on a West African cichlid.

    PubMed

    Scherer, U; Buck, M; Schuett, W

    2016-09-01

    In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected. PMID:27329496

  10. A Follow-up of Aggressive Behaviour in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 153 of 181 13-year-olds who had been assessed at ages 8-9. Results supported the hypothesis that for the majority, aggressive behavior is not a stable trait and cannot be accurately predicted as a recurrent pattern when using the opinions of teachers, peers, or the children themselves. (SK)

  11. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  12. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  13. Managing aggression in a psychiatric hospital using a behaviour plan: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home. PMID:16965469

  14. Aggressive solitary intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma from a primary mediastinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Vinay S; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most common tumour to cause cerebral metastases, following breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system metastases occur in 10-40% of patients with melanoma. Intracranial metastasis from a primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is uncommon. We report a case of solitary intracranial metastatic melanoma arising from a primary mediastinal tumour. We then discuss the clinico-radiological features and treatment options. PMID:27145991

  15. Baseline Omega-3 Index Correlates with Aggressive and Attention Deficit Disorder Behaviours in Adult Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.; Collier, Carole; Parletta, Natalie; Crawford, Donna; Winberg, Pia C.; Webster, David; Chapman, Karen; Thomas, Gayle; Dally, Jean; Batterham, Marijka; Farquhar, Ian; Martin, Anne-Marie; Grant, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population. Design 136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC), NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks) from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS), provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated. Results The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = −0.21, P = 0.016); total AQ score (r = −0.234, P = 0.011); Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016); Hostility AQ (r = −0.239, P = 0.009); indirect aggression (r = −0.188 p = 0.042); total BADDS (r = −0.263, p = 0.005); Activation (r = −0.224, p = 0.016); Attention (r = −0.192, p = 0.043); Effort (r = −0.253, p = 0.007); Affect (r = −0.330, p = 0.000) and Memory (r = −0.240, p = 0

  16. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  17. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  18. Changes in testosterone mediate the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M

    2013-10-01

    Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440

  19. Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

  20. Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

  1. Unexpected aggressive behaviour: interaction of bupropion and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Percy; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A healthy policeman was prescribed bupropion in 2002 to help him stop smoking. It worked but after 18 months he relapsed. Though it had given him headaches and insomnia he tried using it again in 2009, [corrected] taking 150 mg/day. Three days after starting the tablets he took his wife out for dinner. They shared a bottle of wine and he also had other drinks. After walking home they quarrelled, he slapped her, she slapped him. He threw the phone at her saying 'call the police!'. They came and charged him with assault; he was suspended. An expert report attributed the aggressive outburst to an interaction between bupropion and alcohol; the accused was a social drinker and had never been violent. An expert advising the police agreed, and 14 months after the event the court dismissed the case. PMID:22020393

  2. Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Improves Aggression, but Not Self-Injurious Behaviour, in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…

  3. The motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of the human behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-02-01

    According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour. PMID:19006651

  4. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  5. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  6. Finding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behaviour: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…

  7. [The influence of alcohol use and violent behaviour on the beliefs related to alcohol use and aggression].

    PubMed

    Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033

  8. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  9. CT imaging findings of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswarlu, M; Geetha, P; Lakshmi Kavitha, N

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT), also known as a Pindborg tumour, with local aggressive behaviour. CT imaging showed a large expansile bone-forming lesion in the mandible, which showed the exact extent and nature of the lesion. We briefly discuss the imaging features of CEOT and the relevant literature. PMID:22190756

  10. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  11. Screening and Brief Intervention for Substance Misuse: Does It Reduce Aggression and HIV-Related Risk Behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Catherine L.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Bresick, Graham F.; Little, Francesca; Weisner, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether reducing substance misuse through a brief motivational intervention also reduces aggression and HIV risk behaviours. Methods: Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in primary care if they screened positive for substance misuse. Substance misuse was assessed using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; aggression, using a modified version of the Explicit Aggression Scale; and HIV risk, through a count of common risk behaviours. The intervention was received on the day of the baseline interview, with a 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants who received the intervention were significantly more likely to reduce their alcohol use than those who did not; no effect was identified for other substances. In addition, participants who reduced substance misuse (whether as an effect of the intervention or not) also reduced aggression but not HIV risk behaviours. Conclusions: Reducing substance misuse through any means reduces aggression; other interventions are needed for HIV risk reduction. PMID:25731180

  12. Aggressive and Antisocial Behaviours among Secondary School Students in Botswana. The Influence of Family and School Based Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malete, Leapetswe

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between family factors and secondary school students' aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Participants were 1,478 junior and senior secondary school students from four major urban centres in Botswana, aged 12-20. Results showed significant prevalence of self-reported aggressive tendencies and antisocial…

  13. Using Narrated Literacy-Based Behavioural Interventions to Decrease Episodes of Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…

  14. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  15. Involvement of different mesotocin (oxytocin homologue) populations in sexual and aggressive behaviours of the brown anole

    PubMed Central

    Kabelik, David; Magruder, D. Sumner

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin (OT) family of neuropeptides are known to modulate social behaviours and anxiety in mammals and birds. We investigated cell numbers and neural activity, assessed as Fos induction, within magnocellular and parvocellular populations of neurons producing the OT homologue mesotocin (MT, Ile8-oxytocin). This was conducted within the male brown anole lizard, Anolis sagrei, following agonistic or courtship encounters with a conspecific. Both neurons colocalizing and not colocalizing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) were examined. Parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus exhibited a positive correlation between courtship frequency and Fos colocalization, regardless of whether they produce just MT or MT + CRF. Magnocellular populations showed only trends towards positive relationships with courtship and no cell populations showed aggression-related Fos induction. These findings are novel because they demonstrate the involvement of MT neurons in male social behaviour, especially in reptiles for whom the involvement of MT in social behaviour was previously unknown. PMID:25165455

  16. The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

  17. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  18. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    PubMed

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable. PMID:26868982

  19. Contest experience enhances aggressive behaviour in a fly: when losers learn to win.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Desneux, Nicolas; Romano, Donato; Conte, Giuseppe; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    In several animal species, aggressive experience influences the characteristics and outcomes of subsequent conflicts, such that winners are more likely to win again (the winner effect) and losers more likely to lose again (the loser effect). We tested the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), as a model system to evaluate the role of the winner and loser effects in male-male territorial contests. Further, we conducted experiments to test if winning and losing probabilities are affected only by the outcome of the previous contests, or whether the fighting experience itself is sufficient to induce an effect. Both winners and losers of two consecutive encounters displayed higher intensity of aggression and fought longer in subsequent contests. In both cases, they achieved higher fighting success than naïve males. The enhanced fighting performance of both winners and losers was stimulated by merely experiencing a contest, not necessarily by the relative outcome of previous fights. Overall, this study highlights the fact that previous victories and defeats both enhance aggressive behaviour in olive fruit flies, allowing them to achieve higher fighting success in subsequent contests against inexperienced males. PMID:25792294

  20. Changes in feather condition in relation to feather pecking and aggressive behaviour in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bilcík, B; Keeling, L J

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to describe and examine the relationship between pecks received by individual birds and the feather and skin damage of those birds at different ages. The effect of group size was also studied. Laying hens were raised in floor pens in group sizes of 15, 30, 60 and 120 birds, each with 4 replicates. Behavioural observations were performed at the ages of 22, 27, 32 and 37 weeks. Detailed feather scoring was carried out at the ages of 18, 23, 28 and 33 weeks. Behavioural observations focused on the number of feather pecks (gentle and severe) and aggressive pecks received, and on the part of the body that was pecked. Scoring of feather and skin damage focused on the same 11 parts of the body. Increasing numbers of aggressive pecks received were associated with decreased body weight and increased feather damage at the ages of 27 and 32 weeks. The number of severe feather pecks received was significantly related with feather damage at all ages; however, no relation with gentle feather pecks received was found. Group size had a significant effect on feather condition, with large group sizes having most feather damage. PMID:10579400

  1. Psychometric Comparison of the Functional Assessment Instruments QABF, FACT and FAST for Self-Injurious, Stereotypic and Aggressive/Destructive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaja, Rebecca H.; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometric properties of three functional assessment rating scales were compared for three types of target behaviours [self-injurious behaviour (SIB), stereotypic behaviour and aggressive/destructive behaviour]. Materials and method: The "Questions about Behavioural Function" (QABF), the "Functional Assessment for Multiple Causality"…

  2. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  3. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, K.; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  4. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  5. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P < 0.01), with no G × E interactions. These results show opportunities to reduce harmful biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  6. Overcoming the Barriers Experienced in Conducting a Medication Trial in Adults with Aggressive Challenging Behaviour and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Africano, P.; Dickens, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Bouras, N.; Cooray, S.; Deb, S.; Knapp, M.; Hare, M.; Meade, M.; Reece, B.; Bhaumik, S.; Harley, D.; Piachaud, J.; Regan, A.; Ade Thomas, D.; Karatela, S.; Rao, B.; Dzendrowskyj, T.; Lenotre, L.; Watson, J.; Tyrer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequently treated with antipsychotic drugs, despite a limited evidence base. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to investigate the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of two commonly prescribed antipsychotic drugs…

  7. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  8. On the Links between Aggressive Behaviour, Loneliness, and Patterns of Close Relationships among Non-Clinical School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This study explored multifaceted associations between children's aggressive behaviours and loneliness feelings by identifying sub-groups of children with different individual profiles, and also examined whether profiles associated differently with children's quality of close relationships with mothers and peers. Participants were 145 non-clinical…

  9. Assessing the Link between Executive Functions and Aggressive Behaviours of Children Who Are Deaf: Impact of Early Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipal, Rafet Firat; Bayhan, Pinar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Relation between constructing complex mental structures and language skills cause delays in development of executive functions of deaf children. When the importance of language skills in development of executive functions and frequency of aggressive behaviours of deaf children are considered, investigation of executive functions of…

  10. Teacher-Child Conflict and Aggressive Behaviour in First Grade: The Intervening Role of Children's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    High levels of teacher-child conflict have repeatedly been found to amplify children's aggressive behaviour. Up to now, however, research on possible mechanisms explaining this link is largely lacking. The current study aimed to test whether children's self-esteem is an intervening mechanism. Participants were 139 children (70 boys, M age = 6.18…

  11. A putative OTU domain-containing protein 1 deubiquitinating enzyme is differentially expressed in thyroid cancer and identifies less-aggressive tumours

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, A P; Reis, C F; Morari, E C; Maia, Y C P; Nascimento, R; Bonatto, J M C; de Souza, M A; Goulart, L R; Ward, L S

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify novel biomarkers for thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and prognosis. Methods: We have constructed a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library that was selected against tumour thyroid cells using the BRASIL method (biopanning and rapid analysis of selective interactive ligands) and phage display technology. Results: One highly reactive clone, scFv-C1, with specific binding to papillary thyroid tumour proteins was confirmed by ELISA, which was further tested against a tissue microarray that comprised of 229 thyroid tissues, including: 110 carcinomas (38 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 42 follicular carcinomas, 30 follicular variants of PTC), 18 normal thyroid tissues, 49 nodular goitres (NG) and 52 follicular adenomas. The scFv-C1 was able to distinguish carcinomas from benign lesions (P=0.0001) and reacted preferentially against T1 and T2 tumour stages (P=0.0108). We have further identified an OTU domain-containing protein 1, DUBA-7 deubiquitinating enzyme as the scFv-binding antigen using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Conclusions: The strategy of screening and identifying a cell-surface-binding antibody against thyroid tissues was highly effective and resulted in a useful biomarker that recognises malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help identify lower-risk cases that can benefit from less-aggressive management. PMID:24937664

  12. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Julia B.

    2013-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the ‘focal interaction’ approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as ‘focal interactants’: the behavioural interaction between them was the ‘focal interaction’. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male—the ‘treatment male’. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359

  13. Ritualised versus aggressive behaviours displayed by Polyrhachis laboriosa (F. Smith) during intraspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Mercier, J L; Lenoir, A; Dejean, A

    1997-10-01

    The intraspecific territoriality of Polyrhachis laboriosa was studied thanks to dyadic confrontations between nestmates and alien foragers in chemically marked and unmarked arenas, complementing experiments and observations in nature. When foragers meet, the alien flees while the resident attacks, especially when on a marked area. However, when an alien scout extends its territory, it attacks the resident ant, such confrontation resulting in a high rate of reciprocal full attacks. When surrounded by several residents, the intruder is always spread-eagled if it does not succeed in fleeing. We described ritualised displays, such as threatening (opening mandibles; bending the gaster) or appeasing behaviours (antennal boxing; attempt at trophallaxis; pupal posture; raising the gaster). They occur only when the encounter maintains a low level of aggression, during laboratory experiments, or in nature during encounters involving a queen or an experimentally-introduced intruder. Foraging queens are tolerated on the territories of conspecific mature colonies. When they encounter resident workers, reciprocal avoidance occurs. Nevertheless, the latter perform ritualised displays when the queens approach their nest or attempt to rob their prey. This situation seems to compensate in part the archaic semi-claustral mode of foundation of this species, as the queens are indirectly protected by their conspecifics who do not tolerate other competitors around large food sources. PMID:24896378

  14. Incidence, Types and Characteristics of Aggressive Behaviour in Treatment Facilities for Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability and Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneij, N. H.; Koot, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Inpatient aggression in treatment facilities for persons with intellectual disability (ID) can have aversive consequences, for co-clients and staff, but also for the aggressors themselves. To manage and eventually prevent inpatient aggressive incidents, more knowledge about their types and characteristics is necessary. Method: In four…

  15. Brief report: Cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with socio-demographics, aggressive behaviour at school, and mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Jones, Rebecca; Allen, Elizabeth; Viner, Russell M; Bonell, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about those who cyberbully others, especially in a UK context. We drew on data from 1144 young people aged 12-13 in eight English secondary schools to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and its associations with sociodemographics, other behaviours, and health outcomes. Overall, 14.1% of respondents reported ever cyberbullying others with no significant differences by gender or socioeconomic status. Drawing on mixed-effects logistic regression models, first we found a strong, dose-response relationship between aggressive behaviour at school and cyberbullying others, suggesting that cyberbullying may not only be a facet of wider patterns of bullying but also of aggression more broadly. Second, cyberbullying others was associated with poorer quality of life and with psychological difficulties but not with peer/social problems or worse mental wellbeing. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether such associations are causal. PMID:25448835

  16. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. Part I: A review of the effects of child and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M

    1997-12-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed. PMID:9494402

  17. [Assessment of a Bull Terrier bloodline regarding possible hypertrophic aggressive behaviour in situations of dog-dog-contact of the temperament test of Lower Saxony].

    PubMed

    Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2010-01-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately. PMID:20496824

  18. Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

  19. Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment.

    PubMed

    Poncin, P; Matondo, B Nzau; Termol, C; Kestemont, P; Philippart, J C

    2011-09-01

    In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay procedures. The results revealed that no significant differences were found between circulating testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in territorial and nonterritorial males. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found between circulating androgens, androgens and aggression, androgens and tubercles and breeding tubercles and aggression in common bream by male status. However, territorial fish displayed a significantly higher level of aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles than nonterritorial fish. In natural environments, the occurrence of breeding tubercles during the spawning season could contribute to identifying the behavioural status of common bream males. PMID:21132526

  20. An Activating Mechanism of Aggressive Behaviour in Disorganised Attachment: A Moment-to-Moment Case Analysis of a Three-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Young

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an activating mechanism of aggressive behaviour in young children. Many studies on attachment theories have indicated disorganised attachment as a significant risk factor for externalising problems and have explained the aetiology of disorganised attachment in terms of deficits in affect, behaviour and cognitive functions from…

  1. Transcriptomic analysis identified up-regulation of a solute carrier transporter and UDP glucuronosyltransferases in dogs with aggressive cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Giantin, Mery; Baratto, Chiara; Marconato, Laura; Vascellari, Marta; Mutinelli, Franco; Dacasto, Mauro; Granato, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Gene expression analyses have been recently used in cancer research to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis and potential prognostic markers or therapeutic targets. In the present study, the transcriptome of dogs that had died because of mast cell tumours (MCTs) was characterised to identify a fingerprint having significant influence on prognosis determination and treatment selection. A dataset (GSE50433) obtained using a commercial canine DNA microarray platform was used. The transcriptome of seven biopsies obtained from dogs with histologically confirmed, surgically removed MCTs, treated with chemotherapy, and dead for MCT-related causes, was compared with the transcriptional portrait of 40 samples obtained from dogs with histologically confirmed, surgically removed MCTs and that were still alive at the end of the follow-up period. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), eight transcripts were validated by quantitative real time PCR and their mRNA levels were measured in a cohort of 22 additional MCTs. Statistical analysis identified 375 DEGs (fold change 2, false discovery rate 5%). The functional annotation analysis indicated that the DEGs were associated with drug metabolism and cell cycle pathways. Particularly, members of solute carrier transporter (SLC) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) gene families were identified as dysregulated. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 22 additional MCTs identified the separate cluster dogs dead for MCT-related causes. SLCs and UGTs have been recently recognised in human cancer as important key factors in tumour progression and chemo-resistance. An in-depth analysis of their roles in aggressive canine MCT is warranted in future studies. PMID:27256023

  2. Staff and relatives' perspectives on the aggressive behaviour of older people with dementia in residential care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, J; Pulsford, D; Hadi, M; Sykes, S

    2013-11-01

    Staff and relative perspectives on patient aggression in dementia care units are seriously under researched in the U.K. Any work that has been conducted has relied upon quantitative studies. Qualitative research on aggression management in older peoples services are rare. In-depth views that can offer insights into causation and management strategies are therefore under represented in the literature. In order to investigate this issue further we interviewed a number of nursing staff and relatives in four U.K. care homes in the North West of England. Using a combined approach of one-to-one interviews (for staff) and focus groups (for relatives) we explored their views as to the reasons for and ways of responding to aggressive behaviour. This was part of a larger study reported upon elsewhere. Using thematic analysis we found similar results from both staff and relatives and as such their views were categorized into two broad areas: causation and management. In regards to causation we noted three sub-themes; internal, external and interpersonal factors which are further subdivided in the paper and for management two broad categories: the compassionate approach and 'don't go in strong'. The results indicated that staff in the participating units embraced a person-centred approach to aggression management. They predominantly respond to aggressive incidents with interpersonal strategies, such as distraction as opposed to medication or restraint. Overall they adopt a person centre approach to patient care. Relatives were clear in their perceptions of aggression as an interpersonal challenge, which is compounded or mediated by the illness of dementia. Consequently they were positive in their views of staff using non-coercive interventions. While the results of this and our earlier study are promising suggesting a less invasive approach to this aspect of dementia care, given the limitations of a small sample, more research of a similar nature is warranted. Findings from

  3. Individual growth trajectories of sibling Brycon moorei raised in isolation since egg stage, and their relationship with aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baras, E; Lucas, M C

    2010-09-01

    The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression. PMID:20840625

  4. Aggressive Behaviour of Metastatic Melanoma in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert W.; Maweni, Robert M.; Fabre, Aurelie; Healy, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a common skin neoplasm bearing poor prognosis when presenting with metastases. Rarely melanoma metastases present without an identifiable primary cutaneous lesion despite exhaustive workup. We describe the case of a solitary lung metastasis in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 without an identifiable primary tumour. The rapid progression of this malignant neoplasm that led to the patient's death within 1 year is described. PMID:25893129

  5. Self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour in children with severe intellectual disability: Prevalence, service need and service receipt in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ruddick, Loraine; Davies, Louise; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique; Oliver, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Children with severe intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of presenting with self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviour. Severity of these behaviours is an important predictor of psychological and behavioural service use by people with intellectual disabilities. However, studies suggest that the needs of children with intellectual disabilities and their families are not being met. The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe the self-injurious, aggressive and destructive behaviours and subsequent support needs of children with severe intellectual disabilities attending special schools in one major city within the UK, (2) compare teacher and primary carer ratings of behaviour and service need and (3) explore the extent to which the needs of children with intellectual disabilities are being met in terms of contact with relevant specialist services. Questionnaires were completed by teachers and primary family carers of children with a severe intellectual disability. Results indicated that at least 5.3% and 4.1% of children showed at least one behaviour at a clinically significant frequency and management difficulty respectively. Primary carers identified more children with significant behaviour difficulties and support needs than teachers. The odds for children presenting with high levels of the behaviours of interest for having a service need for behavioural intervention were at least 13 times those for children not showing the behaviours, yet only doubled for contact with a specialist relevant health-care professional. These results quantify the magnitude of the substantial gap between level of need and relevant support received. PMID:26296078

  6. The effects of separate or combined infusions of corticotrophin-releasing factor and vasopressin either intraventricularly or into the amygdala on aggressive and investigative behaviour in the rat.

    PubMed

    Elkabir, D R; Wyatt, M E; Vellucci, S V; Herbert, J

    1990-04-24

    These experiments show that combined infusions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) into either the lateral ventricle or the amygdalae have synergistic effects on aggressive, investigative and other behaviours occurring during social interaction between male rats. They suggest, therefore, that the two peptides interact at intracerebral sites to control behaviour much as they do on the anterior pituitary to regulate ACTH release. CRF or AVP, alone or in combination, were infused into either the lateral ventricle (dose range: 10-250 pmol) or bilaterally into the amygdalae (dose range: 1-150 pmol) of male rats in two experiments. The rat was then paired with another, strange, male for 10 min. There was a U-shaped effect on aggressive behaviour after intra-amygdala infusions of CRF, lower doses increasing agonistic behaviour, higher ones decreasing it. This was not seen after icv infusions. AVP had no effect by either route; however, given together with CRF it potentiated the latter's effect on aggressive behaviour. Investigative behaviour was decreased by icv CRF but the effects of amygdala infusions were small. AVP had no consistent effect by either route. Combined infusions of both peptides given either icv or into the amygdala decreased investigative behaviour. Self-grooming increased, though in an irregular fashion, after incremental doses of either CRF or AVP given by either route. Both peptides given together showed additive effects on self-grooming. Climbing behaviour was lowered by CRF more prominently than by AVP and, again, the two peptides together profoundly reduced this behaviour. These experiments show that the behavioural effects of CRF and AVP on social interaction have different profiles, and that the effects of each peptide differ when it is given into the ventricles or directly into the amygdala. There is also clear evidence for synergistic effects of the two peptides on behavior after infusion by either route

  7. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  8. Effects of aggressive behaviour and group size on collective escape in an emergency: a test between a social identity model and deindividuation theory.

    PubMed

    Kugihara, N

    2001-12-01

    This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model. PMID:11795069

  9. An Evolutionary Hybrid Cellular Automaton Model of Solid Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, P.; Anderson, A.R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a cellular automaton model of solid tumour growth, in which each cell is equipped with a micro-environment response network. This network is modelled using a feed-forward artificial neural network, that takes environmental variables as an input and from these determines the cellular behaviour as the output. The response of the network is determined by connection weights and thresholds in the network, which are subject to mutations when the cells divide. As both available space and nutrients are limited resources for the tumour this gives rise to clonal evolution where only the fittest cells survive. Using this approach we have investigated the impact of the tissue oxygen concentration on the growth and evolutionary dynamics of the tumour. The results show that the oxygen concentration affects the selection pressure, cell population diversity and morphology of the tumour. A low oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a fingered morphology that contains aggressive phenotypes with a small apoptotic potential, while a high oxygen concentration in the tissue gives rise to a tumour with a round morphology containing less evolved phenotypes. The tissue oxygen concentration thus affects the tumour at both the morphological level and on the phenotype level. PMID:17374383

  10. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  11. Tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

  12. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing

    PubMed Central

    Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators. Methods Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness. Results Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only. Conclusions This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. PMID:26603647

  13. Innate defensive behaviour and panic-like reactions evoked by rodents during aggressive encounters with Brazilian constrictor snakes in a complex labyrinth: behavioural validation of a new model to study affective and agonistic reactions in a prey versus predator paradigm.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Guimarães-Costa, Maria Beatriz; Pippa-Gadioli, Leonardo; Weltson, Alfredo; Ubiali, Walter Adriano; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Laure, Carlos Júlio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2007-09-15

    Defensive behaviour has been extensively studied, and non-invasive methodologies may be interesting approaches to analyzing the limbic system function as a whole. Using experimental models of animals in the state of anxiety has been fundamental in the search for new anxiolytic and antipanic compounds. The aim of this present work is to examine a new model for the study of affective behaviour, using a complex labyrinth consisting of an arena and galleries forming a maze. Furthermore, it aims to compare the defensive behaviour of Wistar rats, Mongolian gerbils and golden hamsters in a complex labyrinth, as well as the defensive behaviour of Meriones unguiculatus in aggressive encounters with either Epicrates cenchria assisi or Boa constrictor amarali in this same model. Among species presently studied, the Mongolian gerbils showed better performance in the exploration of both arena and galleries of the labyrinth, also demonstrating less latency in finding exits of the galleries. This increases the possibility of survival, as well as optimizes the events of encounter with the predator. The duration of alertness and freezing increased during confrontation with living Epicrates, as well as the duration of exploratory behaviour in the labyrinth. There was an increase in the number of freezing and alertness behaviours, as well as in duration of alertness during confrontations involving E.c. assisi, compared with behavioural reactions elicited by jirds in presence of B.c. amarali. Interestingly, the aggressive behaviour of Mongolian gerbils was more prominent against B.c. amarali compared with the other Boidae snake. E.c. assisi elicited more offensive attacks and exhibited a greater time period of body movement than B.c. amarali, which spent more time in the arena and in defensive immobility than the E.c. assisi. Considering that jirds evoked more fear-like reaction in contact with E.c. assisi, a fixed E.c. assisi kept in a hermetically closed acrylic box was used as

  14. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  15. Life-history and hormonal control of aggression in black redstarts: Blocking testosterone does not decrease territorial aggression, but changes the emphasis of vocal behaviours during simulated territorial intrusions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies in behavioural endocrinology attempt to link territorial aggression with testosterone, but the exact relationship between testosterone and territorial behaviour is still unclear and may depend on the ecology of a species. The degree to which testosterone facilitates territorial behaviour is particularly little understood in species that defend territories during breeding and outside the breeding season, when plasma levels of testosterone are low. Here we suggest that species that defend territories in contexts other than reproduction may have lost the direct regulation of territorial behaviour by androgens even during the breeding season. In such species, only those components of breeding territoriality that function simultaneously as sexually selected signals may be under control of sex steroids. Results We investigated black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros), a species that shows periods of territoriality within and outside of the breeding season. We treated territorial males with an anti-androgen and an aromatase inhibitor during the breeding season to block both the direct and indirect effects of testosterone. Three and ten days after the treatment, implanted males were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion. The treatment did not reduce the overall territorial response, but it changed the emphasis of territoriality: experimental males invested more in behaviours addressed directly towards the intruder, whereas placebo-treated males put most effort into their vocal response, a component of territoriality that may be primarily directed towards their mating partner rather than the male opponent. Conclusions In combination with previous findings, these data suggest that overall territoriality may be decoupled from testosterone in male black redstarts. However, high levels of testosterone during breeding may facilitate-context dependent changes in song. PMID:23433033

  16. Evaluation of Video Feedback and Self-Management to Decrease Schoolyard Aggression and Increase Pro-Social Behaviour in Two Students with Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'reilly, Mark F.; O'Halloran, Margaret; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Cannella, Helen; Olive, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Deficiencies in social competence constitute a significant problem for aggressive children. As a result, these children often experience difficulty interacting with peers in socially acceptable ways. Such problems are particularly exacerbated in the schoolyard, where rules are less defined and low levels of supervision prevail. The present study…

  17. Primary Ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Çakir, Tansel; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Karabagli, Pinar; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour of the Ovary (OMMMT), also referred to as carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour accounting for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. Due to the rarity of OMMMT, little is known about the disease course and outcome of women with these tumours. It is important to evaluate because of its aggressive behaviour with extremely unfavourable prognosis. These tumours are composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Current data in the literature is still limited to small case series and case reports, therefore, its optimal treatment is somewhat controversial. In the current report, we introduce a case of OMMMT which was successfully treated with Platinum-based combination chemotherapy after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. Although the most effective treatment is currently unknown, optimal cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy appears to improve the outcomes. Despite the aggressive nature of this tumour and its poor response to the treatment, management works best when cancer is found early. The stage of the disease is the most important prognostic factor. Therefore, the crucial question is how to diagnose the cancer at earlier stages rather than seeking the optimal treatment. PMID:27134951

  18. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several histopathological and clinical features of canine mammary gland tumours have been widely studied from a prognostic standpoint, considerable variations in tumour individual biologic behaviour difficult the definition of accurate prognostic factors. It has been suggested that the malignant behaviour of tumours is the end result of several alterations in cellular physiology that culminate in tumour growth and spread. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine, using a multivariable model, the independent prognostic value of several immunohistochemically detected tumour-associated molecules, such as MMP-9 and uPA in stromal cells and Ki-67, TIMP-2 and VEGF in cancer cells. Results Eighty-five female dogs affected by spontaneous malignant mammary neoplasias were followed up for a 2-year post-operative period. In univariate analysis, tumour characteristics such as size, mode of growth, regional lymph node metastases, tumour cell MIB-1 LI and MMP-9 and uPA expressions in tumour-adjacent fibroblasts, were associated with both survival and disease-free intervals. Histological type and grade were related with overall survival while VEGF and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with none of the outcome parameters. In multivariable analysis, only a MIB-1 labelling index higher than 40% and a stromal expression of MMP-9 higher than 50% retained significant relationships with poor overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that MMP-9 and Ki-67 are independent prognostic markers of canine malignant mammary tumours. Furthermore, the high stromal expressions of uPA and MMP-9 in aggressive tumours suggest that these molecules are potential therapeutic targets in the post-operative treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:23289974

  19. Staff's Attitudes and Reactions towards Aggressive Behaviour of Clients with Intellectual Disabilities: A Multi-Level Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotter, Maartje H.; Wissink, Inge B.; Moonen, Xavier M. H.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.; Jansen, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Data were collected from 121 staff members (20 direct support staff teams) on background characteristics of the individual staff members and their teams (gender, age, years of work experience, position and education), the frequency and form of aggression of clients with an intellectual disability (verbal or physical), staff members' attitudes…

  20. Association of Aggressive Behaviours with Psychiatric Disorders, Age, Sex and Degree of Intellectual Disability: A Large-Scale Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouris, J. A.; Kim, S. Y.; Brown, W. T.; Cohen, I. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is…

  1. Aggressive behaviour and physiological responses to pheromones are strongly impaired in mice deficient for the olfactory G-protein -subunit G8.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Sanghez, Valentina; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palanza, Paola; Zimmer, Andreas; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2013-08-15

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are critical players in the transduction mechanisms underlying odorant and pheromonal signalling. In the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the adult mouse, two different G-protein complexes have been identified. Gαoβ2γ8 is preferentially expressed in the basal neurons and coexpresses with type-2 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V2Rs) whereas Gαi2β2γ2 is found in the apical neurons and coexpresses with type-1 vomeronasal pheromone receptors (V1Rs). V2R-expressing neurons project to the posterior accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) whereas neurons expressing V1Rs send their axon to the anterior AOB. Gγ8 is also expressed in developing olfactory neurons where this protein is probably associated with Go. Here, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the Gγ8 gene and investigated the behavioural effects and the physiological consequences of this mutation. Gγ8(-/-) mice show a normal development of the main olfactory epithelium; moreover, they do not display major deficits in odour perception. In contrast, the VNO undergoes a slow but remarkable loss of basal neurons starting from the fourth postnatal week, with a 40% reduction of cells at 2 months and 70% at 1 year. This loss is associated with a reduced early-gene expression in the posterior AOB of mice stimulated with pheromones. More interestingly, the Gγ8 deletion specifically leads to a reduced pheromone-mediated aggressiveness in both males and females, all other socio-sexual behaviours remaining unaltered. This study defines a specific role for Gγ8 in maintenance of the neuronal population of the VNO and in the mechanisms of pheromonal signalling that involve the aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. PMID:23836683

  2. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999–2012)*

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, A.; Skorupski, K.; Frazier, S.; Vanhaezebrouck, I.; Rebhun, R. B.; Reilly, C. M.; Rodriguez, C. O.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188–2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149–2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188–2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300–2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months. PMID:23721492

  3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Heikki; Hohenberger, Peter; Corless, Christopher L

    2013-09-14

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms that arise in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. They can occur at any age, the median age being 60-65 years, and typically cause bleeding, anaemia, and pain. GISTs have variable malignant potential, ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. Most tumours stain positively for the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT and anoctamin 1 and harbour a kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA. Tumours without such mutations could have alterations in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex or in BRAF, or rarely RAS family genes. About 60% of patients are cured by surgery. Adjuvant treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with a substantial risk of recurrence, if the tumour has an imatinib-sensitive mutation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors substantially improve survival in advanced disease, but secondary drug resistance is common. PMID:23623056

  4. Using Behavioural Skills Training to Treat Aggression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert W.; Sturmey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of anger management in people with intellectual disability failed to control for the effects of the number of provocative stimuli presented and lacked direct measures of behaviour and treatment integrity data. Methods: This experiment systematically assessed and presented discriminative stimuli for aggressive…

  5. Structural and Functional Alterations in Right Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Left Insular Cortex Co-Localize in Adolescents with Aggressive Behaviour: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798

  6. Tumours of the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, T. Holmes; Thackray, A. C.; Thomson, A. D.

    1967-01-01

    Eighty-eight cases of thymoma are discussed with the object of trying to co-ordinate the histological and clinical features. The pathological specimens were in all cases obtained at operation. The pathology classification introduced by Thomson and Thackray in 1957 has been found to correspond adequately with the clinical pattern. The most common groups of tumours are basically epithelial and can be separated into five or six subdivisions, each of which has a separate pattern of behaviour. Lymphoid and teratomatous tumours also occur, but there were only two examples in this series. Clinically, separation of patients who suffered from myasthenia (38) and those who did not (50) affords the first main grouping. The majority of patients who had myasthenia gravis had tumours classified as epidermoid (19) and lymphoepithelial (14), the former with a more malignant appearance and behaviour than the latter. Removal of the tumour with or without radiation gave considerable and sometimes complete relief from myasthenic symptoms. Non-myasthenic thymoma (50) was usually discovered as a result of pressure signs or in the course of routine radiography. Spindle or oval celled tumours followed a benign pattern whereas undifferentiated thymoma was in every sense malignant, as also were teratomatous growths. Granulomatous or Hodgkin-like thymomas were of special interest and had an unpredictable course, some patients surviving many years after what was regarded as inadequate treatment. The place of radiotherapy as a pre- or post-operative agent complementary to surgery is discussed. Images PMID:6033387

  7. Biophysical models of tumour growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracqui, P.

    2009-05-01

    Tumour growth is a multifactorial process, which has stimulated in recent decades the development of numerous models trying to figure out the mechanisms controlling solid tumours morphogenesis. While the earliest models were focusing on cell proliferation kinetics, modulated by the availability of supplied nutrients, new modelling approaches emphasize the crucial role of several biophysical processes, including local matrix remodelling, active cell migration and traction, and reshaping of host tissue vasculature. After a brief presentation of this experimental background, this review will outline a number of representative models describing, at different scales, the growth of avascular and vascularized tumours. Special attention will be paid to the formulation of tumour-host tissue interactions that selectively drive changes in tumour size and morphology, and which are notably mediated by the mechanical status and elasticity of the tumour microenvironment. Emergence of invasive behaviour through growth instabilities at the tumour-host interface will be presented considering both reaction-diffusion and mechano-cellular models. In the latter part of the review, patient-oriented implications of tumour growth modelling are outlined in the context of brain tumours. Some conceptual views of the adaptive strategies and selective barriers that govern tumour evolution are presented in conclusion as potential guidelines for the development of future models.

  8. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated. PMID:25857854

  9. Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-08-21

    Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content. PMID:25146837

  10. Modulation of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Melanoma Reprogrammes the Tumour Immune Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Assi, Emma; Cervia, Davide; Bizzozero, Laura; Capobianco, Annalisa; Pambianco, Sarah; Morisi, Federica; De Palma, Clara; Moscheni, Claudia; Pellegrino, Paolo; Clementi, Emilio; Perrotta, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment induces tumours to acquire an aggressive and immunosuppressive behaviour. Since acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downregulation in melanoma was shown to determine a malignant phenotype, we aimed here to elucidate the role of A-SMase in the regulation of tumour immunogenic microenvironment using in vivo melanoma models in which A-SMase was either downregulated or maintained at constitutively high levels. We found high levels of inflammatory factors in low A-SMase expressing tumours, which also displayed an immunosuppressive/protumoural microenvironment: high levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), as well as low levels of dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, the restoration of A-SMase in melanoma cells not only reduced tumour growth and immunosuppression, but also induced a high recruitment at tumour site of effector immune cells with an antitumoural function. Indeed, we observed a poor homing of MDSCs and Tregs and the increased recruitment of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes as well as the infiltration of DCs and CD8(+)/CD44(high) T lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that change of A-SMase expression in cancer cells is sufficient per se to tune in vivo melanoma growth and that A-SMase levels modulate immune cells at tumour site. This may be taken into consideration in the setting of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26101462

  11. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  12. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  13. Mutant forms of tumour necrosis factor receptor I that occur in TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome retain signalling functions but show abnormal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ian; Radford, Paul M; Draper-Morgan, Kelly-Ann; McIntosh, Richard; Bainbridge, Susan; Dickinson, Peter; Jamhawi, Lama; Sansaridis, Marios; Huggins, Mary L; Tighe, Patrick J; Powell, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder involving autosomal-dominant missense mutations in TNF receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) ectodomains. To elucidate the molecular effects of TRAPS-related mutations, we transfected HEK-293 cells to produce lines stably expressing high levels of either wild-type (WT) or single mutant recombinant forms of TNFRSF1A. Mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the first cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) were produced both as full-length receptor proteins and as truncated forms lacking the cytoplasmic signalling domain (Δsig). High-level expression of either WT or mutant full-length TNFRSF1A spontaneously induced apoptosis and interleukin-8 production, indicating that the mutations in CRD1 did not abrogate signalling. Consistent with this, WT and mutant full-length TNFRSF1A formed cytoplasmic aggregates that co-localized with ubiquitin and chaperones, and with the signal transducer TRADD, but not with the inhibitor, silencer of death domain (SODD). Furthermore, as expected, WT and mutant Δsig forms of TNFRSF1A did not induce apoptosis or interleukin-8 production. However, whereas the WT full-length TNFRSF1A was expressed both in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, the mutant receptors showed strong cytoplasmic expression but reduced cell-surface expression. The WT and mutant Δsig forms of TNFRSF1A were all expressed at the cell surface, but a proportion of the mutant receptors were also retained in the cytoplasm and co-localized with BiP. Furthermore, the mutant forms of surface-expressed Δsig TNFRSF1A were defective in binding TNF-α. We conclude that TRAPS-related CRD1 mutants of TNFRSF1A possess signalling properties associated with the cytoplasmic death domain, but other behavioural features of the mutant receptors are abnormal, including intracellular trafficking and TNF binding. PMID:15312137

  14. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  15. Premitive neuro-ectodermal tumour of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pradeep; Malur, Prakash; Annurshetru, Shivappa

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuro-ectodermal tumour of the lung is an extremely rare occurrence and we hereby report a case of a neuro-ectodermal tumour of the lung which was proved by immuno-histochemical examination of the resected specimen, and he had a very aggressive pattern of behavior. PMID:26793390

  16. Clinical and biological significance of aneuploidy in human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, M L; Hedley, D W; Taylor, I W

    1984-01-01

    Aneuploidy is a well recognised feature of human tumours, but the investigation of its biological and clinical significance has been hampered by technological constraints. Quantitative DNA analysis reflects the total chromosomal content of tumour cells and can now be determined rapidly and reliably using flow cytometry; this has resulted in renewed interest in its potential clinical applications. This article reviews the accumulating evidence that tumour ploidy reflects the biological behaviour of a large number of tumour types and that diploid tumours in particular have a relatively good prognosis. The measurement of tumour ploidy is likely to become a valuable adjunct to the clinical and histopathological assessment of cancers. PMID:6381555

  17. Clinical Practice: Giant Cell Tumour of the Jaw Mimicking Bone Malignancy on Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography (3D CT) Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Alessandro; Laino, Luigi; Rossiello, Luigi; Perillo, Letizia; Ermo, Antonio Dell; Cirillo, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of diseases may present with radiographic features of osteolysis. Periapical inflammation, cysts and benign tumours, bone malignancies, all of these conditions may show bone resorption on radiograph. Features of the surrounding bone, margins of the lesion, and biological behaviour including tendency to infiltration and root resorption, may represent important criteria for distinguishing benign tumours from their malign counterpart, although the radiographic aspect of the lesion is not always predictive. Therefore a critical differential diagnosis has to be reached to choose the best management. Here, we report a case of giant cell tumour (GCT) whose radiological features by computed tomography (CT) suggested the presence of bone malignancy, whereas the evaluation of a routine OPT scan comforted us about the benign nature of the lesion. A brief review of the literature on such a benign but locally aggressive neoplasm is also provided. PMID:19088886

  18. ZEB1 turns into a transcriptional activator by interacting with YAP1 in aggressive cancer types.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Waltraut; Mossmann, Dirk; Kleemann, Julia; Mock, Kerstin; Meisinger, Chris; Brummer, Tilman; Herr, Ricarda; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P; Brabletz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Early dissemination, metastasis and therapy resistance are central hallmarks of aggressive cancer types and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. The EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 is a crucial stimulator of these processes, particularly by coupling the activation of cellular motility with stemness and survival properties. ZEB1 expression is associated with aggressive behaviour in many tumour types, but the potent effects cannot be solely explained by its proven function as a transcriptional repressor of epithelial genes. Here we describe a direct interaction of ZEB1 with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, but notably not with its paralogue TAZ. In consequence, ZEB1 switches its function to a transcriptional co-activator of a 'common ZEB1/YAP target gene set', thereby linking two pathways with similar cancer promoting effects. This gene set is a predictor of poor survival, therapy resistance and increased metastatic risk in breast cancer, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:26876920

  19. ZEB1 turns into a transcriptional activator by interacting with YAP1 in aggressive cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Waltraut; Mossmann, Dirk; Kleemann, Julia; Mock, Kerstin; Meisinger, Chris; Brummer, Tilman; Herr, Ricarda; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Early dissemination, metastasis and therapy resistance are central hallmarks of aggressive cancer types and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. The EMT-inducing transcriptional repressor ZEB1 is a crucial stimulator of these processes, particularly by coupling the activation of cellular motility with stemness and survival properties. ZEB1 expression is associated with aggressive behaviour in many tumour types, but the potent effects cannot be solely explained by its proven function as a transcriptional repressor of epithelial genes. Here we describe a direct interaction of ZEB1 with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, but notably not with its paralogue TAZ. In consequence, ZEB1 switches its function to a transcriptional co-activator of a ‘common ZEB1/YAP target gene set', thereby linking two pathways with similar cancer promoting effects. This gene set is a predictor of poor survival, therapy resistance and increased metastatic risk in breast cancer, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:26876920

  20. Social Developmental Parameters in Primary Schools: Inclusive Settings' and Gender Differences on Pupils' Aggressive and Social Insecure Behaviour and Their Attitudes towards Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arampatzi, Athina; Mouratidou, Katerina; Evaggelinou, Christina; Koidou, Eirini; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether gender and inclusion settings are associated with elementary school pupils' aspects of social development such as aggression, social insecurity and attitudes toward disability. The sample consisted of 658 pupils (M[subscript age]=11[plus or minus]1 years) of 15 primary schools (306 boys and 352…

  1. Equine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumours Exhibit Variable Differentiation, Proliferation Activity and KIT Expression.

    PubMed

    Ressel, L; Ward, S; Kipar, A

    2015-11-01

    Equine cutaneous mast cell tumours (CMCTs) are generally considered to be benign skin lesions, although recurrent and multicentric tumours have been described. For canine CMCTs, grading and prognostic approaches are well established and aberrant KIT expression as well as high proliferation indices are associated with poor outcome. However, in the case of equine CMCTs, morphological features, proliferative activity and KIT expression pattern have not been assessed or related to biological behaviour, and there is discussion as to whether CMCTs are true neoplastic processes. The present study describes 45 equine CMCTs in terms of their morphology and KIT and PCNA expression by immunohistochemistry. KIT expression was classified as membranous (I), cytoplasmic and focally stippled (II) or diffuse cytoplasmic (III). A large proportion of the tumours were multinodular or diffuse dermal infiltrates of mast cells with mild anisokaryosis, a low proliferative rate and a dominance of KIT pattern I, representing well-differentiated CMCTs. In approximately one third of the cases, the mast cells exhibited more infiltrative growth, moderate to marked anisokaryosis and a higher degree of proliferation. These were classified as poorly differentiated CMCTs and exhibited only KIT patterns II and III. These findings indicate that there is a subgroup of poorly differentiated equine CMCTs, in which there is an association between aberrant KIT expression, high proliferative rate and potential aggressive behaviour, all features that confirm at least the poorly differentiated CMCT as a true neoplastic processes. PMID:26292768

  2. [Zinc metabolism--a factor in canine aggression?].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Behne, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of zinc-deficiency as a factor in canine aggression, we examined sera of dangerously aggressive dogs and of behaviourally normal (non-aggressive) dogs for their zinc-contents. The results showed distinctly higher zinc-concentrations (mean +/- SD) in aggressive dogs (1.69 +/- 0.49 micrograms/ml) than in normal non aggressive dogs (0.76 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml). PMID:12894678

  3. The psychobiology of aggression and violence: bioethical implications.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and justifiable based on causes. Biological research and natural science theories are a basic ingredient for reflections, arguments and decisions on such matters. This study presents the problem of the causes of aggressive behaviour, the evolutionary understanding and definition of aggressive behaviour, the biological basis for this behaviour and the link between emotions and aggression. A growing body of evidence suggests that innate factors of behaviour (be they genetic or neurobiological) do not by themselves define behaviour and nor do acquired factors such as learning, cultural norms or worldviews. Both types of factor interact from the outset to shape a development process that mutually interacts to define beliefs or behaviour. PMID:21898943

  4. Imaging tumour hypoxia with positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I N; Manavaki, R; Blower, P J; West, C; Williams, K J; Harris, A L; Domarkas, J; Lord, S; Baldry, C; Gilbert, F J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia, a hallmark of most solid tumours, is a negative prognostic factor due to its association with an aggressive tumour phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Given its prominent role in oncology, accurate detection of hypoxia is important, as it impacts on prognosis and could influence treatment planning. A variety of approaches have been explored over the years for detecting and monitoring changes in hypoxia in tumours, including biological markers and noninvasive imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the preferred method for imaging tumour hypoxia due to its high specificity and sensitivity to probe physiological processes in vivo, as well as the ability to provide information about intracellular oxygenation levels. This review provides an overview of imaging hypoxia with PET, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the currently available hypoxia radiotracers. PMID:25514380

  5. Malignant Extra Renal Rhabdoid Tumour Presenting as Central Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours are one of the most aggressive childhood neoplasms associated with high mortality. The commonest age group affected is children less than five years of age. Rhabdoid tumour presenting as an endoluminal tracheal mass leading to central airway obstruction has not been previously reported. We describe the case of a 17-year-old male patient where malignant rhabdoid tumour masqueraded as bronchial asthma leading to a delayed diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by tracheal growth. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour. PMID:25243090

  6. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Ansari, Hena A.; Sherwani, Rana K.; Rahman, Khaliqur; Akhtar, Nishat

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified) are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified). A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup. PMID:21436872

  7. The radiological features of phylloides tumour of the breast with clinico-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Page, J E; Williams, J E

    1991-07-01

    The mammograms of 13 patients with phylloides tumour of the breast are reviewed and the results correlated with clinical and histological features. Three patients had recurrent tumours. There is a strong association between phylloides tumour and fibroadenoma. Many of the tumours are radiologically indistinguishable from fibroadenomata and it is not possible to predict tumour behaviour on the basis of clinical and radiological features alone. PMID:1651822

  8. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Thusyanth; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.

    2015-01-01

    CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs), are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools. PMID:26064134

  9. The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit. PMID:25886655

  10. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  11. Cystosarcoma phylloides: heterogeneity in a rare tumour type.

    PubMed

    Bissett, D; Mallon, E; Reed, N S; George, W D; Harnett, A N

    1996-08-01

    Mammary cystosarcoma phylloides is a rare tumour, and clear guidelines for its clinical management are lacking. We present three cases from the Western Infirmary which illustrate the range of behaviour that these tumours can manifest, and discuss some of the clinical problems that they present. PMID:8772074

  12. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  13. Canine oral mucosal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J W; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L; Berlato, D; Murphy, S; Grant, I A

    2016-03-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common cutaneous tumours of dogs, however rarely they can arise from the oral mucosa. This subset of MCT is reported to demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course than those tumours on the haired skin and the authors hypothesised that dogs with oral, mucosal MCT would have a high incidence of local lymph node metastasis at presentation and that this would be a negative prognostic factor. An additional hypothesis was that mitotic index (MI) would be prognostic. This retrospective study examines 33 dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa. The results suggest that oral mucosal MCTs in the dog have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (55%) which results in a poor prognosis. MI and nodal metastasis is highly prognostic. Loco-regional progression is common in these patients and dogs with adequate local control of their tumour had an improved outcome. Despite a more aggressive clinical course, treatment can result in protracted survivals, even when metastasis is present. PMID:24215587

  14. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal. PMID:25054147

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Physical Aggression among Secondary School Students: A New Zealand View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards teachers.…

  16. Parenting Practices and the Early Socialisation of Relational Aggression among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines parents' responses to their young children's relationally aggressive behaviour and compares these with the responses regarding children's overtly aggressive behaviour. Parents' beliefs about discipline strategies for addressing relational versus overt aggression at home and at school are also…

  17. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  18. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  19. Appendiceal tumour--retrospective clinicopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O'Neil; Chopra, Pradeep; Pande, Girish

    2004-01-01

    Appendiceal tumours are rare and often discovered unexpectedly in an acute situation in which decision-making is difficult. We report the spectrum of appendiuar tumours seen in our institution over a period of more than 10 years, and discuss the clinicopathological behaviour, investigations, surgical procedures and outcomes in these patients. We have also reviewed the literature with regard to appendiceal tumours. Appendicular tumours were identified from the database of 1646 appendictomies (18% in children) performed in single centre and case notes were reviewed. Clinical presentation, investigations, histopathology, surgical procedures and outcome were analysed. Twelve patients with appendiceal tumours were identified (0.72%): 8 carcinoid, 2 mucinous (mucocele) and 2 adenocarcinoma. All the patients with a carcinoid tumour presented with features suggestive of acute appendicitis and were diagnosed postoperatively following appendicectomy and formal histology. No further surgical intervention was required as these lesions were less than 1cm away from the base of the appendix. One of the patient with mucinous cystadenoma presented acutely and underwent an appendicectomy; in the other patient with chronic pain, apreoperative MRI suggested the diagnosis leading to a planned hemicolectomy as the lesion was close to the base of the appendix. While one of the patient with an adenocarcinoma localized to the appendix did well following a right hemicolectomy, the other patient with disseminated disease succumbed within a year. Carcinoid tumours are the commonest appendiceal tumours, which present often as acute appendicitis. While appendicectomy would be adequate in most of these patients, in patients with a cystadenoma close to the base of the appendix or in case of a carcinoma, a right hemicolectomy is the appropriate option. While the prognosis is good in patients with carcinoid tumour and cystadenoma, it remains dismal in patients with disseminated malignant disease

  20. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  1. Concept analysis: aggression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of aggression are outlined. It is argued that a better understanding of aggression and the causal factors underlying it are essential for learning how to prevent negative aggression in the future. PMID:15371137

  2. Why are small males aggressive?

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Lesley J; Lindström, Jan; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2005-01-01

    Aggression is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, whenever the interests of individuals conflict. In contests between animals, the larger opponent is often victorious. However, counter intuitively, an individual that has little chance of winning (generally smaller individuals) sometimes initiates contests. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour, including the ‘desperado effect’ according to which, the likely losers initiate aggression due to lack of alternative options. An alternative explanation suggested recently is that likely losers attack due to an error in perception: they mistakenly perceive their chances of winning as being greater than they are. We show that explaining the apparently maladaptive aggression initiated by the likely loser can be explained on purely economic grounds, without requiring either the desperado effect or perception errors. Using a game-theoretical model, we show that if smaller individuals can accurately assess their chance of winning, if this chance is less than, but close to, a half, and if resources are scarce (or the contested resource is of relatively low value), they are predicted to be as aggressive as their larger opponents. In addition, when resources are abundant, and small individuals have some chance of winning, they may be more aggressive than their larger opponents, as it may benefit larger individuals to avoid the costs of fighting and seek alternative uncontested resources. PMID:16024387

  3. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  4. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  5. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cousijn, Janna; Brugman, Suzanne; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-06-30

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening stimuli) was differentiated from proactive aggression (i.e. the more controlled aggression motivated towards obtaining specific goals). A mixed sample of 118 patients and healthy controls filled out a self-report measure to assess their degree of reactive and proactive aggression, and then performed an Approach Avoidance Task in which they were asked to pull or push a joystick in response to a format-feature of a series of pictures, irrespective of their contents. The pictorial stimuli used in this task included attack-related scenes and angry faces, along with neutral, positive and negative control stimuli. The results were controlled for the level of personality disorder pathology, gender, and age. The findings indicated that reactive but not proactive aggression was related to the relative behavioural tendency to approach attack-related scenes, along with positive stimuli. These findings reflect the hyper-reactivity of the approach-related reward system in reactive aggression, and further our knowledge into the distinct correlates and precursors of reactive and proactive aggression. PMID:27111213

  6. The impact of KRAS mutations on VEGF-A production and tumour vascular network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The malignant potential of tumour cells may be influenced by the molecular nature of KRAS mutations being codon 13 mutations less aggressive than codon 12 ones. Their metabolic profile is also different, with an increased anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in cells harbouring codon 12 KRAS mutations compared with cells containing codon 13 mutations. We hypothesized that this distinct metabolic behaviour could be associated with different HIF-1α expression and a distinct angiogenic profile. Methods Codon13 KRAS mutation (ASP13) or codon12 KRAS mutation (CYS12) NIH3T3 transfectants were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Expression of HIF-1α, and VEGF-A was studied at RNA and protein levels. Regulation of VEGF-A promoter activity was assessed by means of luciferase assays using different plasmid constructs. Vascular network was assessed in tumors growing after subcutaneous inoculation. Non parametric statistics were used for analysis of results. Results Our results show that in normoxic conditions ASP13 transfectants exhibited less HIF-1α protein levels and activity than CYS12. In contrast, codon 13 transfectants exhibited higher VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels and enhanced VEGF-A promoter activity. These differences were due to a differential activation of Sp1/AP2 transcription elements of the VEGF-A promoter associated with increased ERKs signalling in ASP13 transfectants. Subcutaneous CYS12 tumours expressed less VEGF-A and showed a higher microvessel density (MVD) than ASP13 tumours. In contrast, prominent vessels were only observed in the latter. Conclusion Subtle changes in the molecular nature of KRAS oncogene activating mutations occurring in tumour cells have a major impact on the vascular strategy devised providing with new insights on the role of KRAS mutations on angiogenesis. PMID:23506169

  7. C-kit as a prognostic and therapeutic marker in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours: From laboratory to clinic.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, Rui M

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are some of the most common canine neoplasms and their variable and often aggressive biological behaviour makes them particularly challenging for the veterinary practitioner. Over the years, scientists have accumulated a wealth of knowledge on these tumours and developed better prognostic markers and targeted therapies, mostly focused on inhibiting c-kit, a protein that plays a major role in the biopathology of MCTs. Masitinib and toceranib, targeted inhibitors of c-kit and other receptor tyrosine-kinases (RTKs), offer the promise of improving the outcome of patients with aggressive MCTs. Much of the available knowledge on MCTs is dispersed, making it difficult for practitioners to benefit when consulting a pathologist or making therapeutic decisions. This article seeks to bring together current knowledge on the biopathology of MCTs, reviewing prognostic markers and their applications, and the development of c-kit inhibitors in the context of the basic cellular, molecular and pathological features of MCTs. Future perspectives following recent biopathological data and experimental therapeutic approaches are also addressed. PMID:26021891

  8. Mild hypoglycaemia and questionnaire measures of aggression.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Kumari, N; Brain, P F

    1982-01-01

    A glucose-tolerance test was given to a group of males who did not have a history involving aggressive behaviour or abnormal glucose metabolism. In these subjects a significant correlation was found between the tendency to become mildly hypoglycaemic and scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study. A factor analysis of the data found that both scores on the aggression questionnaires and the measure of hypoglycaemia were similarly weighted. These results extent to normal subjects the finding that there is a relationship between hypoglycaemia and aggressiveness, a result previously found in psychiatric patients. PMID:7104424

  9. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  10. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  11. Site-specific volumetric analysis of lung tumour motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei; Sandison, George A.; Langer, Mark; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of lung cancer with radiation therapy is hindered by respiratory motion. Real-time adjustments to compensate for this motion are hampered by mechanical system latencies and imaging-rate restrictions. To better understand tumour motion behaviour for adaptive image-guided radiation therapy of lung cancer, the volume of a tumour's motion space was investigated. Motion data were collected by tracking an implanted fiducial using fluoroscopy at 30 Hz during treatment sessions. A total of 637 treatment fractions from 31 tumours were used in this study. For each fraction, data points collected from three consecutive breathing cycles were used to identify instantaneous tumour location. A convex hull was created over these data points, defining the tumour motion envelope. The study sought a correlation between the tumour location in the lung and the convex hull's volume and shape. It was found that tumours located in the upper apex had smaller motion envelopes (<50 mm3), whereas tumours located near the chest wall or diaphragm had larger envelopes (>70 mm3). Tumours attached to fixed anatomical structures had small motion spaces. Three general shapes described the tumour motion envelopes: 50% of motion envelopes enclosed largely 1D oscillation, 38% enclosed an ellipsoid path, 6% enclosed an arced path and 6% were of hybrid shape. This location-space correlation suggests it may be useful in developing a predictive model, but more work needs to be done to verify it.

  12. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients filled in…

  13. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  14. Inpatient verbal aggression: content, targets and patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D; Bowers, L

    2013-04-01

    Verbally aggressive behaviour on psychiatric wards is more common than physical violence and can have distressing consequences for the staff and patients who are subjected to it. Previous research has tended to examine incidents of verbal aggression in little detail, instead combining different types of aggressive behaviour into a single measure. This study recruited 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2 weeks of admission. Incidents of verbal aggression were categorized and associations with patient characteristics examined. There were 1398 incidents of verbal aggression in total, reported for half the sample. Types of verbal aggression were, in order of prevalence: abusive language, shouting, threats, expressions of anger and racist comments. There were also a large number of entries in the notes which did not specify the form of verbal aggression. Staff members were the most frequent target of aggression. A history of violence and previous drug use were consistently associated with verbal aggression. However, there were also some notable differences in patient variables associated with specific types of verbal aggression. Future studies should consider using multidimensional measures of verbal aggression. PMID:22486899

  15. Viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S C; Lawless, B M; Shepherd, D E T; Espino, D M; Bicknell, G R; Bryan, R T

    2016-08-01

    The urinary bladder is an organ which facilitates the storage and release of urine. The bladder can develop tumours and bladder cancer is a common malignancy throughout the world. There is a consensus that there are differences in the mechanical properties of normal and malignant tissues. However, the viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours at the macro-scale have not been previously studied. This study investigated the viscoelastic properties of ten bladder tumours, which were tested using dynamic mechanical analysis at frequencies up to 30Hz. The storage modulus ranged between 0.052MPa and 0.085MPa while the loss modulus ranged between 0.019MPa and 0.043MPa. Both storage and loss moduli showed frequency dependent behaviour and the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus for every frequency tested. Viscoelastic properties may be useful for the development of surgical trainers, surgical devices, computational models and diagnostic equipment. PMID:27082128

  16. The use of the decision tree technique and image cytometry to characterize aggressiveness in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II superficial transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; van Velthoven, R; Petein, M; Janssen, T; Salmon, I; Pasteels, J L; van Ham, P; Schulman, C; Kiss, R

    1996-03-01

    The aggressiveness of human bladder tumours can be assessed by means of various classification systems, including the one proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO classification, three levels of malignancy are identified as grades I (low), II (intermediate), and III (high). This classification system operates satisfactorily for two of the three grades in forecasting clinical progression, most grade I tumours being associated with good prognoses and most grade III with bad. In contrast, the grade II group is very heterogeneous in terms of their clinical behaviour. The present study used two computer-assisted methods to investigate whether it is possible to sub-classify grade II tumours: computer-assisted microscope analysis (image cytometry) of Feulgen-stained nuclei and the Decision Tree Technique. This latter technique belongs to the Supervised Learning Algorithm and enables an objective assessment to be made of the diagnostic value associated with a given parameter. The combined use of these two methods in a series of 292 superficial transitional cell carcinomas shows that it is possible to identify one subgroup of grade II tumours which behave clinically like grade I tumours and a second subgroup which behaves clinically like grade III tumours. Of the nine ploidy-related parameters computed by means of image cytometry [the DNA index (DI), DNA histogram type (DHT), and the percentages of diploid, hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and polyploid cell nuclei], it was the percentage of hyperdiploid and hypertetraploid cell nuclei which enabled identification, rather than conventional parameters such as the DI or the DHT. PMID:8778332

  17. Mapping Brain Development and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Paus, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Introduction This article provides an overview of the basic principles guiding research on brain-behaviour relationships in general, and as applied to studies of aggression during human development in particular. Method Key literature on magnetic resonance imaging of the structure and function of a developing brain was reviewed. Results The article begins with a brief introduction to the methodology of techniques used to map the developing brain, with a special emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It then reviews briefly the current knowledge of structural maturation, assessed by MRI, of the human brain during childhood and adolescence. The last part describes some of the results of neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying neural circuits involved in various aspects of aggression and social cognition. Conclusion The article concludes by discussing the potential and limitations of the neuroimaging approach in this field. PMID:19030495

  18. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Extraosseal Spread: Evaluation of the Effect Carnoy's Solution.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Machoň, Vladimír; Grill, Pavel; Hirjak, Dušan; Foltán, René

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumour is relatively rare benign tumour. It is characterized by its fast aggressive growth and high risk of recurrence. Treatment is always surgical: conservative (enucleation, marsupialization) or aggressive (enucleation followed by application of Carnoy's solution, cryotherapy; peripheral ostectomy or en block resection of the jaw). Authors analysed retrospectively 22 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria, i.e. had odontogenic keratocystic tumour of mandible, wherein antero-posterior dimension was at least 30 mm, and the tumour penetrated into the surrounding soft tissues. All patients underwent tumour enucleation, in 11 patients Carnoy's solution was given into the bone cavity after enucleation. The recurrence rate in the evaluation at least 36 months after surgery was both patient groups the same: 45.4%. PMID:26654803

  19. Tumour ablation: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours. PMID:19965296

  20. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  1. Radical Resection of a Late-Relapsed Testicular Germ Cell Tumour: Hepatectomy, Cavotomy, and Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ní Leidhin, C.; Redmond, C. E.; Cahalane, A. M.; Heneghan, H. M.; Motyer, R.; Ryan, E. R.; Hoti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Up to 3.2% of patients with testicular germ cell tumours represent with late-relapsing disease. Aggressive surgical resection confers the greatest chance of cure in this patient group. We present the case of a late and extensively relapsed nonseminomatous germ cell tumour with thrombus present along the entire length of the inferior vena cava, as well as in the right hepatic vein. Techniques practised in liver transplantation were used to achieve complete resection of the tumour thrombus. This case illustrates the enhanced potential for tumour resection through a fusion of principles derived from surgical oncology and liver transplantation. PMID:25587480

  2. Radical resection of a late-relapsed testicular germ cell tumour: hepatectomy, cavotomy, and thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Ní Leidhin, C; Redmond, C E; Cahalane, A M; Heneghan, H M; Motyer, R; Ryan, E R; Hoti, E

    2014-01-01

    Up to 3.2% of patients with testicular germ cell tumours represent with late-relapsing disease. Aggressive surgical resection confers the greatest chance of cure in this patient group. We present the case of a late and extensively relapsed nonseminomatous germ cell tumour with thrombus present along the entire length of the inferior vena cava, as well as in the right hepatic vein. Techniques practised in liver transplantation were used to achieve complete resection of the tumour thrombus. This case illustrates the enhanced potential for tumour resection through a fusion of principles derived from surgical oncology and liver transplantation. PMID:25587480

  3. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. PMID:26849037

  4. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  5. "Teaching them a lesson?" A qualitative exploration of underlying motivations for driver aggression.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Alexia; Watson, Barry

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive driving is increasingly a concern for drivers in highly motorised countries. However, the role of driver intent in this behaviour is problematic and there is little research on driver cognitions in relation to aggressive driving incidents. In addition, while drivers who admit to behaving aggressively on the road also frequently report being recipients of similar behaviours, little is known about the relationship between perpetration and victimisation or about how road incidents escalate into the more serious events that feature in capture media attention. The current study used qualitative interviews to explore driver cognitions and underlying motivations for aggressive behaviours on the road. A total of 30 drivers aged 18-49 years were interviewed about their experiences with aggressive driving. A key theme identified in responses was driver aggression as an attempt to manage or modify the behaviour of other road users. Two subthemes were identified and appeared related to separate motivations for aggressive responses: 'teaching them a lesson' referred to situations where respondents intended to convey criticism or disapproval, usually of unintended behaviours by the other driver, and thus encourage self-correction; and 'justified retaliation' which referred to situations where respondents perceived deliberate intent on the part of the other driver and responded aggressively in return. Mildly aggressive driver behaviour appears to be common. Moreover such behaviour has a sufficiently negative impact on other drivers that it may be worth addressing because of its potential for triggering retaliation in kind or escalation of aggression, thus compromising safety. PMID:21819853

  6. Neurobiological Patterns of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes chemical model for patterns of aggressive behavior. Addresses cultural, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that affect violent children. Identifies five patterns of aggression (overaroused, impulsive, affective, predatory, and instrumental) and examines these dimensions of aggression for each pattern: baseline, precipitators,…

  7. Effect of anti-glycolytic agents on tumour cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A metabolic change is one of the tumour hallmarks, which has recently attracted a great amount of attention. One of the main metabolic characteristics of tumour cells is a high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in a glycolysis pathway than that in a tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Warburg effect constitutes a fundamental adaptation of tumour cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumour glycolysis may become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we research the effect of potential anticancer agents on tumour cells in vitro. In our study, we found a high sensitivity of tumour cells to anti-glycolityc drugs. In addition, tumour cells are more resistant to the agents studied in comparison with normal cells. We also observed an atypical cooperative interaction of tumour cells in the median lethal dose of drugs. They formed the specific morphological structure of the surviving cells. This behavior is not natural for the culture of tumour cells. Perhaps this is one of the mechanisms of cells' adaptation to the aggressive environment.

  8. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a consensus review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benjamin Y; Acs, Geza; Apple, Sophia K; Badve, Sunil; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Brogi, Edi; Calvo, José P; Dabbs, David J; Ellis, Ian O; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Ichihara, Shu; Lakhani, Sunil R; Rakha, Emad A; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sahin, Aysegul; Schmitt, Fernando C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Soares, Fernando A; Tse, Gary M; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours constitute an uncommon but complex group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions. Accurate and reproducible grading of these tumours has long been challenging, owing to the need to assess multiple stratified histological parameters, which may be weighted differently by individual pathologists. Distinction of benign phyllodes tumours from cellular fibroadenomas is fraught with difficulty, due to overlapping microscopic features. Similarly, separation of the malignant phyllodes tumour from spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma and primary breast sarcoma can be problematic. Phyllodes tumours are treated by surgical excision. However, there is no consensus on the definition of an appropriate surgical margin to ensure completeness of excision and reduction of recurrence risk. Interpretive subjectivity, overlapping histological diagnostic criteria, suboptimal correlation between histological classification and clinical behaviour and the lack of robust molecular predictors of outcome make further investigation of the pathogenesis of these fascinating tumours a matter of active research. This review consolidates the current understanding of their pathobiology and clinical behaviour, and includes proposals for a rational approach to the classification and management of phyllodes tumours. PMID:26768026

  9. The epidemiology of neonatal tumours. Report of an international working group.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W; Satgé, D; Sasco, A J; Zimmermann, A; Plaschkes, J

    2003-09-01

    Neonatal tumours occur every 12,500-27,500 live births and comprise 2% of childhood malignancies, but there is little clarity as to their real prevalence, sites of origin and pathological nature as reported series vary. As an entity, neonatal tumours provide a unique window of opportunity to study tumours in which minimal environmental interference has occurred. The majority of tumours present with a mass at birth (e.g., teratomas, neuroblastomas, mesoblastic nephroma, fibromatosis), which are not infrequently identified on antenatal ultrasound. Histologically, teratoma and neuroblastoma remain the two main tumour types encountered with soft tissue sarcoma, renal tumours, CNS tumours and leukaemia being the next most common tumour types identified. Malignant tumours are uncommon in the neonatal period per se and benign tumours may have malignant potential. A particular problem exists in clinical classification, as histological features of malignancy do not always correlate with clinical behaviour. Benign tumours may also be life threatening because of their size and location. Other tumours may demonstrate local invasiveness, but no metastatic potential, and tumours that are clearly malignant may demonstrate unpredictable or uncertain behaviour. Screening programmes have brought more tumours to light, but do not appear to affect the overall prognosis. They may provide clues to the stage at which tumours develop in foetu. The aetiology of cancer in children is multifactorial and includes both genetic and environmental factors. The association between congenital abnormalities and tumours is well established (15% of neonatal tumours). Genetic defects are highly likely in neonatal tumours and include those with a high risk of malignancy (e.g., retinoblastoma), but also genetically determined syndromes with an increased risk of malignancy and complex genetic rearrangements. Tumours are mostly genetically related at a cellular level and factors influencing cellular

  10. DCC constrains tumour progression via its dependence receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Castets, Marie; Broutier, Laura; Molin, Yann; Brevet, Marie; Chazot, Guillaume; Gadot, Nicolas; Paquet, Armelle; Mazelin, Laetitia; Jarrosson-Wuilleme, Loraine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bernet, Agnès; Mehlen, Patrick

    2012-02-23

    The role of deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) as a tumour suppressor has been a matter of debate for the past 15 years. DCC gene expression is lost or markedly reduced in the majority of advanced colorectal cancers and, by functioning as a dependence receptor, DCC has been shown to induce apoptosis unless engaged by its ligand, netrin-1 (ref. 2). However, so far no animal model has supported the view that the DCC loss-of-function is causally implicated as predisposing to aggressive cancer development. To investigate the role of DCC-induced apoptosis in the control of tumour progression, here we created a mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic activity of DCC is genetically silenced. Although the loss of DCC-induced apoptosis in this mouse model is not associated with a major disorganization of the intestines, it leads to spontaneous intestinal neoplasia at a relatively low frequency. Loss of DCC-induced apoptosis is also associated with an increase in the number and aggressiveness of intestinal tumours in a predisposing APC mutant context, resulting in the development of highly invasive adenocarcinomas. These results demonstrate that DCC functions as a tumour suppressor via its ability to trigger tumour cell apoptosis. PMID:22158121

  11. Relational aggression in marriage.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. PMID:20698028

  12. Cellular memory of hypoxia elicits neuroblastoma metastasis and enables invasion by non-aggressive neighbouring cells.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, A; Rice, M; Lévy, R; Pizer, B L; Losty, P D; Moss, D; Sée, V

    2015-01-01

    Therapies targeting cancer metastasis are challenging owing to the complexity of the metastatic process and the high number of effectors involved. Although tumour hypoxia has previously been associated with increased aggressiveness as well as resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, the understanding of a direct link between the level and duration of hypoxia and the individual steps involved in metastasis is still missing. Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, we have demonstrated that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for 3 days was capable of (1) enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, (2) slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and (3) promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. We have shown that cells do not have to be hypoxic anymore to exhibit these acquired capabilities as a long-term memory of prior hypoxic exposure is kept. Furthermore, non-hypoxic cells can be influenced by neighbouring hypoxic preconditioned cells and be entrained in the metastatic progression. The acquired aggressive phenotype relies on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription of a number of genes involved in metastasis and can be impaired by HIF inhibition. Altogether, our results demonstrate the need to consider both temporal and spatial tumour heterogeneity because cells can 'remember' an earlier environment and share their acquired phenotype with their close neighbours. As a consequence, it is necessary to monitor the correct hypoxic markers to be able to predict the consequences of the cells' history on their behaviour and their potential response to therapies. PMID:25664931

  13. Transport processes in tumours.

    PubMed

    Quastel, J H

    1965-12-01

    The characteristic features of transport systems controlling influx into tumour cells of nutrients and other chemicals are briefly described. Two notable features of transport of amino acids into tumour cells have been observed: extensive accumulation against a concentration gradient and equal accumulations, whether conditions are aerobic or anaerobic, provided glucose is present. This combination of features has not been observed in the majority of normal mammalian tissues so far examined. Important for considerations of chemotherapy is the ability of tumour transport carriers to transfer substances related in structure to amino acids and other nutrients. Amino acid analogues, for example, can either block transport of natural amino acids or can be transported into the cell where they may interfere with various aspects of amino acid metabolism. The study of transport carriers is essential for an understanding of tumour-host relationships and for considerations of chemotherapy. PMID:5842595

  14. Breast tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephen B; Generali, Daniele G; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-01-01

    The central importance of tumour neovascularization has been emphasized by clinical trials using antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer. This review gives a background to breast tumour neovascularization in in situ and invasive breast cancer, outlines the mechanisms by which this is achieved and discusses the influence of the microenvironment, focusing on hypoxia. The regulation of angiogenesis and the antivascular agents that are used in an antiangiogenic dosing schedule, both novel and conventional, are also summarized. PMID:18190723

  15. [Tumours and liver transplants].

    PubMed

    Mejzlík, Vladimír; Husová, Libuše; Kuman, Milan; Štěpánková, Soňa; Ondrášek, Jiří; Němec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation as a curative treatment method can be used for selected primary liver tumours, in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma and rather rare semi-malignant tumours such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, further for infiltration of liver by metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (provided that metastases are only located in the liver and the primary tumour was removed) and for benign tumours (hemangiomas and adenomas) with oppression symptoms and size progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is not indicated for liver transplantation at the CKTCH Brno. In recent years liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma have increased and hepatocellular carcinoma has also been more frequently found ex post, in the explanted livers. Liver transplantation is indicated in selected patients with a good chance of long-term survival after liver transplantation (a generally accepted limit is 5 year survival of 50 % after transplantation). By 20 March 2015 there were liver transplants carried out on 38 patients - in 25 of them was hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed before transplantation and in 13 it was found in the liver explants. 5 year survival following transplantation is reached by 53 % of this cohort. 32 % patients suffered from chronic hepatitis C. The longest surviving (32 years) patient at CKTCH Brno had liver transplanted for a big fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, which points to the prognostic significance of tumour histology: the criterion only considered in some indication schemes for practical reasons. Benign liver tumours (adenomatosis, cystadenoma, hemangioma with oppression symptoms) are rather rare indications and the transplantation results are favourable. 4 patients underwent transplantation for infiltration of liver by carcinoid, tumour recurrence occurred in one. PMID:26375706

  16. A COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE ON AGGRESSIVE MIMICRY

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, ROBERT R.; CROSS, FIONA R.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term ‘aggressive mimic’ for predators that communicate with their prey by making signals to indirectly manipulate prey behaviour. For understanding why the aggressive mimic’s signals work, it is important to appreciate that these signals interface with the prey’s perceptual system, and that the aggressive mimic can be envisaged as playing mind games with its prey. Examples of aggressive mimicry vary from instances in which specifying a model is straight forward to instances where a concise characterisation of the model is difficult. However, the less straightforward examples of aggressive mimicry may be the more interesting examples in the context of animal cognition. In particular, there are spiders that prey on other spiders by entering their prey’s web and making signals. Web invasion brings about especially intimate contact with their prey’s perceptual system because the prey spider’s web is an important component of the prey spider’s sensory apparatus. For the web-invading spider, often there is also a large element of risk when practising aggressive mimicry because the intended prey is also a potential predator. This element of risk, combined with exceptionally intimate interfacing with prey perceptual systems, may have favoured the web-invading aggressive mimic’s strategy becoming strikingly cognitive in character. Yet a high level of flexibility may be widespread among aggressive mimics in general and, on the whole, we propose that research on aggressive mimicry holds exceptional potential for advancing our understanding of animal cognition. PMID:23976823

  17. Anger and effortful control moderate aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V E; Peets, Kätlin; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour. PMID:26042460

  18. Bullying among Girls in Japan and Hong Kong: An Examination of the Frustration-Aggression Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Frank Wai-ming; Taki, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    One widely accepted explanation of bullying, known as the aggressive-motive thesis, assumes that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour triggered by external stress. However, recent evidences have suggested a different explanation, known as the frustration-aggression thesis, which asserts that bullying is a psychological defense triggered by…

  19. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  20. Mediastinal mass-a rare presentation of desmoplastic small round cell tumour

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Hemanta K; Vangipuram, Deepak Rajkumar; Sonika, Ujjwal; Kar, Premashish; Kumar, Naresh; Kapoor, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Primary mediastinal desmoplastic small round cell cancer is an uncommon tumour usually located in the abdomen and pelvis. Here the authors report an extremely rare case of a young male with a primary desmoplastic small round cell tumour in the anterior and middle mediastinum. The patient had non-specific complaints but an abnormal shadow was seen in a routine chest x-ray. He was diagnosed as having mediastinal mass with few lung parenchymal deposits on CT. Mediastinoscopy and guided biopsy revealed desmoplastic small round cell tumour. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare and aggressive tumour which rarely involves the mediastinum as a primary site. The nature of the lesion and its prognosis were explained to the patient. He was offered chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the tumour management. He refused treatment and left against medical advice. PMID:22670008

  1. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  2. A MiRNA Signature for Defining Aggressive Phenotype and Prognosis in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Pasculli, Barbara; Galasso, Marco; Volinia, Stefano; D'Angelo, Vincenzo; Icolaro, Nadia; Coco, Michelina; Dimitri, Lucia; Graziano, Paolo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Valori, Vanna Maria; Maiello, Evaristo; Carella, Massimo; Fazio, Vito Michele; Parrella, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas represent a disparate group of tumours for which there are to date no cure. Thus, there is a recognized need for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches based on increased understanding of their molecular nature. We performed the comparison of the microRNA (miRNA) profile of 8 WHO grade II gliomas and 24 higher grade tumours (2 WHO grade III and 22 glioblastomas) by using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Array v. 1.0. A relative quantification method (RT-qPCR) with standard curve was used to confirm the 22 miRNA signature resulted by array analysis. The prognostic performances of the confirmed miRNAs were estimated on the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. We identified 22 miRNAs distinguishing grade II gliomas from higher grade tumours. RT-qPCR confirmed the differential expression in the two patients' groups for 13 out of the 22 miRNAs. The analysis of the Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) datasets from TCGA demonstrated the association with prognosis for 6 of those miRNAs. Moreover, in the GBM dataset miR-21 and miR-210 were predictors of worse prognosis in both univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses (HR 1.19, p = 0.04, and HR 1.18, p = 0.029 respectively). Our results support a direct contribution of miRNAs to glioma cancerogenesis and suggest that miR-21 and miR-210 may play a role in the aggressive clinical behaviour of glioblastomas. PMID:25279461

  3. Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Indirect aggression includes behaviours such as criticizing a competitor's appearance, spreading rumours about a person's sexual behaviour and social exclusion. Human females have a particular proclivity for using indirect aggression, which is typically directed at other females, especially attractive and sexually available females, in the context of intrasexual competition for mates. Indirect aggression is an effective intrasexual competition strategy. It is associated with a diminished willingness to compete on the part of victims and with greater dating and sexual behaviour among those who perpetrate the aggression. PMID:24167310

  4. The relationship of self-regulation and aggression: an empirical test of personality systems interaction theory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Thomas; Fontao, María Isabel

    2008-10-01

    On the basis of personality systems interaction (PSI) theory, the authors examine self-regulation, conflict behaviour, behavioural resources, and personality disorders in a sample of 83 male offenders and explore the role self-regulatory variables play with respect to aggressive behaviour. Although substantial correlations between self-regulatory functions and aggressive behaviour were found, these variables did not predict aggression in a subsequent regression analysis with measures of self-regulation, conflict behaviour, and personality disorders as independent variables. Antisocial behaviour, behavioural self-control, and affect were among the strongest predictors of aggression. Specific predictions based on PSI theory could not be confirmed. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed and put into relation with treatment issues of offenders. PMID:18025075

  5. Bullying in Middle School as a Function of Insecure Attachment and Aggressive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a model for understanding peer bullying as the product of aggressive attitudes and insecure attachment. A sample of 110 sixth grade students completed self-report measures that assessed attitudes toward the use of aggressive behaviour with peers and distinguished secure from insecure parental attachment. Bullying behaviour was…

  6. The Impact of Parent-Child Attachment on Aggression, Social Stress and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…

  7. Authoritarianism and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Walker, W D; Rowe, R C; Quinsey, V L

    1993-11-01

    In Study 1, 198 men completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism, Sex Role Ideology, Hostility Towards Women, Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Rape Myth Acceptance scales, as well as measures of past sexually aggressive behavior and likelihood of future sexual aggression. As predicted, authoritarianism and sex role ideology were as closely related to self-reported past and potential future sexually aggressive behavior as were the specifically sexual and aggression-related predictors. Among 134 men in Study 2, authoritarianism and sex guilt positively correlated with each other and with self-reported past sexual aggression. In both studies, the relationship of authoritarianism and sexual aggression was larger in community than in university samples. PMID:8246111

  8. Female competition and aggression: interdisciplinary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, Paula; Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue combining interdisciplinary perspectives in the study of female competition and aggression. Despite a history of being largely overlooked, evidence is now accumulating for the widespread evolutionary significance of female competition. Here, we provide a synthesis of contributions to this Theme Issue on humans and other vertebrates, and highlight directions for future research. Females compete for resources needed to survive and reproduce, and for preferred mates. Although female aggression takes diverse forms, under most circumstances relatively low-risk competitive strategies are favoured, most probably due to constraints of offspring production and care. In social species, dominance relationships and threats of punishment can resolve social conflict without resort to direct aggression, and coalitions or alliances may reduce risk of retaliation. Consistent with these trends, indirect aggression is a low cost but effective form of competition among young women. Costs are also minimized by flexibility in expression of competitive traits, with aggressive behaviour and competitive signalling tailored to social and ecological conditions. Future research on female competition and the proximate mediators of female aggression will be greatly enhanced by opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange, as evidenced by contributions to this Theme Issue. PMID:24167303

  9. Surgical implications of tumour immunology.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of immune infiltration of tumour deposits and the existence of effective in vitro anti-tumour immune responses would suggest the possibility of therapeutic manipulation against tumour cells. However, clinical immunotherapy has shown little promise as a cancer treatment. Numerous explanations for this inefficacy have been proposed, one of which involves the elaboration of immunosuppressive moieties from tumour cells. The results of studies presented below show that serum from patients with gastrointestinal and other tumours have immunosuppressive influences on normal lymphocytes. The degree of this in vitro inhibition is related to tumour 'bulk' and may reflect a systemic immunosuppressive influence of the tumour. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes from gastrointestinal tumour deposits demonstrated that these immune cells are functionally inert, suggesting the existence of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. The isolation and partial purification of an immunosuppressive moiety from conditioned culture medium of a variety of human tumour cell lines further supports the hypothesis of tumour-mediated immunosuppression. A number of protein tumour cell products have been described with potent immunosuppressive properties. These include transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10, and the retroviral envelope protein p15E. The surgical implications of the proposed tumour-host immune relationship includes the hypothesis that clinically apparent disease may not be amenable to immune attack owing to tumour-mediated immune suppression. The use of immunostimulatory strategies as adjuvant perioperative therapy would seem a more effective environment for the activation of antitumour immune responses in the surgical patient. PMID:8678441

  10. Tumours of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

  11. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  12. Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wen; Zender, Lars; Miething, Cornelius; Dickins, Ross A.; Hernando, Eva; Krizhanovsky, Valery; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer arises from a combination of mutations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, the extent to which tumour suppressor gene loss is required for maintaining established tumours is poorly understood. p53 is an important tumour suppressor that acts to restrict proliferation in response to DNA damage or deregulation of mitogenic oncogenes, by leading to the induction of various cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis or cellular senescence1,2. Consequently, p53 mutations increase cell proliferation and survival, and in some settings promote genomic instability and resistance to certain chemotherapies3. To determine the consequences of reactivating the p53 pathway in tumours, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to conditionally regulate endogenous p53 expression in a mosaic mouse model of liver carcinoma4,5. We show that even brief reactivation of endogenous p53 in p53-deficient tumours can produce complete tumour regressions. The primary response to p53 was not apoptosis, but instead involved the induction of a cellular senescence program that was associated with differentiation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. This program, although producing only cell cycle arrest in vitro, also triggered an innate immune response that targeted the tumour cells in vivo, thereby contributing to tumour clearance. Our study indicates that p53 loss can be required for the maintenance of aggressive carcinomas, and illustrates how the cellular senescence program can act together with the innate immune system to potently limit tumour growth. PMID:17251933

  13. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects. PMID:25599665

  14. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-02-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  15. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-01-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  16. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour in a Young Woman with Widespread Metastasis and Peritoneal Caking

    PubMed Central

    Monappa, Vidya; Bhat, Sudha S.; Valiathan, Manna

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive, mesenchymal tumour that arises from the peritoneal cavity. It is commonly seen in adolescent and young adult males and its occurrence in females is uncommon. We are reporting here a rare case of DSRCT in a young woman, which clinically masqueraded as an ovarian malignancy, with metastasis to liver, lung, spleen and peritoneum. The cytologic findings, Histomorphological and immunohistochemical features have been discussed, with a brief review of literature. PMID:24551689

  17. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  18. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  19. Angry and Aggressive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…

  20. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  1. Testosterone and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1994-01-01

    Studies comparing aggressive and nonaggressive prisoners show higher testosterone levels among the former. While there is limited evidence for a strong association between aggressiveness and testosterone during adolescence, other studies indicate that testosterone levels are responsive to influences from the social environment, particularly those…

  2. Aggression: Psychopharmacologic Management

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Patrick; Frommhold, Kristine

    1989-01-01

    Aggression may be part of a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. The appropriate treatment requires that the physician recognize the underlying cause. Pharmacologic agents may form part of the overall treatment of the patient. The number of possible drugs for treating aggression has expanded rapidly, and it is important that the physician be familiar with the various options avilable. PMID:21248947

  3. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  4. Third Person Instigated Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebelein, Jacquelyn

    Since many acts of aggression in society are more than simply an aggressor-victim encounter, the role played by third person instigated aggression also needs examination. The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory procedure to systematically investigate instigation. In a competitive reaction time task, high and low Machiavellian Males…

  5. Neuropsychiatry of Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Aggression is a serious medical problem that can place both the patient and the health care provider at risk. Aggression can result from medical, neurologic and or psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive patient evaluation is needed. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy as well as non-pharmacologic interventions, both need to be individualized to the patient. PMID:21172570

  6. The genetics of aggression: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Cormand, Bru

    2016-07-01

    Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments. Research on human aggression has largely focused on the societal causes of violent behaviour with relatively little focus on the underlying neuroscientific basis. However, interesting findings are emerging which suggest that by identifying distinct pathways to aggression, better targeting of social, psychological and medical treatments, can lead to improved outcomes for individuals and society. This issue represents a state of the art review of current neurobiological understanding of human aggression and a starting point for concerted efforts to move the field towards the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061441

  7. Tumours with cancer stem cells: A PDE model.

    PubMed

    Fasano, A; Mancini, A; Primicerio, M

    2016-02-01

    The role of cancer stem cells (CSC) in tumour growth has received increasing attention in the recent literature. Here we stem from an integro-differential system describing the evolution of a population of CSC and of ordinary (non-stem) tumour cells formulated and studied in a previous paper, and we investigate an approximation in which the system reduces to a pair of nonlinear coupled parabolic equation. We prove that the new system is well posed and we examine some general properties. Numerical simulations show more on the qualitative behaviour of the solutions, concerning in particular the so-called tumour paradox, according to which an increase of the mortality rate of ordinary (non-stem) tumour cells results asymptotically in a faster growth. PMID:26719124

  8. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sam A; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Daniel J; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L; Russo, Scott J

    2016-06-30

    Maladaptive aggressive behaviour is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and is thought to result partly from the inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus, extended amygdala and limbic circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behaviour. Here we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors develop a CPP, whereas non-aggressors develop a conditioned place aversion to the intruder-paired context. Furthermore, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of aggressors with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of non-aggressors with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Finally, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behaviour. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit has a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behaviour and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing. PMID:27357796

  9. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  10. EGFR and microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Guimarães, Maria João; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2013-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor which has been shown to have an important role in human breast cancer. Its role appears to be associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. In order to clarify its role in canine mammary tumours (CMT), 61 malignant neoplasms were studied by using immunohistochemistry, comparing expression of EGFR, microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 immunolabelling and characteristics of tumour aggressiveness. High EGFR immunoexpression was statistically significantly associated with tumour size, tumour necrosis, mitotic grade, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. High CD31 immunoreactivity was statistically significantly associated with tubule formation, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. A positive correlation between EGFR and CD31 immunoexpression (r = 0.843; P < 0.001) was also observed. Results suggest that an over-expression of EGFR may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant CMT, presenting the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors in the context of metastatic disease treatment. PMID:24091029

  11. Cool and hot executive function as predictors of aggression in early childhood: Differentiating between the function and form of aggression.

    PubMed

    Poland, Sarah E; Monks, Claire P; Tsermentseli, Stella

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) has been implicated in childhood aggression. Understanding of the role of EF in aggression has been hindered, however, by the lack of research taking into account the function and form of aggression and the almost exclusive focus on cool EF. This study examined the role of cool and hot EF in teacher reported aggression, differentiating between reactive and proactive as well as physical and relational aggression. Children (N = 106) completed laboratory tasks measuring cool (inhibition, planning, working memory) and hot EF (affective decision-making, delay of gratification). Cool, but not hot, EF significantly contributed to understanding of childhood aggression. Inhibition was a central predictor of childhood aggression. Planning and working memory, in contrast, were significant independent predictors of proactive relational aggression only. Added to this, prosocial behaviour moderated the relationship between working memory and reactive relational aggression. This study therefore suggests that cool EF, particularly inhibition, is associated with childhood aggression across the different functions and forms. PMID:26615980

  12. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes. PMID:26986843

  13. Aggressive and impulsive behavior in Alzheimer’s disease and progression of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bidzan, Leszek; Bidzan, Mariola; Pąchalska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are numerous, including worsening of mood, psychotic symptoms, aggressive and impulsive behaviours, and many others. It is generally assumed that there exists a relationship between the severity of dementia and aggressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aggressive and impulsive behaviours and cognitive function disorders in AD patients. Material/Methods Forty-eight AD patients living in a nursing home were included in the research group on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The subjects underwent two years of naturalistic observation. The intensity of agitation and aggressive behaviours was assessed on the basis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale Cog (ADAS-cog) was used to assess cognitive function. Pharmacotherapy administered during the observation period was also taken into account. Results Thirty-one patients completed the two year long observation. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficiencies demonstrated a greater intensity of aggressive and impulsive behaviours, as assessed using the CMAI scale. Aggression escalated together with the development of dementia disorders. The intensity of dementia disorders was most significantly connected with physical agitation and verbal aggression. The use of neuroleptics and mood stabilisers decreased the progression of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Conclusions There is a relationship between cognitive functioning disorders and the intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. More severe forms of dementia are connected with greater intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours as the disease progresses. Periodical administration of pharmacotherapy may reduce the development of aggressive behaviours. PMID:22367129

  14. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  15. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of a rare sinonasal neuroendocrine tumour: adding to the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Aashrai; Dean, Ryan; Liu, Yuxin; Dhamoon, Amit S

    2016-01-01

    Sinonasal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, aggressive neoplasms with a high recurrence potential. There are no robust protocols for the management of these tumours. An 81-year-old man presented with an incidental sinonasal mass visualised on CT scan of head. Over the next few weeks he developed new onset, progressively worsening headache, right eye ptosis and restricted extraocular movements. Imaging confirmed a rapidly enlarging tumour involving the right nasal cavity and the orbit. Biopsy showed a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right ethmoidal sinus. The patient was treated with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation. Repeat imaging showed decrease in tumour volume. The patient continues to do well and follows up regularly with our oncology service. Current protocols comprising chemotherapy after radiation are based on limited studies. A regimen involving concurrent chemoradiation also appears to aid in tumour volume reduction. Additional studies are required to formulate robust clinical protocols for management of sinonasal NETs. PMID:27624450

  17. Leukaemia cell of origin identified by chromatin landscape of bulk tumour cells.

    PubMed

    George, Joshy; Uyar, Asli; Young, Kira; Kuffler, Lauren; Waldron-Francis, Kaiden; Marquez, Eladio; Ucar, Duygu; Trowbridge, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The precise identity of a tumour's cell of origin can influence disease prognosis and outcome. Methods to reliably define tumour cell of origin from primary, bulk tumour cell samples has been a challenge. Here we use a well-defined model of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to demonstrate that transforming haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors results in more aggressive AML than transforming committed progenitor cells. Transcriptome profiling reveals a gene expression signature broadly distinguishing stem cell-derived versus progenitor cell-derived AML, including genes involved in immune escape, extravasation and small GTPase signal transduction. However, whole-genome profiling of open chromatin reveals precise and robust biomarkers reflecting each cell of origin tested, from bulk AML tumour cell sampling. We find that bulk AML tumour cells exhibit distinct open chromatin loci that reflect the transformed cell of origin and suggest that open chromatin patterns may be leveraged as prognostic signatures in human AML. PMID:27397025

  18. The reduction of aggression in people with learning difficulties: a review of psychological methods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, S

    1993-02-01

    The literature on the reduction of aggression in people with learning difficulties is reviewed. The methods of reducing aggression identified were predominantly evaluated in staffed settings and with target behaviours more frequent than once a day. This contrasts with the findings of a recent survey that found the majority of aggressive individuals to live in the community and show aggression less than once a day. It is argued that the reasons for this disparity are as follows. That it is easier to do a controlled study in staffed settings with high-frequency aggression. That it is more difficult to do an analysis of the target behaviour if it is low frequency or if the subject is in the community; and that the methods that have been traditionally used to reduce aggression may not be effective with all subjects in all settings. It is suggested that it may be necessary to develop and evaluate a new technology for reducing aggression. PMID:8467270

  19. Aggression and risk of future violence in forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellström, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-05-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery 'The Pigeon'. The patients filled in the Aggression Questionnaire, and trained assessors performed the risk assessments using HCR-20 version 2. Patients with dyslexia self-reported more aggressive behaviour compared with those without dyslexia. There was only a nearly significant tendency (p = 0.06) for the patients with dyslexia to receive higher scores in the HCR-20 compared with the patients without dyslexia, and phonological processing skills did not significantly predict aggression or risk of future violence. However, regression analyses demonstrated that poor phonological processing skills are a significant predictor of anger, which in turn significantly predicts risk of future violence. PMID:21268184

  20. Fatty tumours of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, D J

    1982-01-01

    Uterine fatty tumours (UFT) are uncommon and have received little attention in the English literature. They have aroused interest as a consequence of occasional diagnostic confusion with sarcomas and the continuing unresolved dispute as to their histogenesis. Three cases of UFT are described and the pathological features of note discussed. The viewpoint that these tumours are hamartomas/choristomas is rejected. UFT most probably represent tumour metaplasia within a leiomyoma. There is no uniform accepted nomenclature for such tumours and it is suggested that they be designated "uterine fatty tumours" and subdivided into "lipoma" and "mixed lipoma/leiomyoma" (synonym lipoleiomyoma). Images PMID:7174848

  1. Glomus tumour of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Troller, Rebekka; Soll, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours are benign tumours typically arising from the glomus bodies and primarily found under the fingernails or toenails. These rare neoplasms account for <2% of all soft tissue tumours and are generally not found in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 40-year-old man presenting with recurrent epigastric pain and pyrosis. Endoscopy revealed a solitary tumour in the antrum of the stomach. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for a gastrointestinal stroma tumour. After CT indicated the resectability of the tumour, showing neither lymphatic nor distant metastases, a laparoscopic-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed. Surprisingly, histology revealed a glomus tumour of the stomach. PMID:27343282

  2. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  3. Aggressive Attitudes Predict Aggressive Behavior in Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, David W.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study found that self-reported attitudes toward peer aggression among 403 middle school students were both internally consistent and stable over time (7 months). Aggressive attitudes were correlated with four outcome criteria for aggressive behavior: student self-report of peer aggression; peer and teacher nominations of bullying;…

  4. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  5. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice

    PubMed Central

    JANSEN, NATALIE; WALACH, HARALD

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.0001), indicating that more progressed and aggressive tumours may require a higher level of aerobic glycolysis. In palliative patients, a clear trend was observed in patients who adhered strictly to a ketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials. PMID:26870251

  6. Borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Tropé, Claes Göran; Kaern, Janne; Davidson, Ben

    2012-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours account for 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian cancer. Historically, standard primary surgery has included borderline ovarian tumours, omentectomy, peritoneal washing and multiple biopsies. As one-third of borderline ovarian tumours are diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years, fertility-sparing treatment has been more frequently used in the past 10 years. Fertility drugs are well tolerated in women with infertility after fertility-sparing surgery. Careful selection of candidates is necessary. Laparoscopic techniques can be used, but should be reserved for oncologic surgeons. This conservative treatment increases the rate of recurrence, albeit with no effect on survival. The pregnancy rate is nearly 50%, and most are achieved spontaneously. These women should be closely followed up. The question is whether this is acceptable from a gynaecologic oncologic point of view. For this reason, we will discuss recently published studies and gynaecologic oncologic concerns about the mode of fertility-sparing surgery and its consequences. PMID:22321906

  7. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  8. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  9. [The role of testosterone in regulating the aggressive behavior of male laboratory mice of different strains].

    PubMed

    Diuzhikova, N A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of testosterone on aggressive behaviour, on urinal pheromonal activity, on weight of the preputial gland, seminal vesicles and coagulating glands of male mouse CBA, C57BL/6 and hybrids CBAB6F1 was studied. The interstrain differences in reactivity to testosterone in aggressive behaviour tests and in seminal vesicles and coagulating gland weight were found. The urinal pheromonal characteristics were not changed by testosterone influence. No significant correlations between the aggressive behaviour parameters, urinal pheromonal activity, testosterone plasma levels and reactivity to its action were discovered. PMID:7941714

  10. Exposure to Client Aggression and Burnout among Community Staff Who Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, J. M.; Lunsky, Y.; Dewa, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are exposed to challenging behaviour in their work including client aggression. Exposure to aggressive behaviour has been associated with staff stress and burnout. Study samples have been small however, and there has been very little data exploring…

  11. The Moderating Effect of Parental Warmth on the Association between Spanking and Child Aggression: A Longitudinal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Ann Michele; Oshio, Toko; Gerard, Jean; Roe, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study, this study analysed the stability of child aggressive behaviour beginning in infancy and tested whether spanking when the child was 36 months was associated with aggressive child behaviour among three ethnic groups and whether maternal warmth moderated the effect of spanking on…

  12. Factors influencing the aggressiveness elicited by marihuana in food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A; Hamaoui, A; Märtz, R M

    1972-04-01

    1. Aggressive behaviour was elicited in rats that had been deprived of food for 20 h daily (starved), by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa extract or (-)-Delta(9)-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol.2. The influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral glucose administration, cold environment, acidosis, and corn, and protein-free diets on this aggressiveness was studied.3. Intraperitoneal injections of glucose (100-1,600 mg/kg) did not alter the aggressiveness induced by marihuana in starved rats; glucose given orally, however, blocked this behaviour.4. Low temperature (14 degrees C) strongly potentiated the aggressive behaviour induced by marihuana in the starved rats.5. Lactic acid in doses capable of potentiating thiopental anaesthesia, failed to alter the marihuana-aggressiveness of starved rats or to facilitate this effect of marihuana in rats fed ad libitum. The same negative results were obtained with ammonium chloride.6. In rats fed ad libitum with protein-free or corn diets, marihuana administered chronically did not elicit aggressive behaviour. However, aggressiveness appeared when rats were fed for only 2 h daily on those diets.7. The results suggest that the stress of hunger (and not hypoglycaemia, acidosis or lack of specific nutrients due to starvation) is the factor that facilitates the development of aggressive behaviour by chronic administration of marihuana. PMID:5064930

  13. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. PMID:22943286

  14. Image-Guided Predictions of Liposome Transport in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Shawn

    Due to the ability to preferentially accumulate and deliver drug payloads to solid tumours, liposomes have emerged as an exciting therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the initial excitement was dampened by limited clinical results, where only negligible increases in patient survival following liposome therapy have been observed. What are the reasons for the limited clinical efficacy? Is the nanoparticle formulation optimal? Is the enhanced permeability and retention effect overstated? What are the barriers limiting the delivery of drugs to cancer cells? What is the optimal dosing and treatment schedule? Addressing these questions requires developing quantitative tools to understand the behaviour of liposomes in vivo, such as pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, intra-tumoural accumulation, and drug release. Central to each of these questions is the concept of transport - the collection of biophysical processes responsible for the delivery of molecules to tissues. Understanding transport means understanding the crucial links between the spatio-temporal accumulation of liposomes, the physicochemical properties of liposomes, and properties of the tumour microenvironment. In this thesis, a biophysical mathematical transport model is developed that when used in combination with non-invasive imaging methods can predict liposome transport in solid tumours. The mathematical transport framework is validated in its ability to predict the bulk and intra-tumoural accumulation of liposomes based on biophysical transport properties of solid tumours. Furthermore, novel imaging methods are developed and used to elucidate the crucial links between transport barriers and spatial heterogeneity in liposome accumulation. Finally, methods are presented to integrate quantitative imaging and mathematical modelling such that an accurate prediction of liposome transport in solid tumours is possible. In summary, this thesis presents and validates an image-guided mathematical

  15. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as

  16. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  17. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  18. Equating salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with LDH-5 expression in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: An insight into metabolic reprogramming of cancer cell as a predictor of aggressive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Tajindra Singh; Spadigam, Anita; Dhupar, Anita; Syed, Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common human malignancy. According to World Health Organization, oral cancer has been reported to have the highest morbidity and mortality and a survival rate of approximately 50 % at 5 years from diagnosis. This is attributed to the subjectivity in TNM staging and histological grading which may result in less than optimum treatment outcomes including tumour recurrence. One of the hallmarks of cancer is aerobic glycolysis also known as the Warburg effect. This glycolytic phenotype (hypoxic state) not only confers immortality to cancer cells, but also correlates with the belligerent behaviour of various malignancies and is reflected as an increase in the expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5), the main isoform of LDH catalysing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during glycolysis. The diagnostic role of salivary LDH in assessing the metabolic phenotype of oral cancer has not been studied. Since salivary LDH is mainly sourced from oral epithelial cells, any pathological changes in the epithelium should reflect diagnostically in saliva. Thus in our current research, we made an attempt to ascertain the biological behaviour and aggressiveness of OSCC by appraising its metabolic phenotype as indirectly reflected in salivary LDH activity. We found that salivary LDH can be used to assess the aggressiveness of different histological grades of OSCC. For the first time, an evidence of differing metabolic behaviour in similar histologic tumour grade is presented. Taken together, our study examines the inclusion of salivary LDH as potential diagnostic parameter and therapeutic index in OSCC. PMID:26577856

  19. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  20. Primary osseous tumours of the elbow: 60 years of registry experience

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Mansur; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, David; Rymaszewski, Lech; Mahendra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background We present the largest series of surgically treated primary bone tumours of the elbow in the English literature (75 cases). We sought to identify characteristics specific to these lesions and recommend an investigatory protocol. Methods The national registry and case notes were reviewed between 1954-2014. Tumours were classified according to Enneking's spectrum. Results There were no benign latent cases in this series as these were managed locally. All patients presented with persistent rest pain, with or without swelling. The distal humerus, in contrast to the proximal radius and ulna, was responsible for the majority and the more aggressive cases. Misdiagnosis was evident in 13% of cases; most of which were attributed to simple bone cysts. All patients that were referred required surgical intervention to either establish the diagnosis or for treatment. Benign tumours had a 19% recurrence rate, with giant cell tumour the most aggressive. Malignant tumours carried 39% local recurrence rate and a 5-year mortality of 61%. Conclusions The suspicion of a tumour should be raised in the patient with unremitting, unexplained, non-mechanical bony elbow pain. These echo the NICE recommendations and we recommend prompt specialist referral. With high rates of local recurrence, we recommend close postoperative monitoring.

  1. Intellectual Competence and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Yarmel, Patty Warnick

    Using data from a broader longitudinal study, this investigation explores within-subject and cross-generational stability of intellectual competence and the relationship of such stability to aggressive behavior. Data were gathered three times (when subjects' modal age was 8, 19, and 30 years). Initially, subjects included the entire population…

  2. Relational Aggression among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  3. Stability of Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    As indicated by multiple measures (including overt criminal behavior), stability of aggressive behavior was investigated across 22 years for males and females in a variety of situations. Originally, subjects included the entire population enrolled in the third grade in a semi-rural county in New York State. The sample included approximately 870…

  4. Human Aggression and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald L.; Goodwin, Frederick K

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system transmitter serontonin may be altered in aggressive/impulsive and suicidal behaviors in humans. These reports are largely consistent with animal data, and constitute one of the most highly replicated set of findings in biological psychiatry. Suggests that some suicidal behavior may be a special kind of aggressive…

  5. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  6. Basosquamous carcinoma: is it an aggressive tumor?

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulug; Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Vardar, Enver

    2015-04-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumour that is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases. This impression has been perpetuated in the literature, despite limited scientific data and conflicting results of some authors. This present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of this tumour and follow-up of a series of basosquamous carcinoma. Basosquamous carcinoma patients who underwent surgical excision between January 2000 and February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Their medical files were reviewed and the corresponding routinely stained sections (with hematoxylin-eosin) were re-evaluated by two pathologists. Thirty-five patients with basosquamous carcinoma were operated on in this period. Most tumurs were located in the head and neck area (94%), and the mean age of the patients was 69.8 years. Margin involvements were seen in 11 patients (31.4%) and all of them underwent re-excision. There was only one local recurrence. There was neither regional lymph node nor distant metastasis in this series. The recurrence rate of basosquamous carcinoma is found as 4%, lower than that of most other similar studies. Further pathologic studies are needed to better classify basosquamous carcinoma and to increase consistency between the results of studies. Surgical excision and regular follow-up are considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:25139415

  7. Parents' Aggressive Influences and Children's Aggressive Problem Solutions with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…

  8. What the nucleolus says to a tumour pathologist.

    PubMed

    Derenzini, Massimo; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide

    2009-05-01

    The importance of nucleolar changes in cancer cells is underestimated in tumour pathology. There is evidence that the nucleolus is the mirror of a series of metabolic changes that characterize cancer cells. Cell entry into the cell cycle is always associated with up-regulation of the nucleolar function and increased nucleolar size, which are also directly dependent on the rapidity of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, alterations of the major tumour suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 pathways also contribute to the stimulation of nucleolar function and to nucleolar enlargement. High cell growth fraction, high cell growth rate and disruption of the Rb and p53 pathways are responsible for greater aggressiveness of cancer tissues. Therefore, the evaluation of nucleolar size allows one to obtain reliable information on the clinical outcome of the cancer: the greater the nucleolar size, the worse the tumour prognosis. Indeed, a series of studies carried out on numerous human tumours has shown that nucleolar hypertrophy (prominent nucleolus) was an independent predictive and prognostic parameter of a fatal clinical outcome. PMID:19178588

  9. Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristovão M; Biancur, Douglas E; Wang, Xiaoxu; Halbrook, Christopher J; Sherman, Mara H; Zhang, Li; Kremer, Daniel; Hwang, Rosa F; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Evans, Ronald M; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2016-08-25

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a highly hypoxic, nutrient-poor environment. As such, these tumours must alter how they capture and use nutrients to support their metabolic needs. Here we show that stroma-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical for PDAC metabolism through the secretion of non-essential amino acids (NEAA). Specifically, we uncover a previously undescribed role for alanine, which outcompetes glucose and glutamine-derived carbon in PDAC to fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus NEAA and lipid biosynthesis. This shift in fuel source decreases the tumour’s dependence on glucose and serum-derived nutrients, which are limited in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we demonstrate that alanine secretion by PSCs is dependent on PSC autophagy, a process that is stimulated by cancer cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel metabolic interaction between PSCs and cancer cells, in which PSC-derived alanine acts as an alternative carbon source. This finding highlights a previously unappreciated metabolic network within pancreatic tumours in which diverse fuel sources are used to promote growth in an austere tumour microenvironment. PMID:27509858

  10. What Makes Children Behave Aggressively? The Inner Logic of Dutch Children in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Marieke; Singer, Elly; van Geert, Paul L. C.; Kunnen, Saskia E.

    2009-01-01

    The ambiguous results of existing intervention programmes show the need for new ways in research on aggression among children. The present study focuses on the children's own perspective on their aggressive behaviour. Based on a constructivist approach, the inner logic of narratives about peer conflicts of 64 children in Dutch special education…

  11. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  12. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  13. Assessment of tumour hypoxia for prediction of response to therapy and cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jubb, Adrian M; Buffa, Francesca M; Harris, Adrian L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tumour cells exploit both genetic and adaptive means to survive and proliferate in hypoxic microenvironments, resulting in the outgrowth of more aggressive tumour cell clones. Direct measurements of tumour oxygenation, and surrogate markers of the hypoxic response in tumours (for instance, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9 and glucose transporter-1) are well-established prognostic markers in solid cancers. However, individual markers do not fully capture the complex, dynamic and heterogeneous hypoxic response in cancer. To overcome this, expression profiling has been employed to identify hypoxia signatures in cohorts or models of human cancer. Several of these hypoxia signatures have demonstrated prognostic significance in independent cancer datasets. Nevertheless, individual hypoxia markers have been shown to predict the benefit from hypoxia-modifying or anti-angiogenic therapies. This review aims to discuss the clinical impact of translational work on hypoxia markers and to explore future directions for research in this area. PMID:19840191

  14. Deformed wing virus is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rortais, Agnès; Tentcheva, Diana; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Gauthier, Laurent; Arnold, Gérard; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max

    2006-01-01

    Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed. PMID:16942620

  15. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  16. Implications of Bullying in Schools for Aggression between Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the nature of bullying in schools can assist in understanding aggression between nations. Although there are substantial differences between bullying behaviour practised by school children and bullying attributed to nations, there are some commonalities. This article examines seven basic elements that help in identifying and…

  17. One very rare and one new tracheal tumour found by electron microscopy: glomus tumour and acinic cell tumour resembling carcinoid tumours by light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Heard, B E; Dewar, A; Firmin, R K; Lennox, S C

    1982-01-01

    Tracheal tumours were removed surgically from two patients and diagnosed as carcinoid tumours by routine light microscopy. At a later date, electron microscopy was performed on stored tumour tissue and no neurosecretory granules were found in either case. One showed features of a glomus tumour and the other of an acinic cell tumour. Only two glomus tumours appear to have been reported previously in the trachea, and no acinic cell tumours. Electron microscopy is thus sometimes of great assistance in diagnosing accurately unusual tumours of the lower respiratory tract. Images PMID:6281934

  18. Metabolic reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yazhi; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Binhua P; Mi, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Tumour cells, stromal cells and the stroma comprise the tumour microenvironment. The metabolism of both tumour cells and several types of tumour stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, is reprogrammed. Current studies have found that stromal cells promote tumour progression and metastasis, through not only the paracrine secretion of cytokines or chemokines, but also intermediate metabolites. Here, we summarize the latest insights into the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, and their potential roles in tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:26255648

  19. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment

    PubMed Central

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma. PMID:27009516

  20. A single dividing cell population with imbalanced fate drives oesophageal tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Frede, Julia; Greulich, Philip; Nagy, Tibor; Simons, Benjamin D; Jones, Philip H

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of tumour growth is key for designing rational anticancer treatment. Here we used genetic lineage tracing to quantify cell behaviour during neoplastic transformation in a model of oesophageal carcinogenesis. We found that cell behaviour was convergent across premalignant tumours, which contained a single proliferating cell population. The rate of cell division was not significantly different in the lesions and the surrounding epithelium. However, dividing tumour cells had a uniform, small bias in cell fate so that, on average, slightly more dividing than non-dividing daughter cells were generated at each round of cell division. In invasive cancers induced by Kras(G12D) expression, dividing cell fate became more strongly biased towards producing dividing over non-dividing cells in a subset of clones. These observations argue that agents that restore the balance of cell fate may prove effective in checking tumour growth, whereas those targeting cycling cells may show little selectivity. PMID:27548914

  1. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  2. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  3. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. PMID:27138835

  4. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  5. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Crnjac, Anton; Veingerl, Bojan; Vidovic, Damjan; Kavalar, Rajko; Hojski, Aljaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malign ant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy. Case report A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year. Conclusions Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures. PMID:26834527

  6. [Drug therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós

    2013-09-29

    The author aims to review the established medical treatment options of neuroendocrine tumours, which have expanded greatly in recent years and present the most important aspects to be considered in planning patients' management. Medical treatment is usually considered in advanced stages of these tumours, as well as in cases of hormone overproduction. Somatostatin analogues have been known to be effective in alleviating hormone excess syndromes, especially carcinoid syndrome for the past 25 years. There is a convincing evidence that the somatostatin analogue octreotide is useful as an antitumor agent, at least in well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours and probably also in those of pancreatic origin. Interferons may be also used and the indications for their use may be almost the same. Optimal patient selection is mandatory for the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Streptozotocin- and, recently, temozolomide-based chemotherapies should be considered in progressive phases of well differentiated (G1/G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. A cisplatin-etoposide combination is the first choice for the treatment of G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas of any origin. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and the combined tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib were registered for the treatment of G1/G2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. The most recent drug treatment recommendations and therapeutic algorithms to improve systemic therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumours are summarized and novel drug candidates with particular potential for future management of these tumours are outlined. PMID:24058101

  7. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  8. The occurrence of intracranial rhabdoid tumours in mice depends on temporal control of Smarcb1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Richer, Wilfrid; Fréneaux, Paul; Chauvin, Céline; Lucchesi, Carlo; Guillemot, Delphine; Grison, Camille; Lequin, Delphine; Pierron, Gaelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Nicolas, André; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stéphanie; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Ayrault, Olivier; Surdez, Didier; Delattre, Olivier; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are highly aggressive tumours of infancy, frequently localized in the central nervous system (CNS) where they are termed atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and characterized by bi-allelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumour suppressor gene. In this study, by temporal control of tamoxifen injection in Smarcb1flox/flox;Rosa26-CreERT2 mice, we explore the phenotypes associated with Smarcb1 inactivation at different developmental stages. Injection before E6, at birth or at 2 months of age recapitulates previously described phenotypes including embryonic lethality, hepatic toxicity or development of T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Injection between E6 and E10 leads to high penetrance tumours, mainly intra-cranial, with short delays (median: 3 months). These tumours demonstrate anatomical, morphological and gene expression profiles consistent with those of human AT/RTs. Moreover, intra- and inter-species comparisons of tumours reveal that human and mouse RTs can be split into different entities that may underline the variety of RT cells of origin. PMID:26818002

  9. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours—linalool and 2-phenylethanol—have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  10. Appetitive floral odours prevent aggression in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Nouvian, Morgane; Hotier, Lucie; Claudianos, Charles; Giurfa, Martin; Reinhard, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees defend their colonies aggressively against intruders and release a potent alarm pheromone to recruit nestmates into defensive tasks. The effect of floral odours on this behaviour has never been studied, despite the relevance of these olfactory cues for the biology of bees. Here we use a novel assay to investigate social and olfactory cues that drive defensive behaviour in bees. We show that social interactions are necessary to reveal the recruiting function of the alarm pheromone and that specific floral odours-linalool and 2-phenylethanol-have the surprising capacity to block recruitment by the alarm pheromone. This effect is not due to an olfactory masking of the pheromone by the floral odours, but correlates with their appetitive value. In addition to their potential applications, these findings provide new insights about how honeybees make the decision to engage into defence and how conflicting information affects this process. PMID:26694599

  11. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  12. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course. PMID:27070539

  13. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jakhetiya, Ashish; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rambha; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majority of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117 (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs. PMID:27231512

  14. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Jakhetiya, Ashish; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rambha; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-05-27

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majority of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117 (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs. PMID:27231512

  15. Motives in Sexual Aggression: The Chinese Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared sexual and aggressive motives for sexual aggression in Chinese college students. Male undergraduates (N=146) completed self-report measures. Results suggest that sex guilt and aggressive guilt acted as inhibitors for their respective drives and sexual aggression resulted from aggressive, rather than sexual, motives. Sexual aggression may…

  16. Distribution of Photofrin between tumour cells and tumour associated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.; Olive, P. L.; Chaplin, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Photofrin levels in cells derived from SCCVII tumours, excised from mice that previously received the drug, were measured using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Concomitantly, in the same cells the FACS was used to measure fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence that originated from FITC-conjugated antimouse IgG added to the cell suspension before sorting. This later measurement enabled discrimination between IgG negative tumour malignant cells and IgG positive host cells (primarily macrophages). In addition, cellular Photofrin content in 'tumour' and 'host' cells sorted by FACS was determined by chemical extraction. The measurements were performed for the time intervals 1-96 h post Photofrin administration. The data showed consistently higher Photofrin levels in the 'host cells', i.e., tumour associated macrophages (TAM), than in 'tumour' cells. On a per cell basis, at any time point studied there was a minimum of 1.7 times more Photofrin in 'host' than in 'tumour cells', while at 4-12 h postadministration, ratios of up to 3.0 times were observed. This corresponds to ratio values greater than 9, when based on Photofrin content per micrograms cell protein. PMID:1832927

  17. Aggressive experience affects the sensitivity of neurons towards pharmacological treatment in the hypothalamic attack area.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Abrahám, I; Zelena, D; Juhász, G; Makara, G B; Kruk, M R

    1998-09-01

    Early investigators of brain stimulation-evoked complex behaviours (attack, escape, feeding, self-grooming, sexual behaviour) reported that experience may affect the behavioural outcome of brain stimulation. This intriguing example of functional neuronal plasticity was later totally neglected. The present experiment investigated the behavioural outcome of in vivo microdialysis perfusion of the glutamate agonist kainate and/or the GABAA antagonist bicuculline into the hypothalamic attack area (HAA) of (1) animals naive to dyadic encounters; (2) animals with a recent aggressive experience (the probe being implanted 6-24 h after the last of a series of dyadic encounters); and (3) animals with an earlier aggressive experience (probe being implanted 2 weeks after the last aggressive experience). On the experimental day, rats received two 5-min infusions during a dyadic encounter lasting 35 min with an unknown opponent. Flow rate was 1.5-2 microliters/min, drug concentrations were 1.8 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-5) M for kainate and bicuculline, respectively. Behaviour was analysed before, during and after perfusions. Only the combined kainate + bicuculline treatment had significant effects on behaviour at the doses studied. A significant increase in aggressive behaviour was elicited only in animals with a recent aggressive experience, while naive animals and with an earlier experience responded to the treatments by grooming. These results appear to support early observations indicating that one important aspect of brain stimulation effects is previous experience. PMID:9832932

  18. Encounters with aggressive conspecifics enhance the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marrow, L P; Overton, P G; Brain, P F; Clark, D

    1999-10-01

    Evidence suggests that stress enhances the behavioural actions of cocaine in the rat. Paradoxically, however, encounters with aggressive conspecifics lead to a pattern of cocaine self-administration indicative of a reduced functional impact of the drug. Hence, we examined the effects of aggressive encounters on another behavioural measure-locomotor activity. Encounters between Lister Hooded rats and rats of the aggressive Tryon Maze Dull strain significantly enhanced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in the Lister Hooded rats. The results suggest that the discrepant findings derived from self-administration studies are a property of the paradigm rather than a property of the stressor. PMID:20575812

  19. Relative survival of patients with non-malignant central nervous system tumours: a descriptive study by the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry

    PubMed Central

    Woehrer, A; Hackl, M; Waldhör, T; Weis, S; Pichler, J; Olschowski, A; Buchroithner, J; Maier, H; Stockhammer, G; Thomé, C; Haybaeck, J; Payer, F; von Campe, G; Kiefer, A; Würtz, F; Vince, G H; Sedivy, R; Oberndorfer, S; Marhold, F; Bordihn, K; Stiglbauer, W; Gruber-Mösenbacher, U; Bauer, R; Feichtinger, J; Reiner-Concin, A; Grisold, W; Marosi, C; Preusser, M; Dieckmann, K; Slavc, I; Gatterbauer, B; Widhalm, G; Haberler, C; Hainfellner, J A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike malignant primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours outcome data on non-malignant CNS tumours are scarce. For patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2002 5-year relative survival of only 85.0% has been reported. We investigated this rate in a contemporary patient cohort to update information on survival. Methods: We followed a cohort of 3983 cases within the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry. All patients were newly diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 with a histologically confirmed non-malignant CNS tumour. Vital status, cause of death, and population life tables were obtained by 31 December 2011 to calculate relative survival. Results: Overall 5-year relative survival was 96.1% (95% CI 95.1–97.1%), being significantly lower in tumours of borderline (90.2%, 87.2–92.7%) than benign behaviour (97.4%, 96.3–98.3%). Benign tumour survival ranged from 86.8 for neurofibroma to 99.7% for Schwannoma; for borderline tumours survival rates varied from 83.2 for haemangiopericytoma to 98.4% for myxopapillary ependymoma. Cause of death was directly attributed to the CNS tumour in 39.6%, followed by other cancer (20.4%) and cardiovascular disease (15.8%). Conclusion: The overall excess mortality in patients with non-malignant CNS tumours is 5.5%, indicating a significant improvement in survival over the last decade. Still, the remaining adverse impact on survival underpins the importance of systematic registration of these tumours. PMID:24253501

  20. Rewiring macrophages for anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunqin; Biswas, Subhra K

    2016-06-28

    Tumour-associated macrophages facilitate cancer progression, but whether they can be reprogrammed to elicit an anti-tumour response remains unclear. Deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is now shown to rewire macrophages to an anti-tumour mode, leading to an enhanced response to immunotherapy and inhibition of tumour progression. PMID:27350442

  1. Quantifying tumour heterogeneity with CT

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity is a key feature of malignancy associated with adverse tumour biology. Quantifying heterogeneity could provide a useful non-invasive imaging biomarker. Heterogeneity on computed tomography (CT) can be quantified using texture analysis which extracts spatial information from CT images (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced and derived images such as CT perfusion) that may not be perceptible to the naked eye. The main components of texture analysis can be categorized into image transformation and quantification. Image transformation filters the conventional image into its basic components (spatial, frequency, etc.) to produce derived subimages. Texture quantification techniques include structural-, model- (fractal dimensions), statistical- and frequency-based methods. The underlying tumour biology that CT texture analysis may reflect includes (but is not limited to) tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis. Emerging studies show that CT texture analysis has the potential to be a useful adjunct in clinical oncologic imaging, providing important information about tumour characterization, prognosis and treatment prediction and response. PMID:23545171

  2. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  3. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  4. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  5. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  6. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    PubMed

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  8. Imaging of skull base tumours.

    PubMed

    Thust, Stefanie Catherine; Yousry, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    The skull base is a highly complex and difficult to access anatomical region, which constitutes a relatively common site for neoplasms. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the differential diagnosis, to determine the anatomic tumour spread and for operative planning. All skull base imaging should be performed using thin-section multiplanar imaging, whereby CT and MRI can be considered complimentary. An interdisciplinary team approach is central to improve the outcome of these challenging tumours. PMID:27330416

  9. [Denosumab may be a supplement to the surgical treatment of giant cell tumours of bone].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Anna Lynge; Hansen, Rehne Lessmann; Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg

    2016-09-01

    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive bone tumour causing bone destruction. GCTB requires surgical treatment, and severe cases have a high risk of functional morbidity. GCTB consists of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-positive osteoclast-like giant cells. The formation and activity of these cells are mediated by the interaction with RANK ligand (RANKL) released from neoplastic stromal cells. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody which inhibits RANKL and impairs the growth of the GCTB. Several studies have described the ability of denosumab to downgrade the extent of surgical treatment and improve the functional outcome. PMID:27593237

  10. Depressive Illness and Aggression in Belfast

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    An inverse relation has been suggested between the incidence of depressive illness and the opportunity to externalize aggressive behaviour. The riot situation in Belfast in 1969-70 provided an opportunity to study this hypothesis. The incidences of depressive illness in the city and a neighbouring peaceful rural county were compared over a number of years. Data regarding age, sex, area of the city, and type of depression were obtained. The city was divided into areas and four of these were studied in detail. Similar data were obtained for persons showing aggressive behaviour. There was a significant decrease in depressive illness in Belfast in both sexes and all age groups. This was more pronounced in males but the decrease was confined to those in social groups IV and V. The decrease was more significant in riot areas. The suicide rate fell by almost 50% and there was a noticeable increase in the rates of homicide and crimes of violence. In contrast the rural county showed a sharp increase in male depressives. PMID:5008660

  11. Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumour. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of a case.

    PubMed

    Kanavaros, P; Hoang, C; Le Bodic, M F; Polivka, M; Hautefeuille, P

    1990-07-01

    Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumours are rare neoplasms which in most cases exhibit malignant biological behaviour. These tumours, in the majority of the well-documented cases, are composed of argyrophil- and argentaffin-positive cells which contain large pleomorphic neurosecretory granules. In contrast, argyrophilic non-argentaffin pancreatic endocrine tumours with tumour cells containing round neurosecretory granules are exceptional. In this study we describe such a tumour not associated with clinical evidence of carcinoid syndrome in a 60-year-old woman. Histological examination revealed tumour extension in pancreatic lymphatic vessels and veins but no evidence of locoregional or distant metastases. Ten months after surgery the patient showed no recurrence of the disease. Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic serotonin production in the tumour cells which were negative for anti-gastrin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and ACTH. This study emphasizes the usefulness of combined ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigations in order to identify and characterize the rare pancreatic endocrine tumours with serotonin production. PMID:1966880

  12. The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wiestler, Otmar D; Cavenee, Webster K; Burger, Peter C; Jouvet, Anne; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Kleihues, Paul

    2007-08-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma, papillary glioneuronal tumour, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, pituicytoma and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. Histological variants were added if there was evidence of a different age distribution, location, genetic profile or clinical behaviour; these included pilomyxoid astrocytoma, anaplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. The WHO grading scheme and the sections on genetic profiles were updated and the rhabdoid tumour predisposition syndrome was added to the list of familial tumour syndromes typically involving the nervous system. As in the previous, 2000 edition of the WHO 'Blue Book', the classification is accompanied by a concise commentary on clinico-pathological characteristics of each tumour type. The 2007 WHO classification is based on the consensus of an international Working Group of 25 pathologists and geneticists, as well as contributions from more than 70 international experts overall, and is presented as the standard for the definition of brain tumours to the clinical oncology and cancer research communities world-wide. PMID:17618441

  13. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in ‘atypical’ mammals

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in ‘atypical’ female mammals. PMID:24167314

  14. The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Birnie, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphism on dominance and agonistic behaviour in mammals tends to be strongly biased toward males. In this review, we focus on a select few species of mammals in which females are as or more aggressive than males, and/or are dominant to males, and explore the role of androgenic hormones in mediating this important difference. While the data are not as clear-cut as those published on traditional laboratory mammals, our review highlights important endocrine substrates for both organizational and activational influences of steroids on female aggressive behaviour. We highlight areas in which further observations and experiments are crucial, especially the potential facilitative effects of androgens on female aggression. Finally, new and innovative techniques, including molecular genetics and receptor pharmacology, portend important insights into the ways in which androgenic hormones regulate aggressive behaviour in 'atypical' female mammals. PMID:24167314

  15. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  16. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  17. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  18. Knowledge Structures, Social Information Processing, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Virginia Salzer; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although a multitude of factors may be involved in the development of children's violent behavior, the actual aggressive act is preceded by a decision-making process that serves as the proximal control mechanism. The primary goal of this longitudinal study was to understand the nature of this proximal control mechanism involved in children's aggressive acts by focusing on two aspects of social cognitions: social information processing and stored knowledge (i.e., internal knowledge structures that are the latent memories of past events). It was hypothesized that: (1) children with hostile knowledge structures will display more biased patterns of aggressive social information processing than children whose knowledge structures are less hostile and negative; (2) children who display hostile knowledge structures will behave in chronically aggressive ways; and (3) the development of hostile knowledge structures and hostile patterns of social information processing contribute to the stability of aggressive behavior and thus partially mediate the relation between early and later aggressive behavior. 585 boys and girls (19% African-American) were followed from kindergarten through eighth grade. Results from this investigation support the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of the significance of the inclusion of knowledge structures in our theories of the mental processes involved in children's violent behaviour. PMID:20011226

  19. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  20. A model for group-size-dependent behaviour decisions in insects using an oscillator network.

    PubMed

    Funato, Tetsuro; Nara, Masahito; Kurabayashi, Daisuke; Ashikaga, Masatoshi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2011-07-15

    Aggressive behaviour within pairs of male crickets leads to the establishment of a dominance hierarchy. Defeated males avoid their victorious adversaries for several hours before regaining aggressiveness. However, the defeated male does not regain aggressiveness if repeated fighting occurs. Loss of individual aggressiveness is limited by group size, which constrains the number of crickets fighting at any given time. Thus, group aggressive behaviour is modulated by an environmental factor, group size, which is ultimately determined by individual actions, i.e. fighting between two individuals. We developed a robot model to elucidate the mechanism of group-size-dependent behaviour alternation in crickets. The behaviour of individual robots was evaluated experimentally with mobile robots and the group behaviour of the robots was evaluated by computer simulation. We demonstrated that the group-size-dependent strategy in crickets could be generated by local interactions between robots, where the behaviour was governed by an oscillator and memory of the outcome of previous fights. PMID:21697435

  1. Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

  2. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Head, K W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. PMID:1086147

  3. Rethinking Aggression: A Typological Examination of the Functions of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Todd D.; Brauner, Jessica; Jones, Stephanie M.; Nock, Matthew K.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Compared five subgroups of aggressive children and adolescents on several adjustment correlates. Found that the reactive group and the group high on both instrumental and reactive reasons for aggression showed consistent maladaptive patterns across the adjustment correlates. The instrumental and typical groups (moderate on instrumental and…

  4. Emergent properties of a computational model of tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the genetic drivers and molecular pathways involved in cancer in recent decades, there also remain key areas of dispute with respect to fundamental theories of cancer. The accumulation of vast new datasets from genomics and other fields, in addition to detailed descriptions of molecular pathways, cloud the issues and lead to ever greater complexity. One strategy in dealing with such complexity is to develop models to replicate salient features of the system and therefore to generate hypotheses which reflect on the real system. A simple tumour growth model is outlined which displays emergent behaviours that correspond to a number of clinically relevant phenomena including tumour growth, intra-tumour heterogeneity, growth arrest and accelerated repopulation following cytotoxic insult. Analysis of model data suggests that the processes of cell competition and apoptosis are key drivers of these emergent behaviours. Questions are raised as to the role of cell competition and cell death in physical cancer growth and the relevance that these have to cancer research in general is discussed. PMID:27413638

  5. Oncoprotein stability after tumour resection.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, G.; Gullick, W.; Sikora, K.

    1990-01-01

    The means by which oncogenes and their products activate malignant transformation are currently under intense investigation. However, published papers on experiments using human tumour material do not always report in detail their methods of collection or storage of the specimens. In order to assess the stability of oncogene encoded proteins following collection or storage of human tumour biopsies, we have examined the rate of decay of the c-myc, neu and EGF-receptor proteins. Solid tumours, containing amplified copies of each oncogene, were established in nude mice and the stability of the oncogene protein in portions of each tumour, left in phosphate buffered saline at room temperature for varying time intervals, was examined by immunoblotting. Intact EGF-receptor and neu oncoproteins were present even after 24 h under these conditions while the c-myc protein was apparently rapidly degraded after 20 min. These data demonstrate that oncogene products decay at different rates after tumour resection and that collection of human biopsies should take this into account in order to provide the basis for consistent measurements of protein expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2139576

  6. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  7. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  8. Tumour-associated eosinophilia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D; Jorizzo, J; Hutt, M S

    1981-01-01

    In a recent study of cervical carcinoma, 13 cases with a marked eosinophil infiltrate around the tumour were found. The histological appearance of the tumours was distinctive and suggested a specific response, similar to the lymphocyte infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast and seminoma. A review of published reports shows that tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) and tumour-associated blood eosinophilia (TABE) may be seen in tumours of different histological types from different anatomical sites, and may occur together or separately. Tumours with TATE alone appear to have a better prognosis that those without, while TABE is associated with tumor spread and a poor prognosis. Images PMID:7035499

  9. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  10. An imaging-based tumour growth and treatment response model: investigating the effect of tumour oxygenation on radiation therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titz, Benjamin; Jeraj, Robert

    2008-09-01

    A multiscale tumour simulation model employing cell-line-specific biological parameters and functional information derived from pre-therapy PET/CT imaging data was developed to investigate effects of different oxygenation levels on the response to radiation therapy. For each tumour voxel, stochastic simulations were performed to model cellular growth and therapeutic response. Model parameters were fitted to published preclinical experiments of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using the obtained parameters, the model was applied to a human HNSCC case to investigate effects of different uniform and non-uniform oxygenation levels and results were compared for treatment efficacy. Simulations of the preclinical studies showed excellent agreement with published data and underlined the model's ability to quantitatively reproduce tumour behaviour within experimental uncertainties. When using a simplified transformation to derive non-uniform oxygenation levels from molecular imaging data, simulations of the clinical case showed heterogeneous tumour response and variability in radioresistance with decreasing oxygen levels. Once clinically validated, this model could be used to transform patient-specific data into voxel-based biological objectives for treatment planning and to investigate biologically optimized dose prescriptions.

  11. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  12. Subtypes of Aggressive Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…

  13. [A little known entity: aggressive fibromatosis].

    PubMed

    Marqúes Gubern, A; Pérez Payarols, J; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Martínez Ibáñez, V; Moraga, F; de Torres Ramírez, I M

    1991-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is an unfrequent and little known entity, which in spite of being a histologically benign tumoration with scarce mitosis and without metastasis at distance, frequently presents with a high degree of local malignancy that can cause serious functional and aesthetical disturbance for the patient and even lead to death if infiltration of vital organs is presented, above all in cases of abdominal or maxillo-facial mass localization. The authors present their experience with 17 cases of aggressive fibromatosis observed in our centre: four of abdominal localization, six in extremities, five in the maxillo-facial mass, one in the torax and one in the lumbo-sacral region. Histological diagnosis, either by puncture or biopsy, is complemented by studies of extension of the tumour based on ecography and TAC. All cases were treated according to the classical criteria of ample resection of the lesion, always when practicable, except in one infant case and in the torax, in which only a biopsy was effected. Of the 15 cases resected, nine cases had local relapses, six of which remained free of disease with a second operation, another two required a third operation and the remaining case needed five interventions. In six children chemotherapy was applied with vincristina, cyclophosphamide and adriamicina. A follow up was carried out in 14 patients, one of which died and the remaining 13 are free of disease. In spite of the fact that progestagene receptors were not evidenced in two of our cases, one presented complete remission of the tumor after treatment with medroxyprogesterone. In this case the coincidence of Gardner's syndrome arises in the family history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043434

  14. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  15. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan.

    PubMed

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  16. Psychological Research on Human Aggressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, D. A.; Brodie, H. K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research relating to the effects of hormones, neurophysiology, and the environment on animal and human aggression. Indicates that the interactions of biological, psychological and social processes in the development of human aggressiveness should constitute one of the principal frontiers for science in the next two decades. (JR)

  17. Aggression and Violence in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet was written to provide an understanding of aggression and violence in youth. Its purpose is to help parents, professionals, and other concerned citizens prevent or reduce these potentially dangerous behaviors. The introduction notes that many experts agree that aggression and violence are on the rise in America. The first section of…

  18. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  19. A psychoanalytic study of aggression.

    PubMed

    Furst, S S

    1998-01-01

    Eleven participants carried out a study of aggression by utilizing clinical data from the analyses of patients who manifested significant problems in the management of aggression. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of the intrapsychic factors that determine the nature and intensity of aggressive tendencies, the place they occupy in the psychic economy, their patterns of expression, and the extrapsychic factors that trigger them. The findings of the study indicate, first, that aggression is multiply determined by developmental, genetic (experiential), and dynamic variables; second, that each cluster of variables affects the nature, intensity, and expression of aggression in a fairly specific way; third, the importance of aggression in the psychic economy is proportional to the extent to which it is overdetermined. The successful analysis of aggressive individuals depends not solely on interpretation and insight, but on the relationship to the analyst as new parent who does not threaten and prohibit. The relationship to the analyst permits developmental change, particularly the ability to organize, structure, and control aggression. As a result, it need not be expressed destructively, but may be placed in the service of constructive thought and action. PMID:9990829

  20. Single Aggressive Interactions Increase Urinary Glucocorticoid Levels in Wild Male Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A basic premise in behavioural ecology is the cost-benefit arithmetic, which determines both behavioural decisions and evolutionary processes. Aggressive interactions can be costly on an energetic level, demanding increased energy or causing injuries, and on a psychological level, in the form of increased anxiety and damaged relationships between opponents. Here we used urinary glucocorticoid (uGC) levels to assess the costs of aggression in wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We collected 169 urine samples from nine adult male chimpanzees following 14 aggressive interactions (test condition) and 10 resting events (control condition). Subjects showed significantly higher uGC levels after single aggressive interactions compared to control conditions, likely for aggressors as well as victims. Higher ranking males had greater increases of uGC levels after aggression than lower ranking males. In contrast, uGC levels showed no significant change in relation to aggression length or intensity, indicating that psychological factors might have played a larger role than mere energetic expenditure. We concluded that aggressive behaviour is costly for both aggressors and victims and that costs seem poorly explained by energetic demands of the interaction. Our findings are relevant for studies of post-conflict interactions, since we provide evidence that both aggressors and victims experience a stress response to conflict. PMID:25714095

  1. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  2. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  3. Female aggression predicts mode of paternity acquisition in a social lizard

    PubMed Central

    While, Geoffrey M.; Sinn, David L.; Wapstra, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are ubiquitous in nature. Despite the likely role of selection in maintaining these differences, there are few demonstrations of their fitness consequences in wild populations and, consequently, the mechanisms that link behavioural variation to variation in fitness are poorly understood. Specifically, the consequences of consistent individual differences in behaviour for the evolution of social and mating strategies have rarely been considered. We examined the functional links between variation in female aggression and her social and mating strategies in a wild population of the social lizard Egernia whitii. We show that female Egernia exhibit temporally consistent aggressive phenotypes, which are unrelated to body size, territory size or social density. A female's aggressive phenotype, however, has strong links to her mode of paternity acquisition (within- versus extra-pair paternity), with more aggressive females having more offspring sired by extra-pair males than less aggressive females. We discuss the potential mechanisms by which female aggression could underpin mating strategies, such as the pursuit/acceptance of extra-pair copulations. We propose that a deeper understanding of the evolution and maintenance of social and mating systems may result from an explicit focus on individual-level female behavioural phenotypes and their relationship with key reproductive strategies. PMID:19324771

  4. In search of Winnicott's aggression.

    PubMed

    Posner, B M; Glickman, R W; Taylor, E C; Canfield, J; Cyr, F

    2001-01-01

    Going beyond Winnicott's widely known ideas about creativity, in this paper the authors ask why some people are able to live creatively while others suffer recurrent feelings of anger, futility, and depression. Examining Winnicott's reframing of aggression as a life force, it attempts to answer this question by tracing the evolution of his thinking on the nature and origin of aggression. It argues that because he saw aggression as inherent and as central to emotional development, interference in its expression compromises psychic maturation. The paper explores how Winnicott arrived at the conception of a combined love-strife drive and demonstrates that for him, there is no love without aggression, no subject, no object, no reality, and no creativity. That is, for Winnicott, aggression is an achievement that leads to the capacity to live creatively and to experience authenticity. Clinical vignettes illustrate the therapeutic use of these conclusions and their value for psychoanalytic theory. PMID:12102012

  5. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

  6. Brown tumour of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti P; Gharote, Harshkant P; Thomas, Shaji; R, Guruprasad; Singh, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Brown tumours are classic bony lesions that arise as a result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. They are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteolysis and peritrabecular fibrosis, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. Facial skeleton is involved in about 2% of all cases of which the mandible is frequently affected. A 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with osteomalacia and brown tumour in posterior mandible as the sign of secondary hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency is presented. PMID:22669885

  7. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  8. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  9. Epilepsy-associated tumours: what epileptologists should know about neuropathology, terminology, and classification systems.

    PubMed

    Holthausen, Hans; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2016-09-01

    Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers. In this review, current areas of controversy in neuropathology, as well as terminology and classification, are discussed from an epileptologist's perspective. An illustrative case report exemplifies this controversy to further promote interdisciplinary discussion and novel research avenues towards comprehensive patient management in the near future. PMID:27506282

  10. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  11. The Effect of Exposure to Community Violence on Levels of Aggression: Evidence from a Sample of Jamaican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Corin; Coore-Desai, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Scholars agree that aggression among children can lead to a host of delinquency issues that can last into adulthood. Research has found that exposure to violence is one of the strongest predictors of aggressive behaviour and the use of violence. Utilizing a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the article seeks to determine the…

  12. Instrumental and Social Outcome Expectations of High-Aggressive and Low-Aggressive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Hubbard, Julie A.

    This study examined high-aggressive and low-aggressive boys' ratings of the effectiveness of aggressive and assertive strategies for solving social problems involving hypothetical peers and actual peers. Subjects were 66 third-grade boys (11 groups of 6 boys each for a total of 22 high-aggressive, 22 low-aggressive, and 22 average aggressive boys)…

  13. Escalation of aggressive vocal signals: a sequential playback study

    PubMed Central

    Hof, David; Podos, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Rival conspecifics often produce stereotyped sequences of signals as agonistic interactions escalate. Successive signals in sequence are thought to convey increasingly pronounced levels of aggressive motivation. Here, we propose and test a model of aggressive escalation in black-throated blue warblers, presenting subjects with two sequential and increasingly elevated levels of threat. From a speaker outside the territorial boundary, we initiated an interaction (low-threat level), and from a second speaker inside the territory, accompanied by a taxidermic mount, we subsequently simulated a territorial intrusion (escalated threat level). Our two main predictions were that signalling behaviours in response to low-threat boundary playback would predict signalling responses to the escalated within-territory threat, and that these latter signalling behaviours would in turn reliably predict attack. We find clear support for both predictions: (i) specific song types (type II songs) produced early in the simulated interaction, in response to boundary playback, predicted later use of low-amplitude ‘soft’ song, in response to within-territory playback; and (ii) soft song, in turn, predicted attack of the mount. Unexpectedly, use of the early-stage signal (type II song) itself did not predict attack, despite its apparent role in aggressive escalation. This raises the intriguing question of whether type II song can actually be considered a reliable aggressive signal. Overall, our results provide new empirical insights into how songbirds may use progressive vocal signalling to convey increasing levels of threat. PMID:23926156

  14. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  15. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-06-22

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  16. Aggressive Erotica and Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnerstein, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Examines the effects of aggressive-erotic stimuli on male aggression toward females. Male subjects' deliveries of electric shocks to males or females after viewing either a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film were measured. (Author/SS)

  17. Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

  18. Timing and presence of an attachment person affect sensitivity of aggression tests in shelter dogs.

    PubMed

    Kis, A; Klausz, B; Persa, E; Miklósi, Á; Gácsi, M

    2014-02-22

    Different test series have been developed and used to measure behaviour in shelter dogs in order to reveal individuals not suitable for re-homing due to their aggressive tendencies. However, behavioural tests previously validated on pet dogs seem to have relatively low predictability in the case of shelter dogs. Here, we investigate the potential effects of (1) timing of the behaviour testing and (2) presence of a human companion on dogs' aggressive behaviour. In Study I, shelter dogs (n=25) showed more aggression when tested in a short test series two weeks after they had been placed in the shelter compared to their responses in the same test performed 1-2 days after arrival. In Study II, the occurrence of aggressive behaviour was more probable in pet dogs (n=50) in the presence than in the absence of their passive owner. We conclude that the sensitivity of aggression tests for shelter dogs can be increased by running the test in the presence of a caretaker, and after some period of acclimatisation to the new environment. This methodology could also provide better chances for successful adoption. PMID:24482210

  19. Parasite-induced aggression and impaired contest ability in a fish host

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Success of trophically transmitted parasites depends to a great extent on their ability to manipulate their intermediate hosts in a way that makes them easier prey for target hosts. Parasite-induced behavioural changes are the most spectacular and diverse examples of manipulation. Most of the studies have been focused on individual behaviour of hosts including fish. We suggest that agonistic interactions and territoriality in fish hosts may affect their vulnerability to predators and thus the transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites. The parasite Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda) and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were used to study whether infection can alter aggression rates and territorial behaviour of intermediate fish hosts. Results The changes in behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, infected with an eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda), was monitored over the course of an experimental infection for 1.5 months. At the beginning of their development, not yet infective D. spathaceum metacercariae decreased the aggressiveness of rainbow trout. By the time that metacercariae were fully infective to their definitive hosts, the aggressiveness increased and exceeded that of control fish. Despite the increased aggressiveness, the experimentally infected fish lost contests for a territory (dark parts of the bottom) against the control fish. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that the parasitized fish pay the cost of aggressiveness without the benefit of acquiring a territory that would provide them with better protection against predators. This behaviour should increase transmission of the parasite as expected by the parasite manipulation hypothesis. PMID:20226098

  20. Tumours of the soft (mesenchymal) tissues.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E

    1974-01-01

    This is a classification of tumours of fibrous tissue, fat, muscle, blood and lymph vessels, and mast cells, irrespective of the region of the body in which they arise. Tumours of fibrous tissue are divided into fibroma, fibrosarcoma (including "canine haemangiopericytoma"), other sarcomas, equine sarcoid, and various tumour-like lesions. The histological appearance of the tumours is described and illustrated with photographs. PMID:4371740

  1. Giant Aggressive Mesenteric Fibromatosis- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    BN, Anandaravi; CD, Jagadish Kumar; M, Mayur; URS, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Fibromatosis are rare, accounting for 0.03% of all tumours. Mesenteric fibromatosis is a very rare (8% of all desmoid neoplasm). Aggressive fibromatosis of mesentery is a rare surgical problem affecting 2-4 per million people. Females are more commonly affected than males (Estrogen acts as a growth factor). It is locally invasive and tends to recur but never metastasize. Here, we are discussing about 24-year-old male presented with progressive abdomen distension associated with pain since one month. Abdominal examination showed a firm non-tender intra-abdominal mass, measuring around 15x14 cm size, with intrinsic mobility, which was perpendicular to mesenteric line, all borders were well-made out. CECT abdomen showed features suggestive of GIST . Elective Laparotomy was done and a giant mass arising from mesentery without any infiltration to the surrounding structures was noted. The entire mass was excised and mesentery repaired. Histopathology showed uniform band of spindle shaped cells arranged in fascicles admixed with blood vessels in a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed Beta Catenin +ve, CD 117-ve, CD 34 –ve and SMA-ve, which is confirmative of Fibromatosis. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:25859491

  2. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  3. Multiple cilia suppress tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Primary cilia are cellular structures that have important functions in development and disease. The suppression of multiciliate differentiation of choroid plexus precursors, and maintenance of a single primary cilium by Notch1, is now shown to be involved in choroid plexus tumour formation. PMID:27027488

  4. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n = 52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n = 23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n = 10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs

  5. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  6. An Aggressive Retroperitoneal Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Campara, Zoran; Spasic, Aleksandar; Aleksic, Predrag; Milev, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that have locally infiltrative growth and a tendency to relapse. The clinical picture is often conditioned by the obstruction of the ureter or small intestine. Diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological and histological parameters. A case report: We report a case of male patient, aged 35 years, with the retroperitoneal fibromatosis. He reported to the physician because of frequent urination with the feeling of pressure and pain. Computed tomography revealed the tumor mass on the front wall of the bladder with diameter of 70mm with signs of infiltration of the musculature of the anterior abdominal wall. Endoscopic transurethral biopsy showed proliferative lesion binders by type of fibromatosis. The tumor was surgically removed in a classical way. The patient feels well and has no recurrence thirty-six months after the operative procedure. Conclusion: The complete tumor resection is the therapeutic choice for the primary tumor as well as for a relapse. PMID:27147794

  7. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  8. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog–human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication (‘emotional reactivity hypothesis’). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog–wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf–wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog–human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  9. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes. PMID:25339656

  10. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    PubMed Central

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. PMID:22078479

  11. Predicting workplace aggression and violence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with the relative recency of research on workplace aggression and the considerable media attention given to high-profile incidents, numerous myths about the nature of workplace aggression have emerged. In this review, we examine these myths from an evidence-based perspective, bringing greater clarity to our understanding of the predictors of workplace aggression. We conclude by pointing to the need for more research focusing on construct validity and prevention issues as well as for methodologies that minimize the likelihood of mono-method bias and that strengthen the ability to make causal inferences. PMID:18793089

  12. The evolutionary psychology of women's aggression

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary researchers have identified age, operational sex ratio and high variance in male resources as factors that intensify female competition. These are discussed in relation to escalated intrasexual competition for men and their resources between young women in deprived neighbourhoods. For these women, fighting is not seen as antithetical to cultural conceptions of femininity, and female weakness is disparaged. Nonetheless, even where competitive pressures are high, young women's aggression is less injurious and frequent than young men's. From an evolutionary perspective, I argue that the intensity of female aggression is constrained by the greater centrality of mothers, rather than fathers, to offspring survival. This selection pressure is realized psychologically through a lower threshold for fear among women. Neuropsychological evidence is not yet conclusive but suggests that women show heightened amygdala reactivity to threatening stimuli, may be better able to exert prefrontal cortical control over emotional behaviour and may consciously register fear more strongly via anterior cingulate activity. The impact of testosterone and oxytocin on the neural circuitry of emotion is also considered. PMID:24167308

  13. FDG PET in the evaluation of the aggressiveness of pulmonary adenocarcinoma: correlation with histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Higashi, K; Ueda, Y; Ayabe, K; Sakurai, A; Seki, H; Nambu, Y; Oguchi, M; Shikata, H; Taki, S; Tonami, H; Katsuda, S; Yamamoto, I

    2000-08-01

    2-[Fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake within the primary lesion correlates with survival on positron emission tomography (PET) studies of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The more metabolically active the tumour, the worse the outcome. The aim of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between aggressiveness as determined by pathology and the findings of FDG PET in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Thirty-five patients with 38 adenocarcinomas of the lung were studied. All patients underwent thoracotomy within 4 weeks of the FDG PET study. For semiquantitative analysis, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Patients were classified into high SUV (> or = 4.0) and low SUV (<4.0) groups. The degree of FDG uptake (SUVs) in primary lung lesions was correlated with the histopathological features of aggressiveness (pleural involvement, vascular invasion or lymphatic permeation). The mean SUV of aggressive adenocarcinomas (4.36+/-1.94, n = 22) was higher than that of non-aggressive ones (1.53+/-0.88, n = 16) (P < 0.0001). Tumours with a high FDG uptake have a significantly higher likelihood of aggressiveness than those with a low FDG uptake (P = 0.0004). Analysis by the Kaplan-Meier methods revealed that the groups had different prognoses (log-rank test, P = 0.0099). The high SUV group had a significantly worse prognosis. In conclusion, a correlation was seen between aggressiveness as determined by pathology and glucose metabolism as measured by FDG PET in adenocarcinoma of the lung. FDG PET may be used as a non-invasive diagnostic technique in measuring aggressiveness and prognosis in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. PMID:11039452

  14. Symbiont infection affects aphid defensive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dion, Emilie; Polin, Sarah Erika; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Outreman, Yannick

    2011-10-23

    Aphids harbour both an obligate bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and a wide range of facultative ones. Facultative symbionts can modify morphological, developmental and physiological host traits that favour their spread within aphid populations. We experimentally investigated the idea that symbionts may also modify aphid behavioural traits to enhance their transmission. Aphids exhibit many behavioural defences against enemies. Despite their benefits, these behaviours have some associated costs leading to reduction in aphid reproduction. Some aphid individuals harbour a facultative symbiont Hamiltonella defensa that provides protection against parasitoids. By analysing aphid behaviours in the presence of parasitoids, we showed that aphids infected with H. defensa exhibited reduced aggressiveness and escape reactions compared with uninfected aphids. The aphid and the symbiont have both benefited from these behavioural changes: both partners reduced the fitness decrements associated with the behavioural defences. Such symbiont-induced changes of behavioural defences may have consequences for coevolutionary processes between host organisms and their enemies. PMID:21490007

  15. Apoptosis and mitosis in tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the dog.

    PubMed

    Martin De Las Mulas, J; Millan, Y; Ruiz-Villamor, E; Bautista, M J; Rollon, E; Espinosa De Los Monteros, A

    1999-04-01

    The presence of apoptotic cell death was evaluated in routinely processed tissue samples of 39 neoplasms of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the dog using the method of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (T d T) mediated deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate (d UTP)-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). The degree of apoptosis was related to the frequency of mitosis, an index of cell proliferation. The correlation between the apoptotic index (AI), the percentage of positive cells after randomly enumerating 1000 cells and the mitotic count (MC), the number of mitotic figures in 10 fields at a magnification of 400 times was assessed by the Spearman non-parametric correlation test. TUNEL signals were observed in all types of tumours as brown products detected in non-pyknotic nuclei, in non-identifiable rounded structures (so-called apoptotic bodies) and occasionally in the cytoplasm, either singly or in combination. An inverse relationship between AI and MC was observed in benign tumours, while no correlation was found between AI and MC in either malignant or locally invasive tumours. Among benign tumours, intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma, fibroma, haemangioma and Schwannoma had high AI and low MC, while histiocytomas had low AI and high MC and pilomatrixomas low AI and MC. All malignant tumours had low AI and high MC, except for fibrosarcomas, which had high AI and MC. Finally, higher heterogeneity was observed among locally invasive tumours, as they had high AI and low MC (squamous cell carcinomas), and low AI with either low MC (haemangiopericytomas) or high MC (basal cell tumours). The classification of the tumours according to their AI (>15.8% high and <15.8% low) and MC (>9 high, <9 low) did not reflect the clinical behaviour of some tumour types. PMID:10208892

  16. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  17. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  18. Aggression in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K; Prasko, J

    2010-09-01

    This review examined aggressive behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its management in adults. Aggression against self or against others is a core component of BPD. Impulsiveness is a clinical hallmark (as well as a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criterion) of BPD, and aggressive acts by BPD patients are largely of the impulsive type. BPD has high comorbidity rates with substance use disorders, Bipolar Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder; these conditions further elevate the risk for violence. Treatment of BDP includes psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral, schema therapy, dialectic behavioral, group and pharmacological interventions. Recent studies indicate that many medications, particularly atypical antipsychotics and anticonvulsants, may reduce impulsivity, affective lability as well as irritability and aggressive behavior. But there is still a lack of large, double blind, placebo controlled studies in this area. PMID:20390357

  19. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  20. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth. PMID:26838208

  1. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  2. Playing to an audience: the social environment influences aggression and victory displays.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Lauren P; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-08-23

    Animal behaviour studies have begun to incorporate the influence of the social environment, providing new opportunities for studying signal strategies and evolution. We examined how the presence and sex of an audience influenced aggression and victory display behaviour in field-captured and laboratory-reared field crickets (Gryllus veletis). Audience type, rearing environment and their interaction were important predictors in all model sets. Thus, audience type may impose different costs and benefits for competing males depending on whether they are socially experienced or not. Our results suggest that field-captured winners, in particular, dynamically adjust their contest behaviour to potentially gain a reproductive benefit via female eavesdropping and may deter future aggression from rivals by advertising their aggressiveness and victories. PMID:23843219

  3. Animal models of tumour-associated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kirschstein, Timo; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2016-02-15

    Brain tumours cause a sizeable proportion of epilepsies in adulthood, and actually can be etiologically responsible also for childhood epilepsies. Conversely, seizures are often first clinical signs of a brain tumour. Nevertheless, several issues of brain-tumour associated seizures and epilepsies are far from understood, or clarified regarding clinical consensus. These include both the specific mechanisms of epileptogenesis related to different tumour types, the possible relationship between malignancy and seizure emergence, the interaction between tumour mass and surrounding neuronal networks, and - not least - the best treatment options depending on different tumour types. To investigate these issues, experimental models of tumour-induced epilepsies are necessary. This review concentrates on the description of currently used models, focusing on methodological aspects. It highlights advantages and shortcomings of these models, and identifies future experimental challenges. PMID:26092434

  4. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression.

    PubMed

    Porsch, Robert M; Middeldorp, Christel M; Cherny, Stacey S; Krapohl, Eva; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Corley, Robin; Rhee, Soo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard R; Hewitt, John K; Sham, Pak; Plomin, Robert; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike

    2016-07-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were available for 10,765 twin pairs at age 7, for 8,557 twin pairs at age 9/10, and for 7,176 twin pairs at age 12. In TEDS, parental ratings of conduct disorder from the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) were available for 6,897 twin pairs at age 7, for 3,028 twin pairs at age 9 and for 5,716 twin pairs at age 12. In both studies, stability and heritability of aggressive behavioral problems was high. Heritability was on average somewhat, but significantly, lower in TEDS (around 60%) than in NTR (between 50% and 80%) and sex differences were slightly larger in the NTR sample. In both studies, the influence of shared environment was similar: in boys shared environment explained around 20% of the variation in aggression across all ages while in girls its influence was absent around age 7 and only came into play at later ages. Longitudinal genetic correlations were the main reason for stability of aggressive behavior. Individual differences in CBCL-Aggressive Behavior and SDQ-Conduct disorder throughout childhood are driven by a comparable but significantly different genetic architecture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26786601

  5. A preliminary investigation of the role of the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ of the Hippo signalling pathway in canine and feline mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Beffagna, G; Sacchetto, R; Cavicchioli, L; Sammarco, A; Mainenti, M; Ferro, S; Trez, D; Zulpo, M; Michieletto, S; Cecchinato, A; Goldschmidt, M; Zappulli, V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Cancer metastases are responsible for the high mortality rate. A small but distinct subset of cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs), have the capacity to self-renew, initiate tumour formation, and develop metastases. The CSC content in human breast cancer correlates with the Hippo tumour suppressor signalling pathway. Specifically, the activity of YAP/TAZ, transcription co-activators of the Hippo pathway, sustains the self-renewal and tumour-initiation capacities of CSCs. Little is known about YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours, which are very common tumours. The preliminary aim of the study was to investigate the expression of YAP/TAZ in canine and feline mammary tumours by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of YAP/TAZ was observed in all carcinomas compared to normal tissues, indicating neoplastic deregulation of the Hippo pathway. Nuclear expression significantly increased in grade III (high grade carcinomas) compared to grade I (low grade carcinomas) tumours, suggesting that YAP/TAZ play a role in the increased aggressiveness of these tumours. Moreover, different scoring systems for immunohistochemical analyses were compared and the H index and the Allred scores were the most significant. In conclusion, YAP/TAZ are expressed in aggressive canine and feline mammary tumours as reported in some human cancers. Further studies might better elucidate the role of the Hippo pathway in prognosis and as a target for new therapies. In addition, tumours in dogs and cats may be a useful model to study this pathway. PMID:26626094

  6. Diagnosing a rare case of desmoplastic small round cell tumour on liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cheo, F F; Leow, W Q

    2016-08-01

    A 50-year-old male of Indian descent presented with jaundice and right hypochondrium pain. Following a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen, a segment 7 liver lesion was visualized, accompanied by extensive peritoneal tumour deposits. An ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed and histology showed loose nests and sheets of tumour cells with a small blue round cell morphology. The tumour cells showed patchy strong immunopositivity for cytokeratins (AE1/3, CK7, CK19) and synaptophysin, while showing diffuse strong perinuclear positivity for desmin. Interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) study using EWSR1 breakapart probe was positive for EWSR1 gene rearrangement. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare but aggressive intra-abdominal mesenchymal tumour. While the primary sites of involvement are usually the peritoneum and omentum, visceral involvement can occur. We wish to highlight the importance of considering this entity when evaluating a liver biopsy especially in a less than classical clinical context. PMID:27568672

  7. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G.; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M.; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L.; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  8. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  9. Galectin inhibitory disaccharides promote tumour immunity in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Stannard, Kimberley A; Collins, Patrick M; Ito, Koichi; Sullivan, Emily M; Scott, Stacy A; Gabutero, Elwyn; Darren Grice, I; Low, Pauline; Nilsson, Ulf J; Leffler, Hakon; Blanchard, Helen; Ralph, Stephen J

    2010-12-28

    High level galectin-1 expression results in cancer cell evasion of the immune response, increased tumour survival and aggressive metastases. Using a galectin-1 polyclonal antibody, high levels of galectin-1 protein were shown to be expressed by breast cancer cells established from FVB/N MMTV-c-neu mice as well as by the B16F10 melanoma cell line. In mixed lymphocyte cultures using tumour cells as antigenic stimulators, addition of recombinant galectin-1 dose-dependently inhibited lymphocyte production. Disaccharides were identified that inhibited galectin-1 function and increased growth and activation of CD8(+) CTL's killing cancer cells. X-ray crystallographic structures of human galectin-1 in complex with inhibitory disaccharides revealed their mode of binding. Combining galectin-blocking carbohydrates as adjuvants with vaccine immunotherapy in vivo to promote immune responses significantly decreased tumour progression and improved the outcomes for tumour challenged mice. This is the first report showing that suitably selected galectin-1 blocking disaccharides will act as adjuvants promoting vaccine stimulated immune responses against tumours in vivo. PMID:20826047

  10. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  12. Optimal reproductive-skew models fail to predict aggression in wasps.

    PubMed

    Nonacs, Peter; Reeve, H Kern; Starks, Philip T

    2004-04-22

    Optimal-skew models (OSMs) predict that cooperative breeding occurs as a result of dominants conceding reproductive benefits to subordinates, and that division of reproduction within groups reflects each cooperator's willingness and ability to contest aggressively for dominance. Polistine paper wasps are a leading model system for testing OSMs, and data on reproduction and aggression appear to support OSMs. These studies, however, measure aggression as a single rate rather than by the activity patterns of individuals. This leads to a potential error: if individuals are more likely to receive aggression when active than when inactive, differences in aggression across samples can reflect changes in activity rather than hostility. This study replicates a field manipulation cited as strongly supporting OSMs. We show that fundamentally different conclusions arise when controlling for individual activity states. Our analyses strongly suggest that behaviours classified as 'aggression' in paper wasps are unlikely to function in establishing, maintaining or responding to changes in reproductive skew. This illustrates that OSM tests using aggression or other non-reproductive behaviour as a metric for reproductive partitioning must demonstrate those links rather than assume them. PMID:15255099

  13. Optimal reproductive-skew models fail to predict aggression in wasps.

    PubMed Central

    Nonacs, Peter; Reeve, H. Kern; Starks, Philip T.

    2004-01-01

    Optimal-skew models (OSMs) predict that cooperative breeding occurs as a result of dominants conceding reproductive benefits to subordinates, and that division of reproduction within groups reflects each cooperator's willingness and ability to contest aggressively for dominance. Polistine paper wasps are a leading model system for testing OSMs, and data on reproduction and aggression appear to support OSMs. These studies, however, measure aggression as a single rate rather than by the activity patterns of individuals. This leads to a potential error: if individuals are more likely to receive aggression when active than when inactive, differences in aggression across samples can reflect changes in activity rather than hostility. This study replicates a field manipulation cited as strongly supporting OSMs. We show that fundamentally different conclusions arise when controlling for individual activity states. Our analyses strongly suggest that behaviours classified as 'aggression' in paper wasps are unlikely to function in establishing, maintaining or responding to changes in reproductive skew. This illustrates that OSM tests using aggression or other non-reproductive behaviour as a metric for reproductive partitioning must demonstrate those links rather than assume them. PMID:15255099

  14. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  15. The Development of Aggression within Sibling Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Ross, Hildy S.

    1995-01-01

    A longitudinal study examined responses to physically aggressive conflicts among siblings. Found that parents respond to half of children's aggression (especially if there is crying). Most parent and child responses were simple commands to stop the aggression. Reasoning was used less often, and physical intervention, rarely. Aggression was higher…

  16. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  17. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N = 2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

  18. Haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Soorae, A S; Bharucha, H

    1980-01-01

    A case of haemangioleiomyomatous tumour of the lung, occurring as a peripheral, solitary nodule in an asymptomatic 54-year-old man is presented. The tumour was well-demarcated and microscopically it was characterised by the presence of vascular spaces with endothelial, pericytic, and, predominantly, smooth muscle proliferation. Islands of cartilage and slit-like spaces lined by bronchial epithelium make this a hamartomatous lesion of a quite distinctive and unusual variety, which does not fit any of the well-recognised patterns of hamartomas previously described. The long-term prognosis after limited excision is considered to be favourable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7358861

  19. Attributional bias and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Hudley, C; Friday, J

    1996-01-01

    This article looks at a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to reduce minority youths' (Latino and African-American boys) levels of reactive peer-directed aggression. The BrainPower Program trains aggressive boys to recognize accidental causation in ambiguous interactions with peers. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of this attribution retraining program in reducing levels of reactive, peer-directed aggression. This research hypothesizes that aggressive young boys' tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others in ambiguous social interactions causes display of inappropriate, peer-directed aggression. A reduction in attributional bias should produce a decrease in reactive physical and verbal aggression directed toward peers. A 12-session, attributional intervention has been designed to reduce aggressive students' tendency to infer hostile intentions in peers following ambiguous peer provocations. The program trains boys to (1) accurately perceive and categorize the available social cues in interactions with peers, (2) attribute negative outcomes of ambiguous causality to accidental or uncontrollable causes, and (3) generate behaviors appropriate to these retrained attributions. African-American and Latino male elementary-school students (N = 384), in grades four-six, served as subjects in one of three groups: experimental attribution retraining program, attention training, and no-attention control group. Three broad categories of outcome data were collected: teacher and administrator reports of behavior, independent observations of behavior, and self-reports from participating students. Process measures to assess implementation fidelity include videotaped training sessions, observations of intervention sessions, student attendance records, and weekly team meetings. The baseline data indicated that students who were evenly distributed across the four sites were not significantly different on the baseline indicators: student

  20. Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors with thymidine phosphorylase expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leek, R. D.; Landers, R.; Fox, S. B.; Ng, F.; Harris, A. L.; Lewis, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    node status (i.e. metastasis). These results suggest that tumour cell responsiveness to TNF-alpha produced by neighbouring TAMs may play a part in the regulation of TP expression by tumour cells as well as their metastatic behaviour. This may explain, in part, the relationship between increased macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis in breast cancer, and further supports the contention that TAMs may represent an important target for future anti-angiogenic therapies. Images Figure 1 PMID:9649140

  1. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  2. The couple that sings together stays together: duetting, aggression and extra-pair paternity in a promiscuous bird species.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Daniel T; Greig, Emma I; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    When individuals mate outside the pair bond, males should employ behaviours such as aggression or vocal displays (e.g. duetting) that help assure paternity of the offspring they care for. We tested whether male paternity was associated with aggression or duetting in the red-backed fairy-wren, a species exhibiting high rates of extra-pair paternity. During simulated territorial intrusions, aggression and duetting were variable among and repeatable within males, suggesting behavioural consistency of individuals. Males with quicker and stronger duet responses were cuckolded less often than males with slower and weaker responses. In contrast, physical aggression was not correlated with male paternity. These results suggest that either acoustic mate guarding or male-female vocal negotiations via duetting lead to increased paternity assurance, whereas physical aggression does not. PMID:26911342

  3. Bortezomib-induced pro-inflammatory macrophages as a potential factor limiting anti-tumour efficacy.

    PubMed

    Beyar-Katz, Ofrat; Magidey, Ksenia; Ben-Tsedek, Neta; Alishekevitz, Dror; Timaner, Michael; Miller, Valeria; Lindzen, Moshit; Yarden, Yosef; Avivi, Irit; Shaked, Yuval

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a chronic progressive malignancy of plasma cells. Although treatment with the novel proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, significantly improves patient survival, some patients fail to respond due to the development of de novo resistance. We have previously shown that cytotoxic drugs can induce pro-tumorigenic host-mediated effects which contribute to tumour re-growth and metastasis, and thus limit anti-tumour efficacy. However, such effects and their impact on tumour cell aggressiveness have not been investigated using cytostatic agents such as bortezomib. Here we show that plasma from bortezomib-treated mice significantly increases migration, viability and proliferation of MM cells in vitro, compared to plasma from vehicle treated mice. In vivo, bortezomib induces the mobilization of pro-angiogenic bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice treated with bortezomib and subsequently were used as recipients for an injection of MM cells succumb to MM earlier than mice treated with the vehicle. We show that bortezomib promotes pro-inflammatory macrophages which account for MM cell aggressiveness, an effect which is partially mediated by interleukin-16. Accordingly, co-inoculation of MM cells with pro-inflammatory macrophages from bortezomib-treated mice accelerates MM disease progression. Taken together, our results suggest that, in addition to the known effective anti-tumour activity of bortezomib, host-driven pro-tumorigenic effects generated in response to treatment can promote MM aggressiveness, and thus may contribute to the overall limited efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037906

  4. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  5. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Martin, John D.; Liu, Hao; Lacorre, Delphine A.; Jain, Saloni R.; Kozin, Sergey V.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Mousa, Ahmed S.; Han, Xiaoxing; Adstamongkonkul, Pichet; Popović, Zoran; Huang, Peigen; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan implicated as the primary matrix molecule responsible for vessel compression because of its swelling behaviour. Here we show, unexpectedly, that hyaluronan compresses vessels only in collagen-rich tumours, suggesting that collagen and hyaluronan together are critical targets for decompressing tumour vessels. We demonstrate that the angiotensin inhibitor losartan reduces stromal collagen and hyaluronan production, associated with decreased expression of profibrotic signals TGF-β1, CCN2 and ET-1, downstream of angiotensin-II-receptor-1 inhibition. Consequently, losartan reduces solid stress in tumours resulting in increased vascular perfusion. Through this physical mechanism, losartan improves drug and oxygen delivery to tumours, thereby potentiating chemotherapy and reducing hypoxia in breast and pancreatic cancer models. Thus, angiotensin inhibitors —inexpensive drugs with decades of safe use — could be rapidly repurposed as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24084631

  6. Goshajinkigan reduces oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy without affecting anti-tumour efficacy in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Soichiro; Egashira, Nobuaki; Sada, Hikaru; Kawashiri, Takehiro; Shirahama, Masafumi; Masuguchi, Ken; Oishi, Ryozo

    2012-06-01

    Oxaliplatin is a key drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer, but it causes acute and chronic neuropathies in patients. Goshajinkigan (GJG) is a Kampo medicine that is used for the treatments of several neurological symptoms including pain and numbness. More recently, GJG has been reported to prevent the oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in clinical studies. No experimental study, however, has been conducted to date to determine the effect of GJG on pain behaviour in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Moreover, the impact on the anti-tumour effect of oxaliplatin remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of GJG on the peripheral neuropathy and anti-tumour activity of oxaliplatin in rodents. Repeated administration of oxaliplatin caused cold hyperalgesia from days 3 to 37 and mechanical allodynia from days 21 to 28. Repeated administration of GJG prevented the oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia but not mechanical allodynia and axonal degeneration in rat sciatic nerve. Single administration of GJG reduced both cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after the development of neuropathy. In addition, GJG did not affect the anti-tumour effect of oxaliplatin in the tumour cells or tumour cells-implanted mice. These results suggest that GJG relieves the oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia without affecting anti-tumour activity of oxaliplatin, and, therefore, may be useful for the oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in clinical practice. PMID:21907570

  7. Kindergarten Children's Genetic Vulnerabilities Interact with Friends' Aggression to Promote Children's Own Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. Method: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as teacher and peer reports of aggression of the two best…

  8. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  9. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  10. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  11. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

  12. Time, Space and Gender: Understanding "Problem" Behaviour in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…

  13. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    PubMed

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  14. Tirapazamine: a bioreductive anticancer drug that exploits tumour hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Denny, W A; Wilson, W R

    2000-12-01

    Tirapazamine is the second clinical anticancer drug (after porfiromycin) that functions primarily as a hypoxia-selective cytotoxin. Hypoxic cells in tumours are relatively resistant to radiotherapy and to some forms of chemotherapy and are also biologically aggressive, thus representing an important target population in oncology. Tirapazamine undergoes metabolism by reductases to form a transient oxidising radical that can be efficiently scavenged by molecular oxygen in normal tissues to re-form the parent compound. In the absence of oxygen, the oxidising radical abstracts a proton from DNA to form DNA radicals, largely at C4' on the ribose ring. Tirapazamine can also oxidise such DNA radicals to cytotoxic DNA strand breaks. It therefore shows substantial selective cytotoxicity for anoxic cells in culture (typically approximately 100-fold more potent than under oxic conditions) and for the hypoxic subfraction of cells in tumours. Preclinical studies showed enhanced activity of combinations of tirapazamine with radiation (to kill oxygenated cells) and with conventional cytotoxics, especially cisplatin (probably through inhibition of repair of cisplatin DNA cross-links in hypoxic cells). Phase II and III clinical studies of tirapazamine and cisplatin in malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer suggest that the combination is more active than cisplatin alone and preliminary results with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck indicate that tirapazamine may enhance the activity of cisplatin with fractionated radiotherapy. PMID:11093359

  15. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the larynx: an extremely unusual tumour.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikita R; Kakked, Gaurav A; Merchant, Rajiv; Bhatt, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma of the larynx is probably the rarest mesenchymal tumour of the larynx, with only 16 cases reported so far. The majority of them occur in males between the sixth and eighth decades of life. Patients usually present with non-specific symptoms such as dysphonia and upper airway compromise. The most common site of distant metastasis is the lung. Clinically, the tumour follows an aggressive course and is associated with high mortality. The case we present is unusual as it occurred at a young age (38 years) as compared with the norm and it did not arise from the endolarynx, unlike many of the other cases. This was the only known case where a Pearson near-total laryngectomy was performed whereby the patient's natural speech mechanism was preserved. This surgery was possible because the contralateral half of the larynx was clearly disease free and the interarytenoid region was uninvolved. The patient underwent postoperative adjuvant external beam radiotherapy beginning 4 weeks after surgery. The patient is doing well after 15 months of follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence. PMID:25323286

  16. Radiochemotherapy-induced changes of tumour vascularity and blood supply estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and fractal analysis in malignant head and neck tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hietschold, V; Appold, S; von Kummer, R; Abolmaali, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiochemotherapy (RChT)-induced changes of transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and relative tumour blood volume (rTBV) estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and fractal analysis in head and neck tumours (HNTs). Methods: DCE-CT was performed in 15 patients with inoperable HNTs before RChT, and after 2 and 5 weeks. The dynamics of Ktrans and rTBV as well as lacunarity, slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size), and fractal dimension were compared with tumour behaviour during RChT and in the 24-month follow-up. Results: In 11 patients, an increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV after 20 Gy followed by a decrease of both parameters after 50 Gy was noted. Except for one local recurrence, no tumour residue was found during the follow-up. In three patients with partial tumour reduction during RChT, a decrease of Ktrans accompanied by an increase in rTBV between 20 and 50 Gy was detected. In one patient with continuous elevation of both parameters, tumour progressed after RChT. Pre-treatment difference in intratumoral heterogeneity with its decline under RChT for the responders vs non-responders was observed. Conclusion: Initial growth of Ktrans and/or rTBV followed by further reduction of both parameters along with the decline of the slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size) was associated with positive radiochemotherapeutic response. Increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV under RChT indicated a poor outcome. Advances in knowledge: The modification of Ktrans and rTBV as measured by DCE-CT may be applied for the assessment of tumour sensitivity to chose RChT regimen and, consequently, to reveal clinical impact allowing individualization of RChT strategy in patients with HNT. PMID:25412001

  17. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed–accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes. PMID:22927575

  18. Prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating immune cells on biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goeppert, B; Frauenschuh, L; Zucknick, M; Stenzinger, A; Andrulis, M; Klauschen, F; Joehrens, K; Warth, A; Renner, M; Mehrabi, A; Hafezi, M; Thelen, A; Schirmacher, P; Weichert, W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are relatively rare malignant tumours with poor prognosis. It is known from other solid neoplasms that antitumour inflammatory response has an impact on tumour behaviour and patient outcome. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive characterisation of antitumour inflammatory response in human BTC. Methods: Tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and Foxp3+), natural killer cells (perforin+), B lymphocytes (CD20+), macrophages (CD68+) as well as mast cells (CD117+) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 375 BTC including extrahepatic (ECC; n=157), intrahepatic (ICC; n=149), and gallbladder (GBAC; n=69) adenocarcinomas. Overall and intraepithelial quantity of tumour-infiltrating immune cells was analysed. Data were correlated with clinicopathological variables and patient survival. Results: The most prevalent inflammatory cell type in BTC was the T lymphocyte. Components of the adaptive immune response decreased, whereas innate immune response components increased significantly in the biliary intraepithelial neoplasia – primary carcinoma – metastasis sequence. BTC patients with intraepithelial tumour-infiltrating CD4+, CD8+, and Foxp3+ T lymphocytes showed a significantly longer overall survival. Number of total intraepithelial tumour-infiltrating Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes (HR: 0.492, P=0.002) and CD4+ T lymphocytes (HR: 0.595, P=0.008) were tumour grade- and UICC-stage-independent prognosticators. The subtype-specific evaluation revealed that the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytic infiltrate is a positive outcome predictor in ECC and GBAC but not in ICC. Conclusion: Our findings characterise the immune response in cholangiocarcinogenesis and identify inflammatory cell types that influence the outcome of BTC patients. Further, we show that BTC subtypes show relevant differences with respect to density, quality of inflammation, and impact on patient survival. PMID:24136146

  19. Gene expression and variation in social aggression by queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    PubMed

    Helmkampf, Martin; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Kang, Yun; Fewell, Jennifer; Gadau, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    A key requirement for social cooperation is the mitigation and/or social regulation of aggression towards other group members. Populations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus show the alternate social phenotypes of queens founding nests alone (haplometrosis) or in groups of unrelated yet cooperative individuals (pleometrosis). Pleometrotic queens display an associated reduction in aggression. To understand the proximate drivers behind this variation, we placed foundresses of the two populations into social environments with queens from the same or the alternate population, and measured their behaviour and head gene expression profiles. A proportion of queens from both populations behaved aggressively, but haplometrotic queens were significantly more likely to perform aggressive acts, and conflict escalated more frequently in pairs of haplometrotic queens. Whole-head RNA sequencing revealed variation in gene expression patterns, with the two populations showing moderate differentiation in overall transcriptional profile, suggesting that genetic differences underlie the two founding strategies. The largest detected difference, however, was associated with aggression, regardless of queen founding type. Several modules of coregulated genes, involved in metabolism, immune system and neuronal function, were found to be upregulated in highly aggressive queens. Conversely, nonaggressive queens exhibited a striking pattern of upregulation in chemosensory genes. Our results highlight that the social phenotypes of cooperative vs. solitary nest founding tap into a set of gene regulatory networks that seem to govern aggression level. We also present a number of highly connected hub genes associated with aggression, providing opportunity to further study the genetic underpinnings of social conflict and tolerance. PMID:27178446

  20. Aggression and dominance in the weaver bird, Quelea quelea.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I; Crook, J H

    1975-05-01

    Previous work on agonistic behaviour in Quelea has been concerned primarily with hormonal variables. In the present series of experiments, a number of behavioural correlates of aggression and dominance are examined in male and bisexual groups. These include the effects of group arousal level on rates of agonistic encounters, the relationship between an individual's habitual level of activity and its relative dominance, aggressiveness and position on the perch in a resting "flock". The temporal patterning of encounters is analysed and the reasons why encounters tend to clump in time determined. The relationship between dominance in encounters over individual-distance infringements and dominance in encounters over access to a restricted food source is investigated and the effects of this on loss of weight in males and females determined. The results are discussed in relation to Ward's (1965) finging that in the wild females suffer higher mortality than males during the dry season and in relation to the general determinants of aggression in Quelea. PMID:1172393

  1. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  2. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10-15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  3. Accuracy in Judgments of Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, David A.; West, Tessa V.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Schwartz, David

    2009-01-01

    Perceivers are both accurate and biased in their understanding of others. Past research has distinguished between three types of accuracy: generalized accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about how a target interacts with others in general; perceiver accuracy, a perceiver’s view of others corresponding with how the perceiver is treated by others in general; and dyadic accuracy, a perceiver’s accuracy about a target when interacting with that target. Researchers have proposed that there should be more dyadic than other forms of accuracy among well-acquainted individuals because of the pragmatic utility of forecasting the behavior of interaction partners. We examined behavioral aggression among well-acquainted peers. A total of 116 9-year-old boys rated how aggressive their classmates were toward other classmates. Subsequently, 11 groups of 6 boys each interacted in play groups, during which observations of aggression were made. Analyses indicated strong generalized accuracy yet little dyadic and perceiver accuracy. PMID:17575243

  4. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  5. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  6. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  7. Tumour angiogenesis-Origin of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, S; Nagare, R P; Sneha, V S; Sidhanth, C; Bindhya, S; Manasa, P; Ganesan, T S

    2016-08-15

    The conventional view of tumour vascularization is that tumours acquire their blood supply from neighbouring normal stroma. Additional methods of tumour vascularization such as intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, vessel co-option and vasculogenesis have been demonstrated to occur. However, the origin of the endothelial cells and pericytes in the tumour vasculature is not fully understood. Their origin from malignant cells has been shown indirectly in lymphoma and neuroblastoma by immuno-FISH experiments. It is now evident that tumours arise from a small population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour initiating cells. Recent data suggest that a proportion of tumour endothelial cells arise from cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells showed identical genetic changes to those identified in tumour cells. However, another report contradicted these results from the earlier studies in glioblastoma and had shown that CSCs give rise to pericytes and not endothelial cells. The main thrust of this review is the critical analysis of the conflicting data from different studies and the remaining questions in this field of research. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is also discussed in detail. The transdifferentiation of CSCs to endothelial cells/pericytes has many implications in the progression and metastasis of the tumours and hence it would be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26934471

  8. Maternal rank influences the outcome of aggressive interactions between immature chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A. Catherine; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Murray, Carson M.

    2015-01-01

    For many long-lived mammalian species, extended maternal investment has a profound effect on offspring integration in complex social environments. One component of this investment may be aiding young in aggressive interactions, which can set the stage for offspring social position later in life. Here we examined maternal effects on dyadic aggressive interactions between immature (<12 years) chimpanzees. Specifically, we tested whether relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning an aggressive interaction. We also examined maternal responses to aggressive interactions to determine whether maternal interventions explain interaction outcomes. Using a 12-year behavioural data set (2000–2011) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, we found that relative maternal rank predicted the probability of winning aggressive interactions in male–male and male–female aggressive interactions: offspring were more likely to win if their mother outranked their opponent’s mother. Female–female aggressive interactions occurred infrequently (two interactions), so could not be analysed. The probability of winning was also higher for relatively older individuals in male–male interactions, and for males in male–female interactions. Maternal interventions were rare (7.3% of 137 interactions), suggesting that direct involvement does not explain the outcome for the vast majority of aggressive interactions. These findings provide important insight into the ontogeny of aggressive behaviour and early dominance relationships in wild apes and highlight a potential social advantage for offspring of higher-ranking mothers. This advantage may be particularly pronounced for sons, given male philopatry in chimpanzees and the potential for social status early in life to translate more directly to adult rank. PMID:25624528

  9. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6 months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; β-catenin, CHOP, C/EBPα and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and β-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBPα and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver. PMID:26059599

  10. [Inappropriately rough play behaviour and predatory attacks against people by a tomcat. A case report].

    PubMed

    Morber, M; Bartels, A; Erhard, M H

    2013-01-01

    The owner of a 6-months-old tomcat came to seek help because the cat had attacked her face on a near-daily basis. Through a detailed behavioural history, the cat's behaviour was diagnosed as human-directed predatory attack behaviour, play-related aggression and reduced motor as well as emotional self-control. Within a few weeks, behavioural therapy produced a significant improvement. After 5 months of therapy, the cat showed neither predatory attacks nor inappropriately rough or aggressive behaviour in play towards its owner or other humans. PMID:23608967

  11. [Pancreatic tumour in a child].

    PubMed

    Schouenborg Schultz, Thea; Thyssen Vestergaard, Esben

    2014-07-28

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in children and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) has a prevalence of 8.4% in childhood. In 90-95% of RAPs no organic disease is identified. Thus, it is important that the few of somatic origin are diagnosed. We describe a case concerning a 12-year-old girl, diagnosed with a solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The symptoms were RAP and postprandial vomiting. The purpose of this article is to increase the knowledge of "alarm findings" indicating an organic disease in children with RAP. PMID:25292323

  12. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris

    PubMed Central

    Déaux, Éloïse C.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs’ aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs’ bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as ‘equivalent’ or ‘enhancing’ as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal’s function. PMID:26571266

  13. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function. PMID:26571266

  14. Teachers' Reactions to Children's Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Pickering, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on social schema theory (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) and social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), this study examined the impact on teachers' reactions to children's aggression of three variables, two of which were related to the aggressors and one was related to the teachers. Experienced female elementary school teachers (N=90) each read…

  15. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  16. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  17. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  18. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  19. Television Portrayal and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This is a review of research relating to the attributes of portrayals which play a role in affecting aggressive behavior. The effects of portrayal can occur at any of three successive stages: acquisition, disinhibition/stimulation/arousal, performance. The older the individual, the more likely the influence is to be in all three stages of…

  20. Biochemistry and Aggression: Psychohematological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Hilliard G., Jr.; Spitz, Reuben T.

    1994-01-01

    Examines biochemical measures in a population of forensic psychiatric inpatients. Regression equations utilizing chemical and biological variables were developed and evaluated to determine their value in predicting the severity and frequency of aggression. Findings strongly suggest the presence of specific biochemical alteration among those…

  1. Electrochemotherapy on liver tumours in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, L. H.; Orlowski, S.; An, D.; Bindoula, G.; Dzodic, R.; Ardouin, P.; Bognel, C.; Belehradek, J.; Munck, J. N.; Mir, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic approach combining the effects of a low-permeant cytotoxic drug, bleomycin (BLM), administered i.v. and cell-permeabilizing electric pulses (EPs) locally delivered to tumours. The transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by the EPs allows free access of BLM to its intracellular targets, largely enhancing BLM's cytotoxic effects. ECT efficacy has been proved so far on transplanted subcutaneous murine tumours and on subcutaneous metastases in humans. Here, we present the first study of the effects of ECT on tumours transplanted to livers in rabbits. We used a recently developed EP applicator consisting of an array of parallel and equidistant needles to be inserted in tissues. Effects of EPs alone or of ECT were assessed by histological analysis, tumour growth rates and survival of the treated animals. A transient blood hypoperfusion was seen in the electropulsed areas, with or without BLM, related to EP-dependent vasoconstriction but this had no major effects on cell survival. Long-term effects depended on the presence of BLM at the time of EP delivery. Almost complete tumour necrosis was observed after ECT, resulting from both BLM direct cytotoxic effects on electropermeabilized tumour cells and indirect effects on the tumour vessels. A large reduction in tumour growth rate and significantly longer survival times were scored in comparison with control rabbits. Moreover, ECT of liver tumours was well tolerated and devoid of systemic side-effects. When ECT was associated with a local interleukin 2-based immunotherapy, increased local anti-tumour effectiveness as well as a large decrease in the number of metastases were observed. Thus, ECT could become a novel treatment modality for liver tumours and other solid internal malignancies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9649121

  2. Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered

    PubMed

    Halperin; Giri; Elliott; Dunham

    1998-01-01

    Zahavi's handicap theory, formalized by Grafen, suggests that 'cheaters' must be at a disadvantage if a communication system such as ritualized aggression is to evolve (Grafen 1991, In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 5-31. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific). To determine whether cheating is disadvantageous in Betta splendens, we held a series of live interactions, after inducing hyper-aggression by socially isolating and then briefly 'priming' the fish. Primed isolates, which were no stronger than their rivals, 'cheated' by escalating rapidly to tailbeating and biting. These cheaters, however, usually lost fights to non-isolated opponents. Unprimed isolates, i.e. socially isolated fish that were not primed, were not initially hyper-aggressive and thus did not cheat. They lost fewer fights than the cheaters. Results suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win. This result is consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480675

  3. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important. PMID:23641762

  4. The status of epidermal growth factor receptor in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Showeil, Rania; Romano, Claudia; Valganon, Mikel; Lambros, Maryou; Trivedi, Pritesh; Van Noorden, Susan; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; El-Kaffash, Dalal; El-Etreby, Nour; Natrajan, Rachael; Foroni, Letizia; Osborne, Richard; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The majority of borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) behave in a benign fashion, but some may show aggressive behavior. The reason behind this has not been elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to contribute to cell survival signals as well as metastatic potential of some tumours. EGFR expression and gene status have not been thoroughly investigated in BOTs as it has in ovarian carcinomas. In this study we explore protein expression as well as gene mutations and amplifications of EGFR in BOTs in comparison to a subset of other epithelial ovarian tumours. We studied 85 tumours, including 61 BOTs, 10 low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs), 9 high grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) and 5 benign epithelial tumours. EGFR protein expression was studied using immunohistochemistry. Mutations were investigated by Sanger sequencing exons 18-21 of the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR. Cases with comparatively higher protein expression were examined for gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization. We also studied the tumours for KRAS and BRAF mutations. Immunohistochemistry results revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear EGFR expression with variable degrees between tumours. The level of nuclear localization was relatively higher in BOTs and LGSCs as compared to HGSCs or benign tumours. The degree of nuclear expression of BOTs showed no significant difference from that in LGSCs (mean ranks 36.48, 33.05, respectively, p=0.625), but was significantly higher than in HGSCs (mean ranks: 38.88, 12.61 respectively, p< 0.001) and benign tumours (mean ranks: 35.18, 13.00 respectively, p= 0.010). Cytoplasmic expression level was higher in LGSCs. No EGFR gene mutations or amplification were identified, yet different polymorphisms were detected. Five different types of point mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E BRAF mutation were detected exclusively in BOTs and LGSCs. Our study reports for the first time nuclear localization of EGFR in BOTs. The nuclear

  5. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours

    PubMed Central

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Öra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. What's new? Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease have a poor outcome. Here, the authors established neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice

  6. Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.

    2012-03-01

    Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea in pituitary tumours1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, I E; Keene, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of CSF rhinorrhoea due to pituitary tumours are reported and the literature reviewed. The treatment of choice appears to be trans-sphenoidal exploration of the pituitary fossa with insertion of a free muscle graft followed by radiotherapy. The probability of the tumour being a prolactin-secreting adenoma is discussed. PMID:7017123

  8. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  9. Peculiarities of hyperlipidaemia in tumour patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dilman, V. M.; Berstein, L. M.; Ostroumova, M. N.; Tsyrlina, Y. V.; Golubev, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The study group included 684 cases: 258 patients with breast carcinoma, 113 males with lung cancer, 42 patients with rectal tumours, 42 patients with stomach tumours, 59 patients with fibroadenomatosis, and 170 healthy subjects of varying age (male and female). A relatively high blood triglyceride level was found in patients with breast, lung, rectal (females), and stomach (female) tumours. The blood concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with breast, lung, and stomach (female) tumours was relatively low. The elimination of tumour (breast carcinoma) did not lead to significant changes in lipid metabolism. There was no correlation between degree of lipidaemia and stage of tumour progression except in the cases of rectal cancer. Preliminary results are presented on the tentative classification of hyperlipoproteinaemia in tumour patients, using the lipid concentration threshold values advocated by Carlson et al. (1977); an increased frequency of Type IV hyperlipoproteinaemia proved to be the most characteristic feature of tumour patients. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the importance of lipid metabolic disturbances, primarily those due to ageing, in the genesis of the syndrome of "cancerophilia" (predisposition to cancer). PMID:7248149

  10. Classification of odontogenic tumours. A historical review.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Hans Peter; Reichart, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Using the term odontome for any tumour arising from the dental formative tissues, Broca suggested a classification of odontogenic tumours (OTs) in 1869. From 1888 to 1914, Bland-Sutton and Gabell, James and Payne modified tumour terminology, while maintaining Broca's odontome concept. Thoma and Goldman's classification (1946) divided the OTs into tumours of ectodermal, mesodermal and mixed origin and abolished the general term odontome. The Pindborg and Clausen classification (1958) based on the idea that the reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions were also operating in the pathogenesis of OTs. In 1966, WHO established a Collaborating Centre for the Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumours and Allied Lesions (including jaw cysts) headed by Dr Jens Pindborg. In 1971, the first authoritative WHO guide to the classification of OTs and cysts appeared followed in 1992 by a second edition. In 2002, Philipsen and Reichart produced a revision of the 1992-edition and in 2003, the editors of the WHO Blue Book series: 'WHO Classification of Tumours' decided to produce a volume on the Head and Neck Tumours including a chapter on Odontogenic Tumours and Bone Related Lesions. In July of 2005 this volume was published by IARC, Lyon. PMID:16968232

  11. The two most common histological subtypes of malignant germ cell tumour are distinguished by global microRNA profiles, associated with differential transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesised that differences in microRNA expression profiles contribute to the contrasting natural history and clinical outcome of the two most common types of malignant germ cell tumour (GCT), yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas. Results By direct comparison, using microarray data for paediatric GCT samples and published qRT-PCR data for adult samples, we identified microRNAs significantly up-regulated in YSTs (n = 29 paediatric, 26 adult, 11 overlapping) or germinomas (n = 37 paediatric). By Taqman qRT-PCR we confirmed differential expression of 15 of 16 selected microRNAs and further validated six of these (miR-302b, miR-375, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-122, miR-205) in an independent sample set. Interestingly, the miR-302 cluster, which is over-expressed in all malignant GCTs, showed further over-expression in YSTs versus germinomas, representing six of the top eight microRNAs over-expressed in paediatric YSTs and seven of the top 11 in adult YSTs. To explain this observation, we used mRNA expression profiles of paediatric and adult malignant GCTs to identify 10 transcription factors (TFs) consistently over-expressed in YSTs versus germinomas, followed by linear regression to confirm associations between TF and miR-302 cluster expression levels. Using the sequence motif analysis environment iMotifs, we identified predicted binding sites for four of the 10 TFs (GATA6, GATA3, TCF7L2 and MAF) in the miR-302 cluster promoter region. Finally, we showed that miR-302 family over-expression in YST is likely to be functionally significant, as mRNAs down-regulated in YSTs were enriched for 3' untranslated region sequences complementary to the common seed of miR-302a~miR-302d. Such mRNAs included mediators of key cancer-associated processes, including tumour suppressor genes, apoptosis regulators and TFs. Conclusions Differential microRNA expression is likely to contribute to the relatively aggressive behaviour of YSTs and may enable future improvements in

  12. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  13. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven Jm; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2012-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology. PMID:22294438

  14. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  15. Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32), their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups.…

  16. Dealing with Conflict and Aggression in Classrooms through Cooperative Learning Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic shifts in nation's population and changes in the family structure have placed increasing demands on the schools. There is a pressing need to understand the factors that give rise to and maintain aggressive behaviours across adolescence and also suggest techniques for dealing with the increased incidence of aggression…

  17. Enhanced Aggression Replacement Training with Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynahan, Luke

    2003-01-01

    An enhanced form of Aggression Replacement Training is being used with children and youth with autism spectrum disorder and particularly those with Asperger's Syndrome who present behavioural challenges. Initial results in a Norwegian centre indicate that, with some modifications and enhancements, the programme is an appropriate strategy for…

  18. Understanding and Working with Non-Compliant and Aggressive Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…

  19. Beneficial role of overexpression of TFPI-2 on tumour progression in human small cell lung cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Marion; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Blechet, Claire; Guyetant, Serge; Pape, Alain Le; Heuze-Vourc’h, Nathalie; Courty, Yves; Lerondel, Stephanie; Sobilo, Julien; Iochmann, Sophie; Reverdiau, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potent inhibitor of plasmin, a protease which is involved in tumour progression by activating (MMPs). This therefore makes TFPI-2 a potential inhibitor of invasiveness and the development of metastases. In this study, low levels of TFPI-2 expression were found in 65% of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive type of lung cancer. To study the impact of TFPI-2 in tumour progression, TFPI-2 was overexpressed in NCI-H209 SCLC cells which were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Investigations showed that TFPI-2 inhibited lung tumour growth. Such inhibition could be explained in vitro by a decrease in tumour cell viability, blockade of G1/S phase cell cycle transition and an increase in apoptosis shown in NCI-H209 cells expressing TFPI-2. We also demonstrated that TFPI-2 upregulation in NCI-H209 cells decreased MMP expression, particularly by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-3. Moreover, TFPI-2 inhibited phosphorylation of the MAPK signalling pathway proteins involved in the induction of MMP transcripts, among which MMP-1 was predominant in SCLC tissues and was inversely expressed with TFPI-2 in 35% of cases. These results suggest that downregulation of TFPI-2 expression could favour the development of SCLC. PMID:23905012

  20. USP11 regulates PML stability to control Notch-induced malignancy in brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Hsin; Chung, Hsiang-Ching; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Ya-Wen; Ma, Hsin-I; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lawler, Sean E; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein controls multiple tumour suppressive functions and is downregulated in diverse types of human cancers through incompletely characterized post-translational mechanisms. Here we identify USP11 as a PML regulator by RNAi screening. USP11 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PML, thereby counteracting the functions of PML ubiquitin ligases RNF4 and the KLHL20-Cul3 (Cullin 3)-Roc1 complex. We find that USP11 is transcriptionally repressed through a Notch/Hey1-dependent mechanism, leading to PML destabilization. In human glioma, Hey1 upregulation correlates with USP11 and PML downregulation and with high-grade malignancy. The Notch/Hey1-induced downregulation of USP11 and PML not only confers multiple malignant characteristics of aggressive glioma, including proliferation, invasiveness and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model, but also potentiates self-renewal, tumour-forming capacity and therapeutic resistance of patient-derived glioma-initiating cells. Our study uncovers a PML degradation mechanism through Notch/Hey1-induced repression of the PML deubiquitinase USP11 and suggests an important role for this pathway in brain tumour pathogenesis. PMID:24487962

  1. Selective targeting of tumour neovasculature by a radiohalogenated human antibody fragment specific for the ED-B domain of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Demartis, S; Tarli, L; Borsi, L; Zardi, L; Neri, D

    2001-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a characteristic feature of many aggressive tumours and other disorders. Antibodies capable of binding to new blood vessels, but not to mature vessels, could be used as selective targeting agents for immunoscintigraphic and radioimmunotherapeutic applications. Here we show that scFv(L19), a recombinant human antibody fragment with sub-nanomolar affinity for the ED-B domain of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis, can be stably labelled with iodine-125 and astatine-211 with full retention of immunoreactivity, using a trimethyl-stannyl benzoate bifunctional derivative. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing two different types of tumour grafted subcutaneously, followed by ex vivo micro-autoradiographic analysis, revealed that scFv(L19) rapidly localises around tumour blood vessels, but not around normal vessels. Four hours after intravenous injection of the stably radioiodinated scFv(L19), tumour to blood ratios were 6:1 in mice bearing the F9 murine teratocarcinoma and 9:1 in mice bearing an FE8 rat sarcoma. As expected, all other organs (including kidney) contained significantly less radioactivity than the tumour. Since the ED-B domain of fibronectin has an identical sequence in mouse and man, scFv(L19) is a pan-species antibody and the results presented here suggest clinical utility of radiolabelled scFv(L19) for the scintigraphic detection of angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, it should now be possible to investigate scFv(L19) for the selective delivery of 211At to the tumour neovasculature, causing the selective death of tumour endothelial cells and tumour collapse. PMID:11357506

  2. Giant Cell Tumour of the Tendon Sheath: Analysis of 35 Cases and their Ki-67 Proliferation Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Güçer, Hasan; Yurdakul, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A giant cell Tumour of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a slow-growing benign Tumour originating from the synovial cells of the tendon sheath. It is the second most common Tumour of the hand. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective clinicopathological evaluation of GCTTS cases and determine whether the proliferative activity of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is related to its recurrence rate and local aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: The age, gender, Tumour location and diameter, treatment mode, Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic rate, and recurrence were retrospectively evaluated in 35 patients diagnosed with GCTTS in the Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University between 2009 and 2014. Results: Of the 35 GCTTS cases, 23 were female, and 12 were male. The mean age was 45 y (range 10–70). Sixteen tumours were located in the right hand and 14 in the left hand, and five were in the feet. The mean Tumour diameter was 2.3 cm (0.6–6 cm). All patients underwent marginal excision. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 4 y (range 28 months–5 y). Only six patients showed recurrence. In these cases, the site of GCTTS recurrence was the phalanx of the hand. The mean Ki-67 index in the recurrence cases was 6.5%, whereas it was 2.3% in those without recurrence. Conclusion: The Ki-67 proliferation index and mitotic activity were increased in recurrent cases compared to nonrecurrent cases. Therefore, these parameters may be helpful in predicting recurrence of GCTTS. However, adequate surgical excision and complete removal of the Tumour are important steps to minimize the recurrence rate. PMID:25653956

  3. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also

  4. [Trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude in the background of Attila József's suicide].

    PubMed

    Zsédel, Krisztina; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although recently many studies have indicated close connection between aggressive behaviour and suicide, and we can infer at Attila Jozsef's high trait-aggression from several cases, there is no research so far that would analyse the topic of the poet's aggression. We examine in this study the high trait-aggression and conscious poetic attitude of Attila Jozsef and put the question how could those two contribute to his suicide. Recollections of Attila Jozsef's contemporaries reveal that the poet's life was accompanied along with auto- and heteroaggression. By analysing his Rorschach-test, we can also conclude on the weakness of his aggression-control. During his psychoanalytic treatment from 1931 on, some difficult memories and unacceptable desires became revoked, and his aggressive outbreaks became unmanageable, first of all against some females in his life. His free-association works from this period are full of rude, incestuous, aggressive expressions. In spite of these, there is no trace of aggression in his poems - he masks his aggression in them by keeping precisely to formal criteria. We suppose that behind the masking there are unconscious processes, such as a very strong desire to get attached and fear of solitude that led to his aspiration to consciously form "the myth of the good poet". Art's healing power could not prevail as the spontaneous creative process has been turned into a conscious one. His impulses that came to light in the analytic process and were only partly sublime may have returned thus and became urgent and pressing again. We suppose that his high trait-aggression and his conscious poetic attitude together contributed to his life's tragic ending. PMID:26202624

  5. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses) to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions) to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT) and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP). We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of tDCS effects might also

  6. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Tan A.; Sousa, Aurea D.; Jones, Michelle A.; Harrell, J. Chuck; Agoston, Elin S.; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M.; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S.; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R.; Crum, Christopher P.; Brugge, Joan S.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  7. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours.

    PubMed

    Ince, Tan A; Sousa, Aurea D; Jones, Michelle A; Harrell, J Chuck; Agoston, Elin S; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T; Merritt, Melissa A; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Crum, Christopher P; Brugge, Joan S; Mills, Gordon B

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  8. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  9. A Psychoeducational Group for Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…

  10. Aggressive behavior in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D

    2011-08-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873

  11. Investigating Three Explanations of Women's Relationship Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated explanations of women's partner aggression in a sample of 358 women. Women completed measures of physical aggression, control, and fear. Three explanations of women's partner aggression were explored: (a) that its use is associated with fear, (b) that it is reciprocal, and (c) that it is coercive. Each explanation received…

  12. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  13. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  14. Female Aggression and Violence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Penelope E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggression and violence among adolescent females has received extension attention throughout the nation. Girls often employ relationally aggressive behaviors to resolve conflict, which often leads to physical aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine a girl fight from multiple perspectives to gain a better understanding of the causes…

  15. Understanding and Preventing Aggressive Responses in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Jeannine

    1996-01-01

    Fighting violence requires a networking approach among schools, community, and parents. This article advises elementary school counselors: (a) focus on the causes of aggression; (b) identify children with the propensity for behaving aggressively; and (c) prevent aggressive responses in children and adolescents by introducing techniques and…

  16. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  17. Transurethral resection and degeneration of bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihua; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Li, Weiwu; Lu, Honghai; Liu, Sikuan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Binghui

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the efficacy and safety of transurethral resection and degeneration of bladder tumour (TURD-Bt). Methods: In total, 56 patients with bladder tumour were treated by TURD-Bt. The results in these patients were compared with 32 patients treated by current transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TUR-Bt). Patients with or without disease progressive factors were respectively compared between the 2 groups. The factors included recurrent tumour, multiple tumours, tumour ≥3 cm in diameter, clinical stage T2, histological grade 3, adenocarcinoma, and ureteral obstruction or hydronephrosis. Results: Follow-up time was 48.55 ± 23.74 months in TURD-Bt group and 56.28 ± 17.61 months in the TUR-Bt group (p > 0.05). In patients without progressive factors, no tumour recurrence was found and overall survival was 14 (100%) in the TURD-Bt group; 3 (37.50%) patients had recurrence and overall survival was 5 (62.5%) in the TUR-Bt group. In patients with progressive factors, 8 (19.05%) patients had tumour recurrence, overall survival was 32 (76.19%) and cancer death was 3 (7.14%) in TURD-Bt group; 18 (75.00%) patients had tumour recurrence (p < 0.05), overall survival was 12 (50.00%) (p < 0.01) and cancer death was 8 (33.33%) (p < 0.05) in TUR-Bt group. No significant complication was found in TURD-Bt group. Conclusion: This study suggests that complete resection and degeneration of bladder tumour can be expected by TURD-Bt. The surgical procedure is safe and efficacious, and could be predictable and controllable before and during surgery. We would conclude that for bladder cancers without lymph node metastasis and distal metastasis, TURD-Bt could be performed to replace radical TUR-Bt and preserve the bladder. PMID:24475002

  18. Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

  19. Social Aggression on Television and Its Relationship to Children's Aggression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Nicole; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted with over 500 children in grades K-5 to examine whether exposure to socially aggressive content was related to children's use of social aggression. The results of the survey revealed a significant relationship between exposure to televised social aggression and increased social aggression at school, but only for girls and…

  20. Effects of Aggressive vs. Nonaggressive Films on the Aggressive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Charles

    Examined was the effect of viewing an aggressive film on the behavior of 22 moderately and mildly mentally retarded children (5-11 years old). Ss' doll playing was observed after they viewed a nonaggressive and an aggressive film. Results supported the hypothesis that Ss would exhibit more aggressive behavior following the aggressive than the…

  1. Disentangling proactive and reactive aggression in children using self-report

    PubMed Central

    Rieffe, Carolien; Broekhof, Evelien; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Faber, Judith; Tsutsui, Makoto M.; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The distinction between proactive and reactive functions of aggression is one of the most common divisions when investigating aggression among children and adolescents. To date, self-report is the least used measurement, despite existing literature supporting the view that the best informant regarding internal processes and motives are children themselves. The main aim of this study was to examine the construct and concurrent validity of a new self-report questionnaire, which aims to disentangle acts of reactive vs. proactive aggression that are most common within the daily lives of children. We examined the self-report measure among 578 children (313 girls, 265 boys, mean age 11 years, range 9–13 years). Most children (90% boys; 85% girls) reported at least one act of aggression over the last four weeks. Furthermore, the outcomes support the two-factor structure (reactive and proactive aggression) and the questionnaire showed good concurrent and discriminant validity with measures for emotional and social functioning. This study validates the use of the self-report instrument for reactive and proactive aggression and demonstrates that children can successfully distinguish between their own motives for reactive and proactive forms of aggressive behaviours. PMID:27398084

  2. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  3. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. PMID:24810384

  4. Anti-metastatic effects of viral and non-viral mediated Nk4 delivery to tumours.

    PubMed

    Buhles, Alexandra; Collins, Sara A; van Pijkeren, Jan P; Rajendran, Simon; Miles, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Hanlon, Deirdre M; Tangney, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metastasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate

  5. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  6. Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    Acts of violence account for an estimated 1.43 million deaths worldwide annually. While violence can occur in many contexts, individual acts of aggression account for the majority of instances. In some individuals, repetitive acts of aggression are grounded in an underlying neurobiological susceptibility that is just beginning to be understood. The failure of “top-down” control systems in the prefrontal cortex to modulate aggressive acts that are triggered by anger provoking stimuli appears to play an important role. An imbalance between prefrontal regulatory influences and hyper-responsivity of the amygdala and other limbic regions involved in affective evaluation are implicated. Insufficient serotonergic facilitation of “top-down” control, excessive catecholaminergic stimulation, and subcortical imbalances of glutamatergic/ gabaminergic systems as well as pathology in neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of affiliative behavior may contribute to abnormalities in this circuitry. Thus, pharmacological interventions such as mood stabilizers, which dampen limbic irritability, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which may enhance “top-down” control, as well as psychosocial interventions to develop alternative coping skills and reinforce reflective delays may be therapeutic. PMID:18346997

  7. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  8. Presence of tumour high-endothelial venules is an independent positive prognostic factor and stratifies patients with advanced-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wirsing, Anna M; Rikardsen, Oddveig G; Steigen, Sonja E; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Hadler-Olsen, Elin

    2016-02-01

    Staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma is based on the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system, which has been deemed insufficient for prognostic purposes. Hence, better prognostic tools are needed to reflect the biological diversity of these cancers. Previously, high numbers of specialized blood vessels called high-endothelial venules have been reported to be associated with prolonged survival in patients with breast cancer. In this study, we analysed the prognostic value and morphological characteristics of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules in oral cancer. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and analysed with correlation to clinicopathological parameters, patients' survival and vessel morphology. Ten of the samples were analysed at multiple levels to evaluate intratumoural heterogeneity. The presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules was found to be associated with lower disease-specific death in multivariate regression analyses (P = 0.002). High-endothelial venules were present in all (n = 53) T1-T2 tumours, but only in two thirds (n = 14) of the T3-T4 tumours. The morphology of high-endothelial venules was heterogeneous and correlated with lymphocyte density. High-endothelial venules were found to be distributed homogeneously within the tumours. We found the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules to be an easy-to-use, robust, and independent positive prognostic factor for patients with oral cancer. Absence of these vessels in advanced-stage tumours might identify patients with more aggressive disease. Evaluating the presence of tumour-associated high-endothelial venules might help to tailor the treatment of oral cancer patients to their individual needs. PMID:26383526

  9. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Centifanti, Luna C M; Fanti, Kostas A; Thomson, Nicholas D; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11-18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  10. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Centifanti, Luna C. M.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Thomson, Nicholas D.; Demetriou, Vasiliki; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. PMID:26580659

  11. [34 epibulbar malignant tumours (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwartzenberg, T; Vancea, P P; Dobrescu, G

    1979-02-01

    Based on a study of 34 cases, the authors make therapeutical and diagnostical references concerning the epibulbar malignant tumours. These were met with a frequency of 10% of the total amount of the malignant tumours of the visual apparatus. The most frequent setting were at the level of the bulbar conjunctiva and of the sclero-corneal limb, especially in front of the opening of the palpebral slit and in the temporal area. The histological examination of the tumours pointed out the following morphological types; epitheliomas (61%), especially spino-cellular, malignant melanomas (32%) and sarcomas (6%). The therapeutical attitude was the surgical one -- the accurate extirpation -- in the limited tumours, followed by radiotherapy when neoplasic lesions were found at the limit of section. In the invaded tumours, the exenteration of the orbit was performed followed by radiotherapy. On the terms of such a therapeutical conduct, the distant prognosis proved to be dependent on two factors: a. The early diagnosis, that is the stage of the therapeutical action. It is insisted upon the importance of the signs of malignization of some benign tumors: papillomas or naevi. b. The nature and origin of the tumour: the secondary tumours are more severe from the beginning. PMID:444115

  12. The Laser Treatment of Experimental Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    McGuff, Paul E.; Deterling, Ralph A.; Gottlieb, Leonard S.; Fahimi, H. Dariush; Bushnell, David; Roeber, Fred

    1964-01-01

    Some of the results of experiments performed during the past two years to assess effects of laser energy on experimental malignant tumours are reviewed. Twenty types of malignant tumours (most in the cheek pouch and 11 of human origin) were treated in over 700 Syrian hamsters. Results of laser treatment of malignant melanomas and thyroidal carcinomas are presented. A human patient with malignant melanoma treated by laser energy is described. Investigation of thermal effect revealed that the laser-treated tumour remained warm for about one minute, while the cautery-treated tumour cooled to normal temperature in five seconds. Direct action of laser on superficial tumours is possible; deeper lesions must be exposed surgically. Laser energy has a selective effect on certain malignant tumours, resulting in their progressive regression and ultimate dissolution. All hamsters with implanted malignant melanomas and carcinomas of human origin, after completion of a course of laser treatment, showed no gross or histologic evidence of tumour up to the date of last observation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 2eFig. 2fFig. 3Fig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 4cFig. 4dFig. 4eFig. 4fFig. 4gFig. 6 PMID:14229757

  13. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  14. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. PMID:26114606

  15. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, T.; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to obtain the relative telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was also assessed visually from the autoradiograms as being positive or negative. One hundred and sixteen tumours with negative telomerase activity had null relative telomerase activity, whereas 28 tumours with positive telomerase activity had relative telomerase activities of 12-84.3% (mean 0% vs 36.1 +/- 19.3%, P < 0.0001). Thus, quantification of telomerase activity confirmed the results of the visual evaluation of telomerase activity on autoradiograms. Based on the assessment, malignant brain tumours had a higher positive rate of telomerase activity than benign tumours (57.8% vs 2.0%, P < 0.001). These data indicate that positive telomerase activity is strongly associated with malignant brain tumours and is rather rare in benign tumours, such as neurinomas or meningiomas. Images Figure 2 PMID:9635839

  16. Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F G; Dougherty, D M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and laboratory research consistently link alcohol use with aggression. Not all people, however, exhibit increased aggression under the influence of alcohol. Recent research suggests that people with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be more prone to alcohol-related aggression than people without ASPD. As a group, people with ASPD have higher rates of alcohol dependence and more alcohol-related problems than people without ASPD. Likewise, in laboratory studies, people with ASPD show greater increases in aggressive behavior after consuming alcohol than people without ASPD. The association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may result from biological factors, such as ASPD-related impairments in the functions of certain brain chemicals (e.g., serotonin) or in the activities of higher reasoning, or "executive," brain regions. Alternatively, the association between ASPD and alcohol-related aggression may stem from some as yet undetermined factor(s) that increase the risk for aggression in general. PMID:11496966

  17. REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION IN ADOLESCENT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225

  18. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    PubMed

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs. PMID:34189

  19. Aggression after Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevalence & Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vani; Rosenberg, Paul; Bertrand, Melaine; Salehinia, Saeed; Spiro, Jennifer; Vaishnavi, Sandeep; Rastogi, Pramit; Noll, Kathy; Schretlen, David J; Brandt, Jason; Cornwell, Edward; Makley, Michael; Miles, Quincy Samus

    2010-01-01

    Aggression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but not well defined. Sixty-seven participants with first-time TBI were seen within three months of injury and evaluated for aggression. The prevalence of aggression was found to be 28.4% and to be predominantly verbal aggression. Post-TBI aggression was associated with new-onset major depression (p=0.02), poorer social functioning (p=0.04), and increased dependency on activities of daily living (p=0.03), but not with a history of substance abuse or adult/childhood behavioral problems. Implications of the study include early screening for aggression, evaluation for depression, and consideration of psychosocial support in aggressive patients. PMID:19996251

  20. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636