Science.gov

Sample records for agility research aircraft

  1. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft is steered to it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a

  2. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel wait to attach a hoist to the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, which arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high

  3. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  4. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel remove protective covers from the newly arrived NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft. It arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1

  5. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine

  6. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams

  7. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  8. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  9. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  11. An investigation of fighter aircraft agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory during the period January 1989 through December 1993. New metrics proposed by pilots and the research community to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. The report develops a framework for understanding the context into which the various proposed fighter agility metrics fit in terms of application and testing. Since new metrics continue to be proposed, this report does not claim to contain every proposed fighter agility metric. Flight test procedures, test constraints, and related criteria are developed. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is considered, as is the sensitivity of the candidate metrics to deviations from nominal pilot command inputs, which is studied in detail. Instead of supplying specific, detailed conclusions about the relevance or utility of one candidate metric versus another, the authors have attempted to provide sufficient data and analyses for readers to formulate their own conclusions. Readers are therefore ultimately responsible for judging exactly which metrics are 'best' for their particular needs. Additionally, it is not the intent of the authors to suggest combat tactics or other actual operational uses of the results and data in this report. This has been left up to the user community. Twenty of the candidate agility metrics were selected for evaluation with high fidelity, nonlinear, non real-time flight simulation computer programs of the F-5A Freedom Fighter, F-16A Fighting Falcon, F-18A Hornet, and X-29A. The information and data presented on the 20 candidate metrics which were evaluated will assist interested readers in conducting their own extensive investigations. The report provides a definition and analysis of each metric; details

  12. Analysis and optimization of preliminary aircraft configurations in relationship to emerging agility metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Bauer, Brent Alan

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a FORTRAN computer code to perform agility analysis on aircraft configurations. This code is to be part of the NASA-Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. This paper begins with a discussion of contemporary agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics. The methodology, techniques and models developed for the code are then presented. Finally, example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT are illustrated. These trade studies were conducted using a Northrop F-20 Tigershark aircraft model. The studies show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations. In addition one study illustrates the module's ability to optimize a configuration's agility performance.

  13. Development of a Computer Program for Analyzing Preliminary Aircraft Configurations in Relationship to Emerging Agility Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Brent

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a FORTRAN computer code to perform agility analysis on aircraft configurations. This code is to be part of the NASA-Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. This paper begins with a discussion of contemporary agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics. The methodology, techniques and models developed for the code are then presented. Finally, example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT are illustrated. These trade studies were conducted using a Northrop F-20 Tigershark aircraft model. The studies show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations. In addition, one study illustrates the module's ability to optimize a configuration's agility performance.

  14. Fighter agility metrics, research, and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A completed set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation provided by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available. Simulation documentation and user instructions are provided in an appendix.

  15. The X-31 aircraft: Advances in aircraft agility and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, C. W.; Croom, M. A.; Francis, M. S.; Ross, H.

    1996-08-01

    The X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator has pioneered agile flight in the post-stall flight regime and explored integrated multi-axis thrust vectoring across a broad flight envelope. Its maneuvering achievements include sustained flight up to 70 degrees angle of attack, velocity vector rolls in deep post-stall conditions, and post-stall turns from high entry to exit speeds with ultra low turning/transitional conditions. The concept of post-stall maneuverability was extensively studied in simulations preceding initiation of the X-31 program. These simulations provided a baseline for tactical utility demonstrations and vehicle design requirements. Post-stall maneuverability was not achieved without encountering and mitigating the effects of highly unsteady, asymmetric, vortex-dominated flow-fields associated with post-stall flight. Anomalies in vehicle response to control inputs were observed at high angles of attack, as were differences between simulator and actual flight parameters due to a misrepresentation of the effects of these complex flowfields. Some preliminary force and moment data for the X-31 configuration during dynamic maneuvers are provided to highlight the complex nature of the flowfield. The X-31 aircraft's enabling capabilities, including multi-axis thrust vectoring and integrated flight/propulsion control also provided performance enhancements across the entire flight envelope. In what were known as ‘quasi-tailless’ experiments, conventional aerodynamic control surfaces were used to reduce or eliminate the stabilizing influence of the vertical stabilizer, while the vehicle's multi-axis thrust vectoring capability was used for restabilization. Properly exploited, these technologies can lead to the reduction or elimination of traditional aerodynamic control surfaces, which provides profound improvements in vehicle range, weight, payload, and low observability. This review focuses on some of the principal aerodynamic issues

  16. X-29: Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary look at the Ames Dryden Flight Research Center in the context of the X-29 aircraft is provided. The uses of the X-29's 30 deg forward swept wing are examined. The video highlights the historical development of the forward swept wing, and its unique blend of speed, agility, and slow flight potential. The central optimization of the wing, the forward canard, and the rear flaps by an onboard flight computer is also described.

  17. Demonstrative Maneuvers for Aircraft Agility Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Pseudospectral Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 LGL Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CG Aircraft Center of Gravity...nomials, Li(i = 1, . . . , N), and by N nodes, the placement of which are defined by Legendre-Gauss- Lobatto (LGL) points [13]. Using this new format

  18. Agile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay Phillip

    2013-01-01

    This is based on a previous talk on agile development. Methods for delivering software on a short cycle are described, including interactions with the customer, the affect on the team, and how to be more effective, streamlined and efficient.

  19. Impact of emerging technologies on future combat aircraft agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.; Gilert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    The foreseeable character of future within-visual-range air combat entails a degree of agility which calls for the integration of high-alpha aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, intimate pilot/vehicle interfaces, and advanced weapons/avionics suites, in prospective configurations. The primary technology-development programs currently contributing to these goals are presently discussed; they encompass the F-15 Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator Program, the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program, the High Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, and the X-29 Technology Demonstrator Program.

  20. The evaluation of several agility metrics for fighter aircraft using optimal trajectory analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, George W., III; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Several functional agility metrics, including the combat cycle time metric, dynamic speed turn plots, and relative energy state metric, are used to compare turning performance for generic F-18, X-29, and X-31-type aircraft models. These three-degree-of-freedom models have characteristics similar to the real aircraft. The performance comparisons are made using data from optimal test trajectories to reduce sensitivities to different pilot input techniques and to reduce the effects of control system limiters. The turn performance for all three aircraft is calculated for simulated minimum time 180 deg heading captures from simulation data. Comparisons of the three aircraft give more insight into turn performance than would be available from traditional measures of performance. Using the optimal test technique yields significant performance improvements as measured by the metrics. These performance improvements were found without significant increases in turn radius.

  1. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  2. Agile robotic edge finishing system research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a new project undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories to develop an agile, automated, high-precision edge finishing system. The project has a two-year duration and was initiated in October, 1994. This project involves re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing workcell at Sandia; and developing intelligent methods for automating process definition and for controlling finishing processes. The resulting system will serve as a prototype for systems that will be deployed into highly flexible automated production lines. The production systems will be used to produce a wide variety of products with limited production quantities and quick turnaround requirements. The prototype system is designed to allow programming, process definition, fixture re-configuration, and process verification to be performed off-line for new products. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) models of the part will be used to assist with the automated process development and process control tasks. To achieve Sandia`s performance goals, the system will be employ advanced path planning, burr prediction expert systems, automated process definition, statistical process models in a process database, and a two-level control scheme using hybrid position-force control and fuzzy logic control. In this paper, we discuss the progress and the planned system development under this project.

  3. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  4. Future Research in Agile Systems Development: Applying Open Innovation Principles Within the Agile Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conboy, Kieran; Morgan, Lorraine

    A particular strength of agile approaches is that they move away from ‘introverted' development and intimately involve the customer in all areas of development, supposedly leading to the development of a more innovative and hence more valuable information system. However, we argue that a single customer representative is too narrow a focus to adopt and that involvement of stakeholders beyond the software development itself is still often quite weak and in some cases non-existent. In response, we argue that current thinking regarding innovation in agile development needs to be extended to include multiple stakeholders outside the business unit. This paper explores the intra-organisational applicability and implications of open innovation in agile systems development. Additionally, it argues for a different perspective of project management that includes collaboration and knowledge-sharing with other business units, customers, partners, and other relevant stakeholders pertinent to the business success of an organisation, thus embracing open innovation principles.

  5. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  6. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  7. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  8. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  9. Development of an agility assessment module for preliminary fighter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngan, Angelen; Bauer, Brent; Biezad, Daniel; Hahn, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is presented to perform agility analysis on fighter aircraft configurations. This code is one of the modules of the NASA Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. The background of the agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics are discussed. The methodology, techniques, and models developed for the code are presented. FORTRAN programs were developed for two specific metrics, CCT (Combat Cycle Time) and PM (Pointing Margin), as part of the agility module. The validity of the code was evaluated by comparing with existing flight test data. Example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT were conducted using Northrop F-20 Tigershark and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft models. The sensitivity of thrust loading and wing loading on agility criteria were investigated. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations and has the capability to optimize agility performance in the preliminary design process. This research provides a new and useful design tool for analyzing fighter performance during air combat engagements.

  10. NASA aircraft trailing vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.

  11. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  12. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  13. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  14. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Applying Agile Methods to DoD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Defense Adoption Proponents Team (ADAPT) member E-Learning Agile Course Multiple Presentations ... presentations , program committees: GSAW 2014, Agile 2014, Contracts in Agile International Meeting, AFEI/SEI DoD Agile Summit, GAO Working Groups 8

  15. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  16. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  17. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  18. Utilization of an agility assessment module in analysis and optimization of preliminary fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngan, Angelen; Biezad, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted to develop and to analyze a FORTRAN computer code for performing agility analysis on fighter aircraft configurations. This program is one of the modules of the NASA Ames ACSYNT (AirCraft SYNThesis) design code. The background of the agility research in the aircraft industry and a survey of a few agility metrics are discussed. The methodology, techniques, and models developed for the code are presented. The validity of the existing code was evaluated by comparing with existing flight test data. A FORTRAN program was developed for a specific metric, PM (Pointing Margin), as part of the agility module. Example trade studies using the agility module along with ACSYNT were conducted using a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet aircraft model. Tile sensitivity of thrust loading, wing loading, and thrust vectoring on agility criteria were investigated. The module can compare the agility potential between different configurations and has capability to optimize agility performance in the preliminary design process. This research provides a new and useful design tool for analyzing fighter performance during air combat engagements in the preliminary design.

  19. Oblique Wing Research Aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This 1976 photograph of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was taken in front of the NASA Flight Research Center hangar, located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In the photograph the noseboom, pitot-static probe, and angles-of-attack and sideslip flow vanes(covered-up) are attached to the front of the vehicle. The clear nose dome for the television camera, and the shrouded propellor for the 90 horsepower engine are clearly seen. The Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was a small, remotely piloted, research craft designed and flight tested to look at the aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing and the control laws necessary to achieve acceptable handling qualities. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and the NASA Ames Research Center conducted research with this aircraft in the mid-1970s to investigate the feasibility of flying an oblique wing aircraft.

  20. Investigation into the impact of agility on conceptual fighter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbeck, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Agility Design Study was performed by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for the NASA Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of agility requirements on new fighter configurations. Global trade issues investigated were the level of agility, the mission role of the aircraft (air-to-ground, multi-role, or air-to-air), and whether the customer is Air force, Navy, or joint service. Mission profiles and design objectives were supplied by NASA. An extensive technology assessment was conducted to establish the available technologies to industry for the aircraft. Conceptual level methodology is presented to assess the five NASA-supplied agility metrics. Twelve configurations were developed to address the global trade issues. Three-view drawings, inboard profiles, and performance estimates were made and are included in the report. A critical assessment and lessons learned from the study are also presented.

  1. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  2. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  3. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  4. Operational Agility (La Maniabilite Operationnelle)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    describe how to go further and how to set up an analytical framework for the analysis of another fundamental property of modern combat aircraft, that is... analytical framework for the analysis of airframe agility and for the derivation of agility metrics. A general consensus has been found in relating agility...Gianchecchi, Aernmacchi Lt Col. G. Fristachi, Italian Air Force Prof. M. Innocenti, Auburn University/University of Pisa United Kingdom Mr P. Gordon

  5. Agile Mythbusting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    does not fit all Scrum : The most adopted Agile method Scaling Agile Methods: Going beyond the team level methods Challenges to Agile Adoption: What’s...Arsenal Lapham, Wrubel Jan 2015 © 2015 Carnegie Mellon University. Myth: You Must Choose Agile or Waterfall – you can’t do both What about “water- scrum ...used in multiple environments, including DoD programs.1 1Start with “Agile EVM in Scrum Projects” from AGILE 2006 to get started learning about Agile

  6. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  7. Clean, Agile Processing Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Research ltr dtd 10 Jun 98 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED FINAL REPORT CLEAN, AGILE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Contract # N00014-96-C-0139 PI: S. W . Sinton...Agile Processing Technology . T UNCLAS I N Sinton, S. W.IN S REQUIRED FOR (Explain needin detaiO E C This document is requested by the Canadian Department

  8. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  9. Development of an agile knowledge engineering framework in support of multi-disciplinary translational research.

    PubMed

    Borlawsky, Tara B; Dhaval, Rakesh; Hastings, Shannon L; Payne, Philip R O

    2009-03-01

    In October 2006, the National Institutes of Health launched a new national consortium, funded through Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA), with the primary objective of improving the conduct and efficiency of the inherently multi-disciplinary field of translational research. To help meet this goal, the Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science has launched a knowledge management initiative that is focused on facilitating widespread semantic interoperability among administrative, basic science, clinical and research computing systems, both internally and among the translational research community at-large, through the integration of domain-specific standard terminologies and ontologies with local annotations. This manuscript describes an agile framework that builds upon prevailing knowledge engineering and semantic interoperability methods, and will be implemented as part this initiative.

  10. Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

  11. A Review of Agile and Lean Manufacturing as Issues in Selected International and National Research and Development Programs and Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Helio; Putnik, Goran D.; Shah, Vaibhav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze international and national research and development (R&D) programs and roadmaps for the manufacturing sector, presenting how agile and lean manufacturing models are addressed in these programs. Design/methodology/approach: In this review, several manufacturing research and development programs and…

  12. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  13. Research on rapid agile metrology for manufacturing based on real-time multitask operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jihong; Song, Zhen; Yang, Daoshan; Zhou, Ji; Buckley, Shawn

    1996-10-01

    Rapid agile metrology for manufacturing (RAMM) using multiple non-contact sensors is likely to remain a growing trend in manufacturing. High speed inspecting systems for manufacturing is characterized by multitasks implemented in parallel and real-time events which occur simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a real-time operating system into RAMM research. A general task model of a class-based object- oriented technology is proposed. A general multitask frame of a typical RAMM system using OPNet is discussed. Finally, an application example of a machine which inspects parts held on a carrier strip is described. With RTOS and OPNet, this machine can measure two dimensions of the contacts at 300 parts/second.

  14. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  15. Empirical Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    documented the fact that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (now more commonly called drones ) added substantially to the quality of surveillance, resulting in better...Battalions. CACI Inc.-Federal, Arlington, Virginia. 1977. DTIC Accession Number ADA123481. Olmstead, Joseph A., B. Leon Elder, and John M...greater agility – Drones improved agility in ground and air operations – Nelson’s C2 at Trafalgar demonstrated agility. Theater Level C2 During WW II

  16. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  17. Assessment of proposed fighter agility metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.; Valasek, John; Eggold, David P.; Downing, David R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of proposed metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility. A novel framework for classifying these metrics is developed and applied. A set of transient metrics intended to quantify the axial and pitch agility of fighter aircraft is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction method are proposed, and sensitivities to pilot introduced errors during flight testing is investigated. Results indicate that the power onset and power loss parameters are promising candidates for quantifying axial agility, while maximum pitch up and pitch down rates are for quantifying pitch agility.

  18. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  19. YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

  20. Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  1. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  2. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  3. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  4. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  5. X-1 research aircraft landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA). The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier'. The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Air Force Base, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after being air-launched from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 ft. The 6,000-lbthrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed him up to a speed of 700 mph in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed of 957 mph. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 ft. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 31 ft long, 10 ft high, and had a wingspan of 29 ft. It weighed 4,900 lb and carried 8,200 lb of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat. This roughly 30-second video clip shows the X-1 landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed followed by the safety chase aircraft.

  6. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  7. DoD Acquisitions Reform: Embracing and Implementing Agile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    austerity, the DoD must focus on Agile implementation in three main areas: training, business process re-engineering and contracting guidance.   It ...specific recommendations and bound the topic of research, the focus of this paper is on information technology ( IT ) acquisitions specifically, which...The B-52 lived and died by the quality of its sheet metal. Today, our aircraft will live or die by the quality of our software” (Hagan, Hurt

  8. Development of telemetry for the agility flight test of a radio controlled fighter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Michael J.

    1992-03-01

    Advanced design tools, control devices, and supermaneuverability concepts provide innovative solutions to traditional aircraft design trade-offs. Emerging technologies enable improved agility throughout the performance envelope. Unmanned Air Vehicles provide an excellent platform for dynamic measurements and agility research. A 1/8-scaled F-16A ducted-fan radio-controlled aircraft was instrumented with a telemetry system to acquire angle of attack, sideslip angle, control surface deflection, throttle position, and airspeed data. A portable ground station was built to record and visually present real-time telemetry data. Flight tests will be conducted to acquire baseline high angle-of-attack performance measurements, and follow-on research will evaluate agility improvements with varied control configurations.

  9. Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L.G.; Witzke, E.L.

    1997-05-01

    Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.

  10. Antimisting Fuel Research and Development for Commercial Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    aircraft boost pump with cold AMK. Later, the FAA added the following secondary objectives to the Boeing program: o Power requirements for degrading AMK...rWMRCIAL AIRCRAFT - FIIL SUMARY REPOIT ACT-320 6. Petforiirtg Organixat;o., Report No. 7. Au’torls) Michael Yaffee DOT/ FAA /CT-86/7 9. Parformina... FAA and England’s Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), which also had been conducting research in this area. The National Aeronautics and Space

  11. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

  12. X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had

  13. Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility (RAIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden Integrated Test Facility (ITF), also known as the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility (RAIF), provides an environment for conducting efficient and thorough testing of advanced, highly integrated research aircraft. Flight test confidence is greatly enhanced by the ability to qualify interactive aircraft systems in a controlled environment. In the ITF, each element of a flight vehicle can be regulated and monitored in real time as it interacts with the rest of the aircraft systems. Testing in the ITF is accomplished through automated techniques in which the research aircraft is interfaced to a high-fidelity real-time simulation. Electric and hydraulic power are also supplied, allowing all systems except the engines to function as if in flight. The testing process is controlled by an engineering workstation that sets up initial conditions for a test, initiates the test run, monitors its progress, and archives the data generated. The workstation is also capable of analyzing results of individual tests, comparing results of multiple tests, and producing reports. The computers used in the automated aircraft testing process are also capable of operating in a stand-alone mode with a simulation cockpit, complete with its own instruments and controls. Control law development and modification, aerodynamic, propulsion, guidance model qualification, and flight planning -- functions traditionally associated with real-time simulation -- can all be performed in this manner. The Remotely Augmented Vehicles (RAV) function, now located in the ITF, is a mainstay in the research techniques employed at Dryden. This function is used for tests that are too dangerous for direct human involvement or for which computational capacity does not exist onboard a research aircraft. RAV provides the researcher with a ground-based computer that is radio linked to the test aircraft during actual flight. The Ground Vibration Testing (GVT) system, formerly housed

  14. Research on systematization and advancement of shipbuilding production management for flexible and agile response for high value offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jong-Hun; Shin, Jong-Gye

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the speed of change related with enterprise management is getting faster than ever owing to the competition among companies, technique diffusion, shortening of product lifecycle, excessive supply of market. For the example, the compliance condition (such as delivery date, product quality, etc.) from the ship owner is getting complicated and the needs for the new product such as FPSO, FSRU are coming to fore. This paradigm shift emphasize the rapid response rather than the competitive price, flexibility and agility rather than effective and optimal perspective for the domestic shipbuilding company. So, domestic shipbuilding companies have to secure agile and flexible ship production environment that could respond change of market and requirements of customers in order to continue a competitive edge in the world market. In this paper, I'm going to define a standard shipbuilding production management system by investigating the environment of domestic major shipbuilding companies. Also, I'm going to propose a unified ship production management and system for the operation of unified management through detail analysis of the activities and the data flow of ship production management. And, the system functions for the strategic approach of ship production management are investigated through the business administration tools such as performance pyramid, VDT and BSC. Lastly, the research of applying strategic KPI to the digital shipyard as virtual execution platform is conducted.

  15. X-38 research aircraft deorbit - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  16. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  17. An Investigation of Agility Issues in Scrum Teams Using Agility Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikkarainen, Minna; Wang, Xiaofeng

    Agile software development methods have emerged and become increasingly popular in recent years; yet the issues encountered by software development teams that strive to achieve agility using agile methods are yet to be explored systematically. Built upon a previous study that has established a set of indicators of agility, this study investigates what issues are manifested in software development teams using agile methods. It is focussed on Scrum teams particularly. In other words, the goal of the chapter is to evaluate Scrum teams using agility indicators and therefore to further validate previously presented agility indicators within the additional cases. A multiple case study research method is employed. The findings of the study reveal that the teams using Scrum do not necessarily achieve agility in terms of team autonomy, sharing, stability and embraced uncertainty. The possible reasons include previous organizational plan-driven culture, resistance towards the Scrum roles and changing resources.

  18. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  19. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  20. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  1. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  2. Agile Metrics: Progress Monitoring of Agile Contractors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    can be tailored to leverage the iterative nature of Agile meth- ods. Using optional contract funding lines or indefinite delivery indefinite quantity... naturally created during the execution of the Agile implementation. In the following paragraphs, we identify issues to consider in building an Agile...employing Agile methods [Hartman 2006]. Be prepared to mine and effectively use the metrics data that naturally occur in typical Ag- ile teams. In

  3. Leading the Agile Organization. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (128th, Vancouver, BC, May 15-17, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jaia, Ed.; Rounds, Laura, Ed.; Sabnis, Shona, Ed.; Wetzel, Karen A., Ed.

    The program of the 128th meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is designed around the notion of examining rapid changes taking place in individual institutions and becoming agile enough to adapt, to manage change, and to learn how to effectively lead libraries through these turbulent periods. The program is divided into three main…

  4. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  5. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  6. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  7. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  8. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  9. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  10. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  11. Fighter agility metrics. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liefer, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    Fighter flying qualities and combat capabilities are currently measured and compared in terms relating to vehicle energy, angular rates and sustained acceleration. Criteria based on these measurable quantities have evolved over the past several decades and are routinely used to design aircraft structures, aerodynamics, propulsion and control systems. While these criteria, or metrics, have the advantage of being well understood, easily verified and repeatable during test, they tend to measure the steady state capability of the aircraft and not its ability to transition quickly from one state to another. Proposed new metrics to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. A framework for classification of these new agility metrics is developed and applied. A complete set of transient agility metrics is evaluated with a high fidelity, nonlinear F-18 simulation. Test techniques and data reduction methods are proposed. A method of providing cuing information to the pilot during flight test is discussed. The sensitivity of longitudinal and lateral agility metrics to deviations from the pilot cues is studied in detail. The metrics are shown to be largely insensitive to reasonable deviations from the nominal test pilot commands. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is also considered. With one exception, each of the proposed new metrics may be measured with instrumentation currently available.

  12. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  13. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  14. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  19. Joint USAF/NASA hypersonic research aircraft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, F. S.; Jones, R. A.; Buck, M. L.; Zima, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    A joint USAF/NASA study has developed a conceptual design for a new high-speed research airplane (X-24C) and identified candidate flight research experiments in the Mach 3 to 6 speed range. Four major categories of high priority research experiments are described as well as the X-24C design concept. The vehicle, a rocket-boosted, delta planform aircraft, is air launched from a B-52 and is capable of forty seconds of rocket cruise at Mach 6 with a research scramjet. Research provisions include a dedicated 10-foot long research experiments section, removable fins and strakes, and provisions for testing integrated airbreathing propulsion systems.

  20. NASA/Ames Research Center's science and applications aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. Warren

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center operates a fleet of seven Science and Applications Aircraft, namely the C-141/Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), DC-8, C-130, Lear Jet, and three ER-2s. These aircraft are used to satisfy two major objectives, each of equal importance. The first is to acquire remote and in-situ scientific data in astronomy, astrophysics, earth sciences, ocean processes, atmospheric physics, meteorology, materials processing and life sciences. The second major objective is to expedite the development of sensors and their attendant algorithms for ultimate use in space and to simulate from an aircraft, the data to be acquired from spaceborne sensors. NASA-Ames Science and Applications Aircraft are recognized as national and international facilities. They have performed and will continue to perform, operational missions from bases in the United States and worldwide. Historically, twice as many investigators have requested flight time than could be accommodated. This situation remains true today and is expected to increase in the years ahead. A major advantage of the existing fleet of aircraft is their ability to cover a large expanse of the earth's ecosystem from the surface to the lower stratosphere over large distances and time aloft. Their large payload capability allows a number of scientists to use multi-investigator sensor suites to permit simultaneous and complementary data gathering. In-flight changes to the sensors or data systems have greatly reduced the time required to optimize the development of new instruments. It is doubtful that spaceborne systems will ever totally replace the need for airborne science aircraft. The operations philosophy and capabilities exist at NASA-Ames Research Center.

  1. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  2. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  3. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  4. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  5. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  6. An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

  7. Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The research during the second reporting period has focused on robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. An already existing design for the Hypersonic Winged-Cone Configuration has been enhanced. Uncertainty models for the effects of propulsion system perturbations due to angle of attack variations, structural vibrations, and uncertainty in control effectiveness were developed. Using H(sub infinity) and mu-synthesis techniques, various control designs were performed in order to investigate the impact of these effects on achievable robust performance.

  8. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  9. Digital simulation of V/STOL aircraft for autopilot research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Meyer, G.

    1975-01-01

    Simulations of V/STOL aircraft for autopilot research were introduced as examples of large scale systems. A hierarchy of simulations was assembled, and a modular organization was given to the simulations. The dynamics of the system were subdivided into translational and rotational degrees of freedom, based on the different frequencies at which significant variations in motion variables, control forces and moments occur in two subsystems. This is the basis of the autopilot partitioning into two smaller control problems.

  10. Federal Aviation Administration aircraft inspection research and develoment programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher D.

    1996-11-01

    A substantial and coordinated program in inspection system research was initiated at the FAA Technical Center in 1990 as part of the National Aging Aircraft Research Program. the primary objectives of the inspection systems initiative are to develop improved inspection techniques to address specific aging airframe and engine inspection problems and to evaluate and validate existing and emerging inspection systems. Advanced conventional technologies, emerging technologies, or combinations of technologies are investigated for their ability to accurately and reliably detect cracks, disbonds, corrosion, and other damage. This paper will present an overview of FAA inspection system research initiatives, but will focus primarily on the technical issues which have defined and prioritized those initiatives.

  11. Agility Quotient (AQ)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    system?s Agility IQ ?? and ?What is the requisite amount of Agility that is required?? This paper suggests a way forward and illustrates it, in the...answer two questions. “How can we measure a system’s Agility IQ ?” and “What is the requisite amount of Agility that is required?” This paper...agility is worth our attention. AQ can be patterned after the Intelligence Quotient ( IQ ). IQ is a score that is associated with educational potential

  12. Agile Development of Advanced Prototypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    genetically modified babies. A case where researchers supplemented women’s defective mitochondria with healthy mitochondria from a donor was...and immersive experience showing genetic engineering’s implication for the future of medicine. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Agile Development, Games for...provoking perspective on genetic engineering’s implication for the future of medicine. Experiencing Living with Prostheses (Xense) During this period

  13. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  14. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 6: Preliminary design of a composite wing for tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.

  15. Rotor systems research aircraft risk-reduction shake test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. Brent

    1990-01-01

    A shake test and an extensive analysis of results were performed to evaluate the possibility of and the method for dynamically calibrating the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). The RSRA airframe was subjected to known vibratory loads in several degrees of freedom and the responses of many aircraft transducers were recorded. Analysis of the transducer responses using the technique of dynamic force determination showed that the RSRA, when used as a dynamic measurement system, could predict, a posteriori, an excitation force in a single axis to an accuracy of about 5 percent and sometimes better. As the analysis was broadened to include multiple degrees of freedom for the excitation force, the predictive ability of the measurement system degraded to about 20 percent, with the error occasionally reaching 100 percent. The poor performance of the measurement system is explained by the nonlinear response of the RSRA to vibratory forces and the inadequacy of the particular method used in accounting for this nonlinearity.

  16. Predesign report for the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual predesign of a compound helicopter for conducting rotor research is presented. The aircraft was selected by the Government as the better of two concepts submitted. The helicopter is a three place vehicle in the 24,000 pound gross weight class. It has been determined that the helicopter satisfies the requirements for the rotor research mission. The model has been predesigned sufficiently to allow an assessment of its performance and stability and control characteristics. A brief treatment of these subjects is included.

  17. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  18. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  19. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  20. The measurement and improvement of the lateral agility of the F-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggold, David P.; Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vehicle configuration and flight control system performance on the roll agility of a modern fighter aircraft has been investigated. A batch simulation of a generic F-18 Hornet was used to study the roll agility as measured by the time to roll through 90 deg metric. Problems discussed include definition of agility, factors affecting the agility of a vehicle, the development of the time to roll through 90 deg agility metric, and a simulation experiment. It is concluded that the integral of stability or wind axis roll rate should be used as a measure of the roll measure traversed. The time through roll angle 90 deg metric is considered to be a good metric for measuring the transient performance aspect of agility. Roll agility of the F-18, as measured by 90 deg metric, can be improved by 10 to 30 percent. Compatible roll and rudder actuator rates can significantly affect 90 deg agility metric.

  1. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  2. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  3. Investigating the strategic antecedents of agility in humanitarian logistics.

    PubMed

    L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H

    2016-12-16

    This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers.

  4. Towards Agile Ontology Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak-Rösch, Markus

    Ontologies are an appropriate means to represent knowledge on the Web. Research on ontology engineering reached practices for an integrative lifecycle support. However, a broader success of ontologies in Web-based information systems remains unreached while the more lightweight semantic approaches are rather successful. We assume, paired with the emerging trend of services and microservices on the Web, new dynamic scenarios gain momentum in which a shared knowledge base is made available to several dynamically changing services with disparate requirements. Our work envisions a step towards such a dynamic scenario in which an ontology adapts to the requirements of the accessing services and applications as well as the user's needs in an agile way and reduces the experts' involvement in ontology maintenance processes.

  5. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  6. The Pilatus Unmanned Aircraft System for Lower Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  7. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Palo, S.; Argrow, B.; LoDolce, G.; Mack, J.; Gao, R.-S.; Telg, H.; Trussel, C.; Fromm, J.; Long, C. N.; Bland, G.; Maslanik, J.; Schmid, B.; Hock, T.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be

  8. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru -Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-28

    This study presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) “Pilatus” unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as

  9. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    DOE PAGES

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; ...

    2016-04-28

    This study presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) “Pilatus” unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. Inmore » order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  10. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  11. Decision Science Challenges for C2 Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning , automatic attending and a general theory . Psychological Review, 84 (2...1 19 th ICCRTS “C2 Agility: Lessons Learned from Research and Operations” Decision Science Challenges for C2 Agility Topic 1 (First...systems. We have two vectors there. The first vector would be in things like man-machine interface. The second ... is in the whole area of cognition

  12. Overview of NASA research in fiber optics for aircraft controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in aircraft control system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is fiber optics. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors and optically controlled actuators are weight/volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, high bandwidth capabilities and freedom from short circuits/sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has been performing in-house, contract and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high temperature electro-optic switches and fly-by-light control system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control system technology, known as the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2 will provide subcomponent and system development and system testing. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program are discussed.

  13. Modification of ACSYNT aircraft computer program for preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biezad, Daniel J.; Rojos-Oviedo, Ruben

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer simulation of agility flight test techniques. Its purpose is to evaluate the agility of aircraft configurations early in the preliminary design phase. The simulation module is integrated into the NASA Ames aircraft synthesis design code. Trade studies using the agility module embedded within the design code to simulate the combat cycle time agility metric are illustrated using a Northrop F-20 aircraft model. Results show that the agility module is effective in analyzing the influence of common parameters such as thrust-to-weight ratio and wing loading on agility criteria. The module can also compare the agility potential between different configurations and has the capability to optimize agility performance early in the design process.

  14. Focused Logistics: Putting Agility in Agile Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    envisioned an agile and adaptable logstics system built around common situational understanding.5 The Focused Logistics concept specified the requirement to...the tracking of resources moving through the TD network. As a result, 112 Ibid, 20. 113 Ibid, 18-20. 39 distribution centers tagged inbound

  15. XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft - Program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Wernicke, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a status report of the NASA/Army XV-15 Project. The basic tilt-rotor concept and the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Research Aircraft are discussed and some results of full-scale wind-tunnel tests in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented. Flight-test data are included to give preliminary performance, noise, and vibration data in hover and as far into transition flight as are available at the time of presentation. Information concerning vehicle aerodynamics and airloads obtained as a result of both wind-tunnel and flight tests are provided with some conclusions as to the ramifications of the data in terms of design criteria and configuration layout.

  16. Fabrication research for supersonic cruise aircraft. [YF-12 skin structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Bales, T. T.; Payne, L.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. Full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to meet the criteria of an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program consists of laboratory testing and Mach 3 flight service of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Borsic/aluminum honeycomb-core, titanium clad Borsic/aluminum skin-stringer, graphite/PMR-15 polyimide honeycomb-core, and titanium superplastically formed/diffusion bonded panels have been designed, fabricated, and tested. Graphite/LARC-160 polyimide skin-stringer panels have been designed, and fabrication methods are being developed.

  17. A conceptual study of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical comparison of the two candidate Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) configurations selected by the Government at the completion of Part 1 of the RSRA Conceptual Predesign Study is presented. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the relative suitability of both vehicles for the RSRA missions described in the Government Statement of Work, and to assess their versatility in the testing of new rotor concepts. The analytical comparison was performed primarily with regard to performance and stability and control. A weights, center-of-gravity, and inertia computation was performed for each iteration in the analysis process. The dynamics investigation was not concerned so much with a comparison of the two vehicles, but explored the dynamic problems attending operation of any RSRA operating with large rotor RPM and diameter ranges over large forward speed ranges. Several means of isolating in- and out-of-plane rotor vibrations were analyzed. An optimum isolation scheme was selected.

  18. Simulation of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, G. B.; Dugan, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective use of simulation from issuance of the request for proposal through conduct of a flight test program for the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft is discussed. From program inception, simulation complemented all phases of XV-15 development. The initial simulation evaluations during the source evaluation board proceedings contributed significantly to performance and stability and control evaluations. Eight subsequent simulation periods provided major contributions in the areas of control concepts; cockpit configuration; handling qualities; pilot workload; failure effects and recovery procedures; and flight boundary problems and recovery procedures. The fidelity of the simulation also made it a valuable pilot training aid, as well as a suitable tool for military and civil mission evaluations. Simulation also provided valuable design data for refinement of automatic flight control systems. Throughout the program, fidelity was a prime issue and resulted in unique data and methods for fidelity evaluation which are presented and discussed.

  19. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  20. Flight comparison of the transonic agility of the F-111A airplane and the F-111 supercritical wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sakamoto, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to investigate the improvements in maneuverability of an F-111A airplane equipped with a supercritical wing. In this configuration the aircraft is known as the F-111 TACT (transonic aircraft technology) airplane. The variable-wing-sweep feature permitted an evaluation of the supercritical wing in many configurations. The primary emphasis was placed on the transonic Mach number region, which is considered to be the principal air combat arena for fighter aircraft. An agility study was undertaken to assess the maneuverability of the F-111A aircraft with a supercritical wing at both design and off-design conditions. The evaluation included an assessment of aerodynamic and maneuver performance in conjunction with an evaluation of precision controllability during tailchase gunsight tracking tasks.

  1. An Overview of NASA's SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft’s mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft’s flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT’s research systems and capabilities

  2. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  3. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  4. NASA Now: Phase Change and Forces of Flight: Aircraft Icing Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tour the Icing Research Tunnel with Judith VanZante, aeromechanical engineer and icing specialist. VanZante explains the hazards of ice on aircraft, how it is formed, and why the research on ice pl...

  5. Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

    2012-01-01

    As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

  6. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  7. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  8. An overview of the quiet short-haul research aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Cochrane, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Program is presented, with special emphasis on its propulsion and acoustic aspects. A description of the NASA technical participation in the program including wind tunnel testing, engine ground tests, and advanced aircraft simulation is given. The aircraft and its systems are described and, measured performance, where available, is compared to program goals. Preliminary data indicate that additional research and development are needed in some areas of which acoustics is an example. Some of these additional research areas and potential experiments using the QSRA to develop the technology are discussed. The concept of the QSRA as a national flight research facility is explained.

  9. Recent Developments in Aircraft Flyover Noise Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of a new generation of synthesis and simulation tools for creation of virtual environments used in the study of aircraft community noise. The original emphasis was on simulation of flyover noise associated with subsonic fixed wing aircraft. Recently, the focus has shifted to rotary wing aircraft. Many aspects of the simulation are applicable to both vehicle classes. Other aspects, particularly those associated with synthesis, are more vehicle specific. This paper discusses the capabilities of the current suite of tools, their application to fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and some directions for the future.

  10. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  11. Performance and safety aspects of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicke, K. G.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft performance is presented illustrating the flexibility and capability of the XV-15 to conduct its planned proof-of-concept flight research in the areas of dynamics, stability and control, and aerodynamics. Additionally, the aircraft will demonstrate mission-type performance typical of future operational aircraft. The aircraft design is described and discussed with emphasis on the safety and fail-operate features of the aircraft and its systems. Two or more levels of redundancy are provided in the dc and ac electrical systems, hydraulics, conversion, flaps, landing gear extension, SCAS, and force-feel. RPM is maintained by a hydro-electrical blade pitch governor that consists of a primary and standby governor with a cockpit wheel control for manual backup. The two engines are interconnected for operation on a single engine. In the event of total loss of power, the aircraft can enter autorotation starting from the airplane as well as the helicopter mode of flight.

  12. NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft rolls down a taxiway with the X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of a combined systems test conducted by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft rolls down a taxiway at Edwards Air Force Base with the X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket attached to a pylon under its right wing. The taxi test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va. After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  13. NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft rolls down a taxiway with the X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft rolls down a taxiway at Edwards Air Force Base with the X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket slung from a pylon under its right wing. Part of a combined systems test conducted by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, the taxi test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, with the first tentatively scheduled for late spring to early summer, 2001.

  14. Tiltrotor research aircraft composite blade repairs: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

  15. X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  16. X-38 research aircraft - First drop flight and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. Those tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  17. Evaluation of XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft for flying qualities research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, R. C.; Schelhorn, A. E.; Siracuse, R. J.; Till, R. D.; Wasserman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a design review study and evaluation of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft for flying qualities research application are presented. The objectives of the program were to determine the capability of the XV-15 aircraft and the V/STOLAND system as a safe, inflight facility to provide meaningful research data on flying qualities, flight control systems, and information display systems.

  18. Global stratospheric change: Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research, sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center, was held July 15 to 16, 1989, at Truckee, CA. The workshop had two purposes: to assess the scientific justification for a new aircraft that will support stratospheric research beyond the altitudes accessible to the NASA ER-2; and to determine the aircraft characteristics (e.g., ceiling altitude, payload accommodations, range, flight duration, operational capabilities) required to perform the stratospheric research referred to in the justification. To accomplish these purposes, the workshop brought together a cross-section of stratospheric scientists with several aircraft design and operations experts. The stratospheric scientists included theoreticians as well as experimenters with experience in remote and in situ measurements from satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and the ground. Discussions of required aircraft characteristics focused on the needs of stratospheric research. It was recognized that an aircraft optimal for stratospheric science would also be useful for other applications, including remote measurements of Earth's surface. A brief description of these other applications was given at the workshop.

  19. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  20. A brief review of aircraft controls research opportunities in the general aviation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A review of aircraft controls research in the general aviation field is given. Among the topics included are: controls technology benefits, military and commercial test programs, flight tests, ride quality control, and wind loading.

  1. NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft familiarization document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are described. This aircraft was conceived as a proof-of-concept vehicle and a V/STOL research tool for integrated wind tunnel, flight-simulation, and flight-test investigations. Discussions of special design provisions and safety considerations necessary to perform these missions are included in this report. In addition to predictions of aircraft and engine performance for the hover, helicopter, and airplane flight modes, analytical estimates of the structural and dynamic limitations of the XV-15 are provided.

  2. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  3. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  4. An agile implementation of SCRUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, Michele

    Is Agile a way to cut corners? To some, the use of an Agile Software Development Methodology has a negative connotation - “ Oh, you're just not producing any documentation” . So can a team with no experience in Agile successfully implement and use SCRUM?

  5. A study for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Daughaday, H.; Andrisani, D., II; Till, R. D.; Weingarten, N. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study and preliminary design for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft are documented. Active control functions which can be demonstrated on the TIFS aircraft and the cost of preparing, equipping, and operating the TIFS aircraft for active control technology development are determined. It is shown that the TIFS aircraft is as a suitable test bed for inflight research and validation of many ACT concepts.

  6. Shipboard trials of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft /QSRA/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.; Strickland, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of advanced state-of-the-art high lift STOL aircraft in the aircraft carrier environment was evaluated using the NASA Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA). The QSRA made repeated unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs from the USS Kitty Hawk while being flown by three pilots of significant different backgrounds. The exercise demonstrated that the USB propulsive lift technology presents no unusual problems in the aircraft carrier environment. Optimum parameters for landing the QSRA were determined from the shore-based program; these proved satisfactory during operations aboard ship. Correlation of shipboard experience with shore-based data indicates that both free deck takeoffs and unarrested landings could be conducted with zero to 35 knots of wind across the deck of an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk.

  7. The tilt rotor research aircraft (XV-15) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The tilt rotor concept is introduced and the performance capabilities and noise characteristics of the XV-15 aircraft are discussed. In hover, the aircraft is lifted by the two wing tip mounted rotors with the nacelles in the vertical position. In this flight mode, the vehicle is a twin rotor helicopter and is controlled by rotor cyclic and collective controls. The aircraft can fly as a helicopter or tilt the nacelle to the propeller mode and operate as a fixed-wing twin turboprop airplane. It is also possible to stop the conversion at any intermediate angle and fly continuously or reconvert. The rotors are powered by two modified T-53 engines and the power train includes a cross shaft located in the wing, to allow for the engine failure case and still retain power to both rotors.

  8. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

    2010-01-01

    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  9. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  10. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  11. X-38 research aircraft atmospheric reentry - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  12. X-38 research aircraft deorbit burn - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998 plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  13. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  14. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  15. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  16. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software

    PubMed Central

    Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the right amount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion. PMID:21799545

  17. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software.

    PubMed

    Gary, Kevin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-08-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the rightamount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion.

  18. In flight direct strike lightning research. [Using an F-106B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The lightning generated electromagnetic environment effecting aircraft is studied. The program uses F-106B aircraft which operates in a thunderstorm environment and is specially instrumented for the lightning electromagnetic measurements. The instrumentation system is reviewed and typical results recorded by the research instrumentation during simulated lightning ground tests performed for a safety survey are presented along with several examples of direct strike data obtained during the summer of 1980.

  19. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  20. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  1. TriBITS lifecycle model. Version 1.0, a lean/agile software lifecycle model for research-based computational science and engineering and applied mathematical software.

    SciTech Connect

    Willenbring, James M.; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2012-01-01

    Software lifecycles are becoming an increasingly important issue for computational science and engineering (CSE) software. The process by which a piece of CSE software begins life as a set of research requirements and then matures into a trusted high-quality capability is both commonplace and extremely challenging. Although an implicit lifecycle is obviously being used in any effort, the challenges of this process - respecting the competing needs of research vs. production - cannot be overstated. Here we describe a proposal for a well-defined software lifecycle process based on modern Lean/Agile software engineering principles. What we propose is appropriate for many CSE software projects that are initially heavily focused on research but also are expected to eventually produce usable high-quality capabilities. The model is related to TriBITS, a build, integration and testing system, which serves as a strong foundation for this lifecycle model, and aspects of this lifecycle model are ingrained in the TriBITS system. Here, we advocate three to four phases or maturity levels that address the appropriate handling of many issues associated with the transition from research to production software. The goals of this lifecycle model are to better communicate maturity levels with customers and to help to identify and promote Software Engineering (SE) practices that will help to improve productivity and produce better software. An important collection of software in this domain is Trilinos, which is used as the motivation and the initial target for this lifecycle model. However, many other related and similar CSE (and non-CSE) software projects can also make good use of this lifecycle model, especially those that use the TriBITS system. Indeed this lifecycle process, if followed, will enable large-scale sustainable integration of many complex CSE software efforts across several institutions.

  2. Conceptual design study of a Harrier V/STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, W. E.; Berger, R. L.; Elmore, G. A.; Lacey, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    MCAIR recently completed a conceptual design study to define modification approaches to, and derive planning prices for the conversion of a two place Harrier to a V/STOL control, display and guidance research aircraft. Control concepts such as rate damping, attitude stabilization, velocity command, and cockpit controllers are to be demonstrated. Display formats will also be investigated, and landing, navigation and guidance systems flight tested. The rear cockpit is modified such that it can be quickly adapted to faithfully simulate the controls, displays and handling qualities of a Type A or Type B V/STOL. The safety pilot always has take command capability. The modifications studied fall into two categories: basic modifications and optional modifications. Technical descriptions of the basic modifications and of the optional modifications are presented. The modification plan and schedule as well as the test plan and schedule are presented. The failure mode and effects analysis, aircraft performance, aircraft weight, and aircraft support are discussed.

  3. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  4. Development of a Low-Cost Sub-Scale Aircraft for Flight Research: The FASER Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Cox, David E.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive unmanned sub-scale aircraft was developed to conduct frequent flight test experiments for research and demonstration of advanced dynamic modeling and control design concepts. This paper describes the aircraft, flight systems, flight operations, and data compatibility including details of some practical problems encountered and the solutions found. The aircraft, named Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, or FASER, was outfitted with high-quality instrumentation to measure aircraft inputs and states, as well as vehicle health parameters. Flight data are stored onboard, but can also be telemetered to a ground station in real time for analysis. Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software were used as often as possible. The flight computer is based on the PC104 platform, and runs xPC-Target software. Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted with the same aircraft used for flight testing, and a six degree-of-freedom simulation with nonlinear aerodynamics was developed to support flight tests. Flight tests to date have been conducted to mature the flight operations, validate the instrumentation, and check the flight data for kinematic consistency. Data compatibility analysis showed that the flight data are accurate and consistent after corrections are made for estimated systematic instrumentation errors.

  5. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  6. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  7. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

  8. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  9. Impact dynamics research facility for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, V. L. J.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1976-01-01

    An impact dynamics research facility (IDRF) was developed to crash test full-scale general aviation aircraft under free-flight test conditions. The aircraft are crashed into the impact surface as free bodies; a pendulum swing method is used to obtain desired flight paths and velocities. Flight paths up to -60 deg and aircraft velocities along the flight paths up to about 27.0 m/s can be obtained with a combination of swing-cable lengths and release heights made available by a large gantry. Seven twin engine, 2721-kg aircraft were successfully crash tested at the facility, and all systems functioned properly. Acquisition of data from signals generated by accelerometers on board the aircraft and from external and onboard camera coverage was successful in spite of the amount of damage which occurred during each crash. Test parameters at the IDRF are controllable with flight path angles accurate within 8 percent, aircraft velocity accurate within 6 percent, pitch angles accurate to 4.25 deg, and roll and yaw angles acceptable under wind velocities up to 4.5 m/s.

  10. Agile rediscovering values: Similarities to continuous improvement strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Mera, P.; Arenas, J. M.; González, C.

    2012-04-01

    Research in the late 80's on technological companies that develop products of high value innovation, with sufficient speed and flexibility to adapt quickly to changing market conditions, gave rise to the new set of methodologies known as Agile Management Approach. In the current changing economic scenario, we considered very interesting to study the similarities of these Agile Methodologies with other practices whose effectiveness has been amply demonstrated in both the West and Japan. Strategies such as Kaizen, Lean, World Class Manufacturing, Concurrent Engineering, etc, would be analyzed to check the values they have in common with the Agile Approach.

  11. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  12. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  13. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  14. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  15. In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This "Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

  16. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodi, A. R.; Leon, D. C.

    2012-11-01

    A method is described that estimates the error in the static pressure measurement on an aircraft from differential pressure measurements on the hemispherical surface of a Rosemount model 858AJ air velocity probe mounted on a boom ahead of the aircraft. The theoretical predictions for how the pressure should vary over the surface of the hemisphere, involving an unknown sensitivity parameter, leads to a set of equations that can be solved for the unknowns - angle of attack, angle of sideslip, dynamic pressure and the error in static pressure - if the sensitivity factor can be determined. The sensitivity factor was determined on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft by comparisons with the error measured with a carefully designed sonde towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft - a trailing cone - and the result was shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions, including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) system are used to estimate acceleration effects on the error, and the algorithm is shown to predict corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa under those conditions. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are discussed.

  17. In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A acoustic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in-flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This 'Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying, position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

  18. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  19. Value Creation by Agile Projects: Methodology or Mystery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racheva, Zornitza; Daneva, Maya; Sikkel, Klaas

    Business value is a key concept in agile software development approaches. This paper presents results of a systematic review of literature on how business value is created by agile projects. We found that with very few exceptions, most published studies take the concept of business value for granted and do not state what it means in general as well as in the specific study context. We could find no study which clearly indicates how exactly individual agile practices or groups of those create value and keep accumulating it over time. The key implication for research is that we have an incentive to pursue the study of value creation in agile project by deploying empirical research methods.

  20. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, Stephan P.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy.

  1. Frequency agile optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Velsko, S.P.

    1998-11-24

    The frequency agile OPO device converts a fixed wavelength pump laser beam to arbitrary wavelengths within a specified range with pulse to pulse agility, at a rate limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. Uses of this invention include Laser radar, LIDAR, active remote sensing of effluents/pollutants, environmental monitoring, antisensor lasers, and spectroscopy. 14 figs.

  2. Unveiling of sign for Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In a brief ceremony following a memorial service for the late Walter C. Williams on November 17, 1995, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, was formally renamed the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility. Shown is the family of Walt Williams: Helen, his widow, sons Charles and Howard, daughter Elizabeth Williams Powell, their spouses and children unveiling the new sign redesignating the Facility. The test facility provides state-of-the-art capabilities for thorough ground testing of advanced research aircraft. It allows researchers and technicians to integrate and test aircraft systems before each research flight, which greatly enhances the safety of each mission. In September 1946 Williams became engineer-in-charge of a team of five engineers who arrived at Muroc Army Air Base (now Edwards AFB) from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia (now NASA's Langley Research Center), to prepare for supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-Army Air Forces program involving the rocket-powered X-1. This established the first permanent NACA presence at the Mojave Desert site although initially the five engineers and others who followed them were on temporary assignment. Over time, Walt continued to be in charge during the many name changes for the NACA-NASA organization, with Williams ending his stay as Chief of the NASA Flight Research Center in September 1959 (today NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center).

  3. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  4. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  5. A unique facility for V/STOL aircraft hover testing. [Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, R. G.; Murphy, R. D.; Gillespie, E. A.; Lane, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) was modified to obtain static force and moment data and to allow assessment of aircraft handling qualities during dynamic tethered hover flight. Test probe procedures were also established. Static lift and control measurements obtained are presented along with results of limited dynamic tethered hover flight.

  6. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  7. Subminiaturization for ERAST instrumentation (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madou, Marc; Lowenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1995-01-01

    We are focusing on the Argus as an example to demonstrate our philosophy on miniaturization of airborne analytical instruments for the study of atmospheric chemistry. Argus is a two channel, tunable-diode laser absorption spectrometer developed at NASA for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (N2O) (4.5 micrometers) and ammonia (CH3) (3.3 micrometers) at the 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) level from the Perseus aircraft platform at altitudes up to 30 km. Although Argus' mass is down to 23 kg from the 197 kg Atlas, its predecessor, our goal is to design a next-generation subminiaturized instrument weighing less than 1 kg, measuring a few cm(exp 3) and able to eliminate dewars for cooling. Current designs enable use to make a small,inexpensive, monolithic spectrometer without the required sensitivity range. Further work is on its way to increase sensitivity. We are continuing to zero-base the technical approach in terms of the specifications for the given instrument. We are establishing a check list of questions to hone into the best micromachining approach and to superpose on the answers insights in scaling laws and flexible engineering designs to enable more relaxed tolerances for the smallest of the components.

  8. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft during take off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 709, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  9. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

  10. The movement of water droplets in clouds around the nose of an atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feuillebois, P.; Scibilia, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic interaction between droplets and the airflow around the hemispherical nose of an aircraft was evaluated. The effect of the aircraft nose on droplet sampling for cloud research is explained. The proportion of different droplet sizes and their concentration at each point around the aircraft nose were determined. In a cloud, interaction between droplets is negligible. Each particle acts, for the calculation of the forces applied to it, as if it is alone in the air. The airflow carrying the droplets, on the average, is not influenced by their presence. The trajectory of each droplet was studied separately after calculating dry airflow. Concentrations were found with a Lagrangian method, using two trajectories computed directly close to one another. Theory confirms that to within 3% experimentally measured concentrations are representative of those in a cloud.

  11. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  12. Pilot users in agile development processes: motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Liv Karen; Gammon, Deede

    2010-01-01

    Despite a wealth of research on user participation, few studies offer insights into how to involve multi-organizational users in agile development methods. This paper is a case study of user involvement in developing a system for electronic laboratory requisitions using agile methodologies in a multi-organizational context. Building on an interpretive approach, we illuminate questions such as: How does collaboration between users and developers evolve and how might it be improved? What key motivational aspects are at play when users volunteer and continue contributing in the face of considerable added burdens? The study highlights how agile methods in themselves appear to facilitate mutually motivating collaboration between user groups and developers. Lessons learned for leveraging the advantages of agile development processes include acknowledging the substantial and ongoing contributions of users and their roles as co-designers of the system.

  13. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  14. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  15. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  16. Towards a Framework for Using Agile Approaches in Global Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Emam; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Verner, June

    As agile methods and Global Software Development (GSD) are become increasingly popular, GSD project managers have been exploring the viability of using agile approaches in their development environments. Despite the expected benefits of using an agile approach with a GSD project, the overall combining mechanisms of the two approaches are not clearly understood. To address this challenge, we propose a conceptual framework, based on the research literature. This framework is expected to aid a project manager in deciding what agile strategies are effective for a particular GSD project, taking into account project context. We use an industry-based case study to explore the components of our conceptual framework. Our case study is planned and conducted according to specific published case study guidelines. We identify the agile practices and agile supporting practices used by a GSD project manager in our case study and conclude with future research directions.

  17. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  18. Research on modeling of the agile satellite using a single gimbal magnetically suspended CMG and the disturbance feedforward compensation for rotors.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning

    2012-12-12

    The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced.

  19. Research on Modeling of the Agile Satellite Using a Single Gimbal Magnetically Suspended CMG and the Disturbance Feedforward Compensation for Rotors

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning

    2012-01-01

    The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced. PMID:23235442

  20. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  1. Elements of an Art - Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh, Erik

    This tutorial gives you a lead on becoming or redefining yourself as an Agile Coach. Introduction to elements and dimensions of state-of-the-art Agile Coaching. How to position the agile coach to be effective in a larger setting. Making the agile transition - from a single team to thousands of people. How to support multiple teams as a coach. How to build a coaches network in your company. Challenges when the agile coach is a consultant and the organization is large.

  2. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  3. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  4. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  5. Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise (FICAN) Position on Research into Effects of Aircraft Noise on Classroom Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This symposium report presents a summary of research on the affect of aircraft noise on the classroom environment revealing that aircraft noise can interfere with learning in the following areas: reading, motivation, language and speech acquisition, and memory. The strongest findings are in the area of reading, where more than 20 studies have…

  6. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  7. Review of recent research of interior noise of propeller aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Publications on the topics of propeller source noise, airborne noise transmission, and passenger comfort response to noise and vibration are reviewed. Of the 187 publications referenced, 140 have appeared since 1978. Examples of research accomplishments are presented to illustrate the state of the art. Emphasis is on comparisons of theoretical and measured results, but the description of the theories is left to the references. This review shows that substantial progress has been made in understanding the characteristics of propeller noise, airborne noise, and passenger response, and in the development of prediction methods. Application of the technology to cabin noise control and possible future research directions are discussed.

  8. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  9. Inserting Agility in System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  10. Impact of Business Intelligence and IT Infrastructure Flexibility on Competitive Advantage: An Organizational Agility Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    There is growing use of business intelligence (BI) for better management decisions in industry. However, empirical studies on BI are still scarce in academic research. This research investigates BI from an organizational agility perspective. Organizational agility is the ability to sense and respond to market opportunities and threats with speed,…

  11. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  12. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  13. Final Report of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance Agile Benchmarking Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Martha

    2016-01-01

    To ensure that the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) community remains in a position to perform reliable Software Assurance (SA) on NASAs critical software (SW) systems with the software industry rapidly transitioning from waterfall to Agile processes, Terry Wilcutt, Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance, Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) established the Agile Benchmarking Team (ABT). The Team's tasks were: 1. Research background literature on current Agile processes, 2. Perform benchmark activities with other organizations that are involved in software Agile processes to determine best practices, 3. Collect information on Agile-developed systems to enable improvements to the current NASA standards and processes to enhance their ability to perform reliable software assurance on NASA Agile-developed systems, 4. Suggest additional guidance and recommendations for updates to those standards and processes, as needed. The ABT's findings and recommendations for software management, engineering and software assurance are addressed herein.

  14. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  15. NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

  16. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  17. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  18. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  19. Identification of Spey engine dynamics in the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehoff, R. L.; Reed, W. B.; Trankle, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The development and validation of a spey engine model is described. An analysis of the dynamical interactions involved in the propulsion unit is presented. The model was reduced to contain only significant effects, and was used, in conjunction with flight data obtained from an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft, to develop initial estimates of parameters in the system. The theoretical background employed in estimating the parameters is outlined. The software package developed for processing the flight data is described. Results are summarized.

  20. Team-based work and work system balance in the context of agile manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Charlene A

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing agility is the ability to prosper in an environment characterized by constant and unpredictable change. The purpose of this paper is to analyze team attributes necessary to facilitate agile manufacturing, and using Balance Theory as a framework, it evaluates the potential positive and negative impacts related to these team attributes that could alter the balance of work system elements and resulting "stress load" experienced by persons working on agile teams. Teams operating within the context of agile manufacturing are characterized as multifunctional, dynamic, cooperative, and virtual. A review of the literature relevant to each of these attributes is provided, as well as suggestions for future research.

  1. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft

  2. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  3. Follow on Researches for X-56A Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2012-01-01

    A lot of composite materials are used for the modern aircraft to reduce its weight. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of X-56A aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes is based on the flutter analysis of X-56A aircraft. It should be noted that for all three Mach number cases rigid body modes and mode numbers seven and nine are participated 89.1 92.4 % of the first flutter mode. Modal participation of the rigid body mode and mode numbers seven and nine for the second flutter mode are 94.6 96.4%. Rigid body mode and the first two anti-symmetric modes, eighth and tenth modes, are participated 93.2 94.6% of the third flutter mode. Therefore, rigid body modes and the first four flexible modes of X-56A aircraft are the primary modes during the model tuning procedure. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is to obtain in this study. The structural dynamics finite element model of X-56A aircraft is improved using the parallelized big-bang big-crunch algorithm together with a hybrid optimization technique.

  4. Supersonic cruise research aircraft structural studies: Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Gross, D.; Kurtze, W.; Newsom, J.; Wrenn, G.; Greene, W.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center SCAR in-house structural studies are reviewed. In methods development, advances include a new system of integrated computer programs called ISSYS, progress in determining aerodynamic loads and aerodynamically induced structural loads (including those due to gusts), flutter optimization for composite and metal airframe configurations using refined and simplified mathematical models, and synthesis of active controls. Results given address several aspects of various SCR configurations. These results include flutter penalties on composite wing, flutter suppression using active controls, roll control effectiveness, wing tip ground clearance, tail size effect on flutter, engine weight and mass distribution influence on flutter, and strength and flutter optimization of new configurations. The ISSYS system of integrated programs performed well in all the applications illustrated by the results, the diversity of which attests to ISSYS' versatility.

  5. Polar Research with Unmanned Aircraft and Tethered Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, M; Petty, R; Desilets, D; Verlinde, J; Ellingson, R

    2014-01-24

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change, with nearly double the rate of surface warming observed elsewhere on the planet. While various positive feedback mechanisms have been suggested, the reasons for Arctic amplification are not well understood, nor are the impacts to the global carbon cycle well quantified. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the complex interactions between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Elucidating the causes and consequences of Arctic warming is one of the many goals of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, and is part of the larger CESD initiative to develop a robust predictive understanding of Earth’s climate system.

  6. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  7. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  8. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00. Additional photos can be found at: www- pao.ksc.nasa.gov/captions/subjects/co2study.htm

  9. Simulation evaluation of the control system command monitoring concept for the NASA V/STOL research aircraft (VSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Moralez, E.; Merrick, V. K.

    1987-01-01

    A control-system monitoring concept is described that has the potential of rapidly detecting computer command failures (hardware or software) in fly-by-wire control systems. The concept has been successfully tested on the NASA Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing Research Aircraft (VSRA) in the Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. The test was particularly stringent, since the VSRA is required to operate in a hazardous environment. The fidelity of the aircraft model used in the simulation was verified by flying both the simulated and actual aircraft in a precision hover task using specially designed targets.

  10. What Does an Agile Coach Do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rachel; Pullicino, James

    The surge in Agile adoption has created a demand for project managers rather than direct their teams. A sign of this trend is the ever-increasing number of people getting certified as scrum masters and agile leaders. Training courses that introduce agile practices are easy to find. But making the transition to coach is not as simple as understanding what agile practices are. Your challenge as an Agile Coach is to support your team in learning how to wield their new Agile tools in creating great software.

  11. Creativity in Agile Systems Development: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conboy, Kieran; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fitzgerald, Brian

    Proponents of agile methods claim that enabling, fostering and driving creativity is the key motivation that differentiates agile methods from their more traditional, beauraucratic counterparts. However, there is very little rigorous research to support this claim. Like most of their predecessors, the development and promotion of these methods has been almost entirely driven by practitioners and consultants, with little objective validation from the research community. This lack of validation is particularly relevant for SMEs, given that many of their project teams typify the environment to which agile methods are most suited i.e. small, co-located teams with diverse, blended skills in unstructured, sometimes even chaotic surroundings. This paper uses creativity theory as a lens to review the current agile method literature to understand exactly how much we know about the extent to which creativity actually occurs in these agile environments. The study reveals many gaps and conflict of opinion in the body of knowledge in its current state and identifies many avenues for further research.

  12. Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  13. Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  14. Atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft - A status report from NASA's High-Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, Howard L.; Prather, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, future high-speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long-haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern which is being addressed in the planned six-year High-Speed Research Program begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science and emissions reduction, current analytical predictions indicate that an operating range may exist at altitudes below 20 km (i.e., corresponding to a cruise Mach number of approximately 2.4) where the goal level of 5 gm equivalent NO2 emissions/kg fuel will deplete less than one percent of column ozone. Because it will not be possible to directly measure the impact of an aircraft fleet on the atmosphere, the only means of assessment will be prediction. The process of establishing credibility for the predicted effects will likely be complex and involve continued model development and testing against climatological patterns. In particular, laboratory simulation of heterogeneous chemistry and other effects, and direct measurements of well understood tracers in the troposphere and stratosphere are being used to improve the current models.

  15. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  16. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  17. Dynamic structural aeroelastic stability testing of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroers, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 20 years, a significant effort has been made to understand and predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the tilt rotor concept. Beginning with the rotor-pylon oscillation of the XV-3 aircraft, the problem was identified and then subjected to a series of theoretical studies, plus model and full-scale wind tunnel tests. From this data base, methods were developed to predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. The predicted aeroelastic characteristics are examined in light of the major parameters effecting rotor-pylon-wing stability. Flight test techniques used to obtain XV-15 aeroelastic stability are described. Flight test results are summarized and compared to the predicted values. Wind tunnel results are compared to flight test results and correlated with predicted values.

  18. Small unmanned aircraft systems for remote sensing and Earth science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Moorman, Brian J.; Riddell, Kevin; Whitehead, Ken

    2012-06-01

    To understand and predict Earth-surface dynamics, scientists often rely on access to the latest remote sensing data. Over the past several decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of specialized Earth observation sensors for measuring a wide range of processes and features. Comparatively little progress has been made, however, in the development of new platforms upon which these sensors can be deployed. Conventional platforms are still almost exclusively restricted to piloted aircraft and satellites. For many Earth science research questions and applications these platforms do not yet have the resolution or operational flexibility to provide answers affordably. The most effective remote sensing data match the spatiotemporal scale of the process or feature of interest. An emerging technology comprising unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), is poised to offer a viable alternative to conventional platforms for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data with increased operational flexibility, lower cost, and greater versatility (Figure 1).

  19. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  20. Static noise tests on augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (C8A Buffalo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, C. C.; Harkonen, D. L.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented for full scale ground static acoustic tests of over-area conical nozzles and a lobe nozzle installed on the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft, a modified C8A Buffalo. The noise levels and spectrums of the test nozzles are compared against those of the standard conical nozzle now in use on the aircraft. Acoustic evaluations at 152 m (500 ft), 304 m (1000 ft), and 1216 m (4000 ft) are made at various engine power settings with the emphasis on approach and takeoff power. Appendix A contains the test log and propulsion calculations. Appendix B gives the original test plan, which was closely adhered to during the test. Appendix C describes the acoustic data recording and reduction systems, with calibration details.

  1. Ground vibration test of the XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft and pretest predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studebaker, Karen; Abrego, Anita

    1994-01-01

    The first comprehensive ground vibration survey was performed on the XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft to measure the vibration modes of the airframe and to provide data critical for determining whirl flutter stability margins. The aircraft was suspended by the wings with bungee cords and cables. A NASTRAN finite element model was used in the design of the suspension system to minimize its interference with the wing modes. The primary objective of the test was to measure the dynamic characteristics of the wings and pylons for aeroelastic stability analysis. In addition, over 130 accelerometers were placed on the airframe to characterize the fuselage, wing, and tail vibration. Pretest predictions were made with the NASTRAN model as well as correlations with the test data. The results showed that the suspension system provided the isolation necessary for modal measurements.

  2. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  3. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  4. Reflections on Software Agility and Agile Methods: Challenges, Dilemmas, & the Way Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-11

    Mellon University 10 Research Team Richard Baskerville and Balasubramanian Ramesh Department of Computer Information Systems, Georgia State University...University 38 References Agile Manifesto. http://agilemanifesto.org/ Baskerville , R., Pries-Heje, J., Levine, L., & Ramesh, B. (2005). The high speed...balancing game: How software companies cope with Internet speed. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems 16, 11-54. Baskerville , R., Levine, L

  5. The Preparation of Cognitively Agile Principals for Turnaround Schools: A Leadership Preparation Programme Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Guerra, Daniel; Pisapia, John; Mick, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of two educational leadership university programmes to improve the cognitive agility of their graduates. The research looked to discover whether the aspiring principals exited the programmes with an increased ability to employ cognitive agility--the ability to use the multiple thinking skills of…

  6. Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diana K.

    2013-01-01

    While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…

  7. Capabilities Enhanced for Researching the Reduction of Emissions in Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft future aircraft jet engines will run at higher pressures to obtain greater fuel efficiency and performance. This will require new combustor designs to keep the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions at environmentally acceptable levels. The actual pressures and temperatures found in gas turbine combustors must be duplicated in a laboratory to verify the emissions characteristics of gas turbine engines. Recognizing this, the U.S. aircraft gas turbine industry identified a need for a national facility that could duplicate the severe inlet conditions of future combustors. Because of our expertise in combustion emissions reduction research and in the design and operation of high-pressure test facilities, the NASA Lewis Research Center was seen as the natural location for such a facility. As a national laboratory, Lewis could provide these facilities to all U.S. gas turbine engine manufacturers while protecting their proprietary interests. Called the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig, the facility will provide up to 60-atm pressures at inlet temperatures up to 1300 F and air flow rates up to 38 lb/sec. Furthermore, it will offer state-of-the-art diagnostic methods for characterizing advanced combustor concepts. Aeronautical combustion research at Lewis provided several significant accomplishments recently in support of both the High Speed Research (HSR) and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) programs. For example, in the High Speed Research Program, NO_x reductions of up to 90 percent were achieved in prototype combustor hardware. Advanced computational analysis, gas sampling, and laser diagnostic techniques were critical to this success. Working closely with the gas turbine industry, we have successfully transferred this low-emissions combustor technology into engine prototype hardware. This hardware is now being tested at the engine manufacturers facilities. Complementary tests in Lewis currently available 30-atm test facilities are also underway, taking

  8. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  9. Crash Test of Three Cessna 172 Aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, three Cessna 172 aircraft were crash tested at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The three tests simulated three different crash scenarios. The first simulated a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface such as a road or runway, the second simulated a controlled flight into terrain with a nose down pitch on the aircraft, and the third simulated a controlled flight into terrain with an attempt to unsuccessfully recover the aircraft immediately prior to impact, resulting in a tail strike condition. An on-board data acquisition system captured 64 channels of airframe acceleration, along with acceleration and load in two onboard Hybrid II 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices, representing the pilot and co-pilot. Each test contained different airframe loading conditions and results show large differences in airframe performance. This paper presents test methods used to conduct the crash tests and will summarize the airframe results from the test series.

  10. The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

  11. Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.

  12. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  13. V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  14. V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft: A Tool for Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.; Tiffany, Geary (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion System. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift+Lift /Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to decouple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flight path and flight path acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision. has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flight path command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results will be used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  15. Application of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40 m and a total weight of 5-8 kg, depending on battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Since 2010 the system has been tested and improved intensively. In September 2012 first comparative tests could successfully be performed at the Lindenberg observatory of Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD). In 2013, several campaigns were done with the system, including fundamental boundary layer research, wind energy meteorology and assistive measurements to aerosol investigations. The results of a series of morning transition experiments in summer 2013 will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system. On several convective days between May and September, vertical soundings were done to record the evolution of the ABL in the early morning, from about one hour after sunrise, until noon. In between the soundings, flight legs of up to 1 km length were performed to measure turbulent statistics and fluxes at a constant altitude. With the help of surface flux measurements of a sonic anemometer, methods of similarity theory could be applied to the RPA flux measurements to compare them to

  16. Research on motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shenda; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xueying

    2015-11-01

    A motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft(HBG) was proposed in this paper, which also analyzed the precision of model through simulation. Firstly the trajectory of HBG was analyzed, and a scheme which divide the trajectory into two parts then build the motion model on each part. Secondly a restrained model of boosting stage and a restrained model of J2 perturbation were established, and set up the observe model. Finally the analysis of simulation results show the feasible and high-accuracy of the model, and raise a expectation for intensive research.

  17. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  18. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  19. MASC - a small Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) for wind energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Hofsäß, M.; Weimer, F.; Joos, A.; Bange, J.

    2014-05-01

    Originally designed for atmospheric boundary layer research, the MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft, also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV) is capable of making in-situ measurements of temperature, humidity and wind in high resolution and precision. The autopilot system ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) enables the aircraft to fly pre-defined routes between waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. The system manages to operate in wind speeds up to 15 m s-1 safely. It is shown that a MASC can fly as close as one rotor diameter upstream and downstream of running wind turbines at these wind speeds and take valuable data of incoming flow and wake. The flexible operation of an RPA at the size of a MASC can be a major advantage of the system compared to tower measurements and remote sensing in wind energy research. In the project "Lidar Complex" comparisons of RPA measurements with lidar systems and tower measurements are carried out at two different test sites. First results, including turbulence and wake measurements, from a campaign in autumn 2013 are presented.

  20. Making Agile Work for You

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-20

    Extreme Programming (XP) • SCRUM • Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) • Adaptive Software Development • Crystal • Feature-Driven Development...Carnegie Mellon University Twitter #seiwebinar SCRUM Scrum is an iterative, incremental methodology for managing agile software projects. The Team

  1. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Batterson, J. G.; O'Mara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control

  2. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Batterson, J. G.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Omara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control

  3. An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2000-01-01

    A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

  4. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  5. Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  6. NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

  7. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  8. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  9. Lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Jeske, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of flight experiments to determine the lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft designed to furnish information on various aerodynamic characteristics of a transport type of airplane that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) flap technology to achieve short takeoff and landing (STOL) performance. The flight program designed to acquire the data consisted of maneuvers produced by rudder and control-wheel inputs with the airplane in several configurations that had been proposed for landing approach and takeoff operation. The normal stability augmentation system was not engaged during these maneuvers. Time-history records from the maneuvers were analyzed with a parameter estimation procedure to extract lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. For one aircraft configuration in which the USB flaps were deflected 50 deg, several maneuvers were performed to determine the effects of varying the average angle of attack, varying the thrust coefficient, and setting the airplane's upper surface spoilers at a 13 deg symmetrical bias angle . The effects on the lateral characteristics of deflecting the spoilers were rather small and generally favorable. The data indicate that for one test, conducted at low thrust (a thrust coefficient of 0.38), compared with results from tests at thrust coefficients of 0.77 and larger, there was a significant decrease in the lateral control effectiveness, in the yaw damping and in the directional derivative. The directional derivative was also decreased (by about 30 percent) when the average angle of attack of the test was increased from 3 to 16 deg.

  10. Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with MUX-Bucket in flight Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 135

  11. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

  12. Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

  13. Agile Software Development Methods: A Comparative Review1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Oza, Nilay; Siponen, Mikko T.

    Although agile software development methods have caught the attention of software engineers and researchers worldwide, scientific research still remains quite scarce. The aim of this study is to order and make sense of the different agile approaches that have been proposed. This comparative review is performed from the standpoint of using the following features as the analytical perspectives: project management support, life-cycle coverage, type of practical guidance, adaptability in actual use, type of research objectives and existence of empirical evidence. The results show that agile software development methods cover, without offering any rationale, different phases of the software development life-cycle and that most of these methods fail to provide adequate project management support. Moreover, quite a few methods continue to offer little concrete guidance on how to use their solutions or how to adapt them in different development situations. Empirical evidence after ten years of application remains quite limited. Based on the results, new directions on agile methods are outlined.

  14. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  15. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  16. NASA aeronautics. [fact sheet on NASA programs for aeronautical research and aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fact sheet depicting the NASA programs involving aircraft development and aeronautics is presented. The fact sheet consists of artist concepts of the various aircraft which represent specific programs. Among the subjects discussed in the concise explanatory notes are: (1) the YF-12 aircraft, (2) hypersonic drag tests in wind tunnels, (3) augmentor wing concepts, (4) rotary wing development, (5) fly-by-wire aircraft control, (6) supercritical wings, (7) the quiet engine program for noise and emission abatement, (8) flight capabilities of lifting bodies, (9) tilt rotor concepts for improved helicopter performance, and (10) flight safety improvements for general aviation aircraft.

  17. NOAA Utilization of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft for Atmospheric Research and Forecast Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Black, M. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Hock, T. F.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    High altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft provide a tremendous new capability for monitoring the atmosphere in support of weather research and forecast improvement. The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program is collaborating with NASA on the use of their Global Hawk (GH) aircraft for research into better understanding and forecasting high-impact weather events. NOAA has participated in multiple field campaigns either in partnership with NASA including the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP, 2010) and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3, 2011-2014) experiments, or under NOAA leadership during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR, 2011) experiment. This past year, NOAA began a 3-year project, Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT), to quantify the influence of UAS data on high-impact weather prediction and assess the operational effectiveness of UAS to help mitigate the risk of potential satellite observing gaps. The NOAA UAS system partnered with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the development of a dropsonde system for the GH which has been flown along with other remote sensing instrumentation. This presentation summarizes our key results to date and describes our planned activities over the next two years. Flights during WISPAR provided measurements of water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers for evaluation of numerical weather prediction forecasts and analyses. A flight sampling the Arctic atmosphere north of Alaska included the first dropsondes released in the Arctic since the 1950's and extensive measurements of boundary-layer variability over an ocean-ice lead feature. Assimilation of GH dropsonde data collected in the environment around tropical storms during HS3 has demonstrated significant positive forecast improvements. Data are also being employed in the validation of multiple satellite-derived products. In SHOUT, campaigns are planned targeting Atlantic

  18. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  19. NASA Research Aircraft - D-558-II, D-558-I, X-5, X-1, XF-92A, X-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards AFB South Base. Aircraft are (left to right): D-558-2, D-558-1, X-5, X-1, XF-92A, and X-4. This is an early 1950s color photo of NACA research aircraft in front of the South Base hangar. On the left is the third D-558-2 (NACA 145/Navy 37975). At this time, the aircraft was still in the combined jet and rocket configuration. NACA 145 was used to test a number of wing modifications intended to lessen the pitch up of the aircraft in turns. Next to it is the third D-558-1 (NACA 142/Navy 37972) which provided aerodynamic data at transonic speeds. The rudder is still painted red, to avoid possible control surface flutter problems which might be caused by weight and balance changes from a coat of white paint. To the right is the first X-5 (Air Force 50-1838), which tested an in-flight variable-sweep wing design. This allowed the gathering of transonic data at a wide range of sweep angles. The X-5 did have very poor stall/spin behavior, which made it dangerous to fly. Beside it is the second X-1 (Air Force 46-063), which was flown by the NACA between September 1947 and October 1951. This aircraft had a thicker wing than the first X-1 (46-062), which created considerable drag. The aircraft was later modified to become the X-1E. Behind the rocket-powered X-1 is the single XF-92A built (Air Force 46-682). Although intended to be the prototype of a jet fighter, it became a research aircraft testing delta wings. Its use by the NACA was relatively brief, but the data proved useful in the design of later U.S. delta-wing aircraft. To the forward right is the second X-4 (Air Force 46-677) which tested the concept of a semi-tailless swept-wing aircraft (no horizontal stabilizer). Without horizontal stabilizers, however, the aircraft proved unstable at high transonic speeds. The Dryden Flight Research Center, NASA's premier installation for aeronautical flight research, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1996. Dryden is the 'Center of

  20. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile leader must be prepared to operate within and the...senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago? To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile...to the reader. BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING MENTALLY AGILE JUNIOR LEADERS Persistent conflict and change characterize the strategic environment . We have

  1. Towards a Comparative Measure of Legged Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    so for this paper we explore the implications of a well-cited definition within the sports science community holding that agility is “a rapid whole...systems will have negligible agility according to our metric in accor- dance with biological observations that these motions require significantly less...W. Young, “Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing,” Journal of sports sciences, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 919–932, 2006. 19. D. L

  2. Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

  3. Evaluation of a load cell model for dynamic calibration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, H.; Wellman, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission system from the fuselage. An analytical model of the relationship between applied rotor loads and the resulting load cell measurements is derived by applying a force-and-moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is then used to estimate the applied loads from measured load cell data, as obtained from a ground-based shake test. Using nominal design values for the parameters, the estimation errors, for the case of lateral forcing, were shown to be on the order of the sensor measurement noise in all but the roll axis. An unmodeled external load appears to be the source of the error in this axis.

  4. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  5. Upper surface blowing noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, A. J.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study of the propulsive-lift noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft (QSRA) is described. Comparisons are made of measured QSRA flyover noise and model propulsive-lift noise data available in references. Developmental tests of trailing-edge treatments were conducted using sawtooth-shaped and porous USB flap trailing-edge extensions. Small scale parametric tests were conducted to determine noise reduction/design relationships. Full-scale static tests were conducted with the QSRA preparatory to the selection of edge treatment designs for flight testing. QSRA flight and published model propulsive-lift noise data have similar characteristics. Noise reductions of 2 to 3 dB were achieved over a wide range of frequency and directivity angles in static tests of the QSRA. These noise reductions are expected to be achieved or surpassed in flight tests planned by NASA in 1980.

  6. Simulation validation of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Hanson, G. D.; Churchill, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a simulation validation program of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft are detailed, covering such simulation aspects as the mathematical model, visual system, motion system, cab aural system, cab control loader system, pilot perceptual fidelity, and generic tilt rotor applications. Simulation validation was performed for the hover, low-speed, and sideward flight modes, with consideration of the in-ground rotor effect. Several deficiencies of the mathematical model and the simulation systems were identified in the course of the simulation validation project, and some were corrected. It is noted that NASA's Vertical Motion Simulator used in the program is an excellent tool for tilt-rotor and rotorcraft design, development, and pilot training.

  7. NASA/USRA high altitude research aircraft. Gryphon: Soar like an eagle with the roar of a lion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose; Nunes, Anne; Mcray, Mike; Wong, Walter; Ong, Audrey; Coble, Scott

    1991-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet. This is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, which is NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozoned layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  8. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  9. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  10. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  11. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1976-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihooa estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5deg to 15.7deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and a transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  12. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  13. Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

  14. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  15. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William; Miller, Eric; Hudson, Larry; Holguin, Andrew; Neufeld, David; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and its results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three air bags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 pounds.

  16. Development of an Unmanned Aircraft System and Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J. J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Escapita, I. J.

    2009-12-01

    There is a fundamental need to improve capacities for monitoring environmental change using remote sensing technologies. Recently, researchers have begun using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to expand and improve upon remote sensing capabilities. Limitations to most non-military and relatively small-scale Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) include a need to develop more reliable communications between ground and aircraft, tools to optimize flight control, real time data processing, and visually ascertaining the quantity of data collected while in air. Here we present a prototype software system that has enhanced communication between ground and the vehicle, can synthesize near real time data acquired from sensors on board, can log operation data during flights, and can visually demonstrate the amount and quality of data for a sampling area. This software has the capacity to greatly improve the utilization of UAS in the environmental sciences. The software system is being designed for use on a paraglider UAV that has a suite of sensors suitable for characterizing the footprints of eddy covariance towers situated in the Chihuahuan Desert and in the Arctic. Sensors on board relay operational flight data (airspeed, ground speed, latitude, longitude, pitch, yaw, roll, acceleration, and video) as well as a suite of customized sensors. Additional sensors can be added to an on board laptop or a CR1000 data logger thereby allowing data from these sensors to be visualized in the prototype software. This poster will describe the development, use and customization of our UAS and multimedia will be available during AGU to illustrate the system in use. UAV on workbench in the lab UAV in flight

  17. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future

  18. A Literature Review on the Progression of Agile Manufacturing Paradigm and Its Scope of Application in Pump Industry

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, S. R.; Sivaram, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    During the recent years, the manufacturing world has been witnessing the application of agile manufacturing paradigm. The literature review reported in this paper was carried out to study this progression. This literature review was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the literature was reviewed to trace the origin of agile manufacturing paradigm and identify its enablers. Further, during this phase, the applications of agile manufacturing reported in literature arena were reviewed. It was also discernable that certain research works have been initiated to apply agile manufacturing paradigm in pump industry. During the second phase, the researches reported on applying agile manufacturing in pump industry were reviewed. At the end of this review, it was found that so far the implementation of agile manufacturing in pump industry has been examined by the researchers by considering only certain components of pumps. In fact, the holistic implementation of agile manufacturing in the pump industry is yet to be examined by the researchers. In the context of drawing this inference, this paper has been concluded by stating that high scope exists in examining the infusing of agility characteristics in designing and manufacturing of pumps. PMID:26065016

  19. A Literature Review on the Progression of Agile Manufacturing Paradigm and Its Scope of Application in Pump Industry.

    PubMed

    Thilak, V M M; Devadasan, S R; Sivaram, N M

    2015-01-01

    During the recent years, the manufacturing world has been witnessing the application of agile manufacturing paradigm. The literature review reported in this paper was carried out to study this progression. This literature review was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the literature was reviewed to trace the origin of agile manufacturing paradigm and identify its enablers. Further, during this phase, the applications of agile manufacturing reported in literature arena were reviewed. It was also discernable that certain research works have been initiated to apply agile manufacturing paradigm in pump industry. During the second phase, the researches reported on applying agile manufacturing in pump industry were reviewed. At the end of this review, it was found that so far the implementation of agile manufacturing in pump industry has been examined by the researchers by considering only certain components of pumps. In fact, the holistic implementation of agile manufacturing in the pump industry is yet to be examined by the researchers. In the context of drawing this inference, this paper has been concluded by stating that high scope exists in examining the infusing of agility characteristics in designing and manufacturing of pumps.

  20. A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes 2-1/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft in the early 1970 s. Since the first full-scale crash test was preformed in February 1974, the IDRF has been used to conduct: 41 full-scale crash tests of General Aviation (GA) aircraft including landmark studies to establish baseline crash performance data for metallic and composite GA aircraft; 11 full-scale crash tests of helicopters including crash qualification tests of the Bell and Sikorsky Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) prototypes; 48 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) qualification tests of Army helicopters; 3 vertical drop tests of Boeing 707 transport aircraft fuselage sections; and, 60+ crash tests of the F-111 crew escape module. For some of these tests, nonlinear transient dynamic codes were utilized to simulate the impact response of the airframe. These simulations were performed to evaluate the capabilities of the analytical tools, as well as to validate the models through test-analysis correlation. In September 2003, NASA Langley closed the IDRF facility and plans are underway to demolish it in 2007. Consequently, it is important to document the contributions made to improve the crashworthiness of light aircraft and rotorcraft achieved through full-scale crash testing and simulation at the IDRF.

  1. The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hanga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The elongated 247-foot span lightweight aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, stretched almost the full length of the 300-foot long hangar while on display during a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on Jan. 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on Aug. 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  2. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  3. Control research in the NASA high-alpha technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Gera, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    NASA is conducting a focused technology program, known as the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, to accelerate the development of flight-validated technology applicable to the design of fighters with superior stall and post-stall characteristics and agility. A carefully integrated effort is underway combining wind tunnel testing, analytical predictions, piloted simulation, and full-scale flight research. A modified F-18 aircraft has been extensively instrumented for use as the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle used for flight verification of new methods and concepts. This program stresses the importance of providing improved aircraft control capabilities both by powered control (such as thrust-vectoring) and by innovative aerodynamic control concepts. The program is accomplishing extensive coordinated ground and flight testing to assess and improve available experimental and analytical methods and to develop new concepts for enhanced aerodynamics and for effective control, guidance, and cockpit displays essential for effective pilot utilization of the increased agility provided.

  4. Teaching Agile Software Development: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, V.; Milenkovic, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the authors' experience of teaching agile software development to students of computer science, software engineering, and other related disciplines, and comments on the implications of this and the lessons learned. It is based on the authors' eight years of experience in teaching agile software methodologies to various groups…

  5. The RITE Approach to Agile Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Review (SVR), and Production Readiness Review ( PRR ), which were evaluated against Agile development requirements. Further analysis was conducted...Audit (FCA), PRR , Operational Test Readiness Review (OTRR), Physical Configuration Audit (PCA), Integration Readiness Review (IRR), In Service...Technology (DSB Task Force, 2009, p. 48) In the context of the primary milestone reviews (PDR, CDR, and SVR/ PRR ), a nominal Agile development structure was

  6. The Introduction of Agility into Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Stevens, Eileen J.; Shkurti, Drita

    1998-01-01

    Describes a plan to introduce and achieve a national awareness of agility (and easy entry into the world market) for Albania through the relatively stable higher-education order. Agility's four strategic principles are enriching the customer, cooperating to enhance competitiveness, organizing to master change and uncertainty, and leveraging the…

  7. An Agile Course-Delivery Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capellan, Mirkeya

    2009-01-01

    In the world of software development, agile methodologies have gained popularity thanks to their lightweight methodologies and flexible approach. Many advocates believe that agile methodologies can provide significant benefits if applied in the educational environment as a teaching method. The need for an approach that engages and motivates…

  8. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  9. Flux measurements by the NRC Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft: 1987-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; MacPherson, J. Ian; Bastian, Matthew; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Canadian Twin Otter research group has operated an aircraft platform for the study of atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes (carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane) and energy exchange (latent and sensible heat) over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in North America. Some of the acquired data from these projects have now been archived at the Flight Research Laboratory and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The dataset, which contains the measurements obtained in eight projects from 1987 to 2011 are now publicly available. All these projects were carried out in order to improve our understanding of the biophysical controls acting on land-surface atmosphere fluxes. Some of the projects also attempted to quantify the impacts of agroecosystems on the environment. To provide information on the data available, we briefly describe each project and some of the key findings by referring to previously published relevant work. As new flux analysis techniques are being developed, we are confident that much additional information can be extracted from this unique data set.

  10. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  11. The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

  12. Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating Kanban in Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating Kanban in Systems Engineering A013 - Final Technical Report SERC-2013-TR-022-2 March 6, 2013...06 MAR 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Agile-Lean Software Engineering (ALSE) Evaluating...engineering (SE). Such approaches have been seen to be valuable in software system development. In particular, the research focuses on SE where rapid response

  13. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  14. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  15. A systematic review of the main factors that determine agility in sport using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Hojka, Vladimir; Stastny, Petr; Rehak, Tomas; Gołas, Artur; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Zawart, Marek; Musálek, Martin

    2016-09-01

    While tests of basic motor abilities such as speed, maximum strength or endurance are well recognized, testing of complex motor functions such as agility remains unresolved in current literature. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate which main factor or factor structures quantitatively determine agility. In methodological detail, this review focused on research that explained or described the relationships between latent variables in a factorial model of agility using approaches such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Four research studies met the defined inclusion criteria. No quantitative empirical research was found that tried to verify the quality of the whole suggested model of the main factors determining agility through the use of a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach or a confirmatory factor analysis. From the whole structure of agility, only change of direction speed (CODS) and some of its subtests were appropriately analyzed. The combination of common CODS tests is reliable and useful to estimate performance in sub-elite athletes; however, for elite athletes, CODS tests must be specific to the needs of a particular sport discipline. Sprinting and jumping tests are stronger factors for CODS than explosive strength and maximum strength tests. The authors suggest the need to verify the agility factorial model by a second generation data analysis technique such as SEM.

  16. A systematic review of the main factors that determine agility in sport using structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hojka, Vladimir; Rehak, Tomas; Gołas, Artur; Mostowik, Aleksandra; Zawart, Marek; Musálek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While tests of basic motor abilities such as speed, maximum strength or endurance are well recognized, testing of complex motor functions such as agility remains unresolved in current literature. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate which main factor or factor structures quantitatively determine agility. In methodological detail, this review focused on research that explained or described the relationships between latent variables in a factorial model of agility using approaches such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Four research studies met the defined inclusion criteria. No quantitative empirical research was found that tried to verify the quality of the whole suggested model of the main factors determining agility through the use of a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach or a confirmatory factor analysis. From the whole structure of agility, only change of direction speed (CODS) and some of its subtests were appropriately analyzed. The combination of common CODS tests is reliable and useful to estimate performance in sub-elite athletes; however, for elite athletes, CODS tests must be specific to the needs of a particular sport discipline. Sprinting and jumping tests are stronger factors for CODS than explosive strength and maximum strength tests. The authors suggest the need to verify the agility factorial model by a second generation data analysis technique such as SEM. PMID:28149399

  17. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket nestled under the wi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket are nestled under the wing of NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft during pre-flight systems testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va. After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  18. Force Projection, Strategic Agility and the Big Meltdown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-18

    UNLIMITED Number of Pages 29 ii Abstract of FORCE PROJECTION, STRATEGIC AGILITY AND THE BIG MELTDOWN Due to global warming , the polar icepack which...INTRODUCTION The polar icecap which covers the Arctic Ocean is melting. It is a well-known, scientific fact. Global warming is the generally...operational factors and functions, as applicable. 3 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND Global Warming and the Arctic During this and the last century, researchers have

  19. Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

    2010-12-01

    Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem

  20. Increasing Flexibility and Agility at the National Reconnaissance Office: Lessons from Modular Design, Occupational Surprise, and Commercial Research and Development Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    by ANSI Std Z39-18 This report is part of the RAND Corporation research report series. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis...Division (NSRD). NSRD conducts research and analy- sis on defense and national security topics for the U.S. and allied defense, foreign policy...innovation and creative thought achieve this? We looked at three companies suggested to us by NRO/AS&T: Pfizer, IBM, and Caterpillar . These

  1. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  2. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale powered model of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA). For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model with a four-blade articulated main rotor was used. Tests were conducted with and without the main rotor. Both the helicopter and the compound helicopter were tested. The latter configuration included the auxiliary thrust engines and the variable-incidence wing. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and main-rotor collective pitch angle at several main-rotor advance ratios. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the rotor, the wing, and the tail. The results indicated that without the effect of the rotor wake, the RSRA had static longitudinal and directional stability and positive effective dihedral. With the effect of the main rotor and its wake, the RSRA exhibited longitudinal instability but retained static directional stability and positive effective dihedral.

  4. Preliminary design of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft (RTA)propulsion system design effort is limited to components of the lift/cruise engines, turboshaft engine modifications, lift fan assembly, and propulsion system performance generation. The uninstalled total net thrust with all engines and fans operating at intermediate power was 37,114 pounds. Uninstalled system total net thrust was 27,102 pounds when one lift/cruise is inoperative. Components have lives above the 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle. The L/C engine used in a fixed nacelle has the cross shaft forward of the reduction gear whereas the cross shaft is aft of the reduction gear in a tilt nacelle L/C engine. The lift/cruise gearbox contains components and technologies from other DDA engines. The rotor has a 62-inch diameter and contains 22 composite blades that have a hub/tip ratio of 0.454. The blade pitch change mechanism contains hydraulic and mechanical redundancy. The lift fan assembly is completely self-contained including oil cooling in 10 exit vanes.

  5. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high accuracy Inertial Reference System (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the 3-D wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  6. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single-engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-08-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom-mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium-size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high-accuracy inertial reference system (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  7. A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, J. J.; Arnal, D.

    2000-11-01

    The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to the results of boundary layer computations. Section 3 is devoted to wing designs with numerical optimisation techniques. Several examples are presented and discussed. Results concerning riblets and laminar flow control are given in Section 4 part which also will present experiments carried out for attachment line contamination investigation. Results from basic research on supersonic laminar flows are also be presented. Section 5 deals with activities on air intake aerodynamics. After a brief recall of supersonic air intakes operational modes and a description of the Concorde air intake, comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel data on a generic 2D intake are presented. Basic experiments on intake internal flow are described and the problem of the internal shock control is addressed.

  8. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at Mach 6 to determine the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body, delta-planform, hypersonic research aircraft (HYFAC configuration). The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers based on model length of 2.84 million and 10.5 million and over an angle-of-attack range from minus 4 deg to 20 deg. The experimental results show that the HYFAC configuration is longitudinally stable and can be trimmed over the range of test conditions. The configuration had a small degree of directional stability over the angle-of-attack range and positive effective dihedral at angles of attack greater than 2 deg. Addition of canards caused a decrease in longitudinal stability and an increase in directional stability. Oil-flow studies revealed extensive areas of separated and vortex flow on the fuselage lee surface. A limited comparison of wind-tunnel data with several hypersonic approximations indicated that, except for the directional stability, the tangent-cone method gave adequate agreement at control settings between 5 deg and minus 5 deg and positive lift coefficient. A limited comparison indicated that the HYFAC configuration had greater longitudinal stability than an elliptical-cross-section configuration, but a lower maximum lift-drag ratio.

  9. X-38 research aircraft - second drop flight from NB-52B mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999, including one on February 6, 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March

  10. X-38 research aircraft mounted in Shuttle docked at Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  11. X-38 research aircraft removal from Shuttle cargo bay - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  12. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket mounted to NASA's NB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. One of the major goals of the Hyper-X program is flight validation of airframe-integrated, air-breathing propulsion system, which so far have only been tested in ground facilities, such as wind tunnels. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds above Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound). The X-43A design uses the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  13. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  14. Flight Research into Simple Adaptive Control on the NASA FAST Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2011-01-01

    A series of simple adaptive controllers with varying levels of complexity were designed, implemented and flight tested on the NASA Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft. Lessons learned from the development and flight testing are presented.

  15. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  16. Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaniec, John S.

    1995-01-01

    The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same, to ensure a commonality between the DC-9 and KC-135 programs.

  17. Candidate control design metrics for an agile fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Bailey, Melvin L.; Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1991-01-01

    Success in the fighter combat environment of the future will certainly demand increasing capability from aircraft technology. These advanced capabilities in the form of superagility and supermaneuverability will require special design techniques which translate advanced air combat maneuvering requirements into design criteria. Control design metrics can provide some of these techniques for the control designer. Thus study presents an overview of control design metrics and investigates metrics for advanced fighter agility. The objectives of various metric users, such as airframe designers and pilots, are differentiated from the objectives of the control designer. Using an advanced fighter model, metric values are documented over a portion of the flight envelope through piloted simulation. These metric values provide a baseline against which future control system improvements can be compared and against which a control design methodology can be developed. Agility is measured for axial, pitch, and roll axes. Axial metrics highlight acceleration and deceleration capabilities under different flight loads and include specific excess power measurements to characterize energy meneuverability. Pitch metrics cover both body-axis and wind-axis pitch rates and accelerations. Included in pitch metrics are nose pointing metrics which highlight displacement capability between the nose and the velocity vector. Roll metrics (or torsion metrics) focus on rotational capability about the wind axis.

  18. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  19. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  20. Advanced turboprop aircraft noise annoyance - A review of recent NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    Passenger and community response to advanced turboprop aircraft noise are studied. Four experiments were conducted utilizing an aircraft noise synthesis system, an exterior effects room, an anechoic listening room, and a Space Station/aircraft acoustic apparatus; the experimental conditions and procedures for the psychoacoustic studies are described. The community noise studies involved evaluating the effects of various tonal characteristics on annoyance. It was observed that the frequency envelope shape did not effect annoyance; however, the interaction of the fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large effect on annoyance. The effects of low frequency tones, turbulent boundary layer noise, and tonal beats on passenger annoyance are investigated. The data reveal that passenger annoyance is greater for a given level of boundary layer noise when tones are at levels sufficient to increase the overall sound pressure level within the cabin. The annoyance response of an advanced turboprop and a conventional aircraft are compared. It is determined that the flyover noise level for the turboprop aircraft is not more annoying than that of a conventional aircraft.

  1. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  2. Developing communications requirements for Agile Product Realization

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Ashby, M.R.

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken the Agile Product Realization for Innovative electroMEchanical Devices (A-PRIMED) pilot project to develop and implement technologies for agile design and manufacturing of electrochemical components. Emphasis on information-driven processes, concurrent engineering and multi-functional team communications makes computer-supported cooperative work critical to achieving significantly faster product development cycles. This report describes analyses conducted in developing communications requirements and a communications plan that addresses the unique communications demands of an agile enterprise.

  3. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  4. Agile Leaders, Agile Institutions: Educating Adaptive and Innovative Leaders for Today and Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    to organizational learning , specifically for militaries at war. With these lenses and informed by observations from the CCCs, the paper advances...rapid, effective organizational learning is the essence of organizational agility. In line with this paper’s concept of individual agility...organizational agility is a metaphor for organizational learning that is faster, more flexible, and more sensitive to the speed with which individual experiential

  5. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  6. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. Findings The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. Practical Implications The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. Originality / value The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots. PMID:28203034

  7. Agile manufacturing concepts and opportunities in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.L.; Harmer, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    In 1991 Lehigh University facilitated seminars over a period of 8 months to define manufacturing needs for the 21st century. They concluded that the future will be characterized by rapid changes in technology advances, customer demands, and shifts in market dynamics and coined the term {open_quotes}Agile Manufacturing{close_quotes}. Agile manufacturing refers to the ability to thrive in an environment of constant unpredictable change. Market opportunities are attacked by partnering to form virtual firms to dynamically obtain the required skills for each product opportunity. This paper will describe and compare agile vs. traditional concepts of organization & structure, management policy and ethics, employee environment, product focus, information, and paradigm shift. Examples of agile manufacturing applied to ceramic materials will be presented.

  8. Towards a Better Understanding of CMMI and Agile Integration - Multiple Case Study of Four Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikkarainen, Minna

    The amount of software is increasing in the different domains in Europe. This provides the industries in smaller countries good opportunities to work in the international markets. Success in the global markets however demands the rapid production of high quality, error free software. Both CMMI and agile methods seem to provide a ready solution for quality and lead time improvements. There is not, however, much empirical evidence available either about 1) how the integration of these two aspects can be done in practice or 2) what it actually demands from assessors and software process improvement groups. The goal of this paper is to increase the understanding of CMMI and agile integration, in particular, focusing on the research question: how to use ‘lightweight’ style of CMMI assessments in agile contexts. This is done via four case studies in which assessments were conducted using the goals of CMMI integrated project management and collaboration and coordination with relevant stakeholder process areas and practices from XP and Scrum. The study shows that the use of agile practices may support the fulfilment of the goals of CMMI process areas but there are still many challenges for the agile teams to be solved within the continuous improvement programs. It also identifies practical advices to the assessors and improvement groups to take into consideration when conducting assessment in the context of agile software development.

  9. Agile Port and High Speed Ship Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-31

    Report PNW Agile Port System Demonstration Center for the Commercial Deployment of Transportation Technologies milestone agenda for accomplishing the... report summarizes the results of the remaining three projects in the FY05 program cycle, in particular the PNW Agile Port System Demonstration, a system...the accomplishment of each project and the program objectives. With the submission of this report the FY05 CCDoTT Program is complete. Bibliography

  10. A Preliminary Study of V/STOL Transport Aircraft and Bibliography of NASA Research in the VTOL-STOL Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    This group of papers was prepared by the staff of the Langley Research Center to assist in planning for future commercial air-transport facilities in the New York metropolitan area. Areas of particular interest were predictions regarding the types of V/STOL aircraft that are likely to be developed for various commercial transport applications, estimates of the performance and probable operating procedures for such aircraft, and the approximate dates these aircraft could be available for use. Although the NASA has made no comprehensive studies of this type, the extensive research program in the VTOL-STOL field during the last 10 years appeared to provide a source for some of the desired information . The five papers included herein were therefore prepared to summarize pertinent available material in a form suitable for the intended use. In several instances, new studies and analysis were required to provide the necessary information, but because of a time deadline, many of the significant points received only a cursory examination. For example, much of the quantitative data used in the papers for making generalized comparisons was obtained by approximate methods and is not considered appropriate for use in applications where precise estimates are required. It should be recognized, then, that the treatment of the V/STOL transport provided by this group of papers is necessarily of a preliminary nature.

  11. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  12. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  13. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  14. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  15. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    SciTech Connect

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-05-22

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE.

  16. Remote sensing as a research tool. [sea ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to sea ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-sea-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of sea ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to sea ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and sea ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice type; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.

  17. A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

  18. Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

  19. Structural dynamics research in a full-scale transport aircraft crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.; Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely piloted air-to-ground crash test of a full-scale transport aircraft was conducted for the first time for two purposes: (1) to demonstrate performance of an antimisting fuel additive in suppressing fire in a crash environment, and (2) to obtain structural dynamics data under crash conditions for comparison with analytical predictions. The test, called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), was sponsored by FAA and NASA with cooperation of industry, the Department of Defense, and the British and French governments. The test aircraft was a Boeing 720 jet transport. The aircraft impacted a dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural aspects of the CID. The fuselage section tests and the CID itself are described. Structural response data from these tests are presented and discussed. Nonlinear analytical modeling efforts are described, and comparisons between analytical results and experimental results are presented.

  20. Agile Data Curation at a State Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    State agencies, including geological surveys, are often the gatekeepers for myriad data products essential for scientific research and economic development. For example, the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is mandated to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources in support of economic development, conservation, management, and public policy for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses. As part of that mandate, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data more accessible to stakeholders. Even as demand for greater data accessibility grows, budgets for such efforts are often small, meaning that agencies must do more for less. Agile software development has yielded efficient, effective products, most often at lower cost and in shorter time. Taking guidance from the agile software development model, the GSA is working towards more agile data management and curation. To date, the GSA's work has been focused primarily on data rescue. By using workflows that maximize clear communication while encouraging simplicity (e.g., maximizing the amount of work not done or that can be automated), the GSA is bringing decades of dark data into the light. Regular checks by the data rescuer with the data provider (or their proxy) provides quality control without adding an overt burden on either party. Moving forward, these workflows will also allow for more efficient and effective data management.

  1. Software ``Best'' Practices: Agile Deconstructed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven

    Software “best” practices depend entirely on context - in terms of the problem domain, the system constructed, the software designers, and the “customers” ultimately deriving value from the system. Agile practices no longer have the luxury of “choosing” small non-mission critical projects with co-located teams. Project stakeholders are selecting and adapting practices based on a combina tion of interest, need and staffing. For example, growing product portfolios through a merger or the acquisition of a company exposes legacy systems to new staff, new software integration challenges, and new ideas. Innovation in communications (tools and processes) to span the growth and contraction of both information and organizations, while managing the adoption of changing software practices, is imperative for success. Traditional web-based tools such as web pages, document libraries, and forums are not suf ficient. A blend of tweeting, blogs, wikis, instant messaging, web-based confer encing, and telepresence creates a new dimension of communication “best” practices.

  2. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  3. CID-720 aircraft Langley Research Center preflight hardware tests: Development, flight acceptance and qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The testing conducted on LaRC-developed hardware for the controlled impact demonstration transport aircraft is discussed. To properly develop flight qualified crash systems, two environments were considered: the aircraft flight environment with the focus on vibration and temperature effects, and the crash environment with the long pulse shock effects. Also with the large quantity of fuel in the wing tanks the possibility of fire was considered to be a threat to data retrieval and thus fire tests were included in the development test process. The aircraft test successfully demonstrated the performance of the LaRC developed heat shields. Good telemetered data (S-band) was received during the impact and slide-out phase, and even after the aircraft came to rest. The two onboard DAS tape recorders were protected from the intense fire and high quality tape data was recovered. The complete photographic system performed as planned throughout the 40.0 sec of film supply. The four photo power distribution pallets remained in good condition and all ten onboard 16 mm high speed (400 frames/sec) cameras produced good film data.

  4. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  5. Distributed agile software development for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicenec, Andreas; Parsons, Rebecca; Kitaeff, Slava; Vinsen, Kevin; Wu, Chen; Nelson, Paul; Reed, David

    2012-09-01

    The SKA software will most probably be developed by many groups distributed across the globe and coming from dierent backgrounds, like industries and research institutions. The SKA software subsystems will have to cover a very wide range of dierent areas, but still they have to react and work together like a single system to achieve the scientic goals and satisfy the challenging data ow requirements. Designing and developing such a system in a distributed fashion requires proper tools and the setup of an environment to allow for ecient detection and tracking of interface and integration issues in particular in a timely way. Agile development can provide much faster feedback mechanisms and also much tighter collaboration between the customer (scientist) and the developer. Continuous integration and continuous deployment on the other hand can provide much faster feedback of integration issues from the system level to the subsystem developers. This paper describes the results obtained from trialing a potential SKA development environment based on existing science software development processes like ALMA, the expected distribution of the groups potentially involved in the SKA development and experience gained in the development of large scale commercial software projects.

  6. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 5: A mathematical model for real time flight simulation of the Bell model 301 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  8. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  9. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  10. Gamma-ray Astrophysics with AGILE

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco |; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-07-12

    AGILE will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational in spring 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources. Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV AGILE is now (March 2007) undergoing launcher integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  11. Enterprise Technologies Deployment for Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report is intended for high-level technical planners who are responsible for planning future developments for their company or Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) facilities. On one hand, the information may be too detailed or contain too much manufacturing technology jargon for a high-level, nontechnical executive, while at the same time an expert in any of the four infrastructure fields (Product Definition/Order Entry, Planning and Scheduling, Shop Floor Management, and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) will know more than is conveyed here. The purpose is to describe a vision of technology deployment for an agile manufacturing enterprise. According to the 21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy, the root philosophy of agile manufacturing is that ``competitive advantage in the new systems will belong to agile manufacturing enterprises, capable of responding rapidly to demand for high-quality, highly customized products.`` Such agility will be based on flexible technologies, skilled workers, and flexible management structures which collectively will foster cooperative initiatives in and among companies. The remainder of this report is dedicated to sharpening our vision and to establishing a framework for defining specific project or pre-competitive project goals which will demonstrate agility through technology deployment.

  12. Enterprise Technologies Deployment for Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report is intended for high-level technical planners who are responsible for planning future developments for their company or Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) facilities. On one hand, the information may be too detailed or contain too much manufacturing technology jargon for a high-level, nontechnical executive, while at the same time an expert in any of the four infrastructure fields (Product Definition/Order Entry, Planning and Scheduling, Shop Floor Management, and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) will know more than is conveyed here. The purpose is to describe a vision of technology deployment for an agile manufacturing enterprise. According to the 21st Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy, the root philosophy of agile manufacturing is that competitive advantage in the new systems will belong to agile manufacturing enterprises, capable of responding rapidly to demand for high-quality, highly customized products.'' Such agility will be based on flexible technologies, skilled workers, and flexible management structures which collectively will foster cooperative initiatives in and among companies. The remainder of this report is dedicated to sharpening our vision and to establishing a framework for defining specific project or pre-competitive project goals which will demonstrate agility through technology deployment.

  13. NACA research on combustors for aircraft gas turbines I : effects of operating variables on steady-state performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Walter T; Childs, J Howard

    1950-01-01

    Some of the systematic research conducted by the NACA on aircraft gas-turbine combustors is reviewed. Trends depicting the effect of inlet-air pressure, temperature, and velocity and fuel-air ratio on performance characteristics, such as combustion efficiency, maximum temperature rise attainable, pressure loss, and combustor-outlet temperature distribution are described for a variety of turbojet combustors of the liquid-fuel type. These trends are further discussed as effects significant to the turbojet engine, such as altitude operational limits, specific fuel consumption, thrust, acceleration, and turbine life.

  14. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  15. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  16. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement item codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  17. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement data codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  18. Flight control systems research. [optimization of F-8 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, H. P.; Baram, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedback control system are presented. The concept of evolving the simplest system configuration that is capable of meeting a specified set of performance requirements is illustrated in this work.

  19. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  20. Research of hail impact on aircraft wheel door with lattice hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengze; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Xuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Aimed at a long lasting issue of hail impact on aircraft structures and aviation safety due to its high speed, the resistance performance of hail impact on the wheel door of aircraft with lattice hybrid structure is investigated. The proper anti-hail structure can be designed both efficiency and precision based on this work. The dynamic responses of 8 different sandwich plates in diverse impact speed are measured. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method is introduced to mimic the speciality of solid-liquid mixture trait of hailstone during the impact process. The deformation and damage degree of upper and lower panel of sandwich plate are analysed. The application range and failure mode for the relevant structure, as well as the energy absorbing ratio between lattice structure and aluminium foam are summarized. Results show that the tetrahedral sandwich plate with aluminium foam core is confirmed the best for absorbing energy. Furthermore, the high absorption characteristics of foam material enhance the capability of the impact resistance for the composition with lattice structure without increasing the structure surface density. The results of study are of worth to provide a reliable basis for reduced weight aircraft wheel door.

  1. Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Harris, B.; Hashmonay, R.; Holdren, M.; Kaganan, R.; Spicer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

  2. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  3. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  4. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  5. The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) at the Ames Research Center manages aircraft data in collaboration with an ecosystem research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, Jay

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a data and information system serving NASA-supported investigators in the land science community. The three nodes of the PLDS, one each at the Ames Research Center (ARC), the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), cooperate in providing consistent information describing the various data holding in the hardware and software (accessible via network and modem) that provide information about and access to PLDS-held data, which is available for distribution. A major new activity of the PLDS node at the Ames Research Center involves the interaction of the PLDS with an active NASA ecosystem science project, the Oregon Transect Ecosystems Research involves the management of, access to, and distribution of the large volume of widely-varying aircraft data collected by OTTER. The OTTER project, is managed by researchers at the Ames Research Center and Oregon State University. Its principal objective is to estimate major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water of forest ecosystems using an ecosystem process model driven by remote sensing data. Ten researchers at NASA centers and universities are analyzing data for six sites along a temperature-moisture gradient across the western half of central Oregon (called the Oregon Transect). Sensors mounted on six different aircraft have acquired data over the Oregon Transect in support of the OTTER project.

  6. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  7. The Influence of Agility Training on Physiological and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of serum cortisol, VO2max, vertical jump , reaction time, Illinois Agility Test , body...strong trends toward the agility group improving more than the traditional group on VO2max (p=0.12), vertical jump (p=0.06), Illinois Agility Test ...levels, maximal oxygen uptake, Illinois Agility Test , Makoto reaction time, and vertical jump . The cognitive portion of the testing sessions

  8. Theoretical aspects of the agile mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace M.; Fernsler, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A planar plasma mirror which can be oriented electronically could have the capability of providing electronic steering of a microwave beam in a radar or electronic warfare system. This system is denoted the agile mirror. A recent experiment has demonstrated such a planar plasma and the associated microwave reflection. This plasma was produced by a hollow cathode glow discharge, where the hollow cathode was a grooved metallic trench in a Lucite plate. Various theoretical aspects of this configuration of an agile mirror are examined here.

  9. A summary of the forebody high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics research on the F-18 and the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.; Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.

    1992-01-01

    High-angle-of-attack aerodynamic studies have been conducted on both the F18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and the X-29A aircraft. Data obtained include on- and off-surface flow visualization and static pressure measurements on the forebody. Comparisons of similar results are made between the two aircraft where possible. The forebody shapes of the two aircraft are different and the X-29A forebody flow is affected by the addition of nose strakes and a flight test noseboom. The forebody flow field of the F-18 HARV is fairly symmetric at zero sideslip and has distinct, well-defined vortices. The X-29A forebody vortices are more diffuse and are sometimes asymmetric at zero sideslip. These asymmetries correlate with observed zero-sideslip aircraft yawing moments.

  10. An Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture for Health Information Security Management

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital. PMID:20815748

  11. An agile enterprise regulation architecture for health information security management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Pei; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chien, Tsan-Nan; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Luh, Jer-Junn; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2010-09-01

    Information security management for healthcare enterprises is complex as well as mission critical. Information technology requests from clinical users are of such urgency that the information office should do its best to achieve as many user requests as possible at a high service level using swift security policies. This research proposes the Agile Enterprise Regulation Architecture (AERA) of information security management for healthcare enterprises to implement as part of the electronic health record process. Survey outcomes and evidential experiences from a sample of medical center users proved that AERA encourages the information officials and enterprise administrators to overcome the challenges faced within an electronically equipped hospital.

  12. Perspectives on Industrial Innovation from Agilent, HP, and Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2014-03-01

    Innovation is the life blood of technology companies. I will give perspectives gleaned from a career in research and development at Bell Labs, HP Labs, and Agilent Labs, from the point of view of an individual contributor and a manager. Physicists bring a unique set of skills to the corporate environment, including a desire to understand the fundamentals, a solid foundation in physical principles, expertise in applied mathematics, and most importantly, an attitude: namely, that hard problems can be solved by breaking them into manageable pieces. In my experience, hiring managers in industry seldom explicitly search for physicists, but they want people with those skills.

  13. Planning, Estimating, and Monitoring Progress in Agile Systems Development Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Jilemanifesto.orgf Nt:JRJ’HRDP GRUMMAN Agile Terminology Term Definition P d B kl R i /U S i b l dro uct ac og equ rements ser tor es to e comp ete Iteration...Marion, McKelvey, & Uhl- Bien . (2007). Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 298-318. Agile Development Practices Agile Project Management with Scrum Ken Schwaber

  14. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  15. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API.

  16. Progress in Protective Coatings for Aircraft Gas Turbines: A Review of NASA Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merutka, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Problems associated with protective coatings for advanced aircraft gas turbines are reviewed. Metallic coatings for preventing titanium fires in compressors are identified. Coatings for turbine section are also considered, Ductile aluminide coatings for protecting internal turbine-blade cooling passage surface are also identified. Composite modified external overlay MCrAlY coatings deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying are found to be better in surface protection capability than vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings. Thermal barrier coating (TBC), studies are presented. The design of a turbine airfoil is integrated with a TBC, and computer-aided manufacturing technology is applied.

  17. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  18. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  19. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  20. A flight evaluation of a trailing anemometer for low-speed calibrations of airspeed systems on research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Holmes, B. J.; Stough, H. P., III

    1978-01-01

    Research airspeed systems on three low-speed general aviation airplanes were calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. Each airplane was fitted with an NASA pitot-static pressure tube mounted on either a nose or wing boom. The uncalibrated airspeed systems contained residual static-pressure position errors which were too large for high-accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer calibration was in agreement with the tower flyby calibration for the one aircraft for which the comparison was made. The continuous deceleration technique for the trailing anemometer method offers reduced test time with no appreciable loss of accuracy for airspeed systems with pitot-static system lag characteristics similar to those described.

  1. Soil analyses and evaluations at the impact dynamics research facility for two full-scale aircraft crash tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft structural crash behavior and occupant survivability for aircraft crashes on a soil surface was studied. The results of placement, compaction, and maintenance of two soil test beds are presented. The crators formed by the aircraft after each test are described.

  2. Lean and Agile: An Epistemological Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browaeys, Marie-Joelle; Fisser, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to contribute to the discussion of treating the concepts of lean and agile in isolation or combination by presenting an alternative view from complexity thinking on these concepts, considering an epistemological approach to this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an epistemological approach, using…

  3. Achieving agility through parameter space qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, K.V.; Easterling, R.G.; Ashby, M.R.; Benavides, G.L.; Forsythe, C.; Jones, R.E.; Longcope, D.B.; Parratt, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    The A-primed (Agile Product Realization of Innovative electro-Mechanical Devices) project is defining and proving processes for agile product realization for the Department of Energy complex. Like other agile production efforts reported in the literature, A-primed uses concurrent engineering and information automation technologies to enhance information transfer. A unique aspect of our approach to agility is the qualification during development of a family of related product designs and their production processes, rather than a single design and its attendant processes. Applying engineering principles and statistical design of experiments, economies of test and analytic effort are realized for the qualification of the device family as a whole. Thus the need is minimized for test and analysis to qualify future devices from this family, thereby further reducing the design-to-production cycle time. As a measure of the success of the A-primed approach, the first design took 24 days to produce, and operated correctly on the first attempt. A flow diagram for the qualification process is presented. Guidelines are given for implementation, based on the authors experiences as members of the A-primed qualification team.

  4. The Holy Grail of Agile Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Bestsellers …” [Erwin 2009] Motivation • Despite of Erwin’s recommendation… – Agility seems to be a simple concept and it is commonly perceived as a virtue...osd mil/dapaproject/>. . . Erwin 2009 Erwin, S.I., Washington Pulse, Pentagon Brass: Stay Away From Management Bestsellers , National Defense, August

  5. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  6. Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

  7. A Research Needs Workshop on Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Fish and Wildlife Held in Estes Park, Colorado on 18-21 April 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34 ,- EFET OF AIRCRAFT NOISE-AND SONIC BOOMS ON- FISH AND WILDLFE: SA RESEARCH NEEDS WORKSHOP z < DTI-C MS~IJ IISS ’EFFETS O AICRAF NO Engineering and...Services Center "D~to RTB LnNSAMNEY,U.S. Air ForceISH AD WEj Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Department of the Interior I1 . .. . ..m z m - m m m mloE...I l l I l l ~ n .. / ESL-TR-88-64 NERC-88/23 /AAugust 1988 August 1988 EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE AND SONIC BOOMS ON FISH AND WILDLIFE: A RESEARCH

  8. AGILE and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2006-05-19

    AGILE is a Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics supported by ASI with scientific participation of INAF and INFN. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of th emission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminutes error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE have recently (December 2005) completed its gamma-ray calibration. It is now (January 2006) undergoing satellite integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in early 2006. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2006. It will be the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during the period mid-2006/mid-2007.

  9. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  10. Recent developments in rotary-balance testing of fighter aircraft configurations at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two rotary balance apparatuses were developed for testing airplane models in a coning motion. A large scale apparatus, developed for use in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind tunnel primarily to permit testing at high Reynolds numbers, was recently used to investigate the aerodynamics of 0.05-scale model of the F-15 fighter aircraft. Effects of Reynolds number, spin rate parameter, model attitude, presence of a nose boom, and model/sting mounting angle were investigated. A smaller apparatus, which investigates the aerodynamics of bodies of revolution in a coning motion, was used in the 6-by-6 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic behavior of a simple representation of a modern fighter, the Standard Dynamic Model (SDM). Effects of spin rate parameter and model attitude were investigated. A description of the two rigs and a discussion of some of the results obtained in the respective test are presented.

  11. IR radiation characteristics and operating range research for a quad-rotor unmanned aircraft vehicle.

    PubMed

    Gong, Mali; Guo, Rui; He, Sifeng; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The security threats caused by multi-rotor unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) are serious, especially in public places. To detect and control multi-rotor UAVs, knowledge of IR characteristics is necessary. The IR characteristics of a typical commercial quad-rotor UAV are investigated in this paper through thermal imaging with an IR camera. Combining the 3D geometry and IR images of the UAV, a 3D IR characteristics model is established so that the radiant power from different views can be obtained. An estimation of operating range to detect the UAV is calculated theoretically using signal-to-noise ratio as the criterion. Field experiments are implemented with an uncooled IR camera in an environment temperature of 12°C and a uniform background. For the front view, the operating range is about 150 m, which is close to the simulation result of 170 m.

  12. Definition of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel test support, aircraft contractor support, a propulsion system computer card deck, preliminary design studies, and propulsion system development plan are reported. The Propulsion system consists of two lift/cruise turbofan engines, one turboshaft engine and one lift fan connected together with shafting into a combiner gearbox. Distortion parameter levels from 40 x 80 test data were within the established XT701-AD-700 limits. The three engine-three fan system card deck calculates either vertical or conventional flight performance, installed or uninstalled. Design study results for XT701 engine modifications, bevel gear cross shaft location, fixed and tilt fan frames and propulsion system controls are described. Optional water-alcohol injection increased total net thrust 10.3% on a 90 F day. Engines have sufficient turbine life for 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle.

  13. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  14. PDS4 - Some Principles for Agile Data Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S. H.; Joyner, R.; Algermissen, S.; Padams, J.

    2015-12-01

    PDS4, a research data management and curation system for NASA's Planetary Science Archive, was developed using principles that promote the characteristics of agile development. The result is an efficient system that produces better research data products while using less resources (time, effort, and money) and maximizes their usefulness for current and future scientists. The key principle is architectural. The PDS4 information architecture is developed and maintained independent of the infrastructure's process, application and technology architectures. The information architecture is based on an ontology-based information model developed to leverage best practices from standard reference models for digital archives, digital object registries, and metadata registries and capture domain knowledge from a panel of planetary science domain experts. The information model provides a sharable, stable, and formal set of information requirements for the system and is the primary source for information to configure most system components, including the product registry, search engine, validation and display tools, and production pipelines. Multi-level governance is also allowed for the effective management of the informational elements at the common, discipline, and project level. This presentation will describe the development principles, components, and uses of the information model and how an information model-driven architecture exhibits characteristics of agile curation including early delivery, evolutionary development, adaptive planning, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change.

  15. Cross Sectional Study of Agile Software Development Methods and Project Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development methods, characterized by delivering customer value via incremental and iterative time-boxed development processes, have moved into the mainstream of the Information Technology (IT) industry. However, despite a growing body of research which suggests that a predictive manufacturing approach, with big up-front…

  16. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  17. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  18. A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

  19. Research aircraft observations of the mesoscale and microscale structure of a cold front over the eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of an oceanic cold front is described on the basis of research aircraft observations taken during the Ocean Storms field experiment. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses compare the structure of an upper-level jet-front system observed slightly downstream from the wind speed maximum to its structure in the upstream entrance region. Stratospheric potential vorticity and ozone were found within the frontal zone down to about 800 mb. Microscale analyses of the front near the sea surface were carried out for a portion of the front having the signature of a 'rope' cloud in satellite imagery. A narrow (less than 1 km) zone of upward motion (about 4 m/s) and of horizontal shear (about 0.01/s) characterized the front near the surface. Significant alongfront variability was found, including lateral displacements in the frontal zone where there were weaker updrafts.

  20. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  1. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research model with the engines suspended above the wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of upper-surface nacelle exhaust flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise aircraft research configuration was investigated in a 16 foot transonic tunnel over a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. The arrow-wing transport configuration with engines suspended over the wing was tested at angles of attack from -4 deg to 6 deg and jet total pressure ratios from 1 to approximately 13. Wing-tip leading edge flap deflections of -10 deg to 10 deg were tested with the wing-body configuration. Various nacelle locations (chordwise, spanwise, and vertical) were tested over the ranges of Mach numbers, angles of attack, and jet total-pressure ratios. The results show that reflecting the wing-tip leading edge flap from 0 deg to -10 deg increased the maximum lift-drag ratio by 1.0 at subsonic speeds. Jet exhaust interference effects were negligible.

  2. Recent progress in research pertaining to estimates of gas-side heat transfer in an aircraft gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A decade ago several important fundamental heat transfer phenomena were identified which were considered basic to the ability to predict heat transfer loads in aircraft gas turbines. The progress in addressing these fundamentals over the past ten years is assessed. Much reseach effort has been devoted to their study in university, industry and government labs and significant progress has been achieved. Advances in computer technology have enabled the modeling of complex 3-D fluid flow in gas turbines so necessary for heat transfer calculations. Advances in instrumentation plus improved data acquisition have brought about more reliable data sets. While much has advanced in the 1980's, much challenging research remains to be done. Several of these areas are suggested.

  3. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  4. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  5. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the

  6. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from

  7. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  8. Experimental and numerical research on the aerodynamics of unsteady moving aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Andreas; Huebner, Andreas; Loeser, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    For the experimental determination of the dynamic wind tunnel data, a new combined motion test capability was developed at the German-Dutch Wind Tunnels DNW for their 3 m Low Speed Wind Tunnel NWB in Braunschweig, Germany, using a unique six degree-of-freedom test rig called ‘Model Positioning Mechanism’ (MPM) as an improved successor to the older systems. With that cutting-edge device, several transport aircraft configurations including a blended wing body configuration were tested in different modes of oscillatory motions roll, pitch and yaw as well as delta-wing geometries like X-31 equipped with remote controlled rudders and flaps to be able to simulate realistic flight maneuvers, e.g., a Dutch Roll. This paper describes the motivation behind these tests and the test setup and in addition gives a short introduction into time accurate maneuver-testing capabilities incorporating models with remote controlled control surfaces. Furthermore, the adaptation of numerical methods for the prediction of dynamic derivatives is described and some examples with the DLR-F12 configuration will be given. The calculations are based on RANS-solution using the finite volume parallel solution algorithm with an unstructured discretization concept (DLR TAU-code).

  9. XP Workshop on Agile Product Line Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanam, Yaser; Cooper, Kendra; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Maurer, Frank

    Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) promises to lower the costs of developing individual applications as they heavily reuse existing artifacts. Besides decreasing costs, software reuse achieves faster development and higher quality. Traditionally, SPLE favors big design upfront and employs traditional, heavy weight processes. On the other hand, agile methods have been proposed to rapidly develop high quality software by focusing on producing working code while reducing upfront analysis and design. Combining both paradigms, although is challenging, can yield significant improvements.

  10. Compact, Automated, Frequency-Agile Microspectrofluorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.; Guignon, Ernest F.

    1995-01-01

    Compact, reliable, rugged, automated cell-culture and frequency-agile microspectrofluorimetric apparatus developed to perform experiments involving photometric imaging observations of single live cells. In original application, apparatus operates mostly unattended aboard spacecraft; potential terrestrial applications include automated or semiautomated diagnosis of pathological tissues in clinical laboratories, biomedical instrumentation, monitoring of biological process streams, and portable instrumentation for testing biological conditions in various environments. Offers obvious advantages over present laboratory instrumentation.

  11. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  12. Agile manufacturing: The factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loibl, Joseph M.; Bossieux, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The factory of the future will require an operating methodology which effectively utilizes all of the elements of product design, manufacturing and delivery. The process must respond rapidly to changes in product demand, product mix, design changes or changes in the raw materials. To achieve agility in a manufacturing operation, the design and development of the manufacturing processes must focus on customer satisfaction. Achieving greatest results requires that the manufacturing process be considered from product concept through sales. This provides the best opportunity to build a quality product for the customer at a reasonable rate. The primary elements of a manufacturing system include people, equipment, materials, methods and the environment. The most significant and most agile element in any process is the human resource. Only with a highly trained, knowledgeable work force can the proper methods be applied to efficiently process materials with machinery which is predictable, reliable and flexible. This paper discusses the affect of each element on the development of agile manufacturing systems.

  13. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  14. Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

  15. Rolling and tumbling: status of the SuperAGILE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.

    2010-07-01

    The SuperAGILE experiment is the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE mission. It is a 2 x one-dimensional imager, with 6-arcmin angular resolution in the energy range 18 - 60 keV and a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. SuperAGILE is successfully operating in orbit since Summer 2007, providing long-term monitoring of bright sources and prompt detection and localization of gamma-ray bursts. Starting on October 2009 the AGILE mission lost its reaction wheel and the satellite attitude is no longer stabilized. The current mode of operation of the AGILE satellite is a Spinning Mode, around the Sun-pointing direction, with an angular velocity of about 0.8 degree/s (corresponding to 8 times the SuperAGILE point spread function every second). In these new conditions, SuperAGILE continuously scans a much larger fraction of the sky, with much smaller exposure to each region. In this paper we review some of the results of the first 2.5 years of "standard" operation of SuperAGILE, and show how new implementations in the data analysis software allows to continue the hard X-ray sky monitoring by SuperAGILE also in the new attitude conditions.

  16. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  17. Agile Development of Advanced Prototypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    sound experience that emphasizes the progression of cochlear implant technology. A guest observes and listens to a virtual environment. They are able to...transition their environment through history as well as the simulated fidelity of a contemporary cochlear implant . A visual experience that...patient with a cochlear implant was interviewed. Outcomes of this research guided the design of the first prototype. The technical design was

  18. Thigh Muscle Activity, Knee Motion, and Impact Force During Side-Step Pivoting in Agility-Trained Female Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Objective: To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age  =  21.07 ± 2.82 years, height  =  171.27 ± 4.66 cm, mass  =  66.36 ± 7.41 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Results: Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Conclusions: Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots. PMID

  19. Upset Simulation and Training Initiatives for U.S. Navy Commercial Derived Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Steven; Priest, James; Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Militarized versions of commercial platforms are growing in popularity due to many logistical benefits in the form of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts, established production methods, and commonality for different certifications. Commercial data and best practices are often leveraged to reduce procurement and engineering development costs. While the developmental and cost reduction benefits are clear, these militarized aircraft are routinely operated in flight at significantly different conditions and in significantly different manners than for routine commercial flight. Therefore they are at a higher risk of flight envelope exceedance. This risk may lead to departure from controlled flight and/or aircraft loss1. Historically, the risk of departure from controlled flight for military aircraft has been mitigated by piloted simulation training and engineering analysis of typical aircraft response. High-agility military aircraft simulation databases are typically developed to include high angles of attack (AoA) and sideslip due to the dynamic nature of their missions and have been developed for many tactical configurations over the previous decades. These aircraft simulations allow for a more thorough understanding of the vehicle flight dynamics characteristics at high AoA and sideslip. In recent years, government sponsored research on transport airplane aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack has produced a growing understanding of stall/post-stall behavior. This research along with recent commercial airline training initiatives has resulted in improved understanding of simulator-based training requirements and simulator model fidelity.2-5 In addition, inflight training research over the past decade has produced a database of pilot performance and recurrency metrics6. Innovative solutions to aerodynamically model large commercial aircraft for upset conditions such as high AoA, high sideslip, and ballistic damage, as well as capability to accurately

  20. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept Mounted on Pegasus Rocket Attached to B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hyper-X research vehicle riding on a booster rocket prior to being launched by the Dryden Flight Research Center's B-52 at about 40,000 feet. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry

  1. Delaying Mobility Disability in People With Parkinson Disease Using a Sensorimotor Agility Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    King, Laurie A; Horak, Fay B

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a new framework for therapists to develop an exercise program to delay mobility disability in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Mobility, or the ability to efficiently navigate and function in a variety of environments, requires balance, agility, and flexibility, all of which are affected by PD. This article summarizes recent research identifying how constraints on mobility specific to PD, such as rigidity, bradykinesia, freezing, poor sensory integration, inflexible program selection, and impaired cognitive processing, limit mobility in people with PD. Based on these constraints, a conceptual framework for exercises to maintain and improve mobility is presented. An example of a constraint-focused agility exercise program, incorporating movement principles from tai chi, kayaking, boxing, lunges, agility training, and Pilates exercises, is presented. This new constraint-focused agility exercise program is based on a strong scientific framework and includes progressive levels of sensorimotor, resistance, and coordination challenges that can be customized for each patient while maintaining fidelity. Principles for improving mobility presented here can be incorporated into an ongoing or long-term exercise program for people with PD. PMID:19228832

  2. Delaying mobility disability in people with Parkinson disease using a sensorimotor agility exercise program.

    PubMed

    King, Laurie A; Horak, Fay B

    2009-04-01

    This article introduces a new framework for therapists to develop an exercise program to delay mobility disability in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Mobility, or the ability to efficiently navigate and function in a variety of environments, requires balance, agility, and flexibility, all of which are affected by PD. This article summarizes recent research identifying how constraints on mobility specific to PD, such as rigidity, bradykinesia, freezing, poor sensory integration, inflexible program selection, and impaired cognitive processing, limit mobility in people with PD. Based on these constraints, a conceptual framework for exercises to maintain and improve mobility is presented. An example of a constraint-focused agility exercise program, incorporating movement principles from tai chi, kayaking, boxing, lunges, agility training, and Pilates exercises, is presented. This new constraint-focused agility exercise program is based on a strong scientific framework and includes progressive levels of sensorimotor, resistance, and coordination challenges that can be customized for each patient while maintaining fidelity. Principles for improving mobility presented here can be incorporated into an ongoing or long-term exercise program for people with PD.

  3. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 1: General information, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimbell, M.; Whitener, A.

    1980-01-01

    The configuration, operation and maintenance requirements for the contractor-furnished portion of the XV-15 research instrumentation and data acquisition system are defined. Descriptions of systems operation, maintenance and checkout procedures, and cable designations are given.

  4. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  5. Agile informatics: application of agile project management to the development of a personal health application.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeanhee; Pankey, Evan; Norris, Ryan J

    2007-10-11

    We describe the application of the Agile method-- a short iteration cycle, user responsive, measurable software development approach-- to the project management of a modular personal health record, iHealthSpace, to be deployed to the patients and providers of a large academic primary care practice.

  6. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  7. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  8. Real-Time Simulation Computation System. [for digital flight simulation of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Real-Time Simulation Computation System, which will provide the flexibility necessary for operation in the research environment at the Ames Research Center is discussed. Designing the system with common subcomponents and using modular construction techniques enhances expandability and maintainability qualities. The 10-MHz series transmission scheme is the basis of the Input/Output Unit System and is the driving force providing the system flexibility. Error checking and detection performed on the transmitted data provide reliability measurements and assurances that accurate data are received at the simulators.

  9. The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

  10. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  11. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  12. Aircraft Research and Technology for Antimisting Kerosene Conference, February 18-19, 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    GROUP, U.T.C.) By Harold W. Schmidt NASA Lewis Research Center I’m going to discuss the results of an evaluation of the use of antimisting kerosene in...Aerospace Corp. General Electric Co. 14-3 J. N. Stratton W. Suiter , Jr. Com. on Public Works & Transp. ICI Americas, Inc. House of Representatives R. L

  13. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  14. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  15. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight flutter-test results of the first aeroelastic research wing (ARW-1) of NASA's drones for aerodynamic and structural testing program are presented. The flight-test operation and the implementation of the active flutter-suppression system are described as well as the software techniques used to obtain real-time damping estimates and the actual flutter testing procedure. Real-time analysis of fast-frequency aileron excitation sweeps provided reliable damping estimates. The open-loop flutter boundary was well defined at two altitudes; a maximum Mach number of 0.91 was obtained. Both open-loop and closed-loop data were of exceptionally high quality. Although the flutter-suppression system provided augmented damping at speeds below the flutter boundary, an error in the implementation of the system resulted in the system being less stable than predicted. The vehicle encountered system-on flutter shortly after crossing the open-loop flutter boundary on the third flight and was lost. The aircraft was rebuilt. Changes made in real-time test techniques are included.

  16. Validity and reliability of agility tests in junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren; Farrow, Damian; Pyne, David; McGregor, William; Handke, Tara

    2011-12-01

    Young, W, Farrow, D, Pyne, D, McGregor, W, and Handke, T. Validity and reliability of agility tests in junior Australian football players. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3399-3403, 2011-The importance of sport-specific stimuli in reactive agility tests (RATs) compared to other agility tests is not known. The purpose of this research was to determine the validity and reliability of agility tests. Fifty junior Australian football players aged 15-17 years, members of either an elite junior squad (n = 35) or a secondary school team (n = 15), were assessed on a new RAT that involved a change of direction sprint in response to the movements of an attacking player projected in life size on a screen. These players also underwent the planned Australian Football League agility test, and a subgroup (n = 13) underwent a test requiring a change of direction in response to a left or right arrow stimulus. The elite players were significantly better than the school group players on the RAT (2.81 ± 0.08 seconds, 3.07 ± 0.12 seconds; difference 8.5%) but not in the arrow stimulus test or planned agility test. The data were log transformed and the reliability of the new RAT estimated using typical error (TE) expressed as a coefficient of variation. The TE for the RAT was 2.7% (2.0-4.3, 90% confidence interval) or 0.07 seconds (0.5-1.0), with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.33. For the test using the arrow stimulus, the TE was 3.4% (2.4-6.2), 0.09 (0.06-0.15) seconds, and ICC was 0.10. The sport-specific stimulus provided by the new RAT is a crucial component of an agility test; however, adoption of the new RAT for routine testing is likely to require more accessible equipment and several familiarization trials to improve its reliability.

  17. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  18. Predicted flight characteristics of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An existing deHavilland C-8A airplane has been modified into an augmentor wing flight test vehicle. Research objectives are to verify the augmentor flap concept and to produce data for STOL airworthiness criteria. The Modified C-8A provides the means for jet-STOL flight research down to a 60 knot approach speed. The airplane has a high thrust-to-weight ratio, high-lift flap system, vectored thrust, powerful flight controls, and lateral-directional stability augmentation system. Normal performance and handling qualities are expected to be satisfactory. Analysis and piloted simulator results indicate that stability and control characteristics in conventional flight are rated satisfactory. Handling qualities in the STOL regime are also generally satisfactory, although pilot workload is high about the longitudinal axis.

  19. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Morton, S.D.; Thomas, T.M.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  20. A Roadmap for Using Agile Development in a Traditional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara; Starbird, Thomas; Grenander, Sven

    2006-01-01

    One of the newer classes of software engineering techniques is called 'Agile Development'. In Agile Development software engineers take small implementation steps and, in some cases, they program in pairs. In addition, they develop automatic tests prior to implementing their small functional piece. Agile Development focuses on rapid turnaround, incremental planning, customer involvement and continuous integration. Agile Development is not the traditional waterfall method or even a rapid prototyping method (although this methodology is closer to Agile Development). At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) a few groups have begun Agile Development software implementations. The difficulty with this approach becomes apparent when Agile Development is used in an organization that has specific criteria and requirements handed down for how software development is to be performed. The work at the JPL is performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). Both organizations have specific requirements, rules and processes for developing software. This paper will discuss some of the initial uses of the Agile Development methodology, the spread of this method and the current status of the successful incorporation into the current JPL development policies and processes.

  1. A Roadmap for Using Agile Development in a Traditional Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Starbird, Thomas; Grenander, Sven

    2006-01-01

    One of the newer classes of software engineering techniques is called 'Agile Development'. In Agile Development software engineers take small implementation steps and, in some cases they program in pairs. In addition, they develop automatic tests prior to implementing their small functional piece. Agile Development focuses on rapid turnaround, incremental planning, customer involvement and continuous integration. Agile Development is not the traditional waterfall method or even a rapid prototyping method (although this methodology is closer to Agile Development). At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) a few groups have begun Agile Development software implementations. The difficulty with this approach becomes apparent when Agile Development is used in an organization that has specific criteria and requirements handed down for how software development is to be performed. The work at the JPL is performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). Both organizations have specific requirements, rules and procedure for developing software. This paper will discuss the some of the initial uses of the Agile Development methodology, the spread of this method and the current status of the successful incorporation into the current JPL development policies.

  2. Peridigm summary report : lessons learned in development with agile components.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Mitchell, John Anthony; Littlewood, David John; Parks, Michael L.

    2011-09-01

    This report details efforts to deploy Agile Components for rapid development of a peridynamics code, Peridigm. The goal of Agile Components is to enable the efficient development of production-quality software by providing a well-defined, unifying interface to a powerful set of component-based software. Specifically, Agile Components facilitate interoperability among packages within the Trilinos Project, including data management, time integration, uncertainty quantification, and optimization. Development of the Peridigm code served as a testbed for Agile Components and resulted in a number of recommendations for future development. Agile Components successfully enabled rapid integration of Trilinos packages into Peridigm. A cost of this approach, however, was a set of restrictions on Peridigm's architecture which impacted the ability to track history-dependent material data, dynamically modify the model discretization, and interject user-defined routines into the time integration algorithm. These restrictions resulted in modifications to the Agile Components approach, as implemented in Peridigm, and in a set of recommendations for future Agile Components development. Specific recommendations include improved handling of material states, a more flexible flow control model, and improved documentation. A demonstration mini-application, SimpleODE, was developed at the onset of this project and is offered as a potential supplement to Agile Components documentation.

  3. Integrated product definition representation for agile numerical control applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, W.R. Jr.; Brooks, S.L.; Kirk, W.J. III; Brown, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Realization of agile manufacturing capabilities for a virtual enterprise requires the integration of technology, management, and work force into a coordinated, interdependent system. This paper is focused on technology enabling tools for agile manufacturing within a virtual enterprise specifically relating to Numerical Control (N/C) manufacturing activities and product definition requirements for these activities.

  4. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  5. A Review of Research and Development in Crashworthiness of General Aviation Aircraft: Seats, Restraints and Floor Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    accident rates in general aviation. 3 q’ ) RtSUM~k Une recherche documentaire a W effectude afin de determiner l’dtat de nos connaissances sur les aspects...extensive computer analyses are necessary because the costs of full-scale aircraft tests are prohibitive. Wittlin 4 1) briefly outlined aircraft crash...subfloors. These analyses are required to defint the requirements for retrofit and new designs. The introduction of the FAA regulations [681 on dynamic

  6. A Case Study of Coordination in Distributed Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Steinar; Moe, Nils Brede

    Global Software Development (GSD) has gained significant popularity as an emerging paradigm. Companies also show interest in applying agile approaches in distributed development to combine the advantages of both approaches. However, in their most radical forms, agile and GSD can be placed in each end of a plan-based/agile spectrum because of how work is coordinated. We describe how three GSD projects applying agile methods coordinate their work. We found that trust is needed to reduce the need of standardization and direct supervision when coordinating work in a GSD project, and that electronic chatting supports mutual adjustment. Further, co-location and modularization mitigates communication problems, enables agility in at least part of a GSD project, and renders the implementation of Scrum of Scrums possible.

  7. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  8. An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

  9. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  10. NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

  11. Manx: Close air support aircraft preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amy, Annie; Crone, David; Hendrickson, Heidi; Willis, Randy; Silva, Vince

    1991-01-01

    The Manx is a twin engine, twin tailed, single seat close air support design proposal for the 1991 Team Student Design Competition. It blends advanced technologies into a lightweight, high performance design with the following features: High sensitivity (rugged, easily maintained, with night/adverse weather capability); Highly maneuverable (negative static margin, forward swept wing, canard, and advanced avionics result in enhanced aircraft agility); and Highly versatile (design flexibility allows the Manx to contribute to a truly integrated ground team capable of rapid deployment from forward sites).

  12. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  13. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  14. Insights into Global Health Practice from the Agile Software Development Movement

    PubMed Central

    Flood, David; Chary, Anita; Austad, Kirsten; Diaz, Anne Kraemer; García, Pablo; Martinez, Boris; Canú, Waleska López; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Global health practitioners may feel frustration that current models of global health research, delivery, and implementation are overly focused on specific interventions, slow to provide health services in the field, and relatively ill-equipped to adapt to local contexts. Adapting design principles from the agile software development movement, we propose an analogous approach to designing global health programs that emphasizes tight integration between research and implementation, early involvement of ground-level health workers and program beneficiaries, and rapid cycles of iterative program improvement. Using examples from our own fieldwork, we illustrate the potential of ‘agile global health’ and reflect on the limitations, trade-offs, and implications of this approach. PMID:27134081

  15. Research on the Effects of Fatigue within the Corporate/Business Aircraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980, responding to a Congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center created a program to examine whether 'there is a safety problem of uncertain magnitude, due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air transport operations.' The NASA Ames Fatigue/Jet Lag Program was created to collect systematic, scientific information on fatigue, sleep, circadian rhythms, and performance in flight operations. Three Program goals were established and continue to guide research efforts to: (1) determine the extent of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in flight operations; (2) determine the impact of these factors on flight crew performance; (3) develop and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the adverse effects of these factors and maximize flight crew performance and alertness. Since 1980, studies have been conducted in a variety of aviation environments, in controlled laboratory environments, as well as in a full-mission flight simulation. Early studies included investigations of short-haul, long-haul, and overnight cargo flight crews. In 1991, the name of the program was changed to the Fatigue Countermeasures Program to provide a greater emphasis on the development and evaluation of countermeasures. More recent work has examined the effects of planned cockpit rest as an operational countermeasure and provided analyses of the pertinent sleep/duty factors preceding an aviation accident at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The Short-Haul study examined the extent of sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue engendered by flying commercial short-haul air transport operations (flight legs less than eight hours). This was one of the first field studies conducted by the NASA program and provided unique insight into the physiological and subjective effects of flying commercial short-haul operations. It demonstrated that a range of measures could be obtained in an operational environment without disturbing

  16. Some aerodynamic discoveries and related NACA/NASA research programs following World War 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The World War 2 time period ushered in a new era in aeronautical research and development. The air conflict during the war highlighted the need of aircraft with agility, high speed, long range, large payload capability, and in addition, introduced a new concept in air warfare through the use of guided missiles. Following the war, the influx of foreign technology, primarily German, led to rapid advances in jet propulsion and speed, and a host of new problem areas associated with high-speed flight designs were revealed. The resolution of these problems led to a rash of new design concepts and many of the lessons learned, in principle, are still effective today. In addition to the technical lessons learned related to aircraft development programs, it might also be noted that some lessons involving the political and philosophical nature of aircraft development programs are worth attention.

  17. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  18. The Agility Advantage: A Survival Guide for Complex Enterprises and Endeavors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    This book embodies my current understanding of a subject that I hope will capture the imagination of many in the coming years . My interest in agility...grateful for the intellectual contri- butions made by the other various NATO Research Groups that I have had the privilege to chair over the years . These...same assertion when NCW was introduced. Aft er we engaged these crit- ics , we found that their concerns had two separate ori- gins. First, they simply

  19. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  20. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their