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Sample records for aging alloy hastelloy

  1. Thermomechanical deformation behavior of a dynamic strain aging alloy, Hastelloy X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Miner, Robert V.; Robinson, David N.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to identify the effects of dynamic strain aging (solute drag) and metallurgical instabilities under thermomechanical loading conditions. The study involved a series of closely controlled thermomechanical deformation tests on the solid-solution-strenghened nickel-base superalloy, Hastelloy X. This alloy exhibits a strong isothermal strain aging peak at approximately 600 C, promoted by the effects of solute drag and precipitation hardening. Macroscopic thermomechanical hardening trends are correlated with microstructural characteristics through the use of transmission electron microscopy. These observations are compared and contrasted with isothermal conditions. Thermomechanical behavior unique to the isothermal database is identified and discussed. The microstructural characteristics were shown to be dominated by effects associated with the highest temperature of the thermomechanical cycle. Results indicate that the deformation behavior of Hastelloy X is thermomechanically path dependent. In addition, guidance is given pertaining to deformation modeling in the context of macroscopic unified theory. An internal state variable is formulated to qualitatively reflect the isotropic hardening trends identified in the TMD experiments.

  2. Hardening mechanisms in a dynamic strain aging alloy, Hastelloy X, during isothermal and thermomechanical cyclic deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V.; Castelli, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The relative contributions of the hardening mechanisms in Hastelloy X during cyclic deformation were investigated by conducting isothermal cyclic deformation tests within a total strain range of +/-0.3 pct and at several temperatures and strain rates, and thermomechanical tests within several different temperature limits. The results of the TEM examinations and special constant structure tests showed that the precipitation on dislocations of Cr23C6 contributed to hardening, but only after sufficient time above 500 C. Solute drag alone produced very considerable cyclic hardening. Heat dislocation densities, peaking around 10 exp 11 per sq cm, were found to develop at temperatures producing the greatest cyclic hardening.

  3. Influence of temperature, environment, and thermal aging on the continuous cycle fatigue behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Strizak, J.P.; Brinkman, C.R.; Booker, M.K.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1982-04-01

    Results are presented for strain-controlled fatigue and tensile tests for two nickel-base, solution-hardened reference structural alloys for use in several High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X and Inconel 617, were tested from room temperature to 871/sup 0/C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in both the solution-annealed and the preaged conditios, in which aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are given between the strain-controlled fatigue lives of these and several other commonly used alloys, all tested at 538/sup 0/C. An analysis is also presented of the continuous cycle fatigue data obtained from room temperature to 427/sup 0/C for Hastelloy G, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-4, an effort undertaken in support of ASME code development.

  4. Permeation of hydrogen in hastelloy C-276 alloy at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Liu, W.; Qian, Y.; Que, J.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium is generated by the interaction of neutrons with the lithium and beryllium in the molten salt reactors (MSRs), which use FLiBe as one of solvents of fluoride fuel. Tritium as by-product in the MSRs is an important safety issue because it could easily diffuse into environment through high temperature heat exchangers. The experimental technique of gas driven permeation has been used to investigate the transport parameter of hydrogen in Hastelloy C-276 which is considered as one of the candidate for structure materials. The measurements were carried out at the temperature range of 400-800 Celsius degrees with hydrogen loading pressures ranging from 5*10{sup 3} to 4*10{sup 4} Pa. The H diffusive transport parameters for Hastelloy C-276 follow an Arrhenius law in this temperature range. Regarding diffusivity and Sieverts' constant, Hastelloy C-276 has lower values compared with Ni201 alloy. The possible reason may be the trapping effects, which were formed by the alloying elements of Mo and Cr in the matrix. At the same time, the thin oxidation layer formed by the high Cr content could lead to a slower dissociation process of H{sub 2} at the surface. (authors)

  5. High-temperature low-cycle fatigue and tensile properties of Hastelloy X and alloy 617 in air and HTGR-helium

    SciTech Connect

    Strizak, J.P.; Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Results of strain controlled fatigue and tensile tests are presented for two nickel base solution hardened alloys which are reference structural alloys for use in several high temperature gas cooled reactor concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X Inconel 617, were tested at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 871/sup 0/C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in the solution annealed as well as in the pre-aged condition where aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are also given between the strain controlled fatigue lives of these alloys and several other commonly used alloys all tested at 538/sup 0/C.

  6. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  7. Microscopic study of the structure of the Steel Ni-based Alloy: Hastelloy G35 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, F.; Ben Lenda, O.; Saissi, S.; Marbouh, K.; Tyouke, B.; Zerrouk, L.; Ibnlfassi, A.; Ouzaouit, K.; Elmadani, S.

    2017-03-01

    The study of the influence of heat treatment on changes of mechanical and structural properties of Steel Ni-based Alloy is a highly interdisciplinary topic at the interface of the physical chemistry of metallic materials, which also helps in environmental and economic protection.After heat treatment, the structural and micro-structural studies for the different transformation temperature led to identify phases formed and the morphology. This work has been carried out using different techniques: X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Low-cycle fatigue of Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy alloy X in hydrogen gas and in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.; Buchheit, R. D.; Roach, D. B.; Porfilio, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the low-cycle fatigue resistance of two alloys, Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X, that were under consideration for use in nuclear-powered rocket vehicles. Constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted under compressive strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001/sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 %, in both laboratory-air and low-pressure hydrogen-gas environments at temperatures from 538 to 871 C. Specimens were obtained from three heats of Type 347 stainless steel bar and two heats of Hastelloy Alloy X. The tensile properties of each heat were determined at 21, 538, 649, and 760 C. The continuous cycling fatigue resistance was determined for each heat at temperatures of 538, 760, and 871 C. The Type 347 stainless steel exhibited equal or superior fatigue resistance to the Hastelloy Alloy X at all conditions of this study.

  9. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-17

    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  10. Relation of Engine Turbine-blade Life to Stress-rupture Properties of the Alloys, Stellite 21, Hastelloy B, Cast S-816, Forged S-816, X-40, Nimonic 80, Refractaloy 26, N-155, and Inconel X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, F B; Yaker, C

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to relate the engine performance of the heat-resistant alloys, Stellite 21, Hastelloy B, cast S-816, forged S-816, X-40, Nimonic 80, Refractory 26, N-155, and Iconel X to their stress-rupture properties. The engine test consisted of the repetition of a 20-minute cycle, 15 minutes at rated speed and approximately 5 minutes at idle. The results of the investigation indicated a direct correlation between stress-rupture life and blade life for the relatively low-strength alloys. The stress-rupture life and blade life for the relatively high-strength alloys did not correlate because of the effects of the vibratory stresses and the corrosive-gas atmosphere.

  11. Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 600 to 800

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-01-01

    The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 800/sup 0/C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 800/sup 0/C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 600/sup 0/ to 800/sup 0/C and control specimens heated in vacuum.

  12. Crack propagation in Hastelloy X

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasooriya, T.; Strizak, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    The fatigue and creep crack growth rates of Hastelloy X were examined both in air and impure helium. Creep crack growth rate is higher in air and impure helium at 650/sup 0/C. Initial creep crack growth from the original sharp fatigue crack is by an intergranular mode of fracture. As the cracking accelerates at higher stress intensities, growth is by a mixed mode of both intergranular and transgranular fracture. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing temperature and decreasing frequency for the range of stress intensities reported in the literature and is lower in impure helium than in air.

  13. Long-term corrosion behaviors of Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 in moisture-containing molten FLiNaK salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chang, Chi-Hung; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated long-term corrosion behaviors of Ni-based Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 under moisture-containing molten alkali fluoride salt (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42%) environment at an ambient temperature of 700 °C. The Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-B3 experienced similar weight losses for tested duration of 100-1000 h, which was caused by aggregate dissolution of Cr and Mo into FLiNaK salts. The corrosion rate of both alloys was high initially, but then reduced during the course of the test. The alleviated corrosion rate was due to the depletion of Cr and Mo near surface of the alloys and thus the long-term corrosion rate was controlled by diffusion of Cr and Mo outward to the alloy surface. The results of microstructural characterization revealed that the corrosion pattern for both alloys tended to be intergranular corrosion at early stage of corrosion test, and then transferred to general corrosion for longer immersion hours.

  14. Effects of high temperature brazing and thermal cycling on mechanical properties of Hastelloy X.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L.; Buckley, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented on the effects of brazing alloy, brazing operation, thermal cycling, and combinations of these on the yield strength, elongation, ultimate tensile strength, and fatigue life of thin gage Hastelloy X. These data show that brazing with a Ni-Pd-Au alloy at 1461 K resulted in reductions of 35 percent in yield strength and elongation, 6 percent in ultimate tensile strength, and 18 percent in fatigue limit of Hastelloy X, as compared with as-received material. Subsequent exposure to 200 thermal cycles between 533 K and 1144 K after brazing caused further losses of 4 percent in yield strength, 8 percent in ultimate tensile strength, and 6 percent in fatigue limit.

  15. Thermal aging effects in refractory metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 kWe to multi-megawatts for advanced space systems. To meet the system requirements, operating temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1600 K have been proposed. Expected lives of these space power systems are from 7 to 10 yr. A program is conducted at NASA Lewis to determine the effects of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the microstructural stability of several commercial tantalum and niobium alloys. Variables studied in the investigation include alloy composition, pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature, and environment (lithium or vacuum), welding, and hydrogen doping. Alloys are investigated by means of cryogenic bend tests and tensile tests. Results show that the combination of tungsten and hafnium or zirconium found in commercial alloys such as T-111 and Cb-752 can lead to aging embrittlement and increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ternary and more complex alloys. Modification of alloy composition helps to eliminate the embrittlement problem.

  16. Thermal aging effects in refractory metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 kWe to multi-megawatts for advanced space systems. To meet the system requirements, operating temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1600 K have been proposed. Expected lives of these space power systems are from 7 to 10 yr. A program is conducted at NASA Lewis to determine the effects of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the microstructural stability of several commercial tantalum and niobium alloys. Variables studied in the investigation include alloy composition, pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature, and environment (lithium or vacuum), welding, and hydrogen doping. Alloys are investigated by means of cryogenic bend tests and tensile tests. Results show that the combination of tungsten and hafnium or zirconium found in commercial alloys such as T-111 and Cb-752 can lead to aging embrittlement and increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of ternary and more complex alloys. Modification of alloy composition helps to eliminate the embrittlement problem.

  17. Method for homogenizing alloys susceptible to the formation of carbide stringers and alloys prepared thereby

    DOEpatents

    Braski, David N.; Leitnaker, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel fabrication procedure prevents or eliminates the reprecipitation of segregated metal carbides such as stringers in Ti-modified Hastelloy N and stainless steels to provide a novel alloy having carbides uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix. The fabrication procedure is applicable to other alloys prone to the formation of carbide stringers. The process comprises first annealing the alloy at a temperature above the single phase temperature for sufficient time to completely dissolve carbides and then annealing the single phase alloy for an additional time to prevent the formation of carbide stringers upon subsequent aging or thermomechanical treatment.

  18. Air oxidation and seawater corrosion of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-03-01

    A program is currently under way at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop the data and technology needed to permit the licensing of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ as a radioisotope heat source fuel for terrestrial applications. The WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ storage capsule consists of a Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule (2 in. I.D. x 19 in. long) and a 316L stainless steel outer capsule (2-3/8 in. I.D. x 20 in. long). Preliminary experimental tests and theoretical calculations show that the WESF storage capsule is incapable of meeting current licensing requirements for heat sources that are to be used for terrestrial applications. Therefore, the DOE decision was to develop a new heat source design that would retain the existing WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule and replace the current WESF outer capsule with a new outer capsule capable of meeting current licensing requirements. Based on a number of factors, Hastelloy S was selected as the outer capsule material. Hastelloy C-4 was selected as a backup material in case the Hastelloy S had to be rejected for any reason. This report summarizes the results of studies carried out to determine the effects of both air oxidation at heat source operating temperatures and seawater corrosion on the tensile properties of the outer capsule materials.

  19. Alloys For Flexible Hoses In A Corrosive Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III; Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1992-01-01

    High-nickel alloy resists pitting corrosion. Report evaluates metal alloys for flexible hoses in corrosive environment. Tested to find alternatives to 304L stainless steel. Nineteen alloys selected for testing on basis of reputation for resistance to corrosion. Top five, in order of decreasing resistance to corrosion: Hastelloy(R) C-22, Inconel(R) 625, Hastelloy(R) C-276, Hastelloy(R) C-4, and Inco(R) alloy G-3. Of these, Hastelloy(R) C-22 found best for flexible-hose application.

  20. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  1. The effects of high-temperature brazing and thermal cycling on the mechanical properties of Hastelloy X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L.; Buckley, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented on the effects of brazing alloy, brazing operation, thermal cycling, and combinations of these on the yield strength, elongation, tensile strength, and fatigue life of thin gage Hastelloy X. These data show that brazing at 1461 K (2170 F) with a Ni-Pd-Au alloy and subsequent exposure to 200 service thermal cycles between 533 and 1144 K (500 and 1600 F) result in reduction of as much as 39 percent in yield strength, 33 percent in elongation, 14 percent in tensile strength, and 26 percent in fatigue limit of Hastelloy X, as compared to as-received materials. These property losses are primarily caused by the brazing operation rather than the subsequent service thermal cycles.

  2. Microstructure evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junfeng; Zou, Linchi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-04-15

    The microstructure evolution of the 7050 Al alloy treated by age-forming was studied using a designed device which can simulate the age-forming process. The grain shape, grain boundary misorientation and grain orientation evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming have been quantitatively characterized by electron backscattering diffraction technique. The results show that age-forming produced abundant low-angle boundaries and elongated grains, which attributed to stress induced dislocation movement and grain boundary migration during the age-forming process. On the other side, the stress along rolling direction caused some unstable orientation grains to rotate towards the Brass and S orientations during the age-forming process. Hence, the intensity of the rolling texture orientation in age-formed samples is enhanced. But this effect decays gradually with increasing aging time, since stress decreases and precipitation hardening occurs during the age-forming process. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of grain evolution of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming • Stress induces some grain rotation of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Creep leads to elongate grain of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Obtains a trend on texture evolution during age-forming applied stress.

  3. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  4. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  5. Machinability of hastelloy C-276 using Hot-pressed sintered Ti(C7N3)-based cermet cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaitao; Zou, Bin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Yao, Yang; Zhou, Huijun; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2015-05-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent failure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59μm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  6. Compatibility of aluminide-coated Hastelloy x and Inconel 617 in a simulated gas-cooled reactor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.; Johnson, W. R.; Chen, K.

    1982-03-01

    Commercially prepared aluminide coatings on Hastelloy X and Inconel 617 substrates were exposed to controlled-impurity helium at 850/sup 0/ and 950/sup 0/C for 3000 h. Optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, electron microprobe profiles, and SEM X-ray mapping were used to evaluate and compare exposed and unexposed control samples. Four coatings were evaluated: aluminide, aluminide with platinum, aluminide with chromium, and aluminide with rhodium. With extended time at elevated temperature, nickel diffused into the aluminide coatings to form epsilon-phase (Ni/sub 3/Al). This diffusion was the primary cause of porosity formation at the aluminide/alloy interface.

  7. Computer Modelling of Age Hardening for Isothermally Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    Computer modelling, due to it saving time and money, has been widely used in industrial simulation. The present model, which is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology for the ageing of aluminum alloys, can be used to predict the yield strength (or hardness) of Al-Mg-Si alloys for the artificial ageing temperature below the solvus temperature as a function of time. With suitable input data, this model can be applied to most Al-Mg-Si alloys, wrought or cast. In the present model, input data for aluminium alloys of A356, A357 and 6061 is taken from the open literature, and then the unknown constants are calibrated from these data. After calibration, the ageing curves are constructed for different isothermal ageing temperatures. Finally, experimentally ageing heat treatments at different temperatures for casting alloys of A356 were done to validate the model.

  8. Ageing characteristics of aluminium alloy aluminosilicate discontinuous fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, D.; Singh, V.

    1999-03-05

    Development of continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites is aimed at providing high specific strength and stiffness needed for aerospace and some critical high temperature structural applications. Considerable efforts have been made, during the last decade, to improve the strength of age-hardening aluminium alloy matrix composites by suitable heat treatment. It has also been well established that age-hardenable aluminium alloy composites show accelerated ageing behavior because of enhanced dislocation density at the fiber/matrix interface resulting from thermal expansion mismatch between ceramic fiber and the metal matrix. The accelerated ageing of aluminium alloy composites either from dislocation density or the residual stress, as a result of thermal expansion mismatch is dependent on the size of whisker and particulate. Investigations have also been made on the effect of volume fraction of particulate on the ageing behavior of aluminium alloys. The present investigation is concerned with characterization of age-hardening behavior of an Al-Si-Cu-Mg(AA 336) alloy alumino-silicate discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites (referred to as aluminium MMCs in the present text) being developed for automotive pistons. An effort is made to study the effect of volume fraction of the reinforcement on age-hardening behavior of this composite.

  9. Precipitation, strength and work hardening of age hardened aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryen, Ø.; Holmedal, B.; Marthinsen, K.; Furu, T.

    2015-08-01

    The strength and work hardening of age hardened AA6063 and AA6082 alloys have been investigated in terms of a detailed characterization of precipitate and dislocation structures obtained by TEM and SEM. Tensile and compression tests were performed at as quenched, peak aged and severely aged conditions. A strong work hardening in the as quenched condition was found, similar to AlMg alloys with twice as much alloying elements in solid solution. It was found that the initial work hardening rate and the critical failure strain are both smallest at the peak aged condition. During large deformations the needle-shaped precipitates are sheared uniformly by dislocations altering their <001> orientations, which indicates extensive cross slip. In the overaged condition the early initial work hardening is larger than at the peak aged condition, but followed by a weak linear work hardening, apparently directly entering stage IV at a low strain. Cracked, needle-shaped precipitates were seen at larger strains.

  10. Strain aging in tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, R.J.; Tauer, K.J. . Materials Technology Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tungsten heavy alloys which are two-phase mixtures of body center cubic (BCC) tungsten surrounded by a face center cubic (FCC) matrix. The matrix is most often composed of nickel and iron in a ratio of 70:30 but, occasionally, the matrix may also contain cobalt or copper. Nickel, however, is always the primary matrix component. The tungsten heavy alloy is fabricated through powder metallurgy techniques. Elemental powders are blended, pressed to shape, and sintered. Depending upon the tungsten content, the sintering temperatures are usually in the range of 1450{degrees}C to 1525{degrees}C. These temperatures are high enough that, as a result, the matrix is at the liquid phase and the process is known as liquid phase sintering. At the liquid phase temperature, the matrix becomes saturated with tungsten, but this does not change the FCC character of the matrix. The sintering is usually done in a hydrogen atmosphere furnace in order to reduce the oxides on the tungsten powder surfaces and create clean, active surfaces which will enhance the adherence between the tungsten and the matrix. The hydrogen atmosphere also creates the presence of excess dissolved hydrogen in the alloy. It has been shown that the hydrogen degrades the toughness and ductility of the heavy alloy. A post-sintering vacuum heat treatment is generally required to insure that there is no residual hydrogen present. The as-sintered tensile strength of a 90% tungsten, 7% nickel, 3% iron alloy (90W) is in the range of 800 to 940 MPa and can be increased significantly by cold working, usually rolling or swaging. Swaging to reductions in area of 20% can result in tensile strengths of 1250 MPa or more. As the strength increases, the elongation, which may have been 30% or more, decreases to less than 5%.

  11. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  12. Processes of dynamic aging of VT16 titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urkhanov, Yu. A.; Rakhstadt, A. G.

    1996-07-01

    The use of dynamic aging in heat treatment improves the mechanical properties of alloys, first of all, the strength characteristics under conditions of static (both short- and long-term) and cyclic loading and the resistance to brittle and ductile fracture. Therefore, the processes of dynamic aging that can be treated as a variant of thermomechanical treatment have been studied in detail in several works and have been used for strengthening parts made of steels of pearlitic, martensitic, and austenitic classes, beryllium bronze. Duralumin-type alloys, etc. At the same time, data on the effect of dynarrlic aging on the properties of titanium alloys are very scarce. The present article is devoted to this problem.

  13. Initial aging phenomena in copper-chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Motohiro, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of quenching and aging temperatures on the initial aging curves of Cu-Cr alloy were examined mainly by means of electrical resistivity measurements. Three Cu-Cr alloy specimens having 0.24, 0.74, and 1.0% Cr were solution-treated at 950-1050 C, quenched into ice-water, and subsequently aged at 300-500 C. The results were as follows: (1) At the very early stage of aging (within about 30 sec), an abrupt decrease of resistivity with lowering aging tempratures. (T sub A) and rising solution temperatures (T sub S) was observed at (T sub A) up to about 400 C. In contrast, a transient increase of resistivity with rising T sub A and lowering T sub S was observed at T sub A from about 450 to 500 C. These phenomena seem to be caused by a rapid formation of solute clusters and the reversion of clusters formed during quenching, which are enhanced by quenched-in vacancies, respectively. (2) The amount of precipitation increased at the latter stage of aging with rising T sub S and T sub A as generally expected, where T sub S was not so high as to form secondary defects. (3) As a result, the initial aging phenomena in Cr-Cr alloy were revealed to be complicated against expectations. This was considered to be due to the migration energy of vacancies so larger in Cu-base.

  14. Aging of Alloy 617 at 650 and 750 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    Julian Benz; Thomas Lillo; Richard Wright

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 617 has been selected as the primary candidate for heat exchanger applications in advanced reactors. For the VHTR this application could require extended service up to a reactor outlet temperature of 950°C. A key hurdle to using this alloy in the VHTR heat exchanger application is qualifying the alloy for Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In order to Code qualify the material it is necessary to characterize the influence of long term aging on the mechanical behavior. Alloy 617 has been aged at 650 and 750°C for times up to 5300 hours. The microstructure after aging has been characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopies. It has been determined that in addition to carbides, a significant volume fraction of ?’ phase (Ni3Al) is formed at these temperatures. The ?’ does not contribute significantly to changing the tensile or impact properties of the aged material. It does, however, appear to increase creep resistance and impede creep crack growth.

  15. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III; Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made out of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. Nineteen metal alloys were tested. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be, in order, Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of the alloys tested.

  16. Material Data Representation of Hysteresis Loops for Hastelloy X Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, Javed; Berke, Laszlo; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1993-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) model proposed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams is applied to develop a functional approximation of material data in the form of hysteresis loops from a nickel-base superalloy, Hastelloy X. Several different ANN configurations are used to model hysteresis loops at different cycles for this alloy. The ANN models were successful in reproducing the hysteresis loops used for its training. However, because of sharp bends at the two ends of hysteresis loops, a drift occurs at the corners of the loops where loading changes to unloading and vice versa (the sharp bends occurred when the stress-strain curves were reproduced by adding stress increments to the preceding values of the stresses). Therefore, it is possible only to reproduce half of the loading path. The generalization capability of the network was tested by using additional data for two other hysteresis loops at different cycles. The results were in good agreement. Also, the use of ANN led to a data compression ratio of approximately 22:1.

  17. Effect of aging time and temperature on the aging behavior in Sn containing AZ91 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Kyun; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Kang Cheol; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Do Hyang

    2017-03-01

    Effects of aging temperature and time on the aging behavior in AZ91 alloy and Sn containing AZ91 alloy (AZT915) have been investigated in the present study. The mode of precipitation, i.e. discontinuous and continuous precipitation in both alloys is strongly affected by the aging temperature. At low aging temperature of 403 K, only discontinuous precipitation occurs at the grain boundaries, whereas at high aging temperatures of 573 and 623 K only continuous precipitation occurs inside the grains. At intermediate temperature range (443 or 498 K) both discontinuous and continuous precipitation reactions occur. In AZT915, the Mg2Sn particles at the grain boundary effectively reduce the available nucleation sites for discontinuous β precipitates, and slow down the movement of the grain boundary, resulting in suppression of discontinuous precipitation. In addition, increased local lattice strain by the presence of Sn in the α-Mg solid solution matrix accelerates the nucleation of the continuous precipitates at the early stage of aging treatment. Therefore, significantly higher peak hardness can be obtained within a shorter aging time in AZT915.

  18. Effect of aging time and temperature on the aging behavior in Sn containing AZ91 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Kyun; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Kang Cheol; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Do Hyang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of aging temperature and time on the aging behavior in AZ91 alloy and Sn containing AZ91 alloy (AZT915) have been investigated in the present study. The mode of precipitation, i.e. discontinuous and continuous precipitation in both alloys is strongly affected by the aging temperature. At low aging temperature of 403 K, only discontinuous precipitation occurs at the grain boundaries, whereas at high aging temperatures of 573 and 623 K only continuous precipitation occurs inside the grains. At intermediate temperature range (443 or 498 K) both discontinuous and continuous precipitation reactions occur. In AZT915, the Mg2Sn particles at the grain boundary effectively reduce the available nucleation sites for discontinuous β precipitates, and slow down the movement of the grain boundary, resulting in suppression of discontinuous precipitation. In addition, increased local lattice strain by the presence of Sn in the α-Mg solid solution matrix accelerates the nucleation of the continuous precipitates at the early stage of aging treatment. Therefore, significantly higher peak hardness can be obtained within a shorter aging time in AZT915.

  19. Precipitation Hardening and Statistical Modeling of the Aging Parameters and Alloy Compositions in Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Obaisi, A. M.; El-Danaf, E. A.; Ragab, A. E.; Soliman, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The addition of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg systems has been proposed to replace the existing high-strength 2xxx and 7xxx Al alloys. The aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys exhibited promising properties, due to special type of precipitates named Ω, which cooperate with other precipitates to enhance the mechanical properties significantly. In the present investigation, the effect of changing percentages of alloying elements, aging time, and aging temperature on the hardness values was studied based on a factorial design. According to this design of experiments (DOE)—23 factorial design, eight alloys were cast and hot rolled, where (Cu, Mg, and Ag) were added to aluminum with two different levels for each alloying element. These alloys were aged at different temperatures (160, 190, and 220 °C) over a wide range of time intervals from 10 min. to 64 h. The resulting hardness data were used as an input for Minitab software to model and relate the process variables with hardness through a regression analysis. Modifying the alloying elements' weight percentages to the high level enhanced the hardness of the alloy with about 40% as compared to the alloy containing the low level of all alloying elements. Through analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was figured out that altering the fraction of Cu had the greatest effect on the hardness values with a contribution of about 49%. Also, second-level interaction terms had about 21% of impact on the hardness values. Aging time, quadratic terms, and third-level interaction terms had almost the same level of influence on hardness values (about 10% contribution). Furthermore, the results have shown that small addition of Mg and Ag was enough to improve the mechanical properties of the alloy significantly. The statistical model formulated interpreted about 80% of the variation in hardness values.

  20. Aging Behavior of Al 6061 Alloy Processed by High-Pressure Torsion and Subsequent Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Intan Fadhlina; Lee, Seungwon; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Matsuda, Kenji; Terada, Daisuke

    2015-06-01

    A process to achieve strengthening in an Al 6061 alloy by grain refinement to ~200 nm using high-pressure torsion (HPT) and fine precipitation using aging treatment is studied. It is shown that although aging of the HPT-processed sample is effective for extra strengthening of the alloy, the imposed shear strain and the aging temperature should be selected carefully. The HPT processing after 5 turns leads high saturation hardness and tensile strength of 163 Hv and 470 MPa, respectively. The hardness at the saturation level remains the same during aging at 373 K (100 °C), while the hardness decreases by aging at 423 K (150 °C). When the disks are processed for 0.75 turns (lower shear strains) and aged at 373 K (100 °C), the hardness increases above the hardness level at the saturation because of the formation of B' and β' precipitates. Quantitative analyses indicate that three major hardening mechanisms contribute to the total hardening: grain boundary hardening through the Hall-Petch relationship, dislocation hardening through the Bailey-Hirsch relationship and precipitation hardening through the Orowan relationship. This study shows that the contribution of different strengthening mechanisms can be estimated using a linear additive relationship in ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys.

  1. Behavior of Fe-ODS Alloys After Thermal Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Garcia, Marta; Hernández-Mayoral, Mercedes; Esparraguera, Elvira Oñorbe

    2016-06-01

    Oxide dispersion alloys are one of the candidates as cladding materials for Gen IV fast reactors, due to their high strength at high temperature, good creep properties, and swelling resistance. This good performance is mainly due to a fine dispersion of nano-oxide particles on the microstructure and to non-grained structure. The microstructural stability and the mechanical properties of a Fe-ODS alloy are studied after different thermal aging experiments at 973 K (700 °C), 5000 hours; 973 K (700 °C), 10,000 hours; and 1123 K (850 °C), 10,000 hours. SEM/EBSD and TEM together with tensile and impact tests on the as-received and thermally aged material have been carried out. In general, for all the tested conditions, a slight softening effect is observed attributed to the changes in the grain structure as well as to the changes in the amount and size of nano-oxide particles. In addition, the aged material shows a lower impact USE value while the DBTT is maintained.

  2. Characterization of Al-Mg Alloy Aged at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gaosong; Cullen, David A.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Golumbfskie, William; Sundberg, Erik; Free, Michael L.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term aged [343 K (70 °C) for 30 months and natural exposure for over 10 years] Al 5456 H116 samples were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), state-of-the-art energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) systems, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). ASTM G-67 mass loss tests of the sensitized Al 5456 alloy samples were conducted. Intragranular Mg-rich precipitates, such as Guinier-Preston (GP) zones, were confirmed in Al 5456 H116 aged at 343 K (70 °C) for 30 months, and the volume of these precipitates is 1.39 pct. β' phase is identified at the grain boundary of a navy ship sample, while high-resolution STEM results reveal no intragranular precipitates. Intergranular corrosion (IGC) of Al 5456 was found to be related to the continuity of intergranular precipitates.

  3. Characterization of Al-Mg Alloy Aged at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gaosong; Cullen, David A.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Golumbfskie, William; Sundberg, Erik; Free, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    Long-term aged [343 K (70 °C) for 30 months and natural exposure for over 10 years] Al 5456 H116 samples were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), state-of-the-art energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) systems, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). ASTM G-67 mass loss tests of the sensitized Al 5456 alloy samples were conducted. Intragranular Mg-rich precipitates, such as Guinier-Preston (GP) zones, were confirmed in Al 5456 H116 aged at 343 K (70 °C) for 30 months, and the volume of these precipitates is 1.39 pct. β' phase is identified at the grain boundary of a navy ship sample, while high-resolution STEM results reveal no intragranular precipitates. Intergranular corrosion (IGC) of Al 5456 was found to be related to the continuity of intergranular precipitates.

  4. Development of a Mathematical Model of Crevice Corrosion Propagation on Nickel Base Alloys in Natural and Chlorinated Sea Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-30

    then bromamines and chloramines are formed and the processes become even more complicated. [10]. 0 From the point of view of crevice corrosion ... Corrosion Propagation on Nickel Base Alloys in Natural and Chlorinated Sea Water Thi! os 7 -= n %:ý 7e~~r: :-ppcved tor piU&* : e --I . " dcktr!u-,J...Summary Crevice corrosion initiation and propagation of nickel base alloys Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276 and Hastelloy 22 in sea water and chlorinated sea

  5. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H. W.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an examination of the fracture toughness of aluminum-lithium alloy C458 for use in cryotank structures. Topics cover include: cryogenics, alloy composition, strengthing precipitates in C458, cryogenic fracture toughness improvements, design of experiments for measuring aging optimization of C458 plate and effects of aging of properties of C458 plate.

  6. Effect of scandium on the microstructure and ageing behaviour of cast Al-6Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M.S.; Datta, S.; Roychowdhury, A. Banerjee, M.K.

    2008-11-15

    Microstructural modification and grain refinement due to addition of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy is used to understand the microstructure and precipitation behaviour in Al-6Mg alloy doped with scandium. It is seen from the microstructure that the dendrites of the cast Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium. Increasing amount of scandium leads to a greater dendrite refinement. The age hardening effect in scandium added Al-6Mg alloys has been studied by subjecting the alloys containing varying amount of scandium ranging from 0.2 wt.% to 0.6 wt.% to isochronal and isothermal ageing at various temperatures for different times. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides.

  7. Effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranathan, S.P.; Kashyap, K.T.; Kumar, S.R.; Ramachandra, C.; Chatterji, B.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties is characteristically found in Al-Mg-Si alloys. Delayed aging refers to the time elapsed between solutionizing and artificial aging. Delayed aging leads to inferior properties. This effect was investigated in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AU2GN) of nominal composition Al-2Cu-1.5Mg-1Fe-1Ni as a function of delay. This alloy also showed a drop in mechanical properties with delay. The results are explained on the basis of Pashley's kinetic model to qualitatively explain the evolution of a coarse precipitate structure with delay. It is found that all the results of delayed aging in the Al-Cu-Mg alloys are similar to those found in Al-Mg-Si alloys.

  8. Influence of deformation ageing treatment on microstructure and properties of aluminum alloy 2618

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianhua Yi Danqing; Su Xuping; Yin Fucheng

    2008-07-15

    The effects of deformation ageing treatment (DAT) on the microstructure and properties of aluminum alloy 2618 were investigated. The alloy was subjected to deformation ageing treatment which included solution treating at 535 deg. C quenching into water at room-temperature, cold rolling (10%) and further ageing to peak hardness level at 200 deg. C. The electron microscopic studies revealed that the treatment affects the ageing characteristics and the coarsening of ageing phase (S') at elevated-temperature. The dislocation-precipitate tangles substructure couldn't be found in alloy 2618. The tensile and hardness tests showed that deformation-ageing treatment causes a significant improvement in tensile strength and hardness to alloy 2618 at room- and elevated-temperature.

  9. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, C Q; Xu, D K; Wang, B J; Sheng, L Y; Qiao, Y X; Han, E H

    2017-01-05

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases.

  10. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, C. Q.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, B. J.; Sheng, L. Y.; Qiao, Y. X.; Han, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases. PMID:28053318

  11. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Q.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, B. J.; Sheng, L. Y.; Qiao, Y. X.; Han, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases.

  12. Strengthening in rapidly solidified age hardened Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, J.B.; Davies, H.A.; Sellars, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy powders were produced by water atomization and consolidated by warm extrusion. Coherent Cr precipitation is associated with the peak hardness condition in these alloys. The mechanical properties obtained after aging treatments, namely the peak hardness, and the corresponding proof stress are related to the concentration of the alloying element initially in solid solution in the powders. The strengthening observed is interpreted in terms of theories of precipitation and dispersion strengthening and compared with similar analyses reported previously in the literature for these alloy systems.

  13. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg- 0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300 F for 24 hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 24 full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175 F and 250 F. The second step aging temperatures was

  14. Age hardening characteristics and mechanical behavior of Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the age-hardening response and cryogenic mechanical properties of superplastic Al-Cu-Li-Zr-In alloys. Two alloys with compositions Al-2.65Cu-2.17Li-O.13Zr (baseline) and Al-2.60Cu-2.34Li-0.16Zr-0.17In were scaled-up from 30 lb permanent mold ingots to 350 lb DC (direct chill) ingots and thermomechanically processed to 3.2 mm thick sheet. The microstructure of material which contained the indium addition was partially recrystallized compared to the baseline suggesting that indium may influence recrystallization behavior. The indium-modified alloy exhibited superior hardness and strength compared to the baseline alloy when solution-heat-treated at 555 C and aged at 160 C or 190 C. For each alloy, strength increased and toughness was unchanged or decreased when tested at - 185 C compared to ambient temperature. By using optimized heat treatments, the indium-modified alloy exhibited strength levels approaching those of the baseline alloy without deformation prior to aging. The increase in strength of these alloys in the T6 condition make them particularly attractive for superplastic forming applications where post-SPF parts cannot be cold deformed to increase strength.

  15. Effect of Fluoride Ions on the Anodic Behavior of Mill Annealed and Aged Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M A; Carranza-, R M; Rebak, R B

    2003-10-07

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the current candidate alloy to fabricate the external wall of the high level nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain repository. It was of interest to study and compare the general and localized corrosion susceptibility of Alloy 22 in saturated NaF solutions ({approx} 1 M NaF) at 90 C. Standard electrochemical tests such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, amperometry, potentiometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used. Studied variables included the solution pH and the alloy microstructure (thermal aging). Results show that Alloy 22 is highly resistant to general and localized corrosion in pure fluoride solutions. Thermal aging is not detrimental and even seems to be slightly beneficial for general corrosion in alkaline solutions.

  16. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  17. A microstructural study of flash welded and aged 6061 and 6013 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, C.; Dille, J.; Delplancke, J.-L.; Rebello, J.M.A.

    2006-09-15

    Extruded, flash welded and artificially aged 6061 and 6013 aluminum alloys were analyzed with the use of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, selected area electron diffraction (SAD) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in order to identify the precipitates present in both alloys. Vickers microindentation hardness measurements were performed at different distances from the weld interface. The results show a small decrease in hardness near the 6013 alloy weld interface. On the other hand, there is an important hardness drop near the 6061 weld interface. This drop can be explained by a lack of fine structural precipitation during the aging treatment in the 6061 weld interface zone.

  18. Effects of long-term aging on ductility and microstructure of Cb and Mo alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in columbium-base alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in a molybdenum alloy, Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hour) aging at temperatures in the range of 700-1025 C. In comparison, aging embrittlement occurred in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging which subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -196 C to about -150 C.

  19. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  20. Microstructural and Hardness Studies of Cu-10wt.%Sn Alloy Under Different Aging Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Farooq; Butt, Muhammad Zakria; Saleemi, Farhat

    2008-02-01

    Microstructure of Cu-10wt.%Sn alloy, prepared by powder metallurgy technique and sintered at 900 °C for 120 min in hydrogen atmosphere, was studied by optical microscopy and XRD technique as a function of aging time. Isothermal aging of the alloy specimens was performed at 250 °C for a period of 30, 60, 120, 300, and 1440 min after solution treatment at 500 °C for 60 min. Rockwell hardness of aged specimens was also measured at room temperature as a function of aging time. It was observed that microstructure of the as-sintered specimens consists of the grains of alpha Cu-Sn solid solution. Moreover, solution treatment of the alloy specimens followed by quenching in water increased the hardness of the as-sintered alloy specimens from 35.5 to 59.8 HRF due to the residual stresses generated by fast cooling. Aging at 250 °C for 30, 60, and 120 min was found to cause a decrease in hardness from 59.8 to 45.1 HRF, whereas the specimens aged for 300 and 1440 min show an increase in hardness from 45.1 to 75.7 HRF. The values of porosity calculated from XRD patterns of the alloy specimens referred to show that porosity varies with aging time in a manner opposite to that of hardness, e.g., porosity is maximum for 120 min aging time where hardness is minimum.

  1. Microstructural and Mechanical Property Changes in the Ta-base T-111 Alloy with Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J; Busby, Jeremy T; Zinkle, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    The microstructural changes occurring in the Ta-base T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) alloy following 1100 h of aging at 1098, 1248 and 1398 K under inert atmosphere and its influence on the mechanical properties are reported. Microstructural evaluations were performed by optical, scanning electron microscopy and, for the first time, transmission electron microscopy. Electrical resistivity, hardness and tensile properties are compared between the as-annealed and aged samples. An increase in the amount of grain boundary precipitation with increasing aging temperature was found to decrease the electrical resistivity and material strength, leading to the eventual embrittlement of the alloy following aging at 1398 K.

  2. Electron emission from nickel-alloy surfaces in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manda, M.; Jacobson, D.

    1978-01-01

    The cesiated electron emission was measured for three candidate electrodes for use as collectors in thermionic converters. Nickel, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy were tested with a 412 K cesium reservoir. Peak emission from the alloys was found to be comparable to that from pure nickel. Both the Inconel and the Hastelloy samples had work functions of 1.64 eV at peak emission. The minimum work functions were estimated to be 1.37 eV at a probe temperature of 750 K for Inconel and 1.40 eV for Hastelloy at 665 K. The bare work function for both alloys is estimated to be approximately the same as for pure nickel, 4.8 eV.

  3. Advanced oxide dispersion strengthened sheet alloys for improved combustor durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henricks, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Burner design modifications that will take advantage of the improved creep and cyclic oxidation resistance of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys while accommodating the reduced fatigue properties of these materials were evaluated based on preliminary analysis and life predictions, on construction and repair feasibility, and on maintenance and direct operating costs. Two designs - the film cooled, segmented louver and the transpiration cooled, segmented twin Wall - were selected for low cycle fatigue (LCF) component testing. Detailed thermal and structural analysis of these designs established the strain range and temprature at critical locations resulting in predicted lives of 10,000 cycles for MA 956 alloy. The ODs alloys, MA 956 and HDA 8077, demonstrated a 167 C (300 F) temperature advantage over Hastelloy X alloy in creep strength and oxidation resistance. The MA 956 alloy was selected for mechanical property and component test evaluations. The MA 956 alloy was superior to Hastelloy X in LCF component testing of the film cooled, segmented louver design.

  4. Influence of homogenization and artificial aging heat treatments on corrosion behavior of Mg-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Beldjoudi, T.; Fiaud, C.; Robbiola, L. . Lab. d'Etudes de la Corrosion)

    1993-09-01

    The influence of heat treatment on corrosion behavior of magnesium-aluminum (Mg-9Al) alloys was investigated by studying the electrochemical properties of Mg-9Al in the solution-treated (T4) and artificially aged (T6) conditions. The alloys' properties were compared to those of pure Mg, the intermetallic Mg[sub 17]Al[sub 12] phase, and different Mg-Al-based alloys (Mg-3Al, AZ91). The Mg-9Al alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in the T6 condition than in the T4 condition because of the intermetallic Mg[sub 17]Al[sub 12] precipitates present n the T6 alloy. The mechanism responsible for this behavior was attributed to a more protective porous film on the T6 matrix alloy than on the T4 alloy. Addition of zinc did not modify these results. Localized corrosion testing showed the Mg-Al alloys were attacked preferentially in relation to magnesium silicide (Mg[sub 2]Si) precipitates which were characterized clearly using metallurgical examinations.

  5. Effect of Aging Treatments on the Mechanical and Corrosive Behaviors of Spray-Formed 7075 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui-ming; Qu, Ying-dong; Li, Rong-de

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical properties, microstructure, exfoliation corrosion (EXCO), and intergranular corrosion (IGC) behaviors of the spray-formed 7075 aluminum alloy after T6, T73, retrogression (R), and re-aging (RRA) treatment, respectively, were studied by using tensile tester, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the T6 process can increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) up to 760 MPa, while it decreases the elongation, the EXCO, and the IGC resistance of the alloy. The T73 process can improve elongation, the EXCO, and the IGC resistance of the alloy. The corrosion resistance of the alloy can also be improved by R and RRA processes with retrogression times increase. The tiny precipitated phases distributed homogeneously in the matrix can increase the UTS. The close-connected discrete grain boundary phases (GBP) and the narrow precipitate free zones (PFZ) will lower the elongation, the EXCO, and the IGC resistance of the alloy. Contrarily, the discrete GBP and wide PFZ can improve the elongation, the EXCO, and the IGC resistance of the alloy. The EXCO and the IGC behaviors for the spray-formed 7075 alloy after different aging treatments have been established according to the standards of ASTM G34-2001 (2007) and ASTM G110-1992 (2009).

  6. Precipitation in a rapidly solidified and aged Ni-Al-Mo alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, P.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1987-01-01

    The early stages of decomposition of a highly supersaturated nickel-base alloy have been studied using TEM, SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The material was produced as a metastable solid solution by chill-block melt-spinning. On aging, the material exhibited a number of decomposition products appearing in series or concomitantly. Some of the decomposition products of this alloy, Ni4Mo, Ni3Mo, and Ni2Mo, are related to those found in Ni-Mo binary alloys. Alpha-Mo formed during solidification was distinguished from that formed by precipitation in the solid state by orientation relationships.

  7. Effect of Aging on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerenciler, H.; Gündüz, S.; Erden, M. Akif; Türkmen, M.; Karabulut, H.

    2016-07-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy AZ31 are studied after conventional and deformation aging under conditions corresponding to the thermal cycle of polymerization in paint coating of cars. The aging is conducted after 3-h solution treatment at 400°C, water quenching, and aging at 180°C for from 10 min to 6 h. Some of the specimens are deformed by 0.5% right after the solution treatment and then aged by the same regime.

  8. Precipitation Reactions in Age-Hardenable Alloys During Laser Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Wu, Liang; Lu, Lin; Risse, Jeroen; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-03-01

    We describe and study the thermal profiles experienced by various age-hardenable alloys during laser additive manufacturing (LAM), employing two different manufacturing techniques: selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Using scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we reveal at which stages during the manufacturing process desired and undesired precipitation reactions can occur in age-hardenable alloys. Using examples from a maraging steel, a nickel-base superalloy and a scandium-containing aluminium alloy, we demonstrate that precipitation can already occur during the production of the powders used as starting material, during the deposition of material (i.e. during solidification and subsequent cooling), during the intrinsic heat treatment effected by LAM (i.e. in the heat affected zones) and, naturally, during an ageing post-heat treatment. These examples demonstrate the importance of understanding and controlling the thermal profile during the entire additive manufacturing cycle of age-hardenable materials including powder synthesis.

  9. Age-hardening of grid alloys and its effect on battery manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillian, Warren F.; Rice, David M.

    The age-hardening behaviour of three generic classes of lead—antimony grid alloys commonly used in the lead/acid battery manufacturing industry were studied. The effects on age-hardening behaviour of several heat treatments devised to simulate downstream processing of battery grids in the manufacturing process were investigated together with the effect of varying cooling rate following casting. Rapid cooling (water quenching) resulted in a general acceleration and enhancement of the age-hardening behaviour of all alloys, whilst heat treatment following casting generally gave rise to a reduction in peak hardness.

  10. HRTEM and HAADF-STEM of precipitates at peak ageing of cast A319 aluminium alloy.

    PubMed

    Wiengmoon, Amporn; Pearce, John T H; Chairuangsri, Torranin; Isoda, Seiji; Saito, Hikaru; Kurata, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) were applied to investigate the precipitates formed during age hardening at 170±5°C for up to 48h of cast A319 aluminium alloy (Al-4.93wt%Si-3.47wt%Cu). The precipitates at the peak-aged condition have been identified as mainly θ" together with a smaller amount of θ'. It is proposed that the θ" is responsible for hardening at peak ageing at 170°C of the cast A319 aluminium alloy.

  11. Phase composition of heat-resisting alloy modified by ageing and alloyed by rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneva, Nina; Nikonenko, Elena; Popova, Natalya; Gibert, Ivan; Kozlov, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations of the structure of Ni-Al-Cr-based superalloy which is obtained by directional crystallization technique. The structural TEM investigations are carried out in two stages: 1) annealing at 1150°C for 1 h and 2) annealing at 1100°C for 480 h. The qualitative and quantitative analysis is given for the structure, phase composition and morphology of heat-resisting alloy additionally alloyed by rhenium Re both in the original state and after thermal treatment. The heat-resisting alloy comprises ˜70 at % Ni, ˜17 at % Al and ˜5 at % Cr. The total amount of the primary alloying elements of Mo, W, Ta, Ti, Co, La was ˜7 at % and 0.4 at % Re. It is shown that the structure of the superalloy is represented by (γ + γ')-phase mixture which has a morphologically correct crystallographic orientation and quasi-monocrystalline structure. σ-phase is formed in this superalloy due to rhenium. Since Re distribution in the alloy is not uniform, only a part of (γ + γ')-phase quasi-cuboids is distorted. It is shown that Re modification distorts the ideal structure of (γ + γ')-phase quasi-cuboids and results in the formation of β-, χ-and σ-phases.

  12. Effect of Pre-aging on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Spray-formed 7075 Alloy in Retrogression and Re-aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rui-ming; Qu, Ying-dong; You, Jun-hua; de Li, Rong-

    2015-11-01

    The effects of pre-aging in retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of spray-formed 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated by tensile test, slow strain rate test, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that the under aging (120 °C for 16 h) as the pre-aging in RRA treatment can vastly improve the mechanical properties and the SCC resistance of the alloy, compared with early aging (120 °C for 8 h), peak aging (120 °C for 24 h), and over aging (120 °C for 32 h) treatments, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy is 782 MPa, which is higher than that for peak aging or conventional RRA treatment; and the SCC resistance of the alloy is also excellent after RRA with under aging as pre-aging.

  13. Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Hastelloy-X tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumto, K. H.; Colantino, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Seamless Hastelloy-X tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1400 to 1650 F and internal helium pressures from 800 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 58 to 3600 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was from 20 to 40 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

  14. Characterization of prior cold worked and age hardened Cu-3Ti-1Cd alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Markandeya, R. . E-mail: marksravvala@yahoo.co.in; Nagarjuna, S.; Sarma, D.S.

    2005-05-15

    The influence of cold deformation by 50%, 75% and 90% on the age-hardening behavior of a Cu-3Ti-1Cd alloy has been investigated by hardness, tensile tests and light optical as well as transmission electron microscopy. The hardness of Cu-3Ti-1Cd alloy increased from 111 Hv in the solution-treated condition to 355 Hv in 90% cold worked and peak aged condition. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of Cu-3Ti-1Cd alloy reached maxima of 922 MPa and 1035 MPa, respectively, on 90% deformation and peak aging. The microstructure of the deformed alloy exhibited elongated grains and deformation bands. The maximum strength on peak aging was brought about by the precipitation of ordered, metastable, coherent {beta}' Cu{sub 4}Ti phase, in addition to high dislocation density and deformation twins. Both the hardness and the strength of the alloy decreased on overaging due to the development of the incoherent equilibrium phase {beta} Cu{sub 3}Ti in a cellular structure form. However, the morphology of the discontinuous precipitation was changed to globular form at high deformation levels.

  15. Study of ultrasonic attenuation on aging precipitation in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreón, Héctor; Dueñas, Antonio; Ruiz, Alberto; Barrera, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different microstructures was investigated by means of ultrasonic attenuation measurements. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures were obtaining by heat treating a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These two microstructures were over-aged at 545°C at different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the ultrasonic attenuation, the heat treated samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. Based on the theory of ultrasonic attenuation in a solid media, the mechanisms of ultrasonic attenuation in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with different microstructures were analyzed. It was found that in both cases with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures, the ultrasonic attenuation increased with frequency. After aging, the ultrasonic attenuation was mainly attributed to the scattering loss which included the stochastic and the Rayleigh scattering due to the interaction between the ultrasonic wave and the material microstructure.

  16. YIELD STRENGTH PREDICTION FOR RAPID AGE-HARDENING HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    A constitutive model has been developed to predict the yield strength aging curves for aluminum casting alloys during non-isothermal age-hardening processes. The model provides the specific relationship between the process variables and yield strength. Several aging heat treatment scenarios have been investigated using the proposed model, including two-step aging recipes. Two-step aging heat treatments involve a low temperature regime to promote nucleation of secondary phases and a second step at higher temperature for the growth of the secondary phases. The predicted results show that yield strength of approximately 300MPa might be obtained in shorter aging time, of approximately 30 minutes. Thus, better mechanical properties can be obtained by optimizing the time-temperature schedules for the precipitation hardening process of heat treatable aluminum alloys.

  17. Age hardening and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy modified by praseodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yingying; Jiang, Qichuan

    2013-12-15

    The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the θ′ precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the Al–Cu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modified alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: • Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the Al–Cu alloy. • Pr addition facilitates the formation of the θ′ precipitates. • Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the Al–Cu alloy.

  18. Environmentally assisted cracking behavior of peak-aged 7010 aluminum alloy containing scandium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Raja, V. S.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Schmuki, P.

    2005-11-01

    The 7010 Al alloy with and without addition of 0.25 wt pct Sc in peak-aged condition was examined for its environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) behavior. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) per ASTM standard G129-00 was employed to investigate EAC. The base 7010 Al alloy showed 10 pct elongation, 9.9 pct reduction in area, and 561 MPa ultimate tensile strength (UTS), when tested in air. The ductility of the base alloy dropped to 3 and 3.3 pct in terms of elongation and reduction in area, respectively, when tested in 3.5 pct NaCl solution, showing its high susceptibility to EAC. On the other hand, the 0.25 wt pct Sc containing alloy showed a significant improvement in ductility not only in air but also in 3.5 pct NaCl solution, without any loss in the UTS. Thus, the 0.25 wt pct Sc containing alloy exhibited 13.4 pct elongation, 15.8 pct reduction in area, and 560 MPa UTS in air and 12.5 pct elongation, 16.4 pct reduction in area and 560 MPa UTS in 3.5 pct NaCl solution. The study for the first time shows that the high resistance to EAC of 7010 alloy can be imparted even in peak-aged condition by the addition of 0.25 wt pct Sc.

  19. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg-0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300F for 24hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 2(exp 4) full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175F and 250F. The second step aging temperatures was

  20. Age Hardening Kinetics in 7xxx Type (Al-Mg-Zn) Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vevecka-Priftaj, A.; Lamani, E.; Fjerdingen, J.; Langsrud, Y.; Gjoennes, J.; Hansen, V.

    2007-04-23

    Age hardening in industrial 7xxx alloys at the temperature 100 deg. and 150 deg. C up to 144 hrs, after solid solution treatments at 450 deg. and 550 deg. C, has been followed by measurements of Vickers hardness, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of silicon on phase and kinetic of age hardening zones and precipitates has been studied. High iron and silicon content increase the number of primary particle in the alloy. Size distribution of {eta}'-precipitates has been determined.

  1. Microstructural evolution during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys in the Al-Cu-Li Ag-Mg subsystem were developed that exhibit desirable combinations of strength and ductility. These Weldalite (trademark) alloys, are unique for Al-Cu-Li alloys in that with or without a prior cold stretching operation, they obtain excellent strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. This is significant because it enables complex, near-net shape products such as forgings and super plastically formed parts to be heat treated to ultra-high strengths. On the other hand, commercial extrusions, rolled plates and sheets of other Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a cold stretching operation before artificial aging to the highest strength tempers to introduce dislocations that provide low-energy nucleation sites for strengthening precipitates such as the T(sub 1) phase. The variation in yield strength (YS) with Li content in the near-peak aged condition for these Weldalite (trademark) alloys and the associated microstructures were examined, and the results are discussed.

  2. Strengthening of Cu–Ni–Si alloy using high-pressure torsion and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungwon; Matsunaga, Hirotaka; Sauvage, Xavier; Horita, Zenji

    2014-04-01

    An age-hardenable Cu–2.9%Ni–0.6%Si alloy was subjected to high-pressure torsion. Aging behavior was investigated in terms of hardness, electrical conductivity and microstructural features. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the grain size is refined to ∼ 150 nm and the Vickers microhardness was significantly increased through the HPT processing. Aging treatment of the HPT-processed alloy led to a further increase in the hardness. Electrical conductivity is also improved with the aging treatment. It was confirmed that the simultaneous strengthening by grain refinement and fine precipitation is achieved while maintaining high electrical conductivity. Three dimensional atom probe analysis including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that nanosized precipitates having compositions of a metastable Cu{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} phase and a stable NiSi phase were formed in the Cu matrix by aging of the HPT-processed samples and these particles are responsible for the additional increase in strength after the HPT processing. - Highlights: • Grain refinement is achieved in Corson alloy the size of ∼150nm by HPT. • Aging at 300°C after HPT leads to further increase in the mechanical property. • Electrical conductivity reaches 40% IACS after aging for 100 h. • 3D-APT revealed the formation of nanosized-precipitates during aging treatment. • Simultaneous hardening in both grain refinement and precipitation is achieved.

  3. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Physical Properties of Mn53Ni23Ga22 Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, G. F.; Gao, Z. Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of isothermal aging on the physical properties of Mn53Ni25Ga22 alloy has been systematically investigated. The results showed that the (Mn,Ni)4Ga-type precipitates are observed in all isothermal aged samples. However, second phases tended to align into grains and had two preferred orientations. The martensitic transformation temperatures decreased remarkably with the increase of aging time, while structure of the alloy gradually changed from five-layer tetragonal martensite to austenite. Additionally, we found that the appropriate aging-treated alloys can significantly enhance the saturation magnetization of Mn53Ni25Ga22 alloy. However, the Curie temperatures decreased remarkably with increased aging time due to the variation of the composition of the alloy.

  4. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24s, 17s, and a17s of the duralumin type and 53s of the magnesium-silicide type.

  5. Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, Frederick C

    1941-01-01

    Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24S, 17S, and A17S of the duralumin type and 53S of the magnesium-silicide type.

  6. Characterization of Stoichiometric and Aging Effects on NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Daniel Robert

    NiTiHf ternary alloys exhibit attractive high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) properties. Material properties include moderate transformation strain, relatively high transformation temperature, stable pseudoelastic (PE) behavior, and very small irrecoverable strain during load biased tests. The addition of Hf is more attractive than Pt and Pd due to the fact that Hf has a lower cost. Four NiTiHf alloys with different chemical compositions spanning stoichiometry were used to analyze microstructure and mechanical behavior. Research will mainly be focused on the Ni-rich alloys based on that the Ni-lean alloys do not exhibit the previously mentioned HTSMA material properties. The alloys analyzed all had 20(at.)% Hf with varying Ti concentrations (29(at.)%, 29.7(at.)%, 30(at.)%, and 30.5(at.)%). All of the alloys were formed by induction melting, homogenized at 1050C for 72hrs, and then hot extruded with a diameter reduction of 7:1 at a temperature of 900C. In addition to the homogenized and extruded condition, several short-term aging cycles above 400C were completed on each of the alloys. Certain microstructure and mechanical properties are obtained when Hf is added to NiTi and a proper aging cycle is used. Results from isothermal compression tests that were executed above the austenite finish temperature determined that the Ni-rich NiTiHf alloys exhibited all the necessary properties to be considered for HTSMA applications. The test temperature range of the isothermal compression tests were chosen to characterize the transition from PE behavior to austenite plasticity and to examine the deformation behavior of the B2 phase at high temperatures. Results from compression tests showed a strengthening effect when the test temperature was increased through the PE test region. The strengthening effect is due to the yield stress and plasticity being related to the stress induced martensite that is created during the compression test executed above the austenite

  7. Effects of long-term aging on ductility of the columbium alloys C-103, Cb-1Zr, and Cb-752 and the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if aging embrittlement occurs in the columbium alloys C-103, CB-1Zr, and Cb-752 or in the molybdenum alloy Mo-TZM. Results showed that aging embrittlement does not occur in C-103, Cb-1Zr, or Mo-TZM during long-term (1000 hr) aging at temperatures in the range 700 to 1025 C. In contrast, aging embrittlement did occur in the Cb-752 alloy after similar aging at 900 C. A critical combination of the solute additions W and Zr in Cb-752 led to Zr segregation at grain boundaries during long-term aging. This segregation subsequently resulted in embrittlement as indicated by an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature from below -1960 C to about -150 C.

  8. Strain-age cracking in Rene 41 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.; Thompson, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    Weldability test determines the effects of material and process variables on the occurrence of strain-age cracking, and demonstrates effective and practical means for its reduction. Studies consist of tensile, impact, and stress-rupture tests.

  9. Aging Behavior of High-Strength Al Alloy 2618 Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Riccardo; Lemke, Jannis Nicolas; Alarcon, Adrianni Zanatta; Vedani, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    High Si-bearing Al alloys are commonly used in additive manufacturing, but they have moderate mechanical properties. New high-strength compositions are necessary to spread the use of additively manufactured Al parts for heavy-duty structural applications. This work focuses on the microstructure, mechanical behavior, and aging response of an Al alloy 2618 processed by selective laser melting. Calorimetric analysis, electron microscopy, and compression tests were performed in order to correlate the mechanical properties with the peculiar microstructure induced by laser melting and thermal treatments

  10. KINETIC STUDY OF AGING IN A URANIUM-TITANIUM EUTECTOID ALLOY USING THERMOELECTRIC POWER MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, B.; Gelbstein, Y.; Kimmel, G.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-28

    Considerable attention has been given to the study of microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of dilute U-Ti alloys. A typical procedure of heat treatment of the eutectoid uranium-titanium alloy consists of solution treatment in the {gamma} phase, obtaining of soft {alpha}{sup '} martensitic metastable structure by water quenching to room temperature and precipitation hardening by aging at 300-550 deg. C. Depending on employed temperature and time the aging results in GP zone formation through the precipitation reaction {alpha}{sup '}{yields}{alpha}+{delta}. The {delta} phase is a hexagonal U{sub 2}Ti intermetallic compound, responsible for the significant increase in the level of the micro-strain in the metastable {alpha}{sup '} matrix. Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements have recently gained a growing attention for the characterization of metallurgical properties in steels and other alloys. These measurements, which are based on the Seebeck effect, are sensitive to changes in the electronic structure of the material as result of various metallurgical processes. In the current research, TEP measurement technique was applied as a non destructive assessment technique to characterize the aging kinetics of the quenched uranium-titanium binary alloy. Good correlation has been found between measured TEP, micro-strain evolution, as obtained by using XRD, and hardness values at different heat treatment stages. A reasonable explanation of the correlation between the crystallography changes, micro-strain, TEP measurements and properties is presented.

  11. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  12. Unraveling the Age Hardening Response in U-Nb Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Hackenberg, Robert Errol; Hemphill, Geralyn M. Sewald; Forsyth, Robert Thomas; ...

    2016-11-15

    Complicating factors that have stymied understanding of uranium-niobium’s aging response are briefly reviewed, including (1) niobium inhomogeneity, (2) machining damage effects on tensile properties, (3) early-time transients of ductility increase, and (4) the variety of phase transformations. A simple Logistic-Arrhenius model was applied to predict yield and ultimate tensile strengths and tensile elongation of U-4Nb as a function of thermal age. Lastly, fits to each model yielded an apparent activation energy that was compared with phase transformation mechanisms.

  13. Effect of a prior stretch on the aging response of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a family of Al-Cu-Li alloys containing minor amounts of Ag, Mg, and Zr and having desirable combinations of strength and toughness were developed. The Weldalite (trademark) alloys exhibit a unique characteristic in that with or without a prior stretch, they obtain significant strength-ductility combinations upon natural and artificial aging. The ultra-high strength (approximately 690 MPa yield strength) in the peak-aged tempers (T6 and T8) were primarily attributed to the extremely fine T(sub 1) (Al2CuLi) or T(sub 1)-type precipitates that occur in these alloys during artificial aging, whereas the significant natural aging response observed is attributed to strengthening from delta prime (Al3Li) and GP zones. In recent work, the aging behavior of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy without a prior stretch was followed microstructurally from the T4 to the T6 condition. Commercial extrusions, rolled plates, and sheets of Al-Cu-Li alloys are typically subjected to a stretching operation before artificial aging to straighten the extrusions and, more importantly, introduce dislocations to simulate precipitation of strengthening phases such as T(sub 1) by providing relatively low-energy nucleation sites. The goals of this study are to examine the microstructure that evolves during aging of an alloy that was stretch after solution treatment and to compare the observations with those for the unstretched alloy.

  14. Nanoprecipitates and Their Strengthening Behavior in Al-Mg-Si Alloy During the Aging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Wenqing

    2017-01-01

    The different nanoprecipitates formed in a 6061 aluminum alloy during aging at 453 K (180 °C), with or without 168 hours of pre-natural aging (NA), and the age-hardening response of the alloy were investigated by atom probe tomography (APT) and hardness testing. A hardness plateau developed between 2 and 8 hours in both the artificial aging (AA) and artificial aging with pre-natural aging (NAAA) samples. The hardness of NAAA samples was lower than that of AA samples when artificially aged for the same time. A 168-hour NA led to the formation of solute atom clusters in the matrix. The NA accelerated the precipitation kinetics of the following AA. The solute atom clusters gave the highest hardness increment per unit volume fraction. The β″ precipitates were dominant in the samples at the hardness plateau. The average normalized Mg:Si ratios of the solute atom clusters and GP zones were near 1. The average Mg:Si ratio of β″ precipitates increased from 1.3 to 1.5 upon aging for 2 hours. The microstructural evolution of samples with or without NA and its influence on the strengthening effects are discussed based on the experimental results.

  15. Nanoprecipitates and Their Strengthening Behavior in Al-Mg-Si Alloy During the Aging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Wenqing

    2017-04-01

    The different nanoprecipitates formed in a 6061 aluminum alloy during aging at 453 K (180 °C), with or without 168 hours of pre-natural aging (NA), and the age-hardening response of the alloy were investigated by atom probe tomography (APT) and hardness testing. A hardness plateau developed between 2 and 8 hours in both the artificial aging (AA) and artificial aging with pre-natural aging (NAAA) samples. The hardness of NAAA samples was lower than that of AA samples when artificially aged for the same time. A 168-hour NA led to the formation of solute atom clusters in the matrix. The NA accelerated the precipitation kinetics of the following AA. The solute atom clusters gave the highest hardness increment per unit volume fraction. The β″ precipitates were dominant in the samples at the hardness plateau. The average normalized Mg:Si ratios of the solute atom clusters and GP zones were near 1. The average Mg:Si ratio of β″ precipitates increased from 1.3 to 1.5 upon aging for 2 hours. The microstructural evolution of samples with or without NA and its influence on the strengthening effects are discussed based on the experimental results.

  16. Aging and Phase Stability of Alloy 22 Welds FY05 SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, S G; El-Dasher, B; McGregor, M; Etien, R; Edgecumbe, T S; Gdowski, G; Yang, N; Headley, T; Chames, J; Yio, J L; Garcdea, A

    2005-11-23

    Evaluation of the fabrication processes involved in the manufacture of waste containers is important as these processes can have an effect on the metallurgical structure of an alloy. Since material properties such as strength, toughness, aging kinetics and corrosion resistance are all dependent on the microstructure, it is important that prototypes be built and evaluated for processing effects on the performance of the material. Of particular importance are welds, which have an as-cast microstructure with chemical segregation and precipitation of complex phases resulting from the welding process. The work presented in this report focuses on the effects of processes such as solution annealing, stress mitigation, and welding on the kinetics of precipitation and corrosion properties. For a waste package lifetime of thousands of years, it is impossible to test directly in the laboratory the behavior of Alloy 22 under expected repository conditions. The changes that may occur in these materials must be accelerated. For phase-stability studies this is achieved by accelerating the phase transformations by increasing test temperatures above those anticipated in the proposed repository. For these reasons, Alloy 22 characterization specimens are currently being aged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Aging Facilities for times from 1 hour to 20 years at temperatures ranging from 200-750 C. These data as well as the data from specimens aged at 260 C, 343 C, and 427 C for 100,000 hours at Haynes International will be used for performance confirmation.

  17. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  19. A REVIEW PAPER ON AGING EFFECTS IN ALLOY 617 FOR GEN IVNUCLEAR REACTOR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Swindeman, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    To understand the response of Alloy 617 to long-time exposure conditions and determine the supplementary data needs for structural components in Gen IV nuclear reactors, the literature of aging and aging effects in the alloy was reviewed. Most of the reviewed data were produced in connection with the international research effort supporting High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) projects in the 1970s and 1980s. Topics considered included microstructural changes, hardness, tensile properties, toughness, creep-rupture, fatigue, and crack growth. It became clear that, for the long-time, very high temperature conditions of the Gen IV reactors, a significant effort would be needed to fully understand and characterize property changes. Several topics for further research were recommended.

  20. Investigation on corrosion behavior of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt using synchrotron radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Junyi; Lu, Yanling; Li, Zhijun; Zou, Yang; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Xingtai

    2013-09-01

    Ni-based alloys have been selected as the structural materials in molten-salt reactors due to their high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, the corrosion behavior of some Ni-based superalloys including Inconel 600, Hastelloy X and Hastelloy C-276 were investigated in molten fluoride salts at 750 °C. Morphology and microstructure of corroded samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam fluorescence (μ-XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) techniques. Results from μ-XRF and SR-XRD show that the main depleted alloying element of Ni-based alloys in molten fluoride salt is Cr. In addition, the results indicate that Mo can enhance the corrosion resistance in molten FLiNaK salts. Among the above three Ni-based alloys, Hastelloy C-276 exhibits the best corrosion resistance in molten fluoride salts 750 °C. Higher-content Mo and lower-content Cr in Hastelloy C-276 alloy were responsible for the better anti-corrosive performance, compared to the other two alloys.

  1. Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright

    2013-10-01

    The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650

  2. Effect of Two-Stage Aging on Microstructure of 7075 Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    which particular microstructural characteristic is of greatest significance in the stress corrosion behavior of 7075 in a high strength condition. 2...is expected that RRA may provide less improvement in the stress corrosion behavior of 7050 than of I I 7075 . Data from these tests would allow...I v h EFFECT OF TWO-STAGE AGING ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF 7075 ALUMINUM ALLOYS RE- 627 "Final Report E April 1981 "by 7! Jonn M. Papazian OT i. Prepared

  3. Effects of alloying on aging and hardening processes of steel with 20% nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogachev, I. N.; Zvigintsev, N. V.; Maslakova, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of hardness, thermal emf, and electrical resistance were used to study the effects of Co, Mo, Ti and Al contents on aging and hardening processes in Fe 20%Ni steel. It is shown that the effects of these alloying elements differ substantially. Anomalies which arise in the temperature dependence of physical properties due to the presence of cobalt and molybdenum are reduced by the inclusion of titanium and aluminum (and vice versa).

  4. Aging and Phase Stability Studies of Alloy 22 FY08 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, S G

    2008-04-03

    This report is a compilation of work done over the past ten years in support of phase stability studies of Alloy 22 for the Yucca Mountain Project and contains information previously published, reported, and referenced. Most sections are paraphrased here for the convenience of readers. Evaluation of the fabrication processes involved in the manufacture of waste containers is important as these processes can have an effect on the metallurgical structure of an alloy. Because material properties such as strength, toughness, aging kinetics and corrosion resistance are all dependent on the microstructure, it is important that prototypes be built and evaluated for processing effects on the performance of the material. Of particular importance are welds, which have an as-cast microstructure with chemical segregation and precipitation of complex phases resulting from the welding process. The work summarized in this report contains information on the effects of fabrication processes such as solution annealing, stress mitigation, heat-to-heat variability, and welding on the kinetics of precipitation, mechanical, and corrosion properties. For a waste package lifetime of thousands of years, it is impossible to test directly in the laboratory the behavior of Alloy 22 under expected repository conditions. The changes that may occur in these materials must be accelerated. For phase stability studies, this is achieved by accelerating the phase transformations by increasing test temperatures above those anticipated in the proposed repository. For these reasons, Alloy 22 characterization specimens were aged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Aging Facilities for times from 1 hour up to 8 years at temperatures ranging from 200-750 C. These data as well as the data from specimens aged at 260 C, 343 C, and 427 C for 100,028 hours at Haynes International will be used for performance confirmation and model validation.

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement of aged and retrogressed-reaged Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, C.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    1997-04-01

    The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of Al-2.30 Li-1.24 Cu-0.80 Mg-0.12 Zr and Al-1.90 Li-1.80 Cu-1 Mg-0.09 Zr alloys in different artificial aging tempers and after retrogression and reaging (RRA) treatments has been investigated by tensile testing hydrogen precharged specimens. The influence of RRA and hydrogen charging on the dislocation structure was studied by TEM. The under-aged temper was the most susceptible while the peak-aged temper was the most resistant to HE. The RRA treatment improved the HE resistance of all the tempers. This has been attributed to the reduction in dislocation density upon retrogression and reaging. The alloy with the lower Li content exhibited improved HE resistance. Flat fractographic features near the surface of the hydrogen charged specimen have been correlated to the depth of hydrogen penetration. The formation of LiAlH{sub 4} and LiH in hydrogen charged Al-Li alloys has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The hydrogen-dislocation interaction and hydride cracking mechanisms of HE have been addressed.

  6. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 2219 Al Alloy During Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huimin; Yi, Youping; Huang, Shiquan

    2017-03-01

    Hardness and tensile properties of 2219 Al alloys were tested at various temperature (150, 165, 175 °C) and subjected to T6 temper heat treatment to identify the peak aging time at various temperature. Microstructure evolution and precipitate behavior were analyzed with transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the peak aging time is 24 h at 150 °C and does not vary down to 165 °C. When the aging temperature rise to 175 °C, the peak aging time down to 12 h. Considering the strength and elongation, the optimum aging treatment is at 165 °C for 24 h after the solution treatment at 535 °C for 1.5 h. Compared with that of only water-quenched sample, after aged at 165 °C for 24 h, the tensile strength of the 2219 Al alloy increases from 324.5 to 411.8 MPa, yield strength from 168 to 310.8 MPa, respectively. The improvement in the mechanical performance is mainly attributed to the precipitation strengthening of the GP zones, θ″ and θ' phases.

  7. Change in magnetic properties of a cold rolled and thermally aged Fe-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. G.; Ryu, K. S.; Kobayashi, S.; Takahashi, S.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in magnetic properties of a Fe-1%Cu model alloy due to a cold rolling and a thermal aging has been evaluated to simulate the radiation damage of reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plant. The thermal aging was conducted at 500 °C with different aging times in series. The hysteresis loops, magnetic Barkhausen noise (BN) and Vickers microhardness were measured for prestrained, strained, and thermal aged samples. The coercivity increased by a plastic strain and decreased by thermal aging, The BN decreased in the prestrained and strained samples but large changes were observed in the strained sample. These results were interpreted in terms of the domain wall motion signified by a change in the mean free path associated with microinternal stress and copper rich precipitates.

  8. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. This study focused on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results of these tests, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be (in order) Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of those tested for this application.

  9. The development of a ductility-based aging model for low temperature aged U-6Nb alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B

    2005-03-24

    This study focuses on the ductility evaluation of low-temperature (100 and 200 C) aged U-6Nb alloy. The objective is to develop a ductility-based aging model to improve lifetime prediction for weapon components in the stockpile environment. Literature review shows that the work hardening n-value and the strain-rate hardening mvalue are the two most important metallurgical factors for the uniform and the post-uniform (necking) ductility control, respectively. Unfortunately, both n and m values of the U-6Nb alloy are lacking. The study shows that the total ductility of U-6Nb is dominated by the uniform ductility, which deteriorates in both 100 C and 200 C aging. Further analysis shows that the uniform ductility correlates well with the work hardening n-value of the later stage deformation in which dislocation-slip is the mechanism. The kinetics of the loss of uniform ductility and the associated reduction in work-hardening n-value in low temperature aging will be used for the development of a ductility-based aging model. The necking ductility appears to be a minor but significant factor in the total ductility of U-6Nb. It does not show a clear trend due to large data scatter. The uncertain nature of necking failure may always hinder a reliable measurement of necking ductility. Consequently, a precise measurement of strain-rate hardening m-value could be a viable alternative to model the metallurgical contribution to the necking ductility. The conventional strain rate step-change method and the ABI (Automated-Ball-Indentation) test both show promising result in m-value measurement.

  10. Kinetics and Equilibrium of Age-Induced Precipitation in Cu-4 At. Pct Ti Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semboshi, Satoshi; Amano, Shintaro; Fu, Jie; Iwase, Akihiro; Takasugi, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Transformation kinetics and phase equilibrium of metastable and stable precipitates in age-hardenable Cu-4 at. pct Ti binary alloy have been investigated by monitoring the microstructural evolution during isothermal aging at temperatures between 693 K (420 °C) and 973 K (700 °C). The microstructure of the supersaturated solid solution evolves in four stages: compositional modulation due to spinodal decomposition, continuous precipitation of the needle-shaped metastable β'-Cu4Ti with a tetragonal structure, discontinuous precipitation of cellular components containing stable β-Cu4Ti lamellae with an orthorhombic structure, and eventually precipitation saturation at equilibrium. In specimens aged below 923 K (650 °C), the stable β-Cu4Ti phase is produced only due to the cellular reaction, whereas it can be also directly obtained from the intergranular needle-shaped β'-Cu4Ti precipitates in specimens aged at 973 K (700 °C). The precipitation kinetics and phase equilibrium observed for the specimens aged between 693 K (420 °C) and 973 K (700 °C) were characterized in accordance with a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram and a Cu-Ti partial phase diagram, which were utilized to determine the alloy microstructure, strength, and electrical conductivity.

  11. Kinetics and Equilibrium of Age-Induced Precipitation in Cu-4 At. Pct Ti Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semboshi, Satoshi; Amano, Shintaro; Fu, Jie; Iwase, Akihiro; Takasugi, Takayuki

    2017-03-01

    Transformation kinetics and phase equilibrium of metastable and stable precipitates in age-hardenable Cu-4 at. pct Ti binary alloy have been investigated by monitoring the microstructural evolution during isothermal aging at temperatures between 693 K (420 °C) and 973 K (700 °C). The microstructure of the supersaturated solid solution evolves in four stages: compositional modulation due to spinodal decomposition, continuous precipitation of the needle-shaped metastable β'-Cu4Ti with a tetragonal structure, discontinuous precipitation of cellular components containing stable β-Cu4Ti lamellae with an orthorhombic structure, and eventually precipitation saturation at equilibrium. In specimens aged below 923 K (650 °C), the stable β-Cu4Ti phase is produced only due to the cellular reaction, whereas it can be also directly obtained from the intergranular needle-shaped β'-Cu4Ti precipitates in specimens aged at 973 K (700 °C). The precipitation kinetics and phase equilibrium observed for the specimens aged between 693 K (420 °C) and 973 K (700 °C) were characterized in accordance with a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram and a Cu-Ti partial phase diagram, which were utilized to determine the alloy microstructure, strength, and electrical conductivity.

  12. Aging kinetics of a silicon carbide reinforced Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, C.H.J.; Raghunathan, N.; Sheppard, T.

    1994-01-01

    The aging kinetics of a composite of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder (CW67) combined with a varied volume fraction of a particulate silicon carbide were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DSC revealed that the maximum rate of precipitation of the metastable {eta}{prime} phase was substantially lower for CW67/SiC/20p than for the unreinforced alloy or CW67/SiC/10p. TEM of isothermally aged material revealed differences between the unreinforced alloy and composites in respect of precipitate size and morphology. The authors conclude that SiC additions, by dint of additional dislocations generated during quenching, can affect the aging of CW67 either by accelerating the nucleation of precipitates or by accelerating precipitate growth. The aging rate of CW67/SiC/20p was increased by accelerating both the nucleation of precipitates and growth, whereas the aging in CW67/SiC10p was enhanced by accelerating precipitate growth only.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Residual Stress in an Al-Cu Alloy Block During Quenching and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ya-Bo; Shao, Wen-Zhu; Lu, Liang-Xing; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Zhen, Liang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, residual stresses after different quenching and aging processes of Al-Cu forged blocks were investigated by numerical simulation method and experimental measurements. An iterative zone-based heat transfer calculation was coupled with the hyperbolic sine-type constitutive model to simulate the residual stress during quenching process. The simulation results were compared with experiment data using both x-ray diffraction and crack compliance methods. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental measurements with around 9-13% deviation at the largest. Residual stress reduction can be achieved by decreasing the cooling rate during quenching. Quenching in water with different temperatures of 60, 80, and 100 °C resulted in the maximum compressive residual stress reduction of approximately 28.2, 75.7, and 88.9%, respectively, in Al-Cu alloy samples. When quenched in 10, 20, and 30% PAG solution, the reduction of maximum compressive residual stress in Al-Cu alloy samples was approximately 35.1, 47.8, and 53.2%, respectively. In addition, in order to study the amount of residual stress relief after aging treatments, aging treatments at 140 and 170 °C for different times were also studied. Aging treatment used to obtain the peak-aged (T6) and overaged (T7) condition produces only about 22.5 to 34.7% reduction in residual stresses.

  14. Effects of Isothermal Aging on Microstructure Evolution, Hardness and Wear Properties of Wrought Co-Cr-Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaimanee, P.; Choungthong, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, effects of isothermal aging on phase transformation, microstructure evolution, hardness and wear resistance of the wrought Co-Cr-Mo alloy with low carbon content were investigated. Initially, temperature range of FCC to HCP phase transformation of the alloy was determined by a dilatometer test. Then, aging at the temperature of 850 °C for different holding times with subsequent water quenching was carried out. Metallography examination, x-ray diffraction analysis, microhardness test and wear test were performed for Co-Cr-Mo alloy specimens after the isothermal aging. It was found that the FCC to HCP phase transformation occurred in the temperature range between 700 and 970 °C. During the aging treatment, phase fraction of the HCP martensite increased with longer aging time. The FCC to HCP phase transformation was completed after 12 h, because very fine lamellae in different orientations thoroughly dispersed within FCC grains were observed. These lamella structures could be well correlated with formation of the HCP martensite. Small amounts of carbides were found at grain boundaries and grain intersections in the samples aged for 6 and 12 h. In addition, by longer aging time, the average grain size of the aged alloy became a little bit larger, while the hardness noticeably increased. For the examined Co-Cr-Mo alloy, higher amount of the emerged HCP martensitic phase led to the increased hardness value, but reduced friction coefficient and wear rate.

  15. Effects of Isothermal Aging on Microstructure Evolution, Hardness and Wear Properties of Wrought Co-Cr-Mo Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaimanee, P.; Choungthong, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, effects of isothermal aging on phase transformation, microstructure evolution, hardness and wear resistance of the wrought Co-Cr-Mo alloy with low carbon content were investigated. Initially, temperature range of FCC to HCP phase transformation of the alloy was determined by a dilatometer test. Then, aging at the temperature of 850 °C for different holding times with subsequent water quenching was carried out. Metallography examination, x-ray diffraction analysis, microhardness test and wear test were performed for Co-Cr-Mo alloy specimens after the isothermal aging. It was found that the FCC to HCP phase transformation occurred in the temperature range between 700 and 970 °C. During the aging treatment, phase fraction of the HCP martensite increased with longer aging time. The FCC to HCP phase transformation was completed after 12 h, because very fine lamellae in different orientations thoroughly dispersed within FCC grains were observed. These lamella structures could be well correlated with formation of the HCP martensite. Small amounts of carbides were found at grain boundaries and grain intersections in the samples aged for 6 and 12 h. In addition, by longer aging time, the average grain size of the aged alloy became a little bit larger, while the hardness noticeably increased. For the examined Co-Cr-Mo alloy, higher amount of the emerged HCP martensitic phase led to the increased hardness value, but reduced friction coefficient and wear rate.

  16. Aging effects on the fracture toughness of SiC whisker reinforced 2XXX aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnaparkhi, P. L.; Rack, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of aging (at 150 C) time on the fracture toughness behavior of a 2XXX alloy (Al-3.55Cu-1.29Mg-0.01Fe-trace Mn) reinforced with 5 vol pct F-8 SiC whiskers was investigated by measuring hardness and electrical conductivity followed by fracture toughness tests on center-cracked specimens. The ageing time-hardening response plots showed that, independent of whisker orientation, the initial rapid increase in hardness was followed by a more gradual increase, with a broad hardness peak between 32 and 128 hrs of aging. Coincident with the hardness changes, the electrical conductivity initially decreased, reached a minimum, and then increased at aging times beyond 32 hrs. Examination by SEM indicated that the initial increase in hardness and decrease in conductivity was due to the GPB zone formation, while the subsequent increase in electrical conductivity and decrease in hardness (overaging) was due to S nucleation and growth.

  17. Thermomechanical cyclic hardening behavior of Hastelloy-X. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence of thermomechanical history dependence on the cyclic hardening behavior of a representative combustor liner material Hastelloy-X is presented, along with a discussion about the relevant concept of thermomechanical path dependence. Based on the experimental results, a discussion is given on the inadequacy of formulating nonisothermal constitutive equations solely on the basis of isothermal testing. Finally, the essence of a mathematical representation of thermoviscoplasticity is presented that qualitatively accounts for the observed hereditary behavior. This is achieved by formulating the scaler evolutionary equation in an established viscoplastic theory to reflect thermomechanical path dependence. Although the necessary nonisothermal tests for further quantifying the thermoviscoplastic model have been identified, such data are not yet available.

  18. Effect of Homogenization and Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Stress-Corrosion Cracking of 7050 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Bin-Lung; Yang, Ji-Gang; Wei, Mon-Yu

    2007-08-01

    The effect of homogenization and aging treatments on the strength and the stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) resistance of the 7050 aluminum alloy has been investigated and compared with those of the same-series 7075 alloy. The recrystallized structure and the quench sensitivity are found to be significantly affected by the dispersoid distribution, depending on the homogenization conditions. The finest and densest dispersoid distribution, generated by the step-homogenization (Step-H) treatment, can effectively inhibit recrystallization to obtain the smallest fraction of recrystallized structure. Such a characteristic lowers considerably the quench sensitivity of the 7050 alloy, but it produces the reverse in the 7075 alloy. For the 7050 alloy, Step-H always exhibits the highest strength among all the aging conditions, and the proposed step-quench and aging (SQA) treatment is confirmed to achieve an optimum strength and coarsened and wide-spaced grain-boundary precipitates (GBP), which have been found to improve the resistance of the SCC by the slow-strain-rate test (SSRT). Therefore, the attainment of both optimum strength and SCC resistance is possible for the 7050 alloy via the Step-H and SQA treatment. However, such treatment is not applicable to the 7075 alloy because of its inborn high quench sensitivity.

  19. Effects of Solution and Aging Treatments on Corrosion Resistance of As-cast 60NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qiuhui; Wen, Yuhua; Wang, Gaixia; Zhang, Lanhui

    2016-12-01

    60NiTi alloy has become a competitive candidate for bearing applications due to its shape memory effect, superelasticity, high strength, hardness, excellent abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance, etc. However, the relationship between its corrosion resistance and heat treatment is not clearly understood. Therefore, we used OM, XRD, SEM and EDS to study the evolution of microstructure in as-cast, solution-treated and aged 60NiTi alloy. Besides, the potentiodynamic polarization and salt spray test were used to compare corrosion resistance of 60NiTi alloy and 316 stainless steel and to study the effect of microstructures on corrosion resistance of 60NiTi alloy. The results show that the corrosion resistance of as-cast 60NiTi alloy is comparable to that of 316 stainless steel, but the corrosion resistance of solution-treated and aged 60NiTi alloys is much superior. The significantly reduced Ni3Ti phase after the solution and aging treatments is responsible for the remarkable improvement in the corrosion resistance of as-cast 60NiTi alloy.

  20. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile and creep properties of commercially heat-treated alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a structure material widely used in elevated-temperature applications. In particular, it was extensively used in the design of the upper internal system and control rod drive line of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Its popularity is due to several excellent behavioral features, including high creep and creep-rupture strength, good oxidation resistance, and exceptional high-cycle fatigue strength. However, alloy 718 is extremely complex, and its microstructure can be significantly modified by thermal treatment. The stability of the alloy in long-term elevated-temperature service is therefore a substantial concern in any such application. This report presents tensile and creep data obtained on three heats of alloy 718 after thermal aging for up to 27,000 h from 593 to 76{degree}C. Implications of these results in terms of long-term stability of the alloy are discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Age-hardening mechanisms in a commercial dental gold alloy containing platinum and palladium.

    PubMed

    Tani, T; Udoh, K; Yasuda, K; Van Tendeloo, G; Van Landuyt, J

    1991-10-01

    The age-hardening mechanism of a commercial dental gold alloy containing platinum and palladium (in wt.%, 15 Cu, 6 Ag, 5 Pt, 3 Pd, 3 Zn, with the balance as gold) was elucidated by means of electrical resistivity, hardness tests, x-ray and electron diffraction and electron microscopy, as well as high-resolution electron microscopy. The sequence of phase transformations during isothermal aging below the critical temperature, Tc = 825 K, was described as follows: disordered solid solution alpha 0 (FCC)----metastable AuCu I' ordered phase (FCT)----metastable alpha 2 disordered phase (FCC) equilibrium AuCu I ordered phase (FCT) + equilibrium alpha 2 disordered phase (FCC). The hardening was due to the introduction of coherency strain at the interface between the AuCu I' platelet and the matrix. These ordered platelets had mutually perpendicular c-axes to compensate for the strain introduced by their tetragonality. A loss of coherency at the interface brought about softening of the alloy, i.e., over-aging.

  2. Effect of Zn additions on precipitation during aging of alloy 8090

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, R. J.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation events have been observed by TEM under two different aging conditions in three 'stretched' alloys, whose compositions are encompassed by the 8090 composition window but contain Zn additions of up to 1.07 wt pct. DSC was also used to obtain deeper insight of the precipitation-event effects obtainable through Zn content variation; it was thereby revealed that Zn is incorporated into the delta-prime phase, perhaps stabilizing it. Coarse, Zn-containing precipitates can form on the boundaries and within the interiors of the grains, when the Zn content reaches the presently investigated maximum of 1.07 wt pct.

  3. Properties of a Retrogressed and Re-Aged 7075 Aluminum Alloy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Kerlins, & B. V. Whitenson, " Electon Fractograph Hand Book ", Air Fore Materials Lab. Report No. ML-T-DR-64-418, 1965. (w) Awrosoce SN~dOO&W Metals... Engineering and Applied Sclince. Contract No. N0001 4-81 -K--0292, May, 1962. (a) J. M. Papplaon: "Effect of Two-Stage Aging on Microstructure of 7075...Method of Test for Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibilty In 7 Swries Copper Containi ng Aluminum Alloys (EXCO test). 1979 Annual Book of ASTM

  4. Structure and properties during aging of an ultra-high strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and properties of the strengthening phases formed during aging in an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy (Weldalite 049) were elulcidated, by following the development of the microstructure by means of TEM. The results of observations showed that the Weldalite 049 alloy has a series of unusual and technologically useful combinations of mechanical properties in different aging conditions, such as natural aging without prior cold work to produce high strengths, a reversion temper of lower yield strength and unusually high ductility, a room temperature reaging of the reversion temper eventually leading to the original T4 hardness, and ultrahigh-strength T6 properties.

  5. Microstructural evolution of Cu-1at% Ti alloy aged in a hydrogen atmosphere and its relation with the electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Semboshi, Satoshi; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Gemma, Ryota; Kirchheim, Reiner

    2009-04-01

    Copper alloys with titanium additions between 1 and 6at% Ti emerge currently as attractive conductive materials for electrical and electronic commercial products, since they exhibit superior mechanical and electrical properties. However, their electrical conductivity is reduced owing to the residual amount of Ti solutes in the Cu solid solution (Cu(ss)) phase. Since Cu shows only poor reactivity with hydrogen (H), while Ti exhibits high affinity to it, we were inspired by the idea that hydrogenation of Cu-Ti alloys would influence their microstructure, resulting in a significant change of their properties. In this contribution, the influence of aging under a deuterium (D(2)) atmosphere of Cu-1at% Ti alloys on their microstructure is investigated to explore the effects on the electrical conductivity. The specimens were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field ion microscopy (FIM), computer-aided field ion image tomography (cFIIT), and atom probe tomography (APT). At an early aging stage at 623K in a D(2) atmosphere of 0.08MPa, ellipsoidal alpha-Cu(4)Ti precipitates are formed in the alloy, and during subsequent aging, delta-TiD(2) is competitively nucleated instead of growth of alpha-Cu(4)Ti particles. The co-precipitation of alpha-Cu(4)Ti and delta-TiD(2) efficiently reduces the Ti concentration of Cu(ss) matrix, particularly in the later aging stages in comparison to the aging in vacuum conditions. The electrical conductivity of the alloy aged in the D(2) atmosphere increases steeply up to 48% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) after 1030h, while it saturates to approximately 20% IACS in the alloy aged in vacuum. The outstanding increase of electrical conductivity during aging in D(2) atmosphere can be basically explained by the reduction of Ti solute concentration in Cu(ss) matrix.

  6. Improved Corrosion Resistance of As-Extruded GZ51K Biomagnesium Alloy with High Mechanical Properties by Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Wang, Qian; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong; Xue, Yajun

    2016-03-01

    Effects of aging treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of the as-extruded Mg-5Gd-1Zn-0.6Zr (GZ51K, wt.%) alloy were investigated. Microstructure was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties were tested on a tensile test machine and a microhardness tester, and corrosion behavior was evaluated by mass loss and polarization tests. It is found that most of equiaxed α-Mg grains have long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) structure, and some of them have no LPSO structure. Long-elongated grains are formed in the as-extruded alloy due to partial recrystallization and disappear after being aged at 200 and 220 °C. The as-extruded alloy exhibits both high-yield strength and high ductility. The mechanical properties of the alloy are not apparently enhanced, but the corrosion resistance is significantly improved after aging treatment. Moreover, the alloy with LPSO structure presents uniform corrosion mode in simulated body fluid. The GZ51K alloy with high mechanical properties and uniform corrosion behavior is worthy to be further investigated for biomedical applications.

  7. Structure and properties during aging of an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    An Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (trademark) 049, was recently introduced as an ultra-high strength alloy (7000 MPa yield strength in artificially aged tempers) with good weldability. In addition, the alloy exhibits an extraordinary natural aging response (440 MPa yield strength (YS) in the unstretch condition) and a high ductility reversion condition which may be useful as a cold-forming temper. In contrast to other Al-Li alloys, these properties can essentially be obtained with or without a stretch or other coldworking operation prior to aging. Preliminary studies have revealed that the T4 temper (no stretch, natural age) is strengthened by a combination of GP zones and delta prime (Al3Li). The T6 temper (no stretch, aged at 180 C to peak strength) was reported to be strengthened primarily by T(sub 1) phase (Al2CuLi) with a minor presence of a theta prime like (Al2Cu) phase. On the other hand, a similar but lower solute containing alloy was reported to contain omega, (stoichiometry unknown), theta prime, and S prime in the peak strength condition. The purpose of this study is to further elucidate the strengthening phases in Weldalite (trademark) 049 in the unstretched tempers, and to follow the development of the microstructure from the T4 temper through reversion (180 C for 5 to 45 minutes) to the T6 temper.

  8. Ti-Mo alloys employed as biomaterials: effects of composition and aging heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Flavia F; Ferrandini, Peterson L; Lopes, Eder S N; Cremasco, Alessandra; Caram, Rubens

    2014-04-01

    The correlation between the composition, aging heat treatments, microstructural features and mechanical properties of β Ti alloys is of primary significance because it is the foundation for developing and improving new Ti alloys for orthopedic biomaterials. However, in the case of Ti-Mo alloys, this correlation is not fully described in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of composition and aging heat treatments on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti-Mo alloys. These alloys were solution heat-treated and water-quenched, after which their response to aging heat treatments was investigated. Their microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were evaluated, and the results allow us to conclude that stabilization of the β phase is achieved with nearly 10% Mo when a very high cooling rate is applied. Young's modulus was found to be more sensitive to phase variations than hardness. In all of the compositions, the highest hardness values were achieved by aging at 723K, which was attributed to the precipitation of α and ω phases. All of the compositions aged at 573K, 623K and 723K showed overaging within 80h.

  9. Effect of moisture on corrosion of Ni-based alloys in molten alkali fluoride FLiNaK salt environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Fan-Yi; Chang, Chi-Hung; You, Bo-Chien; Yeh, Tsung-Kuang; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the corrosion characteristics on several selected alloys at 600 and 700 °C in FLiNaK molten salts with different moisture contents. Hastelloys-N and Hastelloys-B3 exhibited better corrosion resistances, while Haynes 263 showed the poorest corrosion resistance. The mass loss of the tested alloys is primarily determined by the purity of FLiNaK salts; however, the effect of temperature becomes more important on the mass loss of the tested alloys in the non-purified FLiNaK salts. When the residual moisture is present in the FLiNaK salts, the mass losses of the tested alloys varied linearly with original Cr content plus one-third of Mo content. The results of structural characterization revealed that the tested alloys in the FLiNaK salts with higher moisture content would aggravate intergranular corrosion and pitting.

  10. Thermal aging behavior of ERNiCr-3 alloy (weld and base metal)

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; King, J.F.

    1981-08-01

    The nickel-base filler metal alloy ERNiCr-3, containing nominally 67% Ni, 20% Cr, 3% Fe, 3% Mn, and 2.5% Nb, is used widely to make welds for elevated-temperature service. To determine the effect of elevated temperature on tensile and creep-rupture properties of ERNiCr-3, weld metal specimens were thermally aged to 10,000 h at 510/sup 0/C, to 15,000 h at 566/sup 0/C, and to 1000 h at 677/sup 0/C. Wrought ERNiCr-3 was also aged at 566 and 677/sup 0/C. The 0.2% yield strength of the ERNiCr-3 weld metal increased with thermal aging time at 510 and 566/sup 0/C. The ultimate tensile strength also increased continuously with aging time at 566/sup 0/C, whereas at 510/sup 0/C, it went through a maximum (the strength of the material aged 10,000 h was less than was that aged 5000 h).

  11. Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekdim, Atef; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-04-01

    increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena.

  12. Ageing effects on structural and magnetic transformations in a Ni-Co-Mn-Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguí, C.; Cesari, E.

    Partial substitution of Ni by Co in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-Ga alloys has been found to modify the magnetic ordering of the phases, improving in this way the possibility to obtain large magnetization difference between austenite and martensite, an essential requirement to induce the martensitic transformation by application of a magnetic field. Particularly, Ni50-xCoxMnyGa50-y alloys undergo, for Co content below x = 9, structural transformation between ferromagnetic austenite and paramagnetic martensite, thus leading to enhanced magnetization difference values. The martensitic transformation temperatures as well as the martensite and austenite Curie temperatures depend on composition, but significant changes can be brought about by selected thermal treatments. In this work, the composition is chosen as Ni42Co8Mn32Ga18 in order to obtain concurrent martensitic transformation and austenite Curie temperature, and the effect of quench and subsequent ageing on the structural and magnetic transitions is studied. Aside from the monotonic transformation temperatures change, which is mostly attributed to atomic ordering taking place upon post-quench ageing, the results show the effect of the relative position of the structural and magnetic ordering reactions on the transformation entropy change.

  13. Influence of rotary swaging and subsequent age hardening on properties of EN AW 6082 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleček, L.; Palán, J.; Nacházel, J.; Dlouhý, J.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure of EN AW 6082 were investigated. The aluminium alloy was processed by combining the solution annealing, plastic deformation and artificial age hardening, respectively. The initial state of the investigated material was provided in the form of extruded rods with the diameter of 12 mm. For the solution annealing the temperature 530 °C was chosen. The plastic deformation was realized by rotary swaging at ambient temperature and the investigated material was rotary swaged from 12 to 10 mm in diameter. The effect of the age hardening temperature and time was studied at temperatures of 120 and 160 °C and times 1 - 12 hours. The impact of processing parameters on mechanical properties was assessed by tensile testing and hardness measurement. Metallographic examination was carried out by light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy using electron backscatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD).

  14. Inhibition of environmental fatigue crack propagation in age-hardenable aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Jenifer S.

    Age-hardenable aluminum alloys, such as C47A-T86 (Al-Cu-Li) and 7075-T651 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu), used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environment assisted fatigue crack propagation (EFCP) by hydrogen environment embrittlement. This research demonstrates effective inhibition of EFCP in C47A-T86 and 7075-T651 under both full immersion in aqueous chloride solution and atmospheric exposure which more accurately describes aircraft service conditions. Inhibition is attributed to the presence of a crack tip passive film reducing H production and uptake, as explained by the film rupture-hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, and can be accomplished through both addition of a passivating ion (ion-assisted inhibition) and localized-alloy corrosion creating passivating conditions (self inhibition). Addition of molybdate to both bulk chloride solution and surface chloride droplets eliminates the effect of environment on fatigue crack propagation in C47A-T86 and 7075-1651 at sufficiently low loading frequencies and high stress ratio by yielding crack growth rates equivalent to those for fatigue in ultra high vacuum. The preeminent corrosion inhibitor, chromate, has not been reported to produce such complete inhibition. Inhibition is promoted by reduced loading frequency, increased crack tip molybdate concentration, and potential at or anodic to free corrosion; each of which favors passivity. The inhibiting effect of molybdate parallels chromate, establishing molybdate as a viable chromate replacement inhibitor. The ability of molybdate to inhibit EFCP is enhanced by atmospheric exposures producing surface electrolyte droplets; crack growth rates are reduced by an order of magnitude under loading frequencies as high as 30 Hz, a frequency at which inhibition was not possible under full immersion. Al-Cu-Mg/Li alloys, including 2024-T351, are capable of self inhibition of EFCP. This behavior is attributed to localized corrosion through dealloying of anodic Al2CuMg or Al2Cu

  15. Influence of cold rolling degree and ageing treatments on the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimi, A.; Yousfi, H.; Trari, M.

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, the precipitation hardening of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys is investigated as a function of cold rolling degree, ageing time and temperature using Vickers microhardness measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that a variation in such parameters can improve the hardness and plays an important role in the precipitation hardening process. At specific ageing temperature, the large cold rolled 7075 alloy exhibits two peaks of hardness. Moreover, for both alloys, the increment of hardness during ageing decreases with increasing the cold rolling degree. While in some cases microhardness measurements give impression that the precipitation reaction is slowed down by deformation, DSC analysis indicates that the precipitation is much accelerated since only a slight deformation decreases strongly the temperatures of reactions. However, the degree of cold rolling does not play a crucial role.

  16. Effects of double aging heat treatment on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti-Nb alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, E.S.N.; Cremasco, A.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Caram, R.

    2011-07-15

    Aging heat treatment can be a good way to optimize mechanical properties, changing the microstructure, and hence, the mechanical behavior of Ti alloys. The effects of aging heat treatments on {beta}-type Ti-30Nb alloy were investigated to evaluate the kinetics of {alpha}'' {yields} {alpha} + {beta} transformation. The results obtained from differential scanning calorimetry and high-temperature X-ray diffraction experiments indicated the complete decomposition of orthorhombic {alpha}'' phase at close to 300 deg. C, followed by {alpha} phase precipitation at 470 deg. C. The aging heat treatments also enabled us to observe a transformation sequence {alpha}'' {yields} {beta} + {omega} {yields} {beta} + {omega} + {alpha}, indicating martensite decomposition and {omega} phase precipitation at 260 deg. C after 2 h, followed by {alpha} phase nucleation after heating at 400 deg. C for 1 h. The elastic modulus and Vickers hardness of Ti-30Nb alloy were found to be very sensitive to the microstructural changes caused by heat treatment. - Highlights: {yields} DSC and XRD shed light on the {alpha}'' decomposition and nucleation of {omega} and {alpha} phases. {yields} Aging allows for {alpha}''{yields}{beta} transformation and nucleation of {omega} dispersed in the {beta} matrix. {yields} During aging, {alpha}'' interplanar distances are reduced to enable {beta} phase nucleation. {yields} Mechanical behavior is dependent on the microstructure and the phases in the alloy. {yields} It is not possible to obtain high strength and low elastic modulus by applying aging.

  17. Effect of aging on structure and properties of quenched alloy based on orthorhombic titanium aluminide Ti2AlNb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadzhieva, O. G.; Illarionov, A. G.; Popov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Phase and structural transformations that occur upon the aging of a titanium alloy based on the O phase have been investigated. The formation of a special type of arrangement (zigzag or packet ensembles) of the O-phase plates that arise in the course of the β → O transformation has been detected. Using transmission electron microscopy, the multistage character of structural changes during the α2 → O transformation has been studied, and a schematic of the occurrence of the transformation has been proposed. The microdurometric characteristics of the indicated alloy that were obtained after different aging regimes have been estimated.

  18. Structure of aging Al-Li-Cu-Zr-Sc-Ag alloy after severe plastic deformation and long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaigorodova, L. I.; Rasposienko, D. Yu.; Pushin, V. G.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Smirnov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    Structural and phase transformations in commercial aging aluminum-lithium Al-1.2 Li-3.2 Cu-0.09 Zr-0.11 Sc-0.4 Ag-0.3 Mg alloy have been studied after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion (at a pressure of 4 GPa with 1, 5, and 10 revolutions of the anvil) and natural aging (roomtemperature storage) for 1 week and 2 years. It has been found that, in this case, the process of static recrystallization is achieved in the alloy, the degree of which increases with an increasing degree of deformation and time of storage.

  19. Thermal aging modeling and validation on the Mo containing Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamics of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical knowledge to understand thermal aging effect on the phase stability of Mo-containing austenitic steels, which subsequently facilitates alloy design/improvement and degradation mitigation of these materials for reactor applications. Among the intermetallic phases, Chi (χ), Laves, and Sigma (σ) are often of concern because of their tendency to cause embrittlement of the materials. The focus of this study is thermal stability of the Chi and Laves phases as they were less studied compared to the Sigma phase. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Mo containing Fe-Cr-Ni alloys was investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 C for different annealing times. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the precipitates of the intermetallic phases were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Three key findings resulted from this study. First, the Chi phase is stable at high temperature, and with decreasing temperature it transforms into the Laves phase that is stable at low temperature. Secondly, Cr, Mo, Ni are soluble in both the Chi and Laves phases, with the solubility of Mo playing a major role in the relative stability of the intermetallic phases. Thirdly, in situ transformation from Chi phase to Laves phase was directly observed, which increased the local strain field, generated dislocations in the intermetallic phases, and altered the precipitate phase orientation relationship with the austenitic matrix. The thermodynamic models that were developed and validated were then applied to evaluating the effect of Mo on the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in type 316 and NF709 stainless steels.

  20. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with

  1. The effect of trace additions of Zn on the precipitation behavior of alloy 8090 during artificial aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilmer, R. J.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect(s) of trace additions of Zn to the artificial aging behavior of alloy 8090 (Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr) was investigated in the approximate composition range 0-1 wt-pct Zn. Trace Zn additions were found to delay aging and under equivalent aging treatments (100 hrs at 160 C) the alloy without Zn and the 1.07 wt-pct Zn alloy developed delta-prime-free zones along subgrain boundaries, while the alloys of 0.21 and 0.58 wt-pct Zn did not. DSC analysis indicated that Zn was being incorporated into the delta-prime, shifting it's exotherm to higher temperatures, while having little if any effect on its associated endotherm making it unlikely that it is an artifact of a solvus shift. In the 8090 + 1.07 wt-pct Zn alloy, coarse precipitates were found to reside on subgrain boundaries and EDS indicated that they were rich in Cu and Zn. It was also noted that in the Zn containing 8090 varients, the S prime precipitates were more coarse in size than the baseline 8090.

  2. Comparative study of structure formation and mechanical behavior of age-hardened Ti–Nb–Zr and Ti–Nb–Ta shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Inaekyan, K.; Brailovski, V.; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Sheremetyev, V.

    2015-05-15

    This work sets out to study the peculiar effects of aging treatment on the structure and mechanical behavior of cold-rolled and annealed biomedical Ti–21.8Nb–6.0Zr (TNZ) and Ti–19.7Nb–5.8Ta (TNT) (at.%) shape memory alloys by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, functional fatigue and thermomechanical testing techniques. Dissimilar effects of aging treatment on the mechanical behavior of Zr- and Ta-doped alloys are explained by the differences in the ω-phase formation rate, precipitate size, fraction and distribution, and by their effect on the alloys' critical stresses and transformation temperatures. Even short-time aging of the TNZ alloy leads to its drastic embrittlement caused by “overaging”. On the contrary, during aging of the TNT alloy, formation of finely dispersed ω-phase precipitates is gradual and controllable, which makes it possible to finely adjust the TNT alloy functional properties using precipitation hardening mechanisms. To create in this alloy nanosubgrained dislocation substructure containing highly-dispersed coherent nanosized ω-phase precipitates, the following optimum thermomechanical treatment is recommended: cold rolling (true strain 0.37), followed by post-deformation annealing (600 °C, 15–30 min) and age-hardening (300 °C, 30 min) thermal treatments. It is shown that in TNT alloy, pre-transition diffraction effects (diffuse reflections) can “mask” the β-phase substructure and morphology of secondary phases. - Highlights: • TNZ alloy is characterized by much higher ω-phase precipitation rate than TNT alloy. • Difference in precipitation rates is linked to the difference in Zr and Ta diffusion mobility. • Aging of nanosubgrained TNZ alloy worsens its properties irrespective of the aging time. • Aging time of nanosubgrained TNT alloy can be optimized to improve its properties.

  3. Efficient Workflows for Curation of Heterogeneous Data Supporting Modeling of U-Nb Alloy Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Logan Timothy; Hackenberg, Robert Errol

    2016-08-31

    These are slides from a presentation summarizing a graduate research associate's summer project. The following topics are covered in these slides: data challenges in materials, aging in U-Nb Alloys, Building an Aging Model, Different Phase Trans. in U-Nb, the Challenge, Storing Materials Data, Example Data Source, Organizing Data: What is a Schema?, What does a "XML Schema" look like?, Our Data Schema: Nice and Simple, Storing Data: Materials Data Curation System (MDCS), Problem with MDCS: Slow Data Entry, Getting Literature into MDCS, Staging Data in Excel Document, Final Result: MDCS Records, Analyzing Image Data, Process for Making TTT Diagram, Bottleneck Number 1: Image Analysis, Fitting a TTP Boundary, Fitting a TTP Curve: Comparable Results, How Does it Compare to Our Data?, Image Analysis Workflow, Curating Hardness Records, Hardness Data: Two Key Decisions, Before Peak Age? - Automation, Interactive Viz, Which Transformation?, Microstructure-Informed Model, Tracking the Entire Process, General Problem with Property Models, Pinyon: Toolkit for Managing Model Creation, Tracking Individual Decisions, Jupyter: Docs and Code in One File, Hardness Analysis Workflow, Workflow for Aging Models, and conclusions.

  4. Interactions between creep, fatigue and strain aging in two refractory alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    The application of low-amplitude, high-frequency fatigue vibrations during creep testing of two strain-aging refractory alloys (molybdenum-base TZC and tantalum-base T-111) significantly reduced the creep strength of these materials. This strength reduction caused dramatic increases in both the first stage creep strain and the second stage creep rate. The magnitude of the creep rate acceleration varied directly with both frequency and A ratio (ratio of alternating to mean stress), and also varied with temperature, being greatest in the range where the strain-aging phenomenon was most prominent. It was concluded that the creep rate acceleration resulted from a negative strain rate sensitivity which is associated with the strain aging phenomenon in these materials. (A negative rate sensitivity causes flow stress to decrease with increasing strain rate, instead of increasing as in normal materials). By combining two analytical expressions which are normally used to describe creep and strain aging behavior, an expression was developed which correctly described the influence of temperature, frequency, and A ratio on the TZC creep rate acceleration.

  5. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  6. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  7. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  8. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  9. Investigation of the Dynamic Strain Aging and Mechanical Properties in Alloy-625 with Different Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arnomitra; Sharma, Garima; Tewari, R.; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2015-03-01

    Tensile tests were carried out on service exposed Alloy 625 ammonia cracker tube used at heavy water production plant to study the effect of microstructure on the serrated yielding and mechanical properties of the material. Owing to temperature gradient during service exposure, the microstructure was different in top, middle, and bottom sections of the tube. Variation of flow stress, ductility, and average work hardening were monitored with temperature. In the present work, emphasis was given on the study of serrated yielding in the service exposed Alloy 625. Detail investigations were made to study the effect of microstructure on the underlying mechanism of dynamic strain aging of the material. The study revealed that both the normal and the inverse Portevin-Le Chatelier effect (PLC) occured in the material at lower and higher temperature regime, respectively. While the normal PLC dynamics was associated with locking of dislocations by interstitial carbon atoms, the inverse one was accomplished by the dislocation pinning by substitutional Mo atoms. Further analyses identified that the basic deformation mechanism was different in middle and bottom samples as that in the top samples which was reflected in the difference in their respective activation energy and stress drop magnitude.

  10. Mechanical properties and 95 ° aging characteristics of zircon-reinforced Zn-4AI-3Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bj.; Chao, Cg.

    1996-03-01

    A process for preparing zinc alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles in Zn-4Al-3Cu (ZAS) alloy melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found that additions of zircon resulted in an increase in the sliding wear resistance and in the proportional limit in compression. The aging characteristics of the ZAS alloy have also been investigated by hardness tests, dilatometry technique, and transmission electron microscopy observations. There are two kinds of precipitates that occur during the aging process. The α-phase precipitates from the ŋ phase in the early stage of aging and the copper-rich ɛ-phase precipitates from the ŋ phase in the later stage of aging. Therefore, there are two peaks in the hardening curve caused by both a-phase and ŋ-phase precipitation. The a-phase precipitation induces the dimensional shrinkage, and the copper-rich ŋ phase precipitation results in dimensional expansion. Zircon particles existing in ZAS alloy reduce the maximum shrinkage from 353 × 10-6 for the monolith to 167 × 10-6 for the composite. Two groups of parallel a-phase plates had formed within the ŋ dendrite during aging at 95 °. The orientation relationship between the a phase and matrix was determined as [άcr1l01]ŋ//[lάrc10]a, (1120)ŋ/(lll)α.

  11. The effect of aging on the hydrogen-assisted fatigue cracking of a precipitation-hardened Al-Li-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. S.; Duquette, D. J.

    1992-05-01

    The corrosion fatigue behavior of an Al-2.5 pct Li-0.12 pct Zr alloy has been studied as a function of heat treatment by performing smooth specimen fatigue life experiments on differently aged alloys in dry air and humid nitrogen. Results indicated that aging decreased the fatigue life of the Al-Li-Zr alloy in dry air. However, exposure to water vapor reduced the fatigue resistance of the underaged (UA) alloys but increased the fatigue life of the overaged alloys (OA) alloys. Hydrogen precharging experiments (either exposure to moist air or cathodic charging in HC1 solutions) followed by fatigue testing in dry air confirmed that the UA alloys were susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and that the OA alloys were insensitive to a hydrogen effect. The experimental results suggest that the susceptibility of the Al-Li-Zr alloy to hydrogen-assisted fracture is essentially related to the effectiveness of hydrogen transport to the region ahead of the crack tip, which is controlled by the microstructure of the alloy. Environmental and aging effects which influence the fatigue characteristics of the studied alloy are discussed.

  12. Age hardening and the potential for superplasticity in a fine-grained Al-Mg-Li-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Minoru; Berbon, P.B.; Langdon, T.G.; Horita, Zenji; Nemoto, Minoru; Tsenev, N.K.; Valiev, R.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the age-hardening characteristics and the mechanical properties of an Al-5.5 pct Mg-2.2 pct Li-0.12 pct Zr alloy processed by equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing to give a very fine grain size of {approximately} 1.2 {micro}m. The results show that peak aging occurs more rapidly when the grain size is very fine, and this effect is interpreted in terms of the higher volume of precipitate-free zones in the fine-grained material. Mechanical testing demonstrates that the ECA-pressed material exhibits high strength and good ductility at room temperature compared to conventional Al alloys containing Li. Elongations of up to {approximately} 550 pct may be achieved at an elevated temperature of 603 K in the ECA-pressed condition, thereby confirming that, in this condition, the alloy may be a suitable candidate material for use in superplastic forming operations.

  13. Fatigue Crack Growth of Age-Hardened Al Alloy Under Ultrasonic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Kawagoishi, N.; Kariya, K.; Nu, Y.; Goto, M.

    An age-hardened and extruded Al alloy 7075-T6 was fatigued under both ultrasonic loading (20kHz) and rotating bending (50Hz) in the environments of controlled humidity, distilled water and oxygen gas respectively, to investigate the availability of ultrasonic fatigue test as a time-saving tool for the reliability evaluation of materials subjected to conventional frequency loading. Although fatigue strength decreased slightly at relative humidity below 60-70%, it degraded significantly when the humidity was increased beyond that level, irrespective of the loading frequency. However, the mechanisms of strength degradation involved in high humidity are quite different. Under rotating bending, fatigue strength decreased because crack growth was accelerated due to brittle fracture, whileas the decrease in fatigue strength under ultrasonic loading was caused by crack propagation transition from tensile mode to shear mode cracking.

  14. Effects of strain variations on aging response and corrosion properties of third generation Al-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Ellen E.

    Due to their high specific strength (strength/density) and specific stiffness (elastic modulus/density), Al-Li alloys are attractive alloys for structural aircraft applications. To produce contoured aircraft components from Al-Li wrought products, stretch forming prior to aging is a common manufacturing technique. The effects of different amounts of tensile straining (0-9%) on the mechanical, microstructural, and corrosion properties of two third generation Al-Li alloys (2099 and 2196) were investigated. In addition to typical characterization techniques, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), 2D micro-digital image correlation (DIC), and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) were used to examine site-specific effects of orientation, micro-strain evolution during straining, and surface potential on corrosion, respectively. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also performed to study galvanic corrosion in artificial seawater (3.5% NaCl) as it occurred in-situ. There was evidence of intergranular corrosion for 0% strain conditions, but the dominant form of corrosion was localized pitting for all specimens except Alloy 2196 strained 0%. Pitting initiated at grain boundaries and triple points. In many cases, pitting extended into particular grains and was elongated in the extrusion direction. Regions of high micro-strain preferentially corroded, and large, recrystallized grains in mostly unrecrystallized microstructures were detrimental to corrosion properties. Recommendations for improved thermomechanical processing and/or alloying to promote corrosion resistance of 2XXX series Al-Li alloys were investigated.

  15. Influence of Thermal Aging on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of C-22 Alloy Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecumbe Summers, T.S.; Rebak, R.B.; Seeley, R.R.

    2000-06-15

    The phase stability of C-22 alloy (UNS No. N06022) gas tungsten arc welds was studied by aging samples at 427, 482, 538, 593, 649, 704, and 760 C for times up to 40,000 hours. The tensile properties and the Charpy impact toughness of these samples were measured in the as-welded condition as well as after aging. The corrosion resistance was measured using standard immersion tests in acidic ferric sulfate (ASTM G 28 A) and 2.5% hydrochloric acid solutions at the boiling point. The microstructures of weld samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One weld sample (aged 40,000 hours at 427 C) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the unaged welds was dendritic with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase particles in the interdendritic regions. Long-range order was seen in the weld aged at 427 C for 40,000 hours and was assumed to also occur in other welds aged below approximately 600 C. At temperatures above about 600 C, TCP phase nucleation and growth of existing particles occurred. This precipitation occurred near the original particles presumably in regions of the highest molybdenum (Mo) segregation. Lower temperatures had little or no effect on the morphology of TCP phases. The C-22 weld samples were approximately 25% stronger but 30-40% less ductile than the base metal. Strengthening of the weld during aging occurred significantly only at 593 C for the aging times investigated. Because strengthening was not seen at higher temperatures, it was assumed to be due to ordering which has been seen in C-22 base metal at this temperature. A small amount of strengthening was seen at 427 C after 40,000 hours where ordering was just beginning. The Charpy impact toughness was reduced dramatically with aging. The time at which this reduction occurred decreased as aging temperature increased suggesting that the reduced ductility is due to the presence and growth of the brittle TCP phases. The corrosion rate of weld

  16. Phase decomposition in an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy after isothermal aging and its effect on hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hirata, Victor M. Soriano-Vargas, Orlando; Rosales-Dorantes, Hector J.; Saucedo Munoz, Maribel L.

    2011-08-15

    The phase decomposition process of an Fe-40 at.% Cr alloy was studied after isothermal aging at 475 and 500 deg. C using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, as well as hardness measurements. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations showed that the hardening behavior is associated with the formation of the nanometric coherent decomposed Cr-rich and Fe-rich phases with irregular shape and interconnected as expected for a spinodally-decomposed alloy. As the aging progressed, coherent rounded Cr-rich phase precipitates were observed in the Fe-rich phase matrix. The coarsening process of the Cr-rich phase was observed for aging times up to 750 h. Nevertheless, no decrease in hardness with time was observed because of the nanometric size of the Cr-rich phase, less than 10 nm. Aging hardening was higher at 500 deg. C because of the higher decomposition kinetics. - Research Highlights: {yields} Spinodally-decomposed phases showed an interconnected and irregular shape in aged Fe-Cr alloy. {yields} Further aging promoted the formation of nanometric coherent rounded Cr-rich precipitates. {yields} Nanometric Cr-rich phases are responsible for the age hardening. {yields} Coarsening process of these nanometric Cr-rich precipitates caused no decrease in hardness.

  17. Analysis of Magnetic Minor Hysteresis Loops in Thermally Aged and Cold-rolled Fe-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, F.; Kobayashi, S.; Murakami, T.; Takahashi, S.; Kamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron irradiation causes the formation of Cu precipitate in reactor pressure vessel steel and makes the steel susceptible to rupture. In the present study, we have examined magnetic minor hysteresis loops of Fe-1wt%Cu alloy after thermally ageing at 753 K and subsequent cold rolling to elucidate the effects of Cu precipitation on magnetic properties. Minor-loop coefficients, obtained from scaling power laws between field-dependent parameters of minor hysteresis loops, decrease with ageing time and show a local maximum around 200 min, reflecting the growth of Cu precipitates with ageing. For the alloy cold-rolled after ageing, the minor-loop properties linearly increase with reduction and show a good relationship with mechanical properties such as DBTT and hardness. These observations indicate that the analysis method using magnetic minor loops can be an useful technique of nondestructive evaluation of irradiation embrittlement and subsequent deformation hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels.

  18. Effects of Aging Treatments on the Mechanical Behavior of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Y.-K.; Tsay, L. W.; Chen, C.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of aging treatments on the mechanical properties and microstructures of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) alloy was evaluated using tensile, notched tensile, and J-integral tests. The properties for the one-step aged specimens (371 to 648 °C for 8 h) were compared with those for the two-step aged specimens (one-step aged + 426 °C/24 h). An increase in aging temperature of one-step aging resulted in increased notched tensile strength and fracture toughness of the Ti-15-3 alloy. The second-step aging at 426 °C for 24 h caused various degrees of hardening in the group of double aged specimens. Comparing to the one-step aged specimens, increased notch brittleness and decreased fracture toughness were observed in the two-step aged specimens. For the specimens subjected to aging at 648 °C, the formation of thick α layer at β grain boundaries resulted in lower tensile properties and fracture toughness. The fracture modes of the notch-brittle specimens were strongly affected by the distribution, size, and morphology of the α precipitates.

  19. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE): Project 3: Design, fabrication and evaluation of an oxide dispersion strengthened sheet alloy combustor liner, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henricks, R. J.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of wrought oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy sheet for gas turbine engine combustor applications was evaluated. Incoloy MA 956 (FeCrAl base) and Haynes Developmental Alloy (HDA) 8077 (NiCrAl base) were evaluated. Preliminary tests showed both alloys to be potentially viable combustor materials, with neither alloy exhibiting a significant advantage over the other. Both alloys demonstrated a +167C (300 F) advantage of creep and oxidation resistance with no improvement in thermal fatigue capability compared to a current generation combustor alloy (Hastelloy X). MA956 alloy was selected for further demonstration because it exhibited better manufacturing reproducibility than HDA8077. Additional property tests were conducted on MA956. To accommodate the limited thermal fatigue capability of ODS alloys, two segmented, mechanically attached, low strain ODS combustor design concepts having predicted fatigue lives or = 10,000 engine cycles were identified. One of these was a relatively conventional louvered geometry, while the other involved a transpiration cooled configuration. A series of 10,000 cycle combustor rig tests on subscale MA956 and Hastelloy X combustor components showed no cracking, thereby confirming the beneficial effect of the segmented design on thermal fatigue capability. These tests also confirmed the superior oxidation and thermal distortion resistance of the ODS alloy. A hybrid PW2037 inner burner liner containing MA956 and Hastelloy X components was designed and constructed.

  20. Fundamental Effects of Aging on Creep Properties of Solution-Treated Low-Carbon N-155 Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, D N; Freeman, J W; White, A E

    1950-01-01

    A method is developed whereby the fundamental mechanisms are investigated by which processing, heat treatment, and chemical composition control the properties of alloys at high temperatures. The method used metallographic examination -- both optical and electronic --studies of x-ray diffraction-line widths, intensities, and lattice parameters, and hardness surveys to evaluate fundamental structural conditions. Mechanical properties at high temperatures are then measured and correlated with these measured structural conditions. In accordance with this method, a study was made of the fundamental mechanism by which aging controlled the short-time creep and rupture properties of solution-treated low-carbon n-155 alloy at 1200 degrees F.

  1. Effect of Aged Microstructure on the Strength and Work Hardening Behavior of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Rajdeep; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Ghosal, P.; Nandy, T. K.; Ray, K. K.

    2015-08-01

    This investigation is aimed at revealing the deformation behavior of a β-Ti alloy, namely Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al, under various aged conditions with an emphasis on correlating the work hardening characteristics of the alloy with its corresponding microstructure. The alloy was cast, forged, hot rolled, solution treated, and aged differently to generate microstructures with varying amounts and morphologies of α- and β-phases. While microstructural characterization was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile tests were conducted to study the work hardening behavior of the alloy. One may infer from the results that the strength of the alloy deteriorates, while the elongation to failure improves with an increase in the aging temperature. The strength of the alloy depends strongly on the amount of α- and the inter-α-spacing. The work hardening behavior of the alloy aged at temperatures below 808 K (535 °C) is markedly different than those aged at higher temperatures. This characteristic behavior has been explained using the deformation signatures in the α-phase revealed by TEM examinations. A stress gradient-based model and a dislocation evolution-type model are found to satisfactorily describe the strength and the work hardening behavior of the alloy aged under different conditions.

  2. Kinetics of Static Strain Aging in Polycrystalline NiAl-based Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of yield point return have been studied in two NiAl-based alloys as a function of aging time at temperatures between 300 and 700 K. The results indicate that the upper yield stress increment, Delta sigma(sub u) (i.e., stress difference between the upper yield point and the final flow stress achieved during prestraining), in conventional purity (CP-NiAl) and in high purity carbon-doped (NiAl-C) material first increased with a t(exp 2/3) relationship before reaching a plateau. This behavior suggests that a Cottrell locking mechanism is the cause for yield points in NiAl. In addition, positive y-axis intercepts were observed in plots of Delta sigma(sub u) versus t(exp 2/3) suggesting the operation of a Snoek mechanism. Analysis according to the Cottrell Bilby model of atmosphere formation around dislocations yields an activation energy for yield point return in the range 70 to 76 kJ/mol which is comparable to the activation energy for diffusion of interstitial impurities in bcc metals. It is, thus, concluded that the kinetics of static strain aging in NiAl are controlled by the locking of dislocations by Cottrell atmospheres of carbon atoms around dislocations.

  3. Aging response and characterization of precipitates in Zr alloy Excel pressure tube material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattari, M.; Holt, R. A.; Daymond, M. R.

    2014-09-01

    Precipitation hardening in the Zr-based alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt.% Sn-0.8 wt.% Mo-0.8 wt.% Nb) was studied using hardness testing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Solution treatment at 890 °C, in the αZr + βZr region, and 980 °C, in the βZr region, followed by water-quenching and aging resulted in an increase of hardness, of up to 47% compared to the annealed material. The optimum condition for aging heat treatment was found to be 450 °C for 1-2 h. The precipitates were observed only in the transformed βZr martensitic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM showed the precipitate composition to be Zr-30 wt.% Mo-25 wt.% Nb-2 wt.% Fe. The crystal structure of the precipitates was determined to be hexagonal with a = 0.294 nm and c = 0.448 nm, i.e. c/a = 1.526.

  4. Alpha plus beta annealed and aged Ti-15 Mo alloy for high strength implant applications.

    PubMed

    Disegi, John A; Roach, Michael D; McMillan, Rod D; Shultzabarger, Brian T

    2016-07-04

    Management of femur fractures requires titanium alloy implants that provide a good combination of static strength and ductility plus sufficient high cycle fatigue strength to resist repetitive loading. A research program was initiated to determine whether aging treatments could increase the strength of alpha + beta Ti-15Mo while maintaining acceptable tensile ductility. A pilot heat treating study indicated the best combination of strength and ductility was obtained using an α + β annealing temperature of 705°C ± 10°C followed by an aging treatment of 482°C ± 10°C. EBSD data for four suppliers revealed that the alpha phase ratios ranged from 16.3% to 18.6% and the beta phase ratios ranged from 81.4% to 83.7%. Mean beta grain size diameters ranged between 1.42 and 1.78 µm. Tensile testing qualification data from four suppliers was statistically analyzed and reviewed. Minimum reproducible tensile values were established and incorporated into ASTM F2066-13 implant material standard. Cantilever fatigue testing was performed with proximal femoral nail implants that were fabricated into fully finished implant constructs. Fatigue results for 125°, 130°, and 135° implant constructs met the acceptance criteria regarding the fatigue runout load limits and failure modes that were identified. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. Monetary alloys in Iron Age Armorica (Finistère, France): The singular case of the Osismi tribe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M. F.; Abollivier, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au-Ag-Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag-Cu-Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.

  6. Effect of heterogeneous precipitation on age-hardening of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle dispersion Al-4mass% Cu composite produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, S.; Hatayama, T.; Matsugi, K.; Yanagisawa, O.

    2000-04-14

    The acceleration of aging kinetics has been frequently observed in aluminum matrix composites produced by ingot or powder metallurgy. Recently, in the mechanically alloyed (MA) Al-4mass%Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, the authors have found that the age-hardening response significantly decreases, and that considerable stable {theta} phases are formed at a very short aging time. The purposes of this study are to investigate the local precipitation behaviors, and attempt to clarify the dominant microstructural factors of the decrease in the age-harden ability and the acceleration of the age-hardening kinetics in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle dispersion Al-4mass%Cu composites produced by mechanical alloying. In order to build a basis for comparison, the age-hardening behaviors of the unreinforced matrix alloy (IM alloy), which is produced by ingot metallurgy technique, are also investigated.

  7. Effects of Aging on the Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Al - Li - Cu - Mg Alloy with Ag, Zr, Mn, and Zn Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhong-gang; Bao, Peng-li; Ma, Chao; Chen, Jie; Guo, Xuan; Li, Hua-guan; Ling, Juan

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure and the post-aging hardness of an Al - Li - Cu - Mg alloy is studied by the methods of transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests are performed. The volume fraction and the size of the particles of the δ', S and T 1 phases are shown to be dependent on the aging temperature and time. The effect of the precipitates of the δ', S and T 1 phases on the hardening of the Al - Li - Cu - Mg alloy during aging is determined.

  8. Practical handbook of stainless steels and nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, S.

    1999-07-01

    This new handbook is an up-to-date technical guide to the grades, properties, fabrication characteristics, and applications of stainless steels and nickel alloys. The individual chapters were written by industry experts and focus on the key properties and alloy characteristics important in material selection and specification as well as the practical factors that influence the development and application of these materials. The contents include: alloy grades and their welding and fabrication characteristics and their application; monel metal; iron-based and nickel-based alloys; ferritic, austenitic, superaustenitic, and martensitic stainless steels; hastelloys; alloys 20, G, and 825; AOD and new refining technology; duplex stainless steels; 6-Mo alloys; corrosion-resistant castings; specification cross-reference tables; trade names; hardness conversions; list of common abbreviations.

  9. Electron emission from nickel-alloy surfaces in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manda, M.; Jacobson, D.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental apparatus and measurement techniques are described for measuring the thermionic emission from cesium-activated materials having adequate high-temperature properties such as creep strength and corrosion resistance, which might ultimately reduce the cost of thermionic converters. The electron emission characteristics are measured for nickel, Inconel 600, and Hastelloy X probes with a 412 K cesium reservoir. It is found that the nickel alloys exhibit a peak electron emission 1.4 to 2.1 times greater than pure nickel. Both the Inconel and the Hastelloy samples have work functions of 1.64 eV at peak emission. The minimum cesiated work functions are estimated to be 1.37 eV for Inconel at a probe temperature of 750 K and 1.4 eV for Hastelloy at a probe temperature of 665 K. The bare work functions for both alloys is estimated to be about the same as for pure nickel, 4.8 eV.

  10. A replica technique for extracting precipitates from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged vanadium alloys for TEM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, K.; Iwasaki, M.

    2014-06-01

    A carbon replica technique has been developed to extract precipitates from vanadium alloys. Using this technique, precipitation phases can be extracted from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. Precipitate identification using EDS X-ray analysis and electron diffraction was facilitated. Only NaCl type of Ti(OCN) precipitate was formed in the thermal-aged V-4Cr-4Ti alloys at 600 °C for 20 h and cation sub-lattice was only occupied by Ti atoms. However, the thin plate of precipitates with NaCl type of crystallographic structure could be seen in the V-4Cr-4Ti alloys irradiated at 593 °C in the JOYO fast reactor. The precipitate contained chromium and vanadium atoms on the cation sub-lattice as well as titanium atoms. It is considered that the phase of MX type (M = Ti, V, Cr and X = O, N, C) is a metastable phase under neutron irradiation.

  11. Transmission electron microscopy study of precipitates in an artificially aged Al–12.7Si–0.7Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fang; Yu, Fuxiao; Zhao, Dazhi; Zuo, Liang

    2015-09-15

    An investigation of Al–12.7Si–0.7Mg alloy aged at 160 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C for 3 h was carried out in order to identify the precipitating phases. Regular transmission and high resolution electron microscopy (TEM and HREM) were employed for this purpose. The studies were focused on the dark spots and needle-shaped precipitates lying in (001){sub Al} plane. Based on the HREM observations, dark spots and needle-shaped precipitates have different characteristics. The results revealed that the ellipsoidal and needle-shaped precipitates along <100> direction of the matrix coexist in the alloy by tilting experiments at given aging condition. The ellipsoidal dark spot precipitates viewing along [001]{sub Al} is not cross-sectional image of needle-shaped precipitates along <001>{sub Al}. Needle-shaped precipitate is coherent with the matrix. The diffraction pattern associated with the ellipsoidal precipitates is consistent with β″ reported in literature. - Highlights: • Wrought Al–Si–Mg alloy has been investigated to identify the precipitating phases. • The ellipsoidal and needle-shaped precipitates coexist in wrought Al–Si–Mg alloy. • The needle-shaped and ellipsoidal precipitates exhibit different characteristics.

  12. Isothermal ageing at low temperatures of a smart material: A Cu-Zn-Al-Co shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Guilemany, J.M.; Fernandez, J. . Metalurgia Fisica-Ciencia de Materiales)

    1994-10-01

    Shape memory properties are found in alloys having a martensitic or [beta] structure. These structures are unstable at high and also at low aging temperatures transforming into the eutectoid phases by diffusion controlled processes. The presence of cobalt in heat-treated aluminum bronze was found to cause changes in the proportions of the equilibrium phases, increasing the [alpha] content and decreasing the fraction of the eutectoid [alpha] and [gamma]. On aging the cobalt containing alloy, thee were no structural changes until the temperature was below 350 C. At higher temperatures the martensite decomposed by two different modes. In the first mode, [alpha] phase precipitates at the grain boundaries or around CoAl(Cu) particles and the [gamma] phase is formed afterwards. The second mode of decomposition took place by a transitional [gamma][double prime] precipitation, which takes Al from the matrix, so allowing it to transform to the [gamma] phase. Little work has been carried out on systems such as Cu-Zn-Al-X, where X is a grain refining element. Authors have extensively studied the improvements of the properties of a Cu-Zn-Al-Co shape memory alloy. Calorimetric methods have also been used by the present authors to study the decomposition phenomena of this alloy. The present work is a continuation of that study to determine the hardness and structural changes brought about by the addition of Co.

  13. Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760 deg in low pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Seven candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged for 3500 hours at 760 C in argon and hydrogen. Aging degraded the tensile and creep-rupture properties. The presence of hydrogen during aging caused additional degradiation of the rupture strength in fine grain alloys. Based on current design criteria for the Mod 1 Stirling engine, N-155 and 19-9DL are considered the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760 C.

  14. Aging Characteristics of Sn-Ag Eutectic Solder Alloy with the Addition of Cu, In, and Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, M.; Kar, Abhijit; Das, S. K.; Ray, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    In the present investigation, three types of solder alloy, i.e., Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag-In, and Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn, have been prepared and joined with Cu substrate. In the reflowed condition, the joint interface is decorated with Cu6Sn5 intermetallic in all cases. During aging at 100 °C for 50 to 200 hours, Cu3Sn formation took place in the diffusion zone of the Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-In vs Cu assembly, which was not observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Aging also leads to enhancement in the width of reaction layers; however, the growth is sluggish (~134 KJ/mol) for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu transition joint. In the reflowed condition, the highest shear strength is obtained for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Increment in aging time results in decrement in shear strength of the assemblies; yet small reduction is observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. The presence of Mn in the solder alloy is responsible for the difference in microstructure of the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn solder alloy vs Cu assembly in the reflowed condition, which in turn influences the microstructure of the same after aging with respect to others.

  15. Influence of Aging Treatments on Alterations of Microstructural Features and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Prasanta Kumar; Ghosh, M. M.; Ghosh, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    7xxx series Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) alloys have higher strength in their peak-aged (T6) states compared with other age-hardenable aluminum alloys; however, the maximum strength peak-aged state is more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) which leads to catastrophic failure. The over-aged (T7) temper with 10-15% lower strength has higher resistance to SCC requiring oversized structural aerospace component applications. The medium-strength AA7017 Al-Zn-Mg weldable alloy without Cu is also prone to SCC under certain environmental conditions. In the present investigation, the SCC behaviors of an AA7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloys of different tempers have been assessed. Specific aging schedules have been adapted to an AA7017 alloy to produce various tempers, e.g., under-, peak-(T6), over-(T7), and highly over-aged tempers. Artificial aging behavior of the AA7017 alloy has been characterized by hardness, electrical conductivity measurements, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and electrochemical studies. Slow strain rate test technique was used to assess the SCC behaviors of the AA7017 alloys of under-, T6, T7, and highly over-aged tempers in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at free corrosion potential (FCP) and at applied anodic potential, as well. Results revealed that the AA7017 alloy tempers are not susceptible to SCC in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at FCP, but severely damaging to SCC at applied anodic potentials. Microstructural features, showing a non-recrystallized grain structure and the presence of discrete, widely spaced, not-interconnected η precipitates at the grain boundaries, are the contributive factors by virtue of which the alloy tempers at FCP did not exhibit SCC. However, the applied anodic potential resulted in rapid metal dissolution from the grain boundary region and led to SCC. The local anodic dissolution (LAD) is believed to be the associated SCC mechanism.

  16. Effect of Texture on Fatigue Properties of Age-Hardened Al Alloys Under Ultrasonic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsusako, Hironori; Kariya, Kohji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Wang, Qingyuan; Goto, Masahiro

    Effects of texture and loading frequency on the fatigue crack growth behavior of an extruded and a drawn Al alloys of 2017-T4 were investigated under ultrasonic loading frequency (20kHz) in the relative humidity of 25% and 85%, respectively. The extruded alloy has a marked texture of (111) orientation, but this specified orientation is not observed in the drawn alloy. Most of fatigue life was occupied by the growth life of small cracks in the both alloys regardless of humidity. In the low humidity, crack growth was retarded at about 0.3 mm in length in the both alloys. Although crack growth was accelerated by high humidity in the early growth process, there was no or little influence of humidity on the growth rate of cracks over about 0.3 mm in the both alloys. After the retardation of crack growth, fracture surfaces featured with many slip planes in the extruded alloy and many facets in the drawn one, respectively. The difference in growth mechanism between short cracks (<0.3 mm) and longer ones (>0.3 mm) was caused by the environment at crack tips due to high crack growth rate under ultrasonic loading, and that between the both alloys was related to the degree of texture.

  17. Influence of megaplastic deformation on the structure and hardness of Al-Cu-Mg alloy after aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A. N.; Radziszewska, H.; Kaczmarek, L.; Klih, M.; Brodova, I. G.; Steglinski, M.

    2016-12-01

    Methods of electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate structural and phase transformations in the aluminum alloy of grade A2024 (Al-4.5 Cu-1.37 Mg-0.61 Mn-0.07 Si-0.27 Fe-0.02 Zn-0.02 Ti (wt %)) after aging and deformation by shear under high quasi-static pressure. It has been shown that the combination of two-stage aging with megaplastic deformation leads to the refinement of the structure to a nanolevel and to strengthening of the alloy (to an increase in the microhardness to 3000 MPa). The values of true deformation at which the deformation-induced dissolution of the particles of the strengthening S phase occurs have been determined.

  18. A Comparison of the Aging Kinetics of a Cast Alumina-6061 Aluminum Composite and a Monolithic 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    PERFORM RESISTIVITY CALCULATION 49 APPENDIX E. PROGRAM TO CALCULATE KSTAR .. ........ 50 APPENDIX F. PROGRAM TO CALCUATE THERMODYNAMIC QUANTITIES...potential nucleation sites and permit the precipitate to form. The structure, still a supersaturated solid solution, not at equilibrium 2 and therefore...precipitate forms and grows. If the alloy is held at the aging temperature for a sufficient time, an equilibrium structure of primary solid solution

  19. Effect of Postweld Aging Treatment on Fatigue Behavior of Pulsed Current Welded AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Ravisankar, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the effect of postweld aging treatment on fatigue behavior of pulsed current welded AA 7075 aluminum alloy joints. AA7075 aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers, and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of AA7075 aluminum alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 10 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing multipass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt.%)) grade aluminum alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW), and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Rotary bending fatigue testing machine has been used to evaluate fatigue behavior of the welded joints. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in GTA and GMA welds. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit. Simple postweld aging treatment applied to the joints is found to be beneficial to enhance the fatigue performance of the welded joints.

  20. Age-hardening behaviour and microstructure of a silver alloy with high Cu content for dental application.

    PubMed

    Seol, Hyo-Joung; Park, Young-Gu; Hoon Kwon, Yong; Takada, Yukyo; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2005-11-01

    Age-hardening behaviour and the related microstructural changes of a silver alloy with relatively high Cu content were elucidated by means of hardness test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The microstructure of the solution-treated specimen was composed of the Ag-rich matrix, the Cu-rich particle-like structures containing Pd, and the lamellar structure of both phases. By the age-hardening heat-treatment, the Cu element began to precipitate from the Ag-rich matrix by the solubility limit, and the very fine Cu-rich precipitates became coarsened by further aging. The silver alloy with relatively high Cu content showed apparent age-hardenability. The hardness of the solution-treated specimen began to increase and reached a maximum value with increasing aging time, and then the hardness decreased gradually after maintaining the maximum value for short periods of time. The early stage of precipitation of the Cu-rich phase from the Ag-rich matrix seemed to have caused the increase in hardness. The decrease in hardness was attributed to the coarsening of the Cu-rich precipitates in the later stage of the age-hardening process.

  1. Effect of aging on the phase transformation and mechanical behavior of Ti{sub 36}Ni{sub 49}Hf{sub 15} high temperature shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, X.L.; Zheng, Y.F.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.C.

    2000-01-31

    The TiNiHf alloys are newly developed as high temperature shape memory alloys with the high transformation temperatures and with lower cost in comparison with TiNiX (X = Pd, Pt) alloys. Until now, no results about the effects of aging at high temperature (above 953K) in the TiNiHf alloys are reported. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the microstructure, transformation temperature, mechanical properties and shape memory effects (SMEs) for Ti{sub 36}Ni{sub 49}Hf{sub 15} alloy aged at 973K for different hours by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, electrical resistance-temperature measurement, bending and tensile tests.

  2. Evaluation of a Diffusion/Trapping Model for Hydrogen Ingress in High-Strength Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-14

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) PYU-1962 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a...Trapping Model for Hydrogen Ingress in High Strength Alloys (Unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Bruce G. Pound Ila. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED...overpotential for Hastelloy C-276 at charging times of 20 and 40 s ..................................... 32 15. Dependence of anodic charge on overpotential for

  3. Effect of High Temperature Aging on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys can be more resistant to corrosion than polycrystalline materials of similar compositions. However, when the amorphous alloys are exposed to high temperatures they may recrystallize (or devitrify) thus losing their resistance to corrosion. Four different types of amorphous alloys melt spun ribbon specimens were exposed to several temperatures for short periods of time. The resulting corrosion resistance was evaluated in seawater at 90 C and compared with the as-prepared ribbons. Results show that the amorphous alloys can be exposed to 600 C for 1-hr. without losing the corrosion resistance; however, when the ribbons were exposed at 800 C for 1-hr. their localized corrosion resistance decreased significantly.

  4. The Microstructural Evolution of Inconel Alloy 740 During Solution Treatment, Aging, and Exposure at 760 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, Christopher J.; Danielson, Paul E.; Jablonski, Paul D.

    2010-08-10

    In this study, the microstructural evolution of Inconel alloy 740 during solution treatment and aging was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. During double solution heat treatment, carbon is liberated from the dissolution of MC carbides during the first solution treatment at 1150 °C, and fine MC carbides are precipitated on gamma grain boundaries during the second solution treatment at 1120 °C. Due to the concurrent decrease in carbon solubility and the increase in the contribution of grain boundary diffusion at lower temperatures, the MC carbides on the gamma grain boundaries provide a localized carbon reservoir that aids in M23C6 carbide precipitation on gamma grain boundaries during exposure at 760 °C. The γ' phase, which is the key strengthening phase in alloy 740, is incorporated into the alloy microstructure during aging at 850 °C. Finally, the main source of microstructural instability observed during exposure at 760 °C was the coarsening of the γ' phase.

  5. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Damping Capacity and Mechanical Properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn Alloy

    PubMed Central

    El-Morsy, Abdel-Wahab; Farahat, Ahmed I. Z.

    2015-01-01

    The damping capacity and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy after heat treatment were investigated. The damping characteristics of un-heat-treated, solution treated, and aged Mg-6Al-1Zn specimens were determined by measuring the damping ratio and the logarithmic decrement of free vibrations of a bending beam clamped at one side. The microstructural evaluations confirmed that the β-Mg17Al12 phase was reprecipitated after aging and increased with an increase in aging time. The peak level of damping ratio and logarithmic decrement was obtained after 34 hr of aging time, over which the damping capacity declined according to increasing amount of strong pining points. PMID:25918738

  6. Structures and mechanical properties of ECAP processed 7075 AI alloy upon natural aging and T651 treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Liao, Xiaozhou; Valiev, R. Z.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2004-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) processed ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) 7075 Al alloys were treated by natural aging and T651 temper (annealed at 120 C for 48 h in Ar atmosphere), respectively. Mechanical tests showed that for the UFG sample, the natural aging resulted in the highest strength (the ultimate tensile strength is 720 MPa). In contrast, for the CG sample, the T651 treatment resulted in the higher strength (the ultimate strength is 590 MPa) than the natural aging (530 MPa). Microstructural analyses indicated that the enhanced strength of the T651 treated CG sample was mainly caused by high densities of G-P zones and metastable {eta}{prime} precipitate. The enhanced strength of the naturally aged UFG sample was mainly caused by the high densities of G-P zones and dislocations. Upon T65 1 treatment, the dislocation density of the UFG sample deceased significantly, overcompensating the precipitation strengthening.

  7. Microstructural evolution and age hardening in aluminium alloys: Atom probe field-ion microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, S.P.; Hono, K.

    2000-02-01

    This paper examines the microstructural evolution in selected aluminum alloys based on commercial age hardenable 2000, 6000, and 7000 series alloys. Atom probe field-ion microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to examine the effects of microalloying and the origins of hardening. The combined application of these techniques is particularly important in the study of nanoscale precipitation processes. It is shown that the nature and kinetics of the precipitation process depend on the solute-solute interactions that produce solute clusters. The solute clusters precede the formation of GP zones or precipitation, and have a defining role on the nature and kinetics of the subsequent precipitation processes. Moreover, interactions between solute clustering and dislocations can have a significant hardening effect, the origins of which seem to be distinctly different from the conventional notion of precipitation hardening.

  8. Creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

    1983-07-01

    Creep crack growth behavior of several high temperature alloys, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Hastelloy X, Nimonic PE-16, Incoloy 800, and Haynes 25 (HS-25) was examined at 540, 650, 760, and 870 °C. Crack growth rates were analyzed in terms of both linear elastic stress intensity factor and J*-integral parameter. Among the alloys Inconel 600 and Hastelloy X did not show any observable crack growth. Instead, they deformed at a rapid rate resulting in severe blunting of the crack tip. The other alloys, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Incoloy 800, HS-25, and PE-16 showed crack growth at one or two temperatures and deformed continuously at other temperatures. Crack growth rates of the above alloys in terms ofJ* parameter were compared with the growth rates of other alloys published in the literature. Alloys such as Inconel X-750, Alloy 718, and IN-100 show very high growth rates as a result of their sensitivity to an air environment. Based on detailed fracture surface analysis, it is proposed that creep crack growth occurs by the nucleation and growth of wedge-type cracks at triple point junctions due to grain boundary sliding or by the formation and growth of cavities at the boundaries. Crack growth in the above alloys occurs only in some critical range of strain rates or temperatures. Since the service conditions for these alloys usually fall within this critical range, knowledge and understanding of creep crack growth behavior of the structural alloys are important.

  9. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  10. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenchao; Ji, Shouxun; Huang, Lanping; Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu

    2014-08-15

    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  11. Thermal ageing and short-range ordering of Alloy 690 between 350 and 550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginot, Roman; Sarikka, Teemu; Heikkilä, Mikko; Ivanchenko, Mykola; Ehrnstén, Ulla; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo; Hänninen, Hannu

    2017-03-01

    Thermal ageing of Alloy 690 triggers an intergranular (IG) carbide precipitation and is known to promote an ordering reaction causing lattice contraction. It may affect the long-term primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance of pressurized water reactor (PWR) components. Four conditions of Alloy 690 (solution annealed, cold-rolled and/or heat-treated) were aged between 350 and 550 °C for 10 000 h and characterized. Although no direct observation of ordering was made, variations in hardness and lattice parameter were attributed to the formation of short-range ordering (SRO) in all conditions with a peak level at 420 °C, consistent with the literature. Prior heat treatment induced ordering before thermal ageing. At higher temperatures, stress relaxation, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation were observed in the cold-worked samples, while a disordering reaction was inferred in all samples based on a decrease in hardness. IG precipitation of M23C6 carbides increased with increasing ageing temperature in all conditions, as well as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM).

  12. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    SciTech Connect

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  13. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strengths of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sreekala, Laju; Narayanan, Mahesh; Eerali, Sunil M.; Eerali, Susil M.; Varghese, Joju; Zainaba Fathima, A. l.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Materials and Methods: Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface of the base metal alloy block (4 mm × 4 mm area) was veneered with corresponding veneering porcelain (Ivoclar, IPS classic, vivadent). Similarly, surface of the zirconia rectangular block (4 mm × 4 mm) was veneered with corresponding veneering ceramic (Cercon ceram kiss, Degudent). Out of forty rectangular porcelain veneered core specimen, ten porcelain veneered base metal alloy specimen and ten porcelain veneered zirconia specimen were immersed in water at 37°C for one month to simulate the oral environment. Results: On comparison, the highest shear bond strength value was obtained in porcelain veneered base metal alloy before aging group followed by porcelain veneered base metal alloy after aging group, Porcelain veneered zirconia before aging group, porcelain veneered zirconia after aging group. SEM analysis revealed predominantly cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups. Conclusion: Porcelain veneered base metal alloy samples showed highest shear bond strength than porcelain veneered zirconia samples. Study concluded that aging had an influence on shear bond strength. Shear bond strength was found to be decreasing after aging. SEM analysis revealed cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups suggestive of higher bond strength of the interface than cohesive strength of ceramic. Hence, it was concluded that veneering ceramic was the weakest link. PMID:26942121

  14. High Strength and Good Ductility in Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr Alloy by Cryo-Rolling and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. Chenna; Chawake, Niraj; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    A combination of high strength and good ductility was achieved in a precipitation hardenable Cu-3Ag-0.5Zr alloy through cryo-rolling (80% reduction in thickness) and aging in the temperature range (200-500 °C). The high-strength sheets produced by cryo-rolling showed a threefold increase in yield strength compared to that of the solution-treated and aged (220 MPa) sample, while retaining good ductility. An optimum combination of high strength (614 MPa) and ductility (8%) was achieved by 80% cryo-rolling and aging at 320 °C for 1 h. The high strength and good ductility obtained was attributed to various microstructural factors such as deformation twins, ultra-fine grains, high dislocation density and fine nano-sized silver precipitates.

  15. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  16. Friction Stir Welding of Age-Hardenable Aluminum Alloys: A Parametric Approach Using RSM Based GRA Coupled With PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, D.; Rao, V. S.

    2014-04-01

    Age-hardenable aluminum alloys, primarily used in the aerospace, automobile and marine industries (2×××, 6××× and 7×××), can be welded using solid-state welding techniques. Friction stir welding is an emerging solid-state welding technique used to join both similar and dissimilar materials. The strength of a friction stir welded joint depends on the joining process parameters. Therefore, a combination of the statistical techniques of a response surface methodology based on a grey relational analysis coupled to a principal component analysis was proposed to select the process parameters suitable for joining AA 2024 and AA 6061 aluminum alloys via friction stir welding. The significant process parameters, such as rotational speed, welding speed, axial load and pin shapes (PS) were considered during the statistical experiment. The results indicate that the square PS plays a vital role and yields an ultimate tensile strength of 141 MPa for an elongation of 12 % versus cylinder and taper pin profiles. The root cause for joint strength loss and fracture mode was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Severe material flow during macro defects, such as pin holes and porosity, degrades the joint strength by approximately 44 % for AA 2024 and 51 % for AA 6061 fabricated FS-welded aluminum alloys relative to the base material. The results of this approach are useful for accurately controlling the response and optimize the process parameters.

  17. Study of aging effects in a Ti-6AL-4V alloy with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures by non-destructive means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Santoveña, Bayron

    2014-02-01

    When the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is over-aged at 500-600°C, nanometer-sized α2 (Ti3Al) phases can be homogeneously precipitated inside α phases, thereby leading to the additional improvement of mechanical properties. The present study was concerned with the effects of over-aging on thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures containing fine &agr2 (Ti3Al) particles were obtaining by over-aging a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Over-aging heat treatments were conducted at 515°C, 545°C and 575°C for different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the TEP, the over-aging samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the aging time and temperature. It was found that the TEP measurements reveal an increase in the magnitude of the absolute TEP value of the over-aged Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures with regards to the unaged condition for different aging times, with a somewhat higher value at 515°C.

  18. Study of aging effects in a Ti-6AL-4V alloy with Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures by non-destructive means

    SciTech Connect

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Santoveña, Bayron

    2014-02-18

    When the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is over-aged at 500-600°C, nanometer-sized α{sub 2} (Ti{sub 3}Al) phases can be homogeneously precipitated inside α phases, thereby leading to the additional improvement of mechanical properties. The present study was concerned with the effects of over-aging on thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements in a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures containing fine and agr{sub 2} (Ti{sub 3}Al) particles were obtaining by over-aging a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Over-aging heat treatments were conducted at 515°C, 545°C and 575°C for different aging times. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in the TEP, the over-aging samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the aging time and temperature. It was found that the TEP measurements reveal an increase in the magnitude of the absolute TEP value of the over-aged Widmanstätten and equiaxed microstructures with regards to the unaged condition for different aging times, with a somewhat higher value at 515°C.

  19. Study of the SCC Behavior of 7075 Aluminum Alloy After One-Step Aging at 163 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, G.; Rivolta, B.; Gerosa, R.; Derudi, U.

    2013-01-01

    For the past many years, 7075 aluminum alloys have been widely used especially in those applications for which high mechanical performances are required. It is well known that the alloy in the T6 condition is characterized by the highest ultimate and yield strengths, but, at the same time, by poor stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. For this reason, in the aeronautic applications, new heat treatments have been introduced to produce T7X conditions, which are characterized by lower mechanical strength, but very good SCC behavior, when compared with the T6 condition. The aim of this study is to study the tensile properties and the SCC behavior of 7075 thick plates when submitted to a single-step aging by varying the aging times. The tests were carried out according to the standards and the data obtained from the SCC tests were analyzed quantitatively using an image analysis software. The results show that, when compared with the T7X conditions, the single-step aging performed in the laboratory can produce acceptable tensile and SCC properties.

  20. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine alloys after long-term aging at 760/sup 0/C in low-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.

    1984-05-01

    Nine candidate Stirling automotive engine alloys were aged at 760/sup 0/C for 3500 h in low pressure hydrogen or argon to determine the resulting effects on mechanical behavior. Candidate heater head tube alloys were CG-27, W545, 12RN72, INCONEL-718, and HS-188 while candidate cast cylinder-regenerator housing alloys were SA-F11, CRM-6D, XF-818, and HS-31. Aging per se is detrimental to the creep-rupture and tensile strengths of the iron-base alloys. The presence of hydrogen does not significantly contribute to strength degradation. Based on current MOD 1A Stirling engine design criteria of a 55% urban - 45% highway driving cycle; CG-27 has adequate 3500 h - 87/sup 0/C creep-rupture strength and SA-F11, CRM-6D, and XF-818 have adequate 3500 h - 775/sup 0/C creep-rupture strength.

  1. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine alloys after long-term aging at 760 deg C in low-pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine candidate Stirling automotive engine alloys were aged at 760 C for 3500 hr in low pressure hydrogen or argon to determine the resulting effects on mechanical behavior. Candidate heater head tube alloys were CG-27, W545, 12RN72, INCONEL-718, and HS-188 while candidate cast cylinder-regenerator housing alloys were SA-F11, CRM-6D, XF-818, and HS-31. Aging per se is detrimental to the creep rupture and tensile strengths of the iron base alloys. The presence of hydrogen does not significantly contribute to strength degradation. Based percent highway driving cycle; CG-27 has adequate 3500 hr - 870 C creep rupture strength and SA-Fll, CRM-6D, and XF-818 have adequate 3500 hr - 775 C creep rupture strength.

  2. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of Aging of a Mg-Y-Nd-Zr Alloy (WE43): Effects of Precipitation on Individual Deformation Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    aging of alloy AZ91 is only 5 MPa [2]. Thus, Nie’s hypothesis that basal slip would be much more potently strengthened by the prismatic-shaped plates...twinning is modest, about 20-25 MPa. This is comparable with estimates performed for alloys AZ91 [20]. The offset yield strength better correlates...literature values estimated for alloy AZ91 [20]. Microyield/ 1st (basal) ~ yield nd (tw/pr) ~ Twin initiation Solutionized 60 30 100 140 50 / 65 140

  3. Characterization of the evolution of the volume fraction of precipitates in aged AlMgSiCu alloys using DSC technique

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaeili, Shahrzad . E-mail: shahrzad@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-11-15

    Differential scanning calorimetry is used to quantify the evolution of the volume fraction of precipitates during age hardening in AlMgSiCu alloys. The calorimetry tests are run on alloy samples after aging for various times at 180 deg. C and the change in the collective heat effects from the major precipitation and dissolution processes in each run are used to determine the precipitation state of the samples. The method is implemented on alloys with various thermal histories prior to artificial aging, including commercial pre-aging histories. The estimated values for the relative volume fraction of precipitates are compared with the results from a newly developed analytical method using isothermal calorimetry and a related quantitative transmission electron microscopy work. Excellent agreement is obtained between the results from various methods.

  4. Assessment of retrogression and re-aging treatment on microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu P/M alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Tan, T. Qing; Idris, M. Sobri

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the importance of the retrogression and re-aging as a heat treatment for improving microstructural and mechanical properties of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder metallurgy alloys, Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys were fabricated from the elemental powders. Green compacts are compressed under compaction pressure about 370 MPa. The sintering process carried out for the samples of aluminum alloys at temperature was 650°C under argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts were subjected into homogenizing condition at 470°C for 1.5 hours and then aged at 120°C for 24 hours (T6 temper) after that it carried out the retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min., and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours (RRA). Observations microstructures were examined using optical, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Density and porosity content was conducted for the samples of alloys. The result showing that the highest Vickers hardness exhibited for an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after underwent the retrogression and reaging treatment. Increasing in hardness was because of the precipitation hardening through precipitate the (Mg Zn) and (Mg2Zn11) phases during matrix of aluminum-alloy.

  5. Assessment of retrogression and re-aging treatment on microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu P/M alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Tan, T. Qing; Idris, M. Sobri

    2015-05-15

    In order to understand the importance of the retrogression and re-aging as a heat treatment for improving microstructural and mechanical properties of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder metallurgy alloys, Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys were fabricated from the elemental powders. Green compacts are compressed under compaction pressure about 370 MPa. The sintering process carried out for the samples of aluminum alloys at temperature was 650°C under argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts were subjected into homogenizing condition at 470°C for 1.5 hours and then aged at 120°C for 24 hours (T6 temper) after that it carried out the retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min., and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours (RRA). Observations microstructures were examined using optical, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Density and porosity content was conducted for the samples of alloys. The result showing that the highest Vickers hardness exhibited for an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after underwent the retrogression and reaging treatment. Increasing in hardness was because of the precipitation hardening through precipitate the (Mg Zn) and (Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 11}) phases during matrix of aluminum-alloy.

  6. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  7. Artificial Aging Effects on Cryogenic Fracture Toughness of the Main Structural Alloy for the Super Lightweight Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. S.; Stanton, W. P.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, Marshall Space Flight Center developed a multistep heating rate-controlled (MSRC) aging technique that significantly enhanced cryogenic fracture toughness (CFT) and reduced the statistical spread of fracture toughness values in alloy 2195 by controlling the location and size of strengthening precipitate T1. However, it could not be readily applied to flight-related hardware production, primarily because large-scale production furnaces are unable to maintain a heating rate of 0.6 C (1 F)/hr. In August 1996, a new program was initiated to determine whether the MSRC aging treatment could be further modified to facilitate its implementation to flight hardware production. It was successfully redesigned into a simplified two-step aging treatment consisting of 132 C (270 F)/20 hr + 138 C (280 F)/40 hr. Results indicated that two-step aging can achieve the same yield strength levels as those produced by conventional aging while providing greatly improved ductility. Two-step aging proved to be very effective at enhancing CFT, enabling previously rejected materials to meet simulated service requirements. Cryogenic properties are improved by controlling T1 nucleation and growth so that they are promoted in the matrix and suppressed in the subgrain boundaries.

  8. Prediction of hardness minimum locations during natural aging in an aluminum alloy 6061-T6 friction stir weld

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Choo, Hahn; Feng, Zhili; Withers, Prof Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a simple model that can predict the evolution of hardness distribution as a function of natural aging time in a heat-treatable 6061-T6 Al alloy plate subjected to friction stir welding (FSW). First, two dimensional thermal distributions were simulated as a function of time in the FSW plate by finite element modeling. Second, the hardness changes during natural aging were measured as a function of aging time for a number of Al specimens that had been previously isothermally heat-treated to different hold temperatures in order to determine the natural aging kinetics. Finally, the simulated temperature profiles and the natural aging kinetics were correlated to predict the hardness profiles in the FSW plate. The predicted hardness variations are consistent with measured hardness profiles in that the location of minimum hardness moves away from the centerline as the aging time and/or heat input increases. The hardness variation was also related to the location of failure in cross-weld tensile samples.

  9. Detection of Mg17Al12 precipitates in deformed thermal-aged AZ91 alloy by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Y.; Del Río, J.

    2004-02-01

    Positron-annihilation lifetime measurements are used to study the influence of Mg17Al12 precipitates in mechanical properties of deformed magnesium alloys containing 9 wt% Al and 1wt% Zn. Deformations are performed at room temperature on untreated and thermal-aged samples, and the response of the positron lifetime to the deformation degree is studied. Measurements reveal that changes in the average positron lifetime are very small on both samples. The slight increase of positron lifetime in deformed samples, seems to be related with the unfavourable orientation of Mg17Al12 precipitates in the magnesium matrix to produce work hardening, as it has shown by other authors through TEM observations. Further isothermal annealing experiments, on samples that are previously deformed, illustrate almost a complete recovery of the positron lifetime on untreated samples at 375 K and on age-hardened samples at 433 K.

  10. EXAFS study on solute precipitation in FeCu alloy induced by energetic electron bombardments and thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Y.; Yoshizaki, H.; Nakagawa, Shou; Okamoto, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Saitoh, Y.; Hori, F.; Iwase, A.

    2015-07-01

    The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement is a useful tool for the observation of local atomic arrangements around selected atoms. We performed EXAFS measurements for the electron-irradiated and the thermally-aged Fe-0.6 wt.% Cu alloy and compared the experimental result with that of the simulation by the FEFF simulation code in order to investigate the local atomic structure around Cu atoms. Cu precipitates which were produced by the thermal aging at 773 K transformed from the bcc structure to the fcc structure as the precipitates grow large enough. However, for electron-irradiated specimens, although the hardness greatly increased, the transformation of Cu precipitates from the bcc to the fcc structure was not clearly confirmed. This result indicates that small sized Cu precipitates which had the bcc structure were produced by the electron irradiation and they could hardly coarsen during the irradiation.

  11. Evolution of the Structural-Phase State of a VT22 Titanium Alloy During Helical Rolling and Subsequent Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenkin, E. V.; Ratochka, I. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Lykova, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of the structural-phase state of a VT22 transition titanium alloy (Ti-4.74Al-5.57Mo-5.04V-0.81Cr-0.98Fe in wt.%) subjected to helical rolling and subsequent aging is investigated. The rolling in the temperature range 1123-1023 K is shown to give rise to ultrafine-grained-subgrained structure characterized by an element size of 0.5 μm, increased amount of the β-phase (more than twice as large as that found in the initial state), and α-phase fine particles of size ~0.3 μm. Subsequent annealing (aging) at 723 K causes decomposition of the as-rolled strained β-phase, reduction in its volume fraction, and formation of nanosized plates of Mo supersaturated solid solution of the β1 phase and martensitic α" phase.

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of metal alloys in the space transportation system launch environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz

    1990-01-01

    AC impedance measurements were performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of 18 alloys under conditions similar to the Space Transportation System (STS) launch environment. The alloys were: (1) zirconium 702; (2) Hastelloy C-22, C-276, C-4, and B-2; (3) Inconel 600 and 825; (4) Ferralium 255; (5) Inco Alloy G-3; (6) 20Cb-3; (7) SS 904L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 304L; (8) ES 2205; and (9) Monel 400. AC impedance data were gathered for each alloy at various immersion times in 3.55 percent NaCl-0.1N HCl. Polarization resistance values were obtained for the Nyguist plots at each immersion time using the EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT software package available with the 388 electrochemical impedance software. Hastelloy C-22 showed the highest overall values for polarization resistance while Monel 400 and Inconel 600 had the lowest overall values. There was good general correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys at the beach corrosion testing site, and the expected rate of corrosion as predicted based on the polarization resistance values obtained. The data indicate that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to predict the corrosion performance of metal alloys.

  13. Dependence of Microstructure on Solution and Aging Treatment for Near-β Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhichao; Wu, Huili; Ma, Xiaoyong; Mao, Xiaojun; Yang, He

    2016-10-01

    For TA15 Ti-alloy, a tri-modal microstructure was obtained via near-β forging combined with solution and aging treatment (SAT) with a short time of air cooling (AC) during forgings transferring before water quenching (WQ). The influence of SAT conditions on final microstructures via 970 °C/0.1 s-1/60%/(AC + WQ) and SAT was investigated. Solution temperature determined the proportion of α and β phases and mainly affected the volume fraction of secondary lamellar α. Solution time mainly influenced the morphology of secondary lamellar α. Solution cooling method was the main factor affecting the thickness of lamellar α. Lower cooling rate resulted in more and thicker lamellar α. Aging treatment had little influence on the volume fraction, size, and morphology of each phase in the microstructure. The main function of aging treatment was to homogenize and stabilize the microstructure. The volume fraction and thickness of lamellar α were increased, and the distribution homogeneity became better during aging. Under the given forging condition, the reasonable solution and aging conditions to obtain tri-modal microstructure were determined as 930 °C/1~2 h/AC + 550~600 °C/5 h/AC.

  14. Transformation relaxation and aging in a CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.G.

    1998-11-01

    The reverse martensitic transformation and aging processes in a polycrystalline Cu-23.52 at. pct Zn-9.65 at. pct Al shape-memory alloy have been studied using the recently developed modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) technique, and some new findings are obtained. By separating the nonreversing heat flow from the reversing heat flow, MDSC can better characterize the thermodynamic, kinetic, and hysteretic feature of thermoelastic martensitic transformations. Two kinds of exothermal relaxation peaks have been identified and separated from the endothermal reverse martensitic transformations: one is associated with the movement of twin interfaces or martensite-parent interfaces, and another is due to the atomic reordering in the parent phase via a vacancy mechanism. The martensite aging processes have been examined, and two stages of the aging process has been distinguished: the first stage of aging is characterized by the stabilization of martensite, as manifested in the increase in the reversing enthalpy of the reverse martensitic transformation and in the transformation temperatures, and the second stage, is in fact, the decomposition of the martensite on prolonged aging, accompanied by a decrease in the transformation enthalpy. The results suggest that the mechanisms of the relaxation in the martensite and in the parent phase may be quite different.

  15. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  16. Structure and mechanical properties of aging Al-Li-Cu-Zr-Sc-Ag alloy after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaigorodova, L. I.; Rasposienko, D. Yu.; Pushin, V. G.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Smirnov, S. V.

    2015-04-01

    The structural and phase transformations have been studied in aging commercial aluminum-lithium alloy Al-1.2 Li-3.2 Cu-0.09 Zr-0.11 Sc-0.4 Ag-0.3 Mg in the as-delivered state and after severe plastic deformation by torsion for 1, 5 and 10 revolutions under a high pressure of 4 GPa. Deformation-induced nanofragmentation and dynamic recrystallization have been found to occur in the alloy. The degree of recrystallization increases with deformation. Nanofragmentation and recrystallization processes are accompanied by the deformation-induced decomposition of solid solution and changes in both the nucleation mechanism of precipitation and the phase composition of the alloy. The influence of a nanostructured nanophase state of the alloy on its mechanical properties (microhardness, plasticity, elastic modulus, and stiffness) is discussed.

  17. Comparative study on microstructure and martensitic transformation of aged Ni-rich NiTi and NiTiCo shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bagoury, Nader

    2016-05-01

    In this article the influence of aging heat treatment conditions of 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C for 3 h on the microstructure, martensitic transformation temperatures and mechanical properties of Ni51Ti49Co0 and Ni47 Ti49Co4 shape memory alloys was investigated. This comparative study was carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter and Vickers hardness tester. The results show that the microstructure of both aged alloys contains martensite phase and Ti2Ni in addition to some other precipitates. The martensitic transformation temperature was increased steadily by increasing the ageing temperature and lowering the value of valence electron number (ev/a) and concentration. Moreover, the hardness measurements were gradually increased at first by increasing the aging temperature from 250 to 350 °C. Further elevating in aging temperature to 450 and 550 °C decreases the hardness value.

  18. Evolution of the microstructure and hardness of a rapidly solidified/melt-spun AZ91 alloy upon aging at different temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Baishu; Liu Yongbing; An Jian; Li Rongguang; Su Zhenguo; Su Guihua; Lu You; Cao Zhanyi

    2009-04-15

    The effect of aging at different temperatures on a rapidly solidified/melt-spun AZ91 alloy has been investigated in depth. The microstructures of as-spun and aged ribbons with a thickness of approximately 60 {mu}m were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and laser optical microscopy; microhardness measurements were also conducted. It was found that the commercial AZ91 alloy undergoes a cellular/dendritic transition during melt-spinning at a speed of 34 m/s. A strengthening effect due to aging was observed: a maximum hardness of 110 HV/0.05 and an age-hardenability of 50% were obtained when the ribbon was aged at 200 deg. C for 20 min. The {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase exhibits net and dispersion types of distribution during precipitation. The dispersion of precipitates in dendritic grains or cells is the main source of strengthening.

  19. Effects of aging condition on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX series aluminum alloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the effects of matrix aging condition (i.e., matrix temper) on the fracture toughness of 2XXX and 7XXX Al matrix alloys reinforced with SiC particulates, and the results are compared with the mechanical behavior. Fracture toughness testing was conducted on fatigue precracked bend specimens, and fracture surfaces were examined using SEM. Results revealed dramatic differences in the effect of matrix microstructure on the fracture properties of the two composite series. In the 7XXX material, the toughness values decreased from the underaged (UA) condition to the overaged (OA) condition by approximately 40 percent, while in the 2XXX series composite, the effect of matrix microstructure was marginal. In the 7XXX series composites, a transition in fracture mode from particle cracking (in UA) to matrix and linear-interface failure (in OA) was observed, while the 2XXX series composite failed predominantly by particle cracking.

  20. X-ray diffraction study of reversible deformation mechanisms in the aged uranium-6. 5 niobium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1985-06-21

    The x-ray diffraction (XRD) data from 200/sup 0/C/2h-aged uranium-6.5 wt % niobium (U-6.5Nb) alloys, taken under stress as a function of strain, revealed a gamma-zero (..gamma../sup 0/)..-->.. alpha prime-prime (..cap alpha..'') thermoelastic martensitic phase transformation. It was concluded that the primary reversible deformation modes consisted of the movement of ..gamma../sup 0//..cap alpha..'' interphase interfaces and ..cap alpha..'' intervariant interfaces. Specimen elasticity at low strains was associated with the retreat of interphase interfaces. At higher strains, interphase interfaces did not recover significantly on unloading, and elasticity was due primarily to the retreat of ..cap alpha..'' intervariant interfaces.

  1. Dynamic strain ageing in prior cold worked 15Cr 15Ni titanium modified stainless steel (Alloy D9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, K. G.; Ray, S. K.; Sasikala, G.

    2006-09-01

    Dynamic strain ageing (DSA) behavior of a 20% prior cold worked titanium modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) was investigated in the temperature range 300-1023 K at a constant (nominal) strain rate of 1.33 × 10 -3 s -1. Serrated plastic flow was observed in a narrow temperature region of 773-873 K. Anomalies characteristic of DSA were observed in the variations of strength, ductility, and strain hardening parameters with temperature. Specifically, the difference between ultimate tensile stress and yield stress indicated that a single DSA mechanism is operative over the range of observations. Plastic strain energy density for uniform deformation showed a peak in the DSA temperature range, suggesting that in this material, DSA should enhance the ductile fracture resistance.

  2. Natural aging and reversion behavior of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy Weldalite (tm) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand the natural aging and reversion behavior of Weldalite (trademark) 049 in tempers without cold work. Of particular interest are: (1) the microstructural basis for the high strength in the T4 condition; (2) an explanation of the reversion phenomenon; and (3) the effect of re-aging at room temperature after a reversion treatment. Mechanical properties were measured and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis performed at various stages of microstructural development during aging, reversion, and subsequent re-aging.

  3. Natural aging effect on the forming behavior of a cylindrical cup with an Al-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, V. M.; Laurent, H.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-10-01

    Natural Aging of EN AW 6016-T4 is experimentally evaluated under uniaxial tensile test and forming of a cylindrical cup. The uniaxial tensile tests were performed 4 days, 1, 4, 7 and, 18 months after the alloy quenching. The results shows an increase of the proof and tensile strengths, while the in-plane anisotropy remains globally invariable with the increase of the storage time. The forming of cylindrical cups was performed too, with specimens at 1 and 18 months of natural aging. The increase of the proof and tensile strengths leads to an increase of the punch force during the deep drawing process. However, the effect on the thickness evolution along the cup's wall and on the cup's height is negligible. In fact, the numerical simulation results indicate that these parameters are more sensitive to the initial sheet thickness (considering the mean value of 1.047mm or the approximated one of 1.000mm) than to the changes induced by aging in the hardening behavior.

  4. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  5. Understanding and Predicting Plutonium Alloys Aging: A Coupled Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baclet, N.; Pochet, P.; Faure, Ph.; Valot, C.; Gosmain, L.; Valot, Ch.; Flament, J. L.; Berthier, C.

    2003-07-01

    Understanding plutonium aging is a real challenge that requires developing very ambitious modeling and experiments. Examples of the different techniques developed and the physical values that can be reached are presented here.

  6. Phase state of a Bi-43 wt % Sn superplastic alloy and its changes under the effect of external mechanical stresses and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshak, V. F.; Chushkina, R. A.; Shapovalov, Yu. A.; Mateichenko, P. V.

    2011-07-01

    Samples of a Bi-43 wt % Sn superplastic alloy have been studied by X-ray diffraction in the ascast state, after compression of as-cast samples to ˜70% on a hydraulic press, after aging in the as-cast and preliminarily compressed state, and using samples deformed under superplastic conditions. The X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out using a DRON-2.0 diffractometer in Cu Kα radiation. The samples aged and deformed under superplasticity conditions have been studied using electron-microprobe analysis in a JSM-820 scanning electron microscope equipped with a LINK AN/85S EDX system. It has been found that the initial structural-phase state of the alloy was amorphous-crystalline. Causes that lead to a change in this state upon deformation and aging are discussed. A conclusion is made that the superplasticity effect manifests itself against the background of processes that are stipulated by the tendency of the initially metastable alloy to phase equilibrium similarly to what is observed in the Sn-38 wt % Pb eutectic alloy studied earlier.

  7. Neutron diffraction study of δ-alloy Pu242-Ga aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somenkov, V. A.; Blanter, M. S.; Glazkov, V. P.; Laushkin, A. V.; Orlov, V. K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a continuing neutron diffraction study of the mean-square atom displacements occurring during the long-term self-irradiation of a Pu-Ga alloy. The measurements were performed at room temperature using the sample based on the isotope Pu242 with low neutron absorption cross-section to which the short-lived isotope Pu238 (1.4 wt.%) was added to accelerate self-irradiation. We obtain the maximum self-irradiation equivalent time of 35.5 years, 12 years longer than in our previous papers. In the entire range of self-irradiation time a single fcc phase is preserved. It was found that after the two stages of change in the mean-square displacements we observed earlier (rapid growth up to ∼5-6 equivalent years and a slow decline in the range of ∼6-25 years), comes a stage of stabilization (after ∼25 years). The stabilization can be explained by the emergence of a balance between the formation of point defects and their absorption by helium bubbles and dislocation loops which accumulated over time.

  8. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  9. Chemistry of glass-ceramic to metal bonding for header applications. I. Effect of treatments on Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276 metallic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D P; Craven, S M; Schneider, R E; Moddeman, W E; Brohard, D W

    1984-02-02

    Auger electron spectroscopy and depth Auger profiling were used to study the surfaces of Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C-276. The metal surfaces were processed in the same manner as is presently being used in the manufacturing of glass-ceramic headers. At each step in the process, samples were studied with Auger spectroscopy to determine their resultant elemental surface composition and film thickness. In addition, the effect of a final plasma cleaning operation on the metal surface was examined. The results show that the type and concentration of surface species and the thickness of the surface oxides are dependent on the processing technique.

  10. In situ structural characterization of ageing kinetics in aluminum alloy 2024 across angstrom-to-micrometer length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle E.; Allen, Andrew J.; Campbell, Carelyn E.; Creuziger, Adam A.; Kazantseva, Nataliya; Ilavsky, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The precipitate structure and precipitation kinetics in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AA2024) aged at 190 °C, 208 °C, and 226 °C have been studied using ex situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron-based, combined ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) across a length scale from sub-Angstrom to several micrometers. TEM brings information concerning the nature, morphology, and size of the precipitates while SAXS and WAXS provide qualitative and quantitative information concerning the time-dependent size and volume fraction evolution of the precipitates at different stages of the precipitation sequence. Within the experimental time resolution, precipitation at these ageing temperatures involves dissolution of nanometer-sized small clusters and formation of the planar S phase precipitates. Using a three-parameter scattering model constructed on the basis of TEM results, we established the temperature-dependent kinetics for the cluster-dissolution and S-phase formation processes simultaneously. These two processes are shown to have different kinetic rates, with the cluster-dissolution rate approximately double the S-phase formation rate. We identified a dissolution activation energy at (149.5 ± 14.6) kJ mol-1, which translates to (1.55 ± 0.15) eV/atom, as well as an activation energy for the formation of S precipitates at (129.2 ± 5.4) kJ mol-1, i.e. (1.33 ± 0.06) eV/atom. Importantly, the SAXS/WAXS results show the absence of an intermediate Guinier-Preston Bagaryatsky 2 (GPB2)/S" phase in the samples under the experimental ageing conditions. These results are further validated by precipitation simulations that are based on Langer-Schwartz theory and a Kampmann-Wagner numerical method.

  11. The effect of potential and aging on the Pb-assisted stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of alloy 22 gas tungsten arc-welded weldments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, Aladar A.; Pan, Yi-Ming; Dunn, Darrell S.; Yang, Leitai; Cragnolino, Gustavo A.

    2005-05-01

    The susceptibility of as-received, solutionized, and short-term thermally aged mill-annealed (MA) and gas tungsten arc-welded (GTAW) alloy 22 to Pb-assisted stress corrosion cracking (PbSCC) was evaluated in supersaturated, deaerated, acidic PbCl2 solutions at 95 °C. Anodic polarization tests in acidic PbCl2 solutions showed that 16,000 ppm of Pb produced a strong anodic peak and an order of magnitude greater passive current density for both MA and GTAW alloy 22 as compared to pure NaCl solutions. Current spikes were also observed in the anodic polarization plots for the PbCl2 solutions, suggesting periodic events of passivity breakdown and repassivation. Constant deformation SCC tests were conducted using double U-bend samples of as-received, solutionized, and thermally aged MA and double U-groove welded alloy 22 plates. The results indicate that as-received, solutionized, and thermally aged MA and GTAW alloy 22 were resistant to PbSCC in supersaturated PbCl2 solutions at 95 °C, pH 0.5, and applied potentials near the anodic peak ranging from -100 to 50 mVSCE. Enhanced dissolution of alloy 22 was also observed in the crevice region of the double U-bend samples tested in the 16,000 ppm PbCl2 solutions. This Pb concentration is seven orders of magnitude greater than that found in the anticipated repository environments, and chemical speciation modeling showed that Pb2+ is strongly immobilized in J-13 Yucca Mountain waters through the precipitation of PbCO3 solids. Therefore, although enhanced dissolution of the inner U-bend did occur in our tests, the overall results from this PbSCC investigation suggest that as-fabricated, solutionized, and aged MA and GTAW alloy 22 are resistant to SCC in extremely aggressive, acidic, and supersaturated PbCl2 solutions at 95 °C. Provided that these high Pb concentrations are not attainable in the anticipated repository environments, alloy 22 is unlikely to be susceptible to SCC, localized corrosion, and enhanced dissolution by

  12. Damage Assessment of Creep Tested and Thermally Aged Metallic Alloys Using Acousto-Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years emphasis has been placed on the early detection of material changes experienced in turbine powerplant components. During the scheduled overhaul of a turbine, the current techniques of examination of various hot section components aim to find flaws such as cracks, wear, and erosion, as well as excessive deformations. Thus far, these localized damage modes have been detected with satisfactory results. However, the techniques used to find these flaws provide no information on life until the flaws are actually detected. Major improvements in damage assessment, safety, as well as more accurate life prediction could be achieved if nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques could be utilized to sense material changes that occur prior to the localized defects mentioned. Because of elevated temperatures and excessive stresses, turbine components may experience creep behavior. As a result, it is desirable to monitor and access the current condition of such components. Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center involves developing and utilizing an NDE technique that discloses distributed material changes that occur prior to the localized damage detected by the current methods of inspection. In a recent study, creep processes in a nickel-base alloy were the life-limiting condition of interest, and the NDE technique was acousto-ultrasonics (AU). AU is an NDE technique that utilizes two ultrasonic transducers to interrogate the condition of a test specimen. The sending transducer introduces an ultrasonic pulse at a point on the surface of the specimen while a receiving transducer detects the signal after it has passed through the material. The goal of the method is to correlate certain parameters of the detected waveform to characteristics of the material between the two transducers. Here, the waveform parameter of interest is the attenuation due to internal damping for which information is being garnered from the frequency domain. The parameters utilized to

  13. SCC INITIATION AND GROWTH RATE STUDIES ON TITANIUM GRADE 7 AND BASE METAL, WELDED, AND AGED ALLOY 22 IN CONCENTRATED GROUNDWATER

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Payer

    2005-08-01

    The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth rate response was evaluated on as-received, as-welded, cold worked and aged Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and titanium Grades 7 (UNS R52400), 28 (UNS R55323) and 29 (UNS R56404) at 105-165 C in various aerated, concentrated groundwater environments. Time-to-failure experiments on actively-loaded tensile specimens at 105 C evaluated the effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatments in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), and found these materials to be highly resistant to SCC (none observed). Long-term U-bend data at 165 C corroborated these findings. Titanium Grade 7 and stainless steels were also included in the 105 C test matrix. Long term crack growth rate data showed stable crack growth in titanium Grade 7. Recent creep tests in air confirm literature data that these alloys are quite susceptible to creep failure, even below the yield stress, and it is unclear whether cracking in SCC tests is only accelerated by the creep response, or whether creep is responsible for cracking. Alloy 22 exhibited stable growth rates under ''gentle'' cyclic loading, but was prone to crack arrest at fully static loading. No effect of Pb additions was observed.

  14. The Influence of Ni and V Trace Elements on High-Temperature Tensile Properties and Aging of A356 Aluminum Foundry Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Maria Teresa; Cerri, Emanuela; Casari, Daniele; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    High-temperature tensile properties of unmodified A356 alloy with and without the addition of Ni or V in traces (600 and 1000 ppm of Ni and V, respectively) were investigated by analyzing samples obtained from sand and permanent mold castings in the as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. Tensile tests were performed at 508 K (235 °C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. In addition, samples were subjected to artificial aging at 508 K (235 °C) for different times, and corresponding hardness curves were plotted. Microstructures and fracture surfaces, analyzed by FEG-SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, showed that neither Ni nor V addition had a detrimental effect on high-temperature tensile properties. Aging curves showed a strong loss of hardness affecting the T6 class between 30-min and 1-h exposure time. After 6-h aging, no evidence of aging treatment persisted on hardness of the tested material. Hardness values did not reveal any significant difference between the reference alloy and the Ni- and V-containing alloys in both casting conditions, in complete analogy with the tensile properties. Unmodified eutectic silicon particles provided inhomogeneity in the α-Al matrix and acted as the principal source of stress concentration leading to fracture.

  15. Techniques for lithium removal from 1040 C aged tantalum alloy, T-111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The liquid ammonia and vacuum distillation techniques were found to be satisfactory for removing lithium from 1040 C aged T-111 (tantalum - 8-percent tungsten- 2-percent hafnium). Results of ductility tests and chemical analysis show that these two methods are adequate for removing lithium without embrittlement or contamination of the T-111. Moist air exposure of T-111 with traces of lithium on the surface produced mixed results. Some specimens were ductile; others were brittle. Brittle T-111 had an increased hydrogen content. Water removal of lithium from T-111 caused brittleness and an increased hydrogen concentration.

  16. Precipitation of β' phase and hardening in dental-casting Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloys subjected to aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-03-01

    The age-hardening behavior of the dental-casting Ag-20Pd-12Au-14.5Cu alloy subjected to aging treatment at around 673K is well known, and this hardening has been widely employed in various applications. To date, the age-hardening of this alloy has been explained to attribute to the precipitation of a β phase, which is a B2-type ordered CuPd phase or PdCuxZn1-x phase. In this study, results obtained from microstructural observations using a transmission electron microscopy and a scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that a fine L10-type ordered β' phase precipitated in the matrix and a coarse-structure region (consisting of Ag- and Cu-rich regions) appeared after aging treatment at 673K and contributed to increase in hardness. The microstructure of the coarse β phase, which existed before aging treatment, did not change by aging treatment. Thus, it is concluded that the fine β' phase precipitated by aging treatment contributed more to increase in hardness than the coarse-structure region and coarse β phase.

  17. Effects of aging treatment on the microstructure and superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-li; Huang, Hai-you; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-10-01

    The effect of aging treatment on the superelasticity and martensitic transformation critical stress in columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 shape memory alloy (SMA) at the temperature ranging from 250°C to 400°C was investigated. The microstructure evolution during the aging treatment was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the plate-like bainite precipitates distribute homogeneously within austenitic grains and at grain boundaries. The volume fraction of bainite increases with the increase in aging temperature and aging time, which substantially improves the martensitic transformation critical stress of the alloy, whereas the bainite only slightly affects the superelasticity. This behavior is attributed to a coherent relationship between the bainite and the austenite, as well as to the bainite and the martensite exhibiting the same crystal structure. The variations of the martensitic transformation critical stress and the superelasticity of columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with aging temperature and aging time are described by the Austin-Rickett equation, where the activation energy of bainite precipitation is 77.2 kJ·mol-1. Finally, a columnar-grained Cu71Al18Mn11 SMA with both excellent superelasticity (5%-9%) and high martensitic transformation critical stress (443-677 MPa) is obtained through the application of the appropriate aging treatments.

  18. Effect of prior aging and flat rooling on the structure and magnetic properties of alloys of the Fe-Cr-Co-Cu system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarin, B. A.; Kolchin, A. E.; Kal'ner, Yu. V.

    1986-09-01

    In alloys based on Fe-33% Cr-12% Co-2% Cu alloyed with 1% Al (alloy 2) or 1.5% Nb (alloy 3) the temperature for quenching to α-solid solution is reduced from 1050 (alloy 1) to 1000 (alloy 2) or 950°C (alloy 3). The temperature for the start of α-solid solution decomposition for the alloys is 935-640°C.

  19. Ageing behavior of extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy containing LPSO phase and γ′ precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, C.; Nakata, T.; Qiao, X. G.; Zheng, M. Y.; Wu, K.; Kamado, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase and γ′ precipitates on the ageing behavior and mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–8.2Gd–3.8Y–1.0Zn–0.4Zr (wt.%) alloy was investigated. The results show that more β′ phases precipitate during ageing treatment in the LPSO phase containing alloy so that the LPSO phase containing alloy exhibits a higher age-hardening response than the γ′ precipitates containing alloy. The precipitation strengthening induced by β′ precipitates is the greatest contributor to the strength of the peak-aged LPSO-containing alloys. Higher strength is achieved in γ′ precipitates containing alloy due to the more effective strengthening induced by dense nanoscale γ′ precipitates than LPSO phases as well as the higher volume fraction of coarse unrecrystallized grains with strong basal texture. The extruded alloy containing γ′ precipitates after T5 peak-ageing treatment shows ultra-high tensile yield strength of 462 MPa, high ultimate tensile strength of 520 MPa, and superior elongation to failure of 10.6%. PMID:28230211

  20. Ion irradiation induced disappearance of dislocations in a nickel-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Li, D. H.; Lui, R. D.; Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Bao, L. M.; Yan, L.; Zhou, X. T.; Zhu, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Under Xe ion irradiation, the microstructural evolution of a nickel based alloy, Hastelloy N (US N10003), was studied. The intrinsic dislocations are decorated with irradiation induced interstitial loops and/or clusters. Moreover, the intrinsic dislocations density reduces as the irradiation damage increases. The disappearance of the intrinsic dislocations is ascribed to the dislocations climb to the free surface by the absorption of interstitials under the ion irradiation. Moreover, the in situ annealing experiment reveals that the small interstitial loops and/or clusters induced by the ion irradiation are stable below 600 °C.

  1. Structure and Properties of Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to Thermomechanical Processing Including Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinskiy, S.; Brailovski, Vladimir; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Inaekyan, K.; Sheremetyev, V.; Petrzhik, M.; Filonov, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the ternary Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta (at.%) alloy for biomedical applications was studied. The ingot was manufactured by vacuum arc melting with a consumable electrode and then subjected to hot forging. Specimens were cut from the ingot and processed by cold rolling with e = 0.37 of logarithmic thickness reduction and post-deformation annealing (PDA) between 400 and 750 °C (1 h). Selected samples were subjected to aging at 300 °C (10 min to 3 h). The influence of the thermomechanical processing on the alloy's structure, phase composition, and mechanical and functional properties was studied. It was shown that thermomechanical processing leads to the formation of a nanosubgrained structure (polygonized with subgrains below 100 nm) in the 500-600 °C PDA range, which transforms to a recrystallized structure of β-phase when PDA temperature increases. Simultaneously, the phase composition and the β → α″ transformation kinetics vary. It was found that after conventional cold rolling and PDA, Ti-Nb-Ta alloy manifests superelastic and shape memory behaviors. During aging at 300 °C (1 h), an important quantity of randomly scattered equiaxed ω-precipitates forms, which results in improved superelastic cyclic properties. On the other hand, aging at 300 °C (3 h) changes the ω-precipitates' particle morphology from equiaxed to elongated and leads to their coarsening, which negatively affects the superelastic and shape memory functional properties of Ti-Nb-Ta alloy.

  2. Evaluation of Solute Clusters Associated with Bake-Hardening Response in Isothermal Aged Al-Mg-Si Alloys Using a Three-Dimensional Atom Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Kozuka, Masaya; Takaki, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-12-01

    Temporal changes in the number density, size distribution, and chemical composition of clusters formed during natural aging at room temperature and pre-aging at 363 K (90 °C) in an Al-0.62Mg-0.93Si (mass pct) alloy were evaluated using atom probe tomography. More than 10 million atoms were examined in the cluster analysis, in which about 1000 clusters were obtained for each material after various aging treatments. The statistically proven records show that both number density and the average radius of clusters in pre-aged materials are larger than in naturally aged materials. It was revealed that the fraction of clusters with a low Mg/Si ratio after natural aging for a short time is higher than with other aging treatments, regardless of cluster size. This indicates that Si-rich clusters form more easily after short-period natural aging, and that Mg atoms can diffuse into the clusters or possibly form another type of Mg-Si cluster after prolonged natural aging. The formation of large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio is encouraged by pre-aging. It can be concluded that an increase of small clusters with various Mg/Si ratios does not promote the bake-hardening (BH) response, whereas large clusters with a uniform Mg/Si ratio play an important role in hardening during the BH treatment at 443 K (170 °C).

  3. The effect of aging and cold working on the high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of alloy 800h: part ii: continuous cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagrana, R. E.; Kaae, J. L.; Ellis, J. R.

    1981-11-01

    The individual and combined effects of cold working (5 and 10 pct) and aging (4000 and 8000 h in the temperature range 538 to 760 °C) on the high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of alloy 800H have been investigated. The specimens were tested at the aging temperatures. Both the saturation stress range and the fatigue life were found to be history dependent. A history-independent hardening mechanism, dynamic strain aging, was found to operate over the temperature range ~450 to 650°C and to be maximized at ~55O °C. It is speculated that carbon is responsible for this dynamic strain aging. Finally, at temperatures above 538 °C the Coffin-Manson plots show a history-independent deviation from linearity.

  4. Effect of Natural Aging and Cold Working on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Te; Lee, Sheng-Long; Bor, Hui-Yun; Lin, Jing-Chie

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates the effects of natural aging and cold working prior to artificial aging on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-4.6Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Ag alloy. Mechanical properties relative to microstructure variations were elucidated by the observations of the optical microscope (OM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), electrical conductivity meter (pct IACS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that natural aging treatment has little noticeable benefit on the quantity of precipitation strengthening phases and mechanical properties, but it increases the precipitation strengthening rate at the initial stage of artificial aging. Cold working brings more lattice defects which suppress Al-Cu (GP zone) and Mg-Ag clustering, and therefore the precipitation of Ω phase decreases. Furthermore, more dislocations are formed, leading to precipitate the more heterogeneous nucleation of θ' phase. The above-mentioned precipitation phenomena and strain hardening effect are more obvious with higher degrees of cold working.

  5. The Effect of Artificial Aging on the Tensile Properties of Alclad 24S-T and 24S-T Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotanchik, Joseph N.; Woods, Walter; Zender, George W.

    1943-01-01

    An experimental study was made to determine the effect of artificial aging on the tensile properties of alclad 24S-T and 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet material. The results of the tests show that certain combinations of aging time and temperature cause a marked increase in the yield strength and a small increase in the ultimate strength; these increases are accompanied by a very large decrease in elongation. A curve is presented that shows the maximum yield strengths that can be obtained by aging this material at various combinations of time and temperature. The higher values of yield stress are obtained in material aged at relatively longer times and lower temperatures.

  6. Influence of Chemical Composition on Rupture Properties at 1200 Degrees F. of Forged Chromium-Cobalt-Nickel-Iron Base Alloys in Solution-Treated and Aged Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, E E; Freeman, J W; White, A E

    1951-01-01

    The influence of systematic variations of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. was determined for 62 modifications of a basic alloy containing 20 percent chromium, 20 percent nickel, 20 percent cobalt, 3 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, 1 percent columbium, 0.15 percent carbon, 1.7 percent manganese, 0.5 percent silicon, 0.12 percent nitrogen and the balance iron. These modifications included individual variations of each of 10 elements present and simultaneous variations of molybdenum, tungsten, and columbium. Laboratory induction furnace heats were hot-forged to round bar stock, solution-treated at 2200 degrees F., and aged at 1400 degrees F. The melting and fabrication conditions were carefully controlled in order to minimize all variable effects on properties except chemical composition. Information is presented which indicates that melting and hot-working conditions play an important role in high-temperature properties of alloys of the type investigated.

  7. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the local atomic structure in Cu-Ni-Si alloy after severe plastic deformation and ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeddine, H.; Harfouche, M.; Hennet, L.; Thiaudiere, D.; Kawasaki, M.; Bradai, D.; Langdon, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    The local atomic structure of Cu-Ni-Si alloy after severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing and the decomposition of supersaturated solid solution upon annealing were investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The coordination number and interatomic distances were obtained by analyzing experimental extend X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Ni K-edge. Results indicate that the environment of Ni atoms in Cu-Ni-Si alloy is strongly influenced by the deformation process. Moreover, ageing at 973 K affects strongly the atomic structure around the Ni atoms in Cu-Ni-Si deformed by equal channel angular pressing and high pressure torsion. This influence is discussed in terms of changes and decomposition features of the Cu-Ni-Si solid solution.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Alloys in Molten Fluoride Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guiqiu

    The molten fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactor (FHR) has been proposed as a candidate Generation IV nuclear reactor. This reactor combines the latest nuclear technology with the use of molten fluoride salt as coolant to significantly enhance safety and efficiency. However, an important challenge in FHR development is the corrosion of structural materials in high-temperature molten fluoride salt. The structural alloys' degradation, particularly in terms of chromium depletion, and the molten salt chemistry are key factors that impact the lifetime of nuclear reactors and the development of future FHR designs. In support of materials development for the FHR, the nickel base alloy of Hastelloy N and iron-chromium base alloy 316 stainless steel are being actively considered as critical structural alloys. Enriched 27LiF-BeF2 (named as FLiBe) is a promising coolant for the FHR because of its neutronic properties and heat transfer characteristics while operating at atmospheric pressure. In this study, the corrosion behavior of Ni-5Cr and Ni-20Cr binary model alloys, and Hastelloy N and 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe with and without graphite were investigated through various microstructural analyses. Based on the understanding of the corrosion behavior and data of above four alloys in molten FLiBe, a long-term corrosion prediction model has been developed that is applicable specifically for these four materials in FLiBe at 700ºC. The model uses Cr concentration profile C(x, t) as a function of corrosion distance in the materials and duration fundamentally derived from the Fick's diffusion laws. This model was validated with reasonable accuracy for the four alloys by fitting the calculated profiles with experimental data and can be applied to evaluate corrosion attack depth over the long-term. The critical constant of the overall diffusion coefficient (Deff) in this model can be quickly calculated from the experimental measurement of alloys' weight

  9. Evolution of Ni3X Precipitation Kinetics, Morphology and Spatial Correlations in Binary Ni-X Alloys Aged Under Externally Applied Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ardell, Alan J

    2006-02-07

    Coarsening of Ni3Al, Ni3Ga, Ni3Ge and Ni3Si precipitates in aged binary single-crystal Ni-Al, Ni-Ga, Ni-Ge and Ni-Si alloys under applied compressive stress was measured experimentally over the temperature range 600 to 700 °C. Experiments were also performed on binary Ni-Al single crystals deformed in tension at 640°C. The orientation of the crystals was [100] in all the experiments. Compared to the kinetics of coarsening in unstressed alloys, coarsening was slightly slower in specimens aged under compression and slightly faster in specimens aged in tension. The effect of applied stress on morphology and spatial correlation was also measured and found to be small. Ni3Al precipitates of a given size generally tended to become more non-equiaxed and their interfaces more planar, with increasing compressive stress. Ni3Ge precipitates behaved differently, becoming more spherical in specimens aged under compression. The effect of applied stress on kinetics is attributed to the influence of elastic deformation on diffusion. A model was developed that predicts slightly slower diffusion under compression and slightly faster diffusion in tension. The elastic constants of single crystals of Ni-Al, Ni-Si, Ni-Ga and Ni-Ge solid solutions were measured from room temperature to about 1100 K using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.

  10. Characterization of the effects of different tempers and aging temperatures on the precipitation behavior of Al-Mg (5.25at.%)-Mn alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Gaosong; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; ...

    2017-01-11

    We investigated the effects of different tempers (H131 and H116) and different aging temperatures (50 and 70 °C) on the precipitation behavior of Al-Mg (5.25 at.%)-Mn (Al 5083) alloys aged for a long time (41 and 30 months) using electron backscatter diffraction(EBSD), scanning transmission electron microscopy(STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), atom probe tomography (APT), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Results for the GP zones and β'' phases were found in Al 5083 H116 aged at 50 °C for 24 months using APT. EDS and SANS revealed that a phase transformation process from GP zones to β'/β phases occurred for precipitatesmore » formed in both Al 5083 H131 and H116 aged at 70 °C. The effective diffusion coefficient of Mg in Al 5083 H131 is 1.8 times of that in Al 5083 H116 aged at 70 °C. The precipitation process in Al 5083 H116 aged at 50 °C is much slower than that in the sample aged at 70 °C. Finally, we identified the coarsening process in Al 5083 H131 and H116 aged at 70 °C for > 9 months.« less

  11. Effects of aging treatment and heat input on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG-welded 6061-T6 alloy joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong; Shen, Jun; Tang, Qin; Wu, Cui-ping; Zhou, Yan-bing

    2013-03-01

    Aging treatment and various heat input conditions were adopted to investigate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TIG welded 6061-T6 alloy joints by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. With an increase in heat input, the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases and grains in the fusion zone (FZ) coarsen. Moreover, the hardness of the HAZ decreases, whereas that of the FZ decreases initially and then increases with an increase in heat input. Low heat input results in the low ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints due to the presence of partial penetrations and pores in the welded joints. After a simple artificial aging treatment at 175°C for 8 h, the microstructure of the welded joints changes slightly. The mechanical properties of the welded joints enhance significantly after the aging process as few precipitates distribute in the welded seam.

  12. The Effect of Artificial Aging on Tensile Work Hardening Characteristics of a Cast Al-7 Pct Si-0.55 Pct Mg (A357) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiryakioğlu, M.; Alexopoulos, N. D.

    2008-11-01

    Al-7 pct Si-0.55 pct Mg (A357) alloy specimens excised from continuously cast bars were solution treated at 540 °C for 22 hours, quenched, and finally aged artificially at 155 °C, 175 °C, and 205 °C for various times. Tensile work hardening characteristics were investigated using Kocks Mecking (KM) plots for every specimen out of the 90 totally investigated. Each specimen followed the stage III KM work hardening model. The effect of artificial aging, i.e., matrix strength on the KM work hardening model parameters, was investigated. The results of the current analysis indicated that (1) unlike previously found for wrought Al-Mg-Si alloys, the shearing-bypassing transition in β″ precipitates takes place at peak strength, (2) the transition from stage II to III work hardening is affected by yield strength and temper, (3) the KM parameters are strongly affected by artificial aging, and (4) the elongation to fracture is determined by stage III work hardening, especially by parameter K of the KM model.

  13. Effect of equal-channel angular pressing and aging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizov, M. R.; Dubina, A. V.; Zhemchuzhnikova, D. A.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2015-07-01

    The effect of intermediate equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and final aging at 170°C on the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloy belonging to Al-Cu-Mg-Si system stress with a Cu/Mg ratio (AA2014) is considered. After quenching and aging (treatment T6), the yield stress (σ0.2) and ultimate tensile strength (σu) are ˜415 and ˜450 MPa, respectively; the elongation to fracture (δ) is 4.2%. The precipitation strengthening is reached due to the precipitation of θ″-, θ'-, β″-, and Q'/ C-phase particles. After intermediate ECAP and subsequent aging for 0.5 h, σ0.2 and σu increase to 470 and 535 MPa, respectively; δ increases to ˜9.5%. The plastic deformation leads to the formation of a microstructure that consists of deformation bands characterized by a high density of dislocations. During aging for 0.5 h, the partial decomposition of supersaturated solid solution and formation of segregations within grains and at dislocations and precipitation of the Guinier-Preston zones and β″ phase also occur; all of this ensure the maximum increase in the strength of the AA2014 alloy. As the aging time increases to 8 h, the slight decrease in both σ0.2 and σu to 465 and 515 MPa and δ to ˜6% takes place. It has been shown that the intermediate ECAP does not affect the sequence of the precipitation of main strengthening θ″ and θ' phases during aging. However, in this case, the volume fraction of strengthening particles decreases significantly and their dispersivity increases.

  14. Phase stability and mechanical properties of c-22 alloy aged in the temperature range 590 to 760 degree c for 16,000 hours

    SciTech Connect

    Edgecumbe Summers, T S; Kumar, M; Mathews, S J; Rebak, R B; Wall, M A

    1998-12-01

    The phase stability of C-22 alloy (UNS #N06022) was studied by aging samples at 593, 649, 704 and 760°C for 2000 h (2.7 mo) and 16,000 h (1.8 yr). The tensile properties and the Charpy impact toughness of these samples were measured in the mill annealed condition as well as after aging. The microstructures of samples aged 16,000 hours were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Preliminary TEM results suggest that m phase forms at all temperatures investigated. Discrete carbide particles in addition to a film with very uniform thickness which appears to be m phase formed on grain boundaries in the sample aged at 593°C. The ordered Ni2(Cr, Mo) phase was also seen in this sample. At the higher aging temperatures, mainly m phase forms covering all the grain boundaries and also distributed throughout the bulk. Although strength increased somewhat with aging, the ductility decreased due to the formation of these grain boundary precipitates and brittle intermetallics.

  15. Phase stability and mechanical properties of C-22 alloy aged in the temperature range 590 to 760 C for 16,000 hours

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, T.S.E.; Wall, M.A.; Kumar, M.; Matthews, S.J.; Rebak, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The phase stability of C-22 alloy (UNS No. N06022) was studied by aging samples at 593, 649, 704 and 760 C for 2,000 h (2.7 mo) and 16,000 h (1.8 yr). The tensile properties and the Charpy impact toughness of these samples were measured in the mill annealed condition as well as after aging. The microstructures of samples aged 16,000 hours were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Preliminary TEM results suggest that {mu} phase forms at all temperatures investigated. Discrete carbide particles in addition to a film with very uniform thickness which appears to be {mu} phase formed on grain boundaries in the sample aged at 593 C. The ordered Ni{sub 2}(Cr, Mo) phase was also seen in this sample. At the higher aging temperatures, mainly {mu} phase forms covering all the grain boundaries and also distributed throughout the bulk. Although strength increased somewhat with aging, the ductility decreased due to the formation of these grain boundary precipitates and brittle intermetallics.

  16. Dielectric spectroscopy of Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 films on hastelloy substrates with and without LaNiO3 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Manoj; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, U. (Balu); Li, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films were deposited by sol-gel synthesis on Hastelloy substrates with and without a LaNiO3 buffer. The dielectric properties were measured as a function of temperature and frequency to study the cause of dielectric degradation in PLZT films directly on hastelloy substrates. These measurements indicated an increased charge carrier activity in films without a buffer layer. We propose that a region of the film closer to the substrate surface is more oxygen deficient than the bulk and is responsible for the degradation in properties rather than the presence of a low parasitic secondary-phase interfacial layer such as NiOx.

  17. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.; Bose, A.; Jerman, G.

    1989-01-01

    Alloying experiments were performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass % tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed-powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500 C in 60 min The rhenium-modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17, 4 Mg/m{sup 3} with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where net shaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding.

  18. Effect of cryogenic irradiation on NERVA structural alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.; Davidson, M. J.; Funk, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Several alloys (Hastelloy X, AISI 347, A-286 bolts, Inconel 718, Al 7039-T63 and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI) were irradiated in liquid nitrogen (140 R) to neutron fluences between 10 to the 17th power and 10 to the 19th power nvt (E greater than 1.0 Mev). After irradiation, tensile properties were obtained in liquid nitrogen without permitting any warmup except for some specimens which were annealed at 540 R. The usual trend of radiation damage typical for materials irradiated at and above room temperature was observed, such as an increase in strength and decrease in ductility. However, the damage at 140 R was greater because this temperature prevented the annealing of radiation-induced defects which occurs above 140 R.

  19. Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310-austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Shadi Al; Button, T. W.; Abell, J. S.

    2010-09-01

    MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both 310-stainless steel and Hastelloy C-276 when using low concentration of the magnesium nitrate precursor. Higher concentrations were needed to obtain (200) oriented MgO films on C276. However, 310-stainless steel was found to not be a suitable substrate for MgO thin film deposition due to surface instability. A (200) oriented MgO thin film was grown on Hastelloy C276 using a magnesium acetate precursor at a much lower concentration compared to the nitrate precursor. The characterization of the thin films was done using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction 2θ-scans, rocking curves (ω-scans), and pole figure measurements. MgO was found to have a very weak in-plane texture.

  20. Corrosion performance of structural alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1999-07-15

    Component reliability and long-term trouble-free performance of structural materials are essential in power-generating and gasification processes that utilize coal as a feedstock. During combustion and conversion of coal, the environments encompass a wide range of oxygen partial pressures, from excess-air conditions in conventional boilers to air-deficient conditions in 10W-NO{sub x} and gasification systems. Apart from the environmental aspects of the effluent from coal combustion and conversion, one concern from the systems standpoint is the aggressiveness of the gaseous/deposit environment toward structural components such as waterwall tubes, steam superheaters, syngas coolers, and hot-gas filters. The corrosion tests in the program described in this paper address the individual and combined effects of oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine on the corrosion response of several ASME-coded and noncoded structural alloys that were exposed to air-deficient and excess-air environments typical of coal-combustion and gasification processes. Data in this paper address the effects of preoxidation on the subsequent corrosion performance of structural materials such as 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel, Type 347 austenitic stainless steel, Alloys 800, 825, 625, 214, Hastelloy X, and iron aluminide when exposed at 650 C to various mixed-gas environments with and without HCI. Results are presented for scaling kinetics, microstructural characteristics of corrosion products, detailed evaluations of near-surface regions of the exposed specimens, gains in our mechanistic understanding of the roles of S and Cl in the corrosion process, and the effect of preoxidation on subsequent corrosion.

  1. Effect of reflow and thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of Sn-3.7Ag-xBi solder alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Acoff, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    This work investigates the effect of reflow and the thermal aging process on the microstructural evolution and microhardness of five types of Sn-Ag based lead-free solder alloys: Sn-3.7Ag, Sn-3.7Ag-1Bi, Sn-3.7Ag-2Bi, Sn-3.7Ag-3Bi, and Sn-3.7Ag-4Bi. The microhardness and microstructure of the solders for different cooling rates after reflow at 250°C and different thermal aging durations at 150°C for air-cooled samples have been studied. The effect of Bi is discussed based on the experimental results. It was found that the microhardness increases with increasing Bi addition to Sn-3.7Ag solder regardless of reflow or thermal aging process. Scanning electron microscopy images show the formation of Ag3Sn particles, Sn-rich phases, and precipitation of Bi-rich phases in different solders. The increase of microhardness with Bi addition is due to the solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening provided by Bi in the solder. The trend of decrease in microhardness with increasing duration of thermal aging was observed.

  2. Taguchi Optimization on the Initial Thickness and Pre-aging of Nano-/Ultrafine-Grained Al-0.2 wt.%Sc Alloy Produced by ARB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefieh, Mohammad; Tamizifar, Morteza; Boutorabi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Borhani, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array has been used to optimize the initial thickness and pre-aging parameters (temperature and time) for the mechanical properties of Al-0.2 wt.% Sc alloy heavily deformed by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) up to ten cycles. Analysis of variance was performed on the measured data and signal-to-noise ratios. It was found that the pre-aging temperature has the most significant parameter affecting the mechanical properties by percentage contribution of 64.51%. Pre-aging time (19.29%) has the next most significant effect, while initial thickness (5.31%) has statistically less significant effect. In order to confirm experimental conclusions, verification experiments were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, the yield strength was 6.51 times higher and toughness was 6.86% lower compared with the starting Al-Sc material. Moreover, mean grain size was decreased to 220 nm by setting the control parameters, which was the lowest value obtained in this study. It was concluded that the Taguchi method was found to be a promising technique to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Consequently, by controlling the parameter levels, the high-strength and high-toughness Al-Sc samples were fabricated through pre-aging and subsequent ARB process.

  3. Ageing behaviour of an Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.6Ti-0.59Al (wt%) maraging alloy: clustering, precipitation and hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Pereloma, E.V. . E-mail: elena.pereloma@spme.monash.edu.au; Shekhter, A.; Miller, M.K.; Ringer, S.P.

    2004-11-08

    Changes in the solute distribution as well as the evolution of precipitation, microstructure and mechanical properties have been studied in an experimental maraging Fe-20Ni-1.8Mn-1.5Ti-0.59Al (wt%) alloy during ageing at 550 deg C. An initial hardening reaction within 5 s is reported, which is remarkable in terms of extent and rapidity. This strengthening was caused by the formation of complex multi-component atomic co-clusters containing primarily Ni-Ti-Al as well as some Mn. This cluster strengthened condition produced the optimum toughness observed throughout the ageing sequence. After 60 s ageing, the appearance of discrete precipitation of needle-shaped {eta}-Ni{sub 3}Ti particles was associated with a second rise in hardness towards an eventual peak at 600 s. This precipitation hardening was accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in ductility. A reverse transformation of martensite to austenite occurs progressively during ageing and this contributes to the initial and secondary softening.

  4. Exploratory screening tests of several alloys and coatings for automobile thermal reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldrieve, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 23 materials (including uncoated ferritic and austenitic iron-base alloys, uncoated nickel and cobalt-base superalloys, and several different coatings on AISI 304 stainless steel) were screened as test coupons on a rack in an automobile thermal reactor. Test exposures were generally 51 hours including 142 thermal cycles of 10 minutes at 1010 + or - 30 C test coupon temperature and 7-minutes cool-down to about 510 C. Materials that exhibited corrosion resistance better than that of Hastelloy X include: a ferritic iron alloy with 6 weight percent aluminum; three nickel-base superalloys; two diffused-aluminum coatings on AISI 304; and a Ni-Cr slurry-sprayed coating on AISI 304. Preliminary comparison is made on the performance of the directly impinged coupons and a reactor core of the same material.

  5. Study of Magnetic Alloys: Critical Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC ALLOYS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SEEBECK EFFECT , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, GADOLINIUM ALLOYS, GOLD ALLOYS, IRON ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, PLATINUM ALLOYS, RHODIUM ALLOYS

  6. Effect of Continuous and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Dissimilar Weldments Between Hastelloy C-276/AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumitra; Taiwade, Ravindra V.; Vashishtha, Himanshu

    2017-03-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to join Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based superalloy and AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel using ERNiCrMo-4 filler. The joints were fabricated by continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding processes. Experimental studies to ascertain the structure-property co-relationship with or without pulsed current mode were carried out using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Further, the energy-dispersive spectroscope was used to evaluate the extent of microsegregation. The microstructure of fusion zone was obtained as finer cellular dendritic structure for pulsed current mode, whereas columnar structure was formed with small amount of cellular structure for continuous current mode. The scanning electron microscope examination witnessed the existence of migrated grain boundaries at the weld interfaces. Moreover, the presence of secondary phases such as P and μ was observed in continuous current weld joints, whereas they were absent in pulsed current weld joints, which needs to be further characterized. Moreover, pulsed current joints resulted in narrower weld bead, refined morphology, reduced elemental segregation and improved strength of the welded joints. The outcomes of the present investigation would help in obtaining good quality dissimilar joints for industrial applications and AISI 321 ASS being cheaper consequently led to cost-effective design also.

  7. Effect of Continuous and Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Dissimilar Weldments Between Hastelloy C-276/AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumitra; Taiwade, Ravindra V.; Vashishtha, Himanshu

    2017-02-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to join Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based superalloy and AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel using ERNiCrMo-4 filler. The joints were fabricated by continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding processes. Experimental studies to ascertain the structure-property co-relationship with or without pulsed current mode were carried out using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Further, the energy-dispersive spectroscope was used to evaluate the extent of microsegregation. The microstructure of fusion zone was obtained as finer cellular dendritic structure for pulsed current mode, whereas columnar structure was formed with small amount of cellular structure for continuous current mode. The scanning electron microscope examination witnessed the existence of migrated grain boundaries at the weld interfaces. Moreover, the presence of secondary phases such as P and μ was observed in continuous current weld joints, whereas they were absent in pulsed current weld joints, which needs to be further characterized. Moreover, pulsed current joints resulted in narrower weld bead, refined morphology, reduced elemental segregation and improved strength of the welded joints. The outcomes of the present investigation would help in obtaining good quality dissimilar joints for industrial applications and AISI 321 ASS being cheaper consequently led to cost-effective design also.

  8. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD-MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7-x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ɛ)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ɛ = 0.35% and ɛ = 0.45% strain, and ɛ = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  9. Effects of isoconcentration surface threshold values on the characteristics of needle-shaped precipitates in atom probe tomography data from an aged Al-Mg-Si alloy.

    PubMed

    Aruga, Yasuhiro; Kozuka, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    Needle-shaped precipitates in an aged Al-0.62Mg-0.93Si (mass%) alloy were identified using a compositional threshold method, an isoconcentration surface, in atom probe tomography (APT). The influence of thresholds on the morphological and compositional characteristics of the precipitates was investigated. Utilizing optimum parameters for the concentration space, a reliable number density of the precipitates is obtained without dependence on the elemental concentration threshold in comparison with evaluation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is suggested that careful selection of the concentration space in APT can lead to a reasonable average Mg/Si ratio for the precipitates. It was found that the maximum length and maximum diameter of the precipitates are affected by the elemental concentration threshold. Adjustment of the concentration threshold gives better agreement with the precipitate dimensions measured by TEM.

  10. ``Super''alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT THERMAL Wigner's-Disease/.../Overageing-Embrittlement/ ``Sensitization'' SEVERE SHOCKS-INstability; Siegel FIRST ORIGINAL EXPERIMENTAL Giant-Magneto-resistance(GMR) Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Tatro, Clement; Williams, Wendell; Lewis, Thomas; Hoffman, Ace; Fart, Albart; Gruntbug, Peter; Siegel, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry[ES & WW: PSS (72); Semis. & Insuls.(79)-3-papers!!!] domination of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/ missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys(182/82Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WDphysics)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening (OR;chemistry)/spinodal-decomposition(SD;physics)/overageing-

  11. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper.

  12. The combined effect of aging and accumulative roll bonding on the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of an Al-0.2 wt % Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, B.; Semnani, H. M.; Borhani, E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the effect of processes initiated by the combined action of aging (A) and accumulative roll bonding (ARB) on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical characteristics of an Al-0.2 wt % Zr alloy. Upon solution treatment (ST), followed by aging at temperatures of 350 and 450°C, the specimens were subjected to deformation to a degree of deformation of 80% using ARB. The evolution of the microstructure was examined using atomic force microscopy and the mechanical characteristics of the specimens were determined using tensile tests and Vickers microhardness measurements. The results have shown that, upon ten ARB cycles, the grain size decreased to 0.3, 0.4, and 0.32 μm in the specimens subjected to ST followed by ARB (ST-ARB), ST followed by A at a temperature of 350°C and ARB (350°C-A-ARB), and ST followed by A at a temperature of 450°C and ARB (450°C-A-ARB), respectively. This study has also shown that the combined use of preliminary A and subsequent ARB holds promise in enhancing the mechanical characteristics of the alloy due to precipitates that appear in the course of annealing. Fracture surfaces of the rolled specimens subjected to the tensile tests were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results of these examinations have shown that in the specimens subjected to ST followed by ARB brittle fracture has been observed at the stage of the final ARB cycles, while in the A-ARB specimens cleavage facets (sites of fracture over the cleavage plane) and river lines have appeared on the fracture surfaces.

  13. Effect of aging at 1040 C (1900 F) on the ductility and structure of a tantalum alloy, T-111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. K.; Stephens, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The post-aging embrittlement of T-111 (tantalum - 8-percent tungsten - 2-percent hafnium) following exposure for up to about 10,000 hours at 1040 C in either vacuum or liquid lithium was investigated for sheet and tubing samples. This thermal aging was shown to greatly increase the sensitivity of T-111 to hydrogen embrittlement during subsequent room temperature specimen processing or testing. The hydrogen embrittlement problem can be avoided by preventing exposure to the T-111 to moisture during post-aging processing or testing. Aging at 1040 C also resulted in formation of HfO2 particles at grain boundaries, which may contribute to the observed embrittlement.

  14. Aging effects of diamond reinforced aluminium alloys submitted to deep space real conditions. Structural, chemical and electrical degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneli, Grigorov; Bouzekova-Penkova, Anna; Datcheva, Maria; Avdeev, George; Grushin, Valerii; Klimov, Stanislav

    2016-07-01

    An aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Zn-Mg) reinforced with ultra-dispersed diamond powder and tungsten (W), has been prepared in form of 7 cm bars and 4 mm diameter. One part of them stayed 2 years on satellite exposed to outer space, where the Sun activity and the background radiation were monitored. After satellite return both batches has been studied. Structural test, mainly micro-hardness together with detailed X-rays analyses was performed. The satellite makes a tour around the Earth each two hours, the temperature difference being circa 300oC. The micro-hardness being measured with Agilent G200 nano-indentor shows a significant drop of 25%. The XRD patterns are consistent with the previous results, states defects incorporation, and crystalline cells deterioration.

  15. Depressing effect of 0.1 wt.% Cr addition into Sn-9Zn solder alloy on the intermetallic growth with Cu substrate during isothermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Jin; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2010-03-15

    In this paper, the effect of 0.1 wt.% Cr addition into Sn-9Zn lead-free solder alloys on the growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) with Cu substrate during soldering and subsequent isothermal aging was investigated. During soldering, it was found that 0.1 wt.% Cr addition did not contribute to forming the IMC, which was verified as the same phase structure as the IMC for Sn-9Zn/Cu. However, during solid-state isothermal aging, the IMC growth was remarkably depressed by 0.1 wt.% Cr addition in the Sn-9Zn solder, and this effect tended to be more prominent at higher aging temperature. The activation energy for IMC growth was determined as 21.2 kJ mol{sup -1} and 42.9 kJ mol{sup -1} for Sn-9Zn/Cu and Sn-9Zn-Cr/Cu, respectively. The reduced diffusion coefficient was confirmed for the 0.1Cr-containing solder/Cu. Energy-dispersive X-ray mapping and point analysis also showed ZnCr phase existing in solder matrix, which can reduce diffusion rate of Zn atoms.

  16. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  17. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  18. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  19. Slow Aging Dynamics and Avalanches in a Gold-Cadmium Alloy Investigated by X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, L.; Waldorf, M.; Klemradt, U.; Gutt, C.; Gruebel, G.; Madsen, A.; Finlayson, T. R.

    2011-09-02

    Results of a x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiment on the very weakly first order martensitic transformation of a Au{sub 50.5}Cd{sub 49.5} single crystal are presented. Slow non-equilibrium-dynamics are observed in a narrow temperature interval in the direct vicinity of the otherwise athermal phase transformation. These dynamics are associated with the martensite-aging effect. The dynamical aging is accompanied by an avalanchelike behavior which is identified with an incubation-time phenomenon.

  20. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  1. On the occurrence of dynamic strain aging in near-alpha alloy Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.; Prasad, N.; Singh, V.

    1999-09-01

    Alloy Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si (IMI 834) is the most recently developed near-alpha type titanium alloy for high-temperature application up to 873 K, as discs and blades in the high pressure part of compressors, in advanced jet engines. It possesses a good combination of creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperature, in properly heat-treated condition, and has a fine bimodal microstructure, consisting of a small volume fraction of equiaxed alpha in a fine-grained matrix of transformed beta. Some investigations have already been done on the tensile behavior of this alloy, in different heat-treated conditions, over a wide range of temperature from 293 to 923 K. However, no report has been made on the occurrence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) in this alloy. The purpose of this article is to present the observation on the occurrence of DSA in the titanium alloy IMI 834, in the as-received (hot-rolled and mill-annealed) condition, over the temperature range 623 to 823 K.

  2. Aging characteristics of electron beam and gas tungsten arc fusion zones of Al-Cu-Li alloy 2090

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J. . Center for Advanced Materials); Morris, J.W. Jr. . Dept of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) fusion zones of 2090 indicates that in both the as-welded and aged conditions, the EB and GTA fusion zones lack the volume fraction and the homogeneity of strengthening precipitates found in the base metal. In the underaged and peak-aged conditions, the [delta][prime] phase is the primary strengthener, the volume fraction of T[sub 1] present being too low to be effective. The T[sub 1] precipitates are found either in the vicinity of other inclusions or at the dendrite boundaries. As the strength increases with postweld aging, the elongation decreased to 1%. The presence of the boundary phases and Cu- and Cl-containing inclusions at the boundaries leads to poor elongation. The joint efficiencies of the peak-aged EB and GTA weldments (EBWs and GTAWs, respectively) are 75 and 55% at 293 K and 75 and 50% at 77 K, respectively. Both EBWs and GTAWs have relatively low elongations.

  3. Ultrasonic sensor signals and optimum path forest classifier for the microstructural characterization of thermally-aged inconel 625 alloy.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C; Barbosa, Cleisson V; Silva, Cleiton C; Moura, Elineudo P; Filho, Pedro P Rebouças; Papa, João P; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2015-05-27

    Secondary phases, such as laves and carbides, are formed during the final solidification stages of nickel-based superalloy coatings deposited during the gas tungsten arc welding cold wire process. However, when aged at high temperatures, other phases can precipitate in the microstructure, like the γ'' and δ phases. This work presents an evaluation of the powerful optimum path forest (OPF) classifier configured with six distance functions to classify background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals from samples of the inconel 625 superalloy thermally aged at 650 and 950 °C for 10, 100 and 200 h. The background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals were acquired using transducers with frequencies of 4 and 5 MHz. The potentiality of ultrasonic sensor signals combined with the OPF to characterize the microstructures of an inconel 625 thermally aged and in the as-welded condition were confirmed by the results. The experimental results revealed that the OPF classifier is sufficiently fast (classification total time of 0.316 ms) and accurate (accuracy of 88.75%" and harmonic mean of 89.52) for the application proposed.

  4. Effect of Anodized Oxide Layer Aging on Wettability of Alkyl Silane Coating Developed on Aerospace Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganandan, G.; Bharathidasan, T.; Soumya Sri, M.; Vasumathy, D.; Balaraju, J. N.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2015-01-01

    Incipient nanoporous texture was developed by phosphoric acid anodization (PAAO) process on AA2024 specimen. The developed oxide layer was modified with low surface energy material fluoroalkyl-silane (FAS-13) by simple immersion technique to improve the hydrophobic property of the surface. Atomic force microscopy results showed that there was a significant reduction (30 pct) in surface roughness due to the aging of PAAO. The water contact angle measurement revealed that there was a gradual increase in WCA from 130 to 160 deg due to the aging of PAAO. A systematic composition analysis was carried out to understand the interfacial chemical reaction and also to differentiate the coating formation mechanism between the natural and artificial aging processes. The potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the superhydrophobic (SH) surface exhibited about 15 and 4 times improved corrosion resistance compared to bare specimen and PAAO, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results also showed the improved corrosion inhibition behavior of vacuum heat-treated and FAS-modified SH surface among the developed coatings.

  5. Ultrasonic Sensor Signals and Optimum Path Forest Classifier for the Microstructural Characterization of Thermally-Aged Inconel 625 Alloy

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.; Barbosa, Cleisson V.; Silva, Cleiton C.; Moura, Elineudo P.; Rebouças Filho, Pedro P.; Papa, João P.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary phases, such as laves and carbides, are formed during the final solidification stages of nickel-based superalloy coatings deposited during the gas tungsten arc welding cold wire process. However, when aged at high temperatures, other phases can precipitate in the microstructure, like the γ” and δ phases. This work presents an evaluation of the powerful optimum path forest (OPF) classifier configured with six distance functions to classify background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals from samples of the inconel 625 superalloy thermally aged at 650 and 950 °C for 10, 100 and 200 h. The background echo and backscattered ultrasonic signals were acquired using transducers with frequencies of 4 and 5 MHz. The potentiality of ultrasonic sensor signals combined with the OPF to characterize the microstructures of an inconel 625 thermally aged and in the as-welded condition were confirmed by the results. The experimental results revealed that the OPF classifier is sufficiently fast (classification total time of 0.316 ms) and accurate (accuracy of 88.75% and harmonic mean of 89.52) for the application proposed. PMID:26024416

  6. High-niobium titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes an aged niobium modified titanium aluminum alloy, the alloy consisting essentially of titanium, aluminum, and niobium in the following atomic ratio: Ti{sub 48-37}Al{sub 46-49}Nb{sub 6-14}, the alloy having been prepared by ingot metallurgy.

  7. Constitutive Behavior and Modeling of Al-Cu Alloy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    annealing to refine the grain structure. All alloys were melted from high purity components by induction heating, and casted into a steel mold. Alloys...summary of the tested alloys with their individual strengthening mechanisms and their processing procedure...containing Mg element were melted in an argon atmosphere to minimize oxidation . Precipitation hardenable alloys additionally aged at a low

  8. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  9. Low-cycle fatigue of two austenitic alloys in hydrogen gas and air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue resistance of type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X was evaluated in constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests conducted under continuous negative strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001 per sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 percent in both hydrogen gas and laboratory air environments in the temperature range 538-871 C. Elevated-temperature, compressive-strain hold-time experiments were also conducted. In hydrogen, the cyclic stress-strain behavior of both materials at 538 C was characterized by appreciable cyclic hardening at all strain ranges. At 871 C neither material hardened significantly; in fact, at 5% strain range 347 steel showed continuous cyclic softening until failure. The fatigue resistance of 347 steel was slightly higher than that of Alloy X at all temperatures and strain ranges. Ten-minute compressive hold time experiments at 760 and 871 C resulted in increased fatigue lives for 347 steel and decreased fatigue lives for Alloy X. Both alloys showed slightly lower fatigue resistance in air than in hydrogen. Some fractographic and metallographic results are also given.

  10. Method of producing superplastic alloys and superplastic alloys produced by the method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troeger, Lillianne P. (Inventor); Starke, Jr., Edgar A. (Inventor); Crooks, Roy (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing new superplastic alloys by inducing in an alloy the formation of precipitates having a sufficient size and homogeneous distribution that a sufficiently refined grain structure to produce superplasticity is obtained after subsequent PSN processing. An age-hardenable alloy having at least one dispersoid phase is selected for processing. The alloy is solution heat-treated and cooled to form a supersaturated solid solution. The alloy is plastically deformed sufficiently to form a high-energy defect structure useful for the subsequent heterogeneous nucleation of precipitates. The alloy is then aged, preferably by a multi-stage low and high temperature process, and precipitates are formed at the defect sites. The alloy then is subjected to a PSN process comprising plastically deforming the alloy to provide sufficient strain energy in the alloy to ensure recrystallization, and statically recrystallizing the alloy. A grain structure exhibiting new, fine, equiaxed and uniform grains is produced in the alloy. An exemplary 6xxx alloy of the type capable of being produced by the present invention, and which is useful for aerospace, automotive and other applications, is disclosed and claimed. The process is also suitable for processing any age-hardenable aluminum or other alloy.

  11. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  12. Weldable aluminum alloy has improved mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerlund, R. W.

    1966-01-01

    Weldable aluminum alloy has good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking, shows unchanged strength and formability after storage at room temperature, and can be pre-aged, stretched, and aged. Since toxic fumes of cadmium oxide are evolved when the new alloy is welded, adequate ventilation must be provided.

  13. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  14. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  15. Single Point Incremental Forming of an Aged AL-Cu-Mg Alloy: Influence of Pre-heat Treatment and Warm Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Qin, Ling; Vanhove, Hans; Seefeldt, Marc; Van Bael, Albert; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-06-01

    This research is aimed at enhancing the poor room temperature formability of heat-treatable aluminum alloy AA2024-T3, without deterioration of its post-forming properties. For this purpose, the influences of different heat-treatment conditions as well as warm forming on the single point incremental forming formability and post-forming properties of this material were investigated. Thermal pre-treatments were consisting of annealing (O-temper), solution treating and quenching (W-temper), and solution heat treating, quenching, and then cold working (T-temper). The formability results as well as forming forces of pre-heat-treated sheets were compared to those of the warm forming process results carried out using a laser-assisted single point incremental forming (LASPIF) setup. The post-forming properties of SPIF-formed parts were analyzed by hardness testing. The maximum forming angles of the blank formed under O-temper and W-temper conditions showed, respectively, 41 and 32% increases compared to the one under T-temper condition. LASPIF forming of this material at a temperature of about 360 °C resulted in 41% improvement in the maximum forming angle with respect to parts formed at room temperature from the T-temper sheet. The hardness of the material reduced significantly after annealing, while SPIF parts formed from W-temper blanks and under LASPIF condition regained their hardness after natural aging. The fracture surface characteristics of the failed parts showed that voids nucleate at the interface between intermetallic particles and matrix, and a dimple rupture fracture mode was identified under all heat-treatment conditions. Under O-temper condition, due to precipitation of particles along the grain boundary, an intergranular dimple rupture was observed. Finally, Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to investigate the possible effects of the heat treatment and the deformation on the changes in the composition of

  16. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    PubMed Central

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11–xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1–xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2. PMID:25970763

  17. A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys with AlB2 type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, B.; Högberg, H.; Armiento, R.; Rosen, J.; Hultman, L.

    2015-05-01

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary M11-xM2xB2 alloys comprising MiB2 (Mi = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at EF in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  18. Evaluation of a diffusion/trapping model for hydrogen ingress in high-strength alloys. Final technical report, November 1988-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, B.G.

    1990-11-14

    The objective of this research was to obtain the hydrogen ingress and trapping characteristics for a range of microstructures and so identify the dominant type of irreversible trap in different alloys. A diffusion/trapping model was used in conjunction with a potentiostatic pulse technique to study the ingress of hydrogen in three precipitation-hardened alloys (Inconel 718, Incoloy 925, and 18Ni maraging steel), two work-hardened alloys (Inconel 625 and Hastelloy C-276), titanium (pure and grade 2), and copper-enriched AISI 4340 steel in 1 mol/L acetic acid-1 mol/L sodium acetate containing 15 ppm arsenic oxide. In all cases except pure titanium, the data were shown to fit the interface-control form of the model and values were determined for the irreversible trapping constants (k) and the flux of hydrogen into the alloys. The density of irreversible trap defects were calculated from k and generally found to be in close agreement with the concentration of a specific heterogeneity in each alloy. Moreover, the trapping constants for the alloys were found to be consistent with their relative susceptibilities to hydrogen embrittlement.

  19. PILOT EVALUATION OF VANADIUM ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARCS, SHEETS, ROLLING(METALLURGY), HIGH TEMPERATURE, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, DUCTILITY, CREEP, OXIDATION, COATINGS , SILICIDES , HARDNESS, WELDING, EXTRUSION, TANTALUM ALLOYS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS....VANADIUM ALLOYS, * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TITANIUM ALLOYS, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS, CARBON ALLOYS, MELTING, ELECTRIC

  20. Extremely high-rate, uniform dissolution of alloy C-22 in anhydrous organic solutions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Schindelholz, Eric J.; Christie, Michael A.; Allwein, Shawn P.; Kelly, Robert G.

    2016-06-21

    During routine pharmaceutical development and scale-up work, severe corrosion of a Hastelloy Alloy C-22 filter dryer was observed after single, short (several hours) contact with the product slurry at room temperature. Initial investigations showed that the presence of both 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and HCl was sufficient in an acetonitrile solution to cause rapid corrosion of C-22. More detailed mass loss studies showed initial corrosion rates exceeding25 mm/year that then decreased over several hours to steady state rates of 3-5 mm/year. The corrosion was highly uniform. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that although C-22 is spontaneously passive in acetonitrile solution, the presence of HCl leads to the development of a transpassive region. Furthermore, DDQ is a sufficiently strong oxidizer, particularly in acidic solutions, to polarize the C-22 well into the transpassive region, leading to the observed high corrosion rates.

  1. Nonswelling alloy

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  2. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  3. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  4. Siegel FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of Granular-Giant-Magnetoresistance (G-GMR) DiagnosES/ED Wigner's-Disease/.../Spinodal-Decomposition in ``Super''Alloys Generic Endemic Extant in: Nuclear-Reactors/ Petrochemical-Plants/Jet/ Missile-Engines/...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ace; Wigner-Weinberg, Eugene-Alvin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig Sidney; ORNL/Wigner/Weinberg/Siegel/Hollifeld/Yu/... Collaboration; ANL/Fermi/Wigner/Arrott/Weeks/Bader/Freeman/Sinha/Palazlotti/Nichols/Petersen/Rosner/Zimmer/... Collaboration; BNL/Chudahri/Damask/Dienes/Emery/Goldberg/Bak//Bari/Lofaro/... Collaboration; LLNL-LANL/Hecker/Tatro/Meara/Isbell/Wilkins/YFreund/Yudof/Dynes/Yang/... Collaboration; WestinKLouse/EPRI/PSEG/IAEA/ABB/Rickover/Nine/Carter/Starr/Stern/Hamilton/Richards/Lawes/OGrady/Izzo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Siegel[APS Shock-Physics Mtg., Chicago(11)] carbides solid-state chemistry[PSS (a)11,45(72); Semis. & Insuls. 5: 39,47,62 (79)], following: Weinberg-Siegel-Loretto-Hargraves-Savage-Westwood-Seitz-Overhauser-..., FIRST EXPERIMENTAL DISCOVERY of G-GMR[JMMM 7, 312(78); Google: ``If LEAKS Could KILL Ana Mayo''] identifIED/IES GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT domination of old/new (so mis-called) ``super''alloys': nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys (182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WD physics) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening

  5. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  6. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  7. Quenching and ageing effects on defects and their structures in FeAl alloys, and the influence on hardening and softening

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.A.; Morris, D.G.

    1998-01-06

    It is well known that FeAl has many thermal vacancies at high temperature which lead to significant hardening. During slow quenches from high temperature or on annealing after quenching vacancies annihilate at sinks leading to dislocation creation. The relative importance of hardening by vacancies and by dislocations has not been examined and is one objective of this study. There has been considerable effort devoted to the examination of vacancies in FeAl alloys, because of the large thermal vacancy concentrations and because of the hardening. The concentration of vacancies can be as high as several per cent for alloys close to stoichiometry at high temperatures, corresponding to a very low enthalpy for vacancy formation. The value depends on the Al content, with smaller values and larger vacancy concentrations for alloys near FeAl stoichiometry. Typical values range from 118kJ/mol for Fe-23.7%Al (atomic %), to 34 kJ/mol for stoichiometric FeAl.

  8. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  9. MATE (Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines) Program, Project 3. Volume 2: Design, fabrication and evaluation of an oxide dispersion strengthened sheet alloy combustor liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, S.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1988-01-01

    The suitability of wrought oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy sheet for gas turbine engine combustor applications was evaluated. Two yttria (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened alloys were evaluated; Incoloy MA956 and Haynes Development Alloy (HDA) 8077 (NiCrAl base). Preliminary tests showed both alloys to be potentially viable combustor materials, with neither alloy exhibiting a significant advantage over the other. MA956 was selected as the final alloy based on manufacturing reproducibility for evaluation as a burner liner. A hybrid PW2037 inner burner liner containing MA956 and Hastelloy X components and using a louvered configuration was designed and constructed. The louvered configuration was chosen because of field experience and compatibility with the bill of material PW2037 design. The simulated flight cycle for the ground based engine tests consisted of 4.5 min idle, 1.5 min takeoff and intermediate conditions in a PW2037 engine with average uncorrected combustor exit temperature of 1527 C. Post test evaluation consisting of visual observations and fluorescent penetrant inspections was conducted after 500 cycles of testing. No loss of integrity in the burner liner was shown.

  10. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  11. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  12. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Nagy, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Materials and Methods Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours’ storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn’s post hoc test at the α = 0.05. Results The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Conclusions Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling. PMID:27335613

  13. Precipitation hardening in aluminum alloy 6022

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, W.F.; Laughlin, D.E.

    1999-03-05

    Although the precipitation process in Al-Mg-Si alloys has been extensively studied, the understanding of the hardening process is still incomplete, since any change in composition, processing and aging practices, etc., could affect the precipitation hardening behavior. In this paper, hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy have been utilized to study the precipitation hardening behavior in aluminum alloy 6022.

  14. Carburization of austenitic alloys by gaseous impurities in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, G.Y.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-03-01

    The carburization behavior of Alloy 800H, Inconel Alloy 617 and Hastelloy Alloy X in helium containing various amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted in a temperature range from 649 to 1000/sup 0/C (1200 to 1832/sup 0/F) for exposure time up to 10,000 h. Four different helium environments, identified as A, B, C, and D, were investigated. Concentrations of gaseous impurities were 1500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 450 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment A; 200 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 100 ..mu..atm CO, 20 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/, 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O and 5 ..mu..atm CO/sub 2/ for Environment B; 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and < 0.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment C; and 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 1.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment D. Environments A and B were characteristic of high-oxygen potential, while C and D were characteristic of low-oxygen potential. The results showed that the carburization kinetics in low-oxygen potential environments (C and D) were significantly higher, approximately an order of magnitude higher at high temperatures, than those in high-oxygen potential environments (A and B) for all three alloys. Thermodynamic analyses indicated no significant differences in the thermodynamic carburization potential between low- and high-oxygen potential environments. It is thus believed that the enhanced carburization kinetics observed in the low-oxygen potential environments were related to kinetic effects. A qualitatively mechanistic model was proposed to explain the enhanced kinetics. The present results further suggest that controlling the oxygen potential of the service environment can be an effective means of reducing carburization of alloys.

  15. Solution Potentials Indicate Aluminum-Alloy Tempers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses use of solution potential as measure of temper of aluminum alloys. Technique based on fact that different tempers or heat treatments exhibit different solution potentials as function of aging time.

  16. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking in HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Hyatt, B.Z.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded compact tension specimens was performed in 360 C water to determine the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct-aged Alloy 625. New data confirm previous results showing that high irradiation levels reduce SCC resistance in Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat variability correlates with boron content, with low boron heats showing improved IASCC properties. Alloy 625 is resistant to IASCC, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens. Microstructural, microchemical and deformation studies were performed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750 and the lack of an effect in Alloy 625. The mechanisms under investigation are: boron transmutation effects, radiation-induced changes in microstructure and deformation characteristics, and radiation-induced segregation. Irradiation of Alloy X-750 caused significant strengthening and ductility loss that was associated with the formation of cavities and dislocation loops. High irradiation levels did not cause significant segregation of alloying or trace elements in Alloy X-750. Irradiation of Alloy 625 resulted in the formation of small dislocation loops and a fine body-centered-orthorhombic phase. The strengthening due to the loops and precipitates was apparently offset by a partial dissolution of {gamma}{double_prime} precipitates, as Alloy 625 showed no irradiation-induced strengthening or ductility loss. In the nonirradiated condition, an IASCC susceptible HTH heat containing 28 ppm B showed grain boundary segregation of boron, whereas a nonsusceptible HTH heat containing 2 ppm B and Alloy 625 with 20 ppm B did not show significant boron segregation. Transmutation of boron to helium at grain boundaries, coupled with matrix strengthening, is believed to be responsible for IASCC in Alloy X-750, and the absence of these two effects results in the superior IASCC resistance displayed by Alloy 625.

  17. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D. Davis, J.; Drew, M.; Harrison, R.P.; Edwards, L.

    2015-07-15

    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiG welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr){sub 4}(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni{sub 3}(Mo,Cr){sub 3}(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases in weld

  18. Effects of alloy composition in alleviating embrittlement problems associated with the tantalum alloy T-111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The causes of aging embrittlement in T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and the effect of alloy modification were investigated. Results show that T-111 possesses a critical combination of tungsten and hafnium that leads to loss in ductility at -196 C after aging near 1040 C. It was found that this occurs because tungsten enhances hafnium segregation to grain boundaries, which also leads to increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Aging embrittlement was not observed in tantalum alloys with reduced tungsten or hafnium contents; most of the alloys studied have lower strengths than T-111 and exhibit susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.

  19. Effects of alloy composition in alleviating embrittlement problems associated with the tantalum alloy T-111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The causes of aging embrittlement in T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and the effects of alloy modification were investigated. Results showed that T-111 contains a critical combination of tungsten and hafnium that leads to loss of ductility at -196 C after aging near 1040 C. This appears to occur because tungsten enhances hafnium segregation to grain boundaries and this also leads to increased susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Aging embrittlement was not observed in tantalum alloys with reduced tungsten or hafnium contents; however, most of the alloys studied have lower strengths than T-111 and exhibit susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.

  20. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of an Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al base alloy during aging at 950°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Man; Sun, Yong-duo; Feng, Jing-kai; Zhang, Rui-qian; Tang, Rui; Zhou, Zhang-jian

    2016-03-01

    The development of Gen-IV nuclear systems and ultra-supercritical power plants proposes greater demands on structural materials used for key components. An Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al (316-base) alumina-forming austenitic steel was developed in our laboratory. Its microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during aging at 950°C were investigated subsequently. Micro-structural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Needle-shaped NiAl particles begin to precipitate in austenite after ageing for 10 h, whereas round NiAl particles in ferrite are coarsened during aging. Precipitates of NiAl with different shapes in different matrices result from differences in lattice misfits. The tensile plasticity increases by 32.4% after aging because of the improvement in the percentage of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries, whereas the tensile strength remains relatively high at approximately 790 MPa.

  1. Optimization of conductivity and strength in Cu-Ni-Si alloys by suppressing discontinuous precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Sung Hwan; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sangshik

    2016-11-01

    Cu-Ni-Si alloys with and without Ti were solution treated at 980 °C for 1 h and cooled by air cooling and water quenching, after which the specimens were aged at 500 °C. The two alloys showed different aging characteristics with different cooling rates during the aging process. The conductivity of all alloys increased during aging; for alloys that were water quenched, hardness increased at the early stage of aging and then drastically decreased. The air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si alloy without Ti also experienced an increase in hardness, which then decreased during aging, but the air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si alloy with Ti did not show a drastic decrease in hardness during prolonged aging. A combination of yield strength and conductivity of 820 MPa and 42% IACS, respectively, was achieved in the air-cooled Cu-Ni-Si-Ti alloy after solution treatment.

  2. Effect of outdoor exposure at ambient and elevated temperatures on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution treated and aged condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.

  3. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  4. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    A corrosion study involving high-alloy materials and concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) was conducted in support of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Conversion Project (CP). The purpose of the test was to obtain a greater understanding of the corrosion rates of materials of construction currently used in the CP vs those of proposed replacement parts. Results of the study will help formulate a change-out schedule for CP parts. The CP will convert slightly less than 40 kg of {sup 233}U from a gas (UF{sub 6}) sorbed on sodium fluoride pellets to a more stable oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}). One by-product of the conversion is the formation of concentrated HF. Six moles of highly corrosive HF are produced for each mole of UF{sub 6} converted. This acid is particularly corrosive to most metals, elastomers, and silica-containing materials. A common impurity found in {sup 233}U is {sup 232}U. This impurity isotope has several daughters that make the handling of the {sup 233}U difficult. Traps of {sup 233}U may have radiation fields of up to 400 R at contact, a situation that makes the process of changing valves or working on the CP more challenging. It is also for this reason that a comprehensive part change-out schedule must be established. Laboratory experiments involving the repeated transfer of HF through 1/2-in. metal tubing and valves have proven difficult due to the corrosivity of the HF upon contact with all wetted parts. Each batch of HF is approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt% HF and is transferred most often as a vapor under vacuum and at temperatures of up to 250 C. Materials used in the HF side of the CP include Hastelloy C-276 and Monel 400 tubing, Haynes 230 and alloy C-276 vessels, and alloy 400 valve bodies with Inconel (alloy 600) bellows. The chemical compositions of the metals discussed in this report are displayed in Table 1. Of particular concern are the almost 30 vendor-supplied UG valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. These valves have been

  5. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  6. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture

  7. Hydrogen transport in nickel-base alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, A.; Ballinger, R. G.; Hwang, I. S.; Morra, M. M.; Psaila-Dombrowski, M.; Gates, R. M.

    1992-12-01

    The electrochemical permeation technique has been used to characterize hydrogen transport and trapping in pure nickel and in alloys 600, X-750, and 718 at a temperature of 80 °C. The “effective diffusivity ” of hydrogen atoms in alloy 600 is reduced by a factor of about 5 compared to pure nickel. This is attributed to both compositional changes and the presence of [(Ti, Nb)C] carbides. Aging of alloy 600, with subsequent M23C6 carbide precipitation, does not significantly influence the measured “effective diffusivity,” which is explained by the dominant effect of preexisting [(Ti, Nb)C] carbides. The “effective diffusivity” of hydrogen atoms in solution-annealed alloy X-750 is reduced by a factor of about 9 compared to that of pure nickel. This is also attributed to compositional changes and [(Ti,Nb)C] carbides. Aging of alloy X-750, which causes precipitation of γ'[Ni3(Al, Ti)], reduces the “effective diffusivity” by an additional factor of 5 or more. Double aging at 885 °C/24 hours, 704 °C/20 hours following hot working yields the greatest reduction in “effective diffusivity.” Analysis of permeation transients using a diffusion- trapping model indicates a binding energy associated with trapping due to the γ phase of be- tween -31 and -37 kJ/mol. The “effective diffusivity” of hydrogen in alloy 718 is about 40 pct greater than for alloy X-750 for the same double and direct aging treatments. The average “effective diffusivities” of the double-aged and direct-aged alloy 718 are comparable, but the permeation transients for the double-aged treatment are significantly steeper. The double-aged treatment with predominantly δ phase (orthorhombic Ni3Nb) yields a binding energy of about -30 kJ/mol. Analysis of the direct aged-treated 718, which contains predominantly γ″ phase (body-centered tetragonal Ni3Nb) gave a binding energy between -23 and -27 kJ/mol. Seg- regation of hydrogen atoms to the γ matrix interface, combined with a

  8. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  9. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  10. Development of constitutive models for cyclic plasticity and creep behavior of super alloys at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.

  11. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  12. Atlas of Formability: Hastelloy C-22

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    but the twin boundaries show the 8 presence of necklacing. 6 950(1742) 0.50 9 7 950(1742) 1.0 Elongated grains with -10 % of small 10 recrystallized...grains. Some necklacing at the twin boundaries and slip bands are present. 8 950(1742) 5.0 11 9 950(1742) 20.0 Elongated grains with -15 % of small...12 r.zcrystallized grains (-9 gm). Some necklacing around the elongated grains and twin boundaries . Slip bands are also present. 10 1000(1832) 0.001

  13. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Bajaj, R.; Kearns, J.J.; Hoffman, R.C.; Korinko, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded precracked compact tension specimens was performed in 360{degree}C water to determine effect of irradiation on the SCC behavior of HTH Alloy X-750 and direct aged Alloy 625. Out-of-flux and autoclave control specimens provided baseline data. Primary test variables were stress intensity factor, fluence, chemistry, processing history, prestrain. Results for the first series of experiments were presented at a previous conference. Data from two more recent experiments are compared with previous results; they confirm that high irradiation levels significantly reduce SCC resistance in HTH Alloy X-750. Heat-to-heat differences in IASCC were related to differences in boron content, with low boron heats showing improved SCC resistance. The in-reactor SCC performance of Alloy 625 was superior to that for Alloy X-750, as no cracking was observed in any Alloy 625 specimens even though they were tested at very high K{sub 1} and fluence levels. A preliminary SCC usage model developed for Alloy X-750 indicates that in-reactor creep processes, which relax stresses but also increase crack tip strain rates, and radiolysis effects accelerate SCC. Hence, in-reactor SCC damage under high flux conditions may be more severe than that associated with postirradiation tests. In addition, preliminary mechanism studies were performed to determine the cause of IASCC In Alloy X-750.

  14. Alloy development for the enhanced stability of Omega precipitates in aluminum-copper-magnesium-(silver) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Brian M.

    This research involved a combined analytical and experimental approach to the design of an age-hardenable Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy for moderate temperature application. The applied methodology involved the complimentary techniques of thermal analysis, calculated phase diagrams, analytical microscopy and quantitative microstructural characterization. The objective of this research was to exploit several avenues for enhancing the coarsening resistance and thermal stability of the O phase through careful control of the alloy chemistry and processing. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with conventional and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were implemented to refine the calculation of the Al-rich corner of the quaternary Al-Cu-Mg-Ag phase diagram for subsequent alloy development. Quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrated that Ag preferentially partitioned to S-phase for all conditions investigated, which ultimately led to a concomitant loss of O precipitates. The elimination of S-phase precipitation and limiting the alloy Si content proved to enhance the nucleation and thermal stability of the O phase. Several O-dominated microstructures were manipulated through various thermo-mechanical processing techniques in order to evaluate the O nucleation density, particle size and thermal stability as a function of alloy composition and processing conditions. The long-term stability of O plates was found to coincide with high levels of Ag and moderate Mg additions, with the latter limiting the competition with S-phase precipitation. Several alloys were found to be dominated by O precipitation, which remained stable through long-term isothermal and double-aging heat treatments. This enhanced thermal stability of O plates is a significant improvement over the previous generation of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys in which O plates dissolved sacrificially at long aging times for moderate aging temperatures. The competitive microstructural

  15. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys.

    PubMed

    Tie, D; Feyerabend, F; Müller, W D; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; Kainer, K U; Willumeit, R

    2013-06-16

    The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4) and aging (T6) heat treatment. The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH)₂ and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7), revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269), and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  16. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  17. Weldability of intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys are a unique class of material that have potential for structural applications at elevated temperatures. The paper describes the welding and weldability of these alloys. The alloys studied were nickel aluminide (Ni[sub 3]Al), titanium aluminide (Ti[sub 3]Al), and iron aluminide.

  18. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  19. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  20. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  1. Method to increase the toughness of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaran, Krishnan K. (Inventor); Sova, Brian J. (Inventor); Babel, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method to increase the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 and similar alloys at cryogenic temperatures above their room temperature toughness is provided. Increasing the cryogenic toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 allows the use of alloy C458 for cryogenic tanks, for example for launch vehicles in the aerospace industry. A two-step aging treatment for alloy C458 is provided. A specific set of times and temperatures to age the aluminum-lithium alloy C458 to T8 temper is disclosed that results in a higher toughness at cryogenic temperatures compared to room temperature. The disclosed two-step aging treatment for alloy 458 can be easily practiced in the manufacturing process, does not involve impractical heating rates or durations, and does not degrade other material properties.

  2. Aluminum alloy 6013 sheet for new U. S. Navy aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, R.S.; Bakow, L.; Lee, E.W. Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA )

    1990-05-01

    The recently developed aluminum alloy 6013-T6 has been selected for the fuselage skin and other applications on the U.S. Navy's P-7A airplane, in place of the traditional 2024-T3 clad sheet. Alloy 6013-T6 is naturally corrosion resistant, like the well-established alloy 6061, and hence is used unclad. Its fatigue strength, fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness compare favorably with 2024-T3. Replacement of alloy 2024 with alloy 6013 also reduces manufacturing costs for formed parts, because 6013 is readily formed in the T4 temper, then simply aged to T6, thus avoiding the costly heat treatments and straightening required for alloy 2024. 5 refs.

  3. Effect of reduction of strategic Columbium addition in 718 Alloy on the structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, K. R.; Wallace, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Inconel 718, with reduced Cb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Cb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0% to 5.8% were made for the Cb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Cb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Cb and 1.29% Ti were also studied. Tensile properties at rooom and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and an analysis of extracted phases were carried out for each of the alloys. Additions of solid solution elements to a reduced Cb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition. The solution and age alloys with substitutions of 1.27% i at 3.89% Cb had tensile properties similar top hose of the original alloy and stress-rupture properties superior to the original alloy. The improved stress-rupture properties were the result of significant precipitation of Ni3Ti-gamma prime in the alloy, which is more stable than gamma' at the elevated temperatures. At lower temperatures, the new alloy benefits from gamma' strengthening. With more precise control and proper processing, the reduced Cb direct-age alloy could substitute for Alloy 718 in high strength applications.

  4. Comparison of microstructural evolution in Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe and Ti-15Mo biocompatible alloys.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R; Stechschulte, J; Fraser, H L

    2005-07-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two biocompatible alloy systems, the binary Ti-15Mo and the quaternary Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe (TMZF), have been compared and contrasted in this paper. In the homogenized condition, while the Ti-15Mo alloy exhibited a single phase microstructure consisting of large beta grains, the TMZF alloy exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 h, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the TMZF alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys in the homogenized and homogenized plus aged conditions. The results indicate that the omega precipitates dissolve on ageing in case of the Ti-15Mo alloy, consequently leading to a substantial decrease in the hardness. In contrast, the omega precipitates do not dissolve on ageing in the TMZF alloy and the precipitation of the fine scale secondary alpha leads to increased hardness.

  5. Extrusion of aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the importance of extruded alloys has increased due to the decline in copper extrusion, increased use in structural applications, environmental impact and reduced energy consumption. There have also been huge technical advances. This text provides comprehensive coverage of the metallurgical, mathematical and practical features of the process. The contents include: continuum principles; metallurgical features affecting the extrusion of Al-alloys; extrusion processing; homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys; processing of 6XXX alloys; plant utilization; Appendix A: specification of AA alloys and DIN equivalents; Appendix B: chemical compositions; and Appendix C: typical properties.

  6. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  8. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.S.; Redington, W.

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  9. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  10. Gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, M.; Inui, H.; Kishida, K.; Matsumuro, M.; Shirai, Y.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive progress and improvements have been made in the science and technology of gamma titanium aluminide alloys within the last decade. In particular, the understanding of their microstructural characteristics and property/microstructure relationships has been substantially deepened. Based on these achievements, various engineering two-phase gamma alloys have been developed and their mechanical and chemical properties have been assessed. Aircraft and automotive industries arc pursuing their introduction for various structural components. At the same time, recent basic studies on the mechanical properties of two-phase gamma alloys, in particular with a controlled lamellar structure have provided a considerable amount of fundamental information on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of the two-phase gamma alloys. The results of such basic studies are incorporated in the recent alloy and microstructure design of two-phase gamma alloys. In this paper, such recent advances in the research and development of the two-phase gamma alloys and industrial involvement are summarized.

  11. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  12. Microstructure and properties of Cu-Ti-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Xian-hui; Guo, Ting-ting; Zou, Jun-tao; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Ni addition and aging treatments on the microstructure and properties of a Cu-3Ti alloy were investigated. The microstructure and precipitation phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the resulting alloys were also tested. The results show that Ni addition increases the electrical conductivity and elastic modulus, but decreases the hardness of the aged Cu-3Ti alloy. Within the range of the experimentally investigated parameters, the optimal two-stage aging treatment for the Cu-3Ti-1Ni and Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy was 300°C for 2 h and 450°C for 7 h. The hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-1Ni alloy were HV 205, 18.2% IACS, and 146 GPa, respectively, whereas the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy were HV 187, 31.32% IACS, and 147 GPa, respectively. Microstructural analyses revealed that β'-Ni3Ti and β'-Cu4Ti precipitate from the Cu matrix during aging of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy and that some residual NiTi phase remains. The increased electrical conductivity is ascribed to the formation of NiTi, β'-Ni3Ti, and β'-Cu4Ti phases.

  13. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  14. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors!!! ``Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease IN-stability!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Siegel [[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312(78); PSS(a)11,45(72); Semis.& Insuls.5(79)] (at: ORNL, ANS, Westin``KL"ouse, PSEG, IAEA, ABB) warning of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/ jet/missile/rocket-engines austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so MIS- called)``super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X; 600;304/304L-SSs; 690 !!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's- diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]; Ostwald-ripening; spinodal- decomposition; overageing-embrittlement; thermomechanical- INstability: Mayo[Google: ``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: [Siegel<<<``Fert"(88) 2007-Nobel/Wolf/Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin``KL"ouse PWRs(12/06)]; Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827 (78)]-Sabol-Stickler[PSS(70)]; Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals (77)]; Russell[Prog. Mtls.Sci.(83)]; Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/95)]; Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]; Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(79)]; Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com],...what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrit- tlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n``u''tional-la``v''atories sabotage!!!

  15. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: ``Super'' alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Joseph; Bument, Arlden; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines is austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so miscalled)"super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-disease(WD) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (46)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing-embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google: fLeaksCouldKill > ; - Siegel [ J . Mag . Mag . Mtls . 7 , 312 (78) = atflickr . comsearchonGiant - Magnotoresistance [Fert" [PRL(1988)]-"Gruenberg"[PRL(1989)] 2007-Nobel]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin"KL"ouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai [Met.Trans.AIME, 9A,827(78)]-Sabol-Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(70)]-Ashpahani[ Intl.Conf. Hydrogen in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell [Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard [last UCS rept.(9/1995)]-Lofaro [BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle [ Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman [animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as "butt-welds" "stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrittlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  16. Extremely high-rate, uniform dissolution of alloy C-22 in anhydrous organic solutions at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Schindelholz, Eric J.; Christie, Michael A.; Allwein, Shawn P.; ...

    2016-06-21

    During routine pharmaceutical development and scale-up work, severe corrosion of a Hastelloy Alloy C-22 filter dryer was observed after single, short (several hours) contact with the product slurry at room temperature. Initial investigations showed that the presence of both 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and HCl was sufficient in an acetonitrile solution to cause rapid corrosion of C-22. More detailed mass loss studies showed initial corrosion rates exceeding25 mm/year that then decreased over several hours to steady state rates of 3-5 mm/year. The corrosion was highly uniform. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that although C-22 is spontaneously passive in acetonitrile solution, the presence of HClmore » leads to the development of a transpassive region. Furthermore, DDQ is a sufficiently strong oxidizer, particularly in acidic solutions, to polarize the C-22 well into the transpassive region, leading to the observed high corrosion rates.« less

  17. High strength cast aluminum alloy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschitz, Edward A.

    The goal of this research was to understand how chemistry and processing affect the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength cast aluminum alloys. Two alloy systems were investigated including the Al-Cu-Ag and the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu systems. Processing variables included solidification under pressure (SUP) and heat treatment. This research determined the range in properties that can be achieved in BAC 100(TM) (Al-Cu micro-alloyed with Ag, Mn, Zr, and V) and generated sufficient property data for design purposes. Tensile, stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue testing were performed. CuAl2 and Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallics were identified as the ductility limiting flaws. A solution treatment of 75 hours or longer was needed to dissolve most of the intermetallic CuAl 2. The Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic was unaffected by heat treatment. These results indicate that faster cooling rates, a reduction in copper concentration and a reduction in iron concentration might increase the ductility of the alloy by decreasing the size and amount of the intermetallics that form during solidification. Six experimental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu series alloys were produced. Zinc concentrations of 8 and 12wt% and Zn/Mg ratios of 1.5 to 5.5 were tested. Copper was held constant at 0.9%. Heat treating of the alloys was optimized for maximum hardness. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu samples were solution treated at 441°C (826°F) for 4 hours before ramping to 460°C (860°F) for 75 hours and then aged at 120°C (248°F) for 75 hours. X-ray diffraction showed that the age hardening precipitates in most of these alloys was the T phase (Mg32Zn 31.9Al17.1). Tensile testing of the alloys showed that the best mechanical properties were obtained in the lowest alloy condition. Chilled Al-8.2Zn-1.4Mg-0.9Cu solidified under pressure resulted in an alloy with a yield strength of 468MPa (68ksi), tensile strength of 525MPa (76ksi) and an elongation of 9%.

  18. Materials Design for Joinable, High Performance Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glamm, Ryan James

    An aluminum alloy compatible with friction stir welding is designed for automotive and aerospace structural applications. Current weldable automotive aluminum alloys do not possess the necessary strength to meet safety standards and therefore are not able to replace steel in the automotive body. Significant weight savings could be achieved if steel components are replaced with aluminum. Current aerospace alloys are not weldable, requiring machining of large pieces that are then riveted together. If an aerospace alloy could be friction stir welded, smaller pieces could be welded, reducing material waste. Using a systems approach for materials design, property goals are set from performance objectives. From previous research and computational predictions, a structure is designed for a prototype alloy containing dynamic precipitates to readily dissolve and re-precipitate and high stability precipitates to resist dissolution and coarsening in the weld region. It is found that a Ag modified Al-3.9Mg-0.04Cu (at. %) alloy enhanced the rate and magnitude of hardening during ageing, both beneficial effects for dynamic precipitation. In the same alloy, ageing at 350°C results in hardening from Al 3(Sc,Zr) precipitates. Efforts to effectively precipitate both populations simultaneously are unsuccessful. The Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitation hardened prototype is friction stir processed and no weak zones are found in the weld hardness profile. An aerospace alloy design is proposed, utilizing the dual precipitate structure shown in the prototype. The automotive alloy is designed using a basic strength model with parameters determined from the initial prototype alloy analysis. After ageing to different conditions, the alloy is put through a simulated heat affected zone thermal cycle with a computer controlled induction heater. The aged samples lose hardness from the weld cycle but recover hardness from a post weld heat treatment. Atom probe tomography and transmission electron

  19. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys.

  20. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  1. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  2. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  3. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  4. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  5. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  6. Supersaturated Aluminum Alloy Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-15

    shown in Fig. 18 . It .an be clearly seen that most of the iron is concentrated in the precipitates (Fig. 18 ), X-ray mapping immage for the chromium...At 232°C our alloys are comparable to 2� and 2618 in their tensile properties, and except for alloy #1 which at t i temperature has elongation of...demonstrate better yield strength and UTS than the 2219, 2618 and are comparable to the ALCOA alloy. They show however higher ductility than the ALCOA alloy

  7. An investigation of squeeze-cast alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamwell, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy 718 billets produced by the squeeze-cast process have been evaluated for use as potential replacements for propulsion engine components which are normally produced from forgings. Alloy 718 billets were produced using various processing conditions. Structural characterizations were performed on 'as-cast' billets. As-cast billets were then homogenized and solution treated and aged according to conventional heat-treatment practices for this alloy. Mechanical property evaluations were performed on heat-treated billets. As-cast macrostructures and microstructures varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters. Mechanical properties varied with squeeze-cast processing parameters and heat treatments. One billet exhibited a defect free, refined microstructure, with mechanical properties approaching those of wrought alloy 718 bar, confirming the feasibility of squeeze-casting alloy 718. However, further process optimization is required, and further structural and mechanical property improvements are expected with process optimization.

  8. Hardness correlation for uranium and its alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D L; Romig, Jr, A D

    1983-03-01

    The hardness of 16 different uranium-titanium (U-Ti) alloys was measured on six (6) different hardness scales (R/sub A/, R/sub B/, R/sub C/, R/sub D/, Knoop, and Vickers). The alloys contained between 0.75 and 2.0 wt % Ti. All of the alloys were solutionized (850/sup 0/C, 1 h) and ice-water quenched to produce a supersaturated martensitic phase. A range of hardnesses was obtained by aging the samples for various times and temperatures. The correlation of various hardness scales was shown to be virtually identical to the hardness-scale correlation for steels. For more-accurate conversion from one hardness scale to another, least-squares-curve fits were determined for the various hardness-scale correlations. 34 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Strengthening mechanisms in Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe orthopaedic alloys.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajarshi; Nag, Soumya; Stechschulte, John; Fraser, Hamish L

    2004-08-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two novel orthopaedic alloy systems, Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe, have been compared and contrasted in this paper. Specifically, the alloy compositions considered are Ti-34Nb-9Zr-8Ta and Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe. In the homogenized condition, both alloys exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low-volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 hr, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys prior to and post the ageing treatment. The results indicate the existence of a metastable B2 ordering in the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy in the homogenized condition which is destroyed by the ageing treatment, consequently leading to a decrease in the hardness.

  10. Creep behavior of niobium alloy PWC-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Moore, T. J.; Grobstein, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    The high vacuum creep and creep-rupture behavior of a Nb-1Zr-.1C alloy (PWC 11) was investigated at 1350 and 1400 K with an applied stress of 40 MPa. The material was tested in the following four conditions: annealed (1 hr 1755 K/2 hr 1475 K); annealed plus EB welded; annealed plus aged for 1000 hr at 1350 or 1400 K; and annealed, welded, and aged. It was found that the material in the annealed state was the most creep-resistant condition tested, and that aging the alloy for 1000 hr without an applied stress greatly reduced that strength; however, it was still approximately three times as creep resistant as Nb-1Zr. Additionally, the EB weld region was stronger than the base metal in each condition tested, and phase extraction of the dispersed precipitate revealed the presence of a 70%ZrC-30%NbC cubic monocarbide phase.

  11. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  12. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1983-04-19

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  13. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  14. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  15. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  16. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  17. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  18. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  19. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  20. Alloys in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  1. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  2. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology program (LA2ST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. The general aim is to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environment/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated students for aerospace technologies. Specific technical objectives are presented for each of the following research projects: time-temperature dependent fracture in advanced wrought ingot metallurgy, and spray deposited aluminum alloys; cryogenic temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of Al-Li-Cu-In alloys; effects of aging and temperature on the ductile fracture of AA2095 and AA2195; mechanisms of localized corrosion in alloys 2090 and 2095; hydrogen interactions in aluminum-lithium alloys 2090 and selected model alloys; mechanisms of deformation and fracture in high strength titanium alloys (effects of temperature and hydrogen and effects of temperature and microstructure); evaluations of wide-panel aluminum alloy extrusions; Al-Si-Ge alloy development; effects of texture and precipitates on mechanical property anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X alloys; damage evolution in polymeric composites; and environmental effects in fatigue life prediction - modeling crack propagation in light aerospace alloys.

  3. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugolo, J.; Erlebacher, J.; Sieradzki, K.

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials.

  4. Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy.

    PubMed

    Rugolo, J; Erlebacher, J; Sieradzki, K

    2006-12-01

    De-alloying is the selective dissolution of one or more of the elemental components of an alloy. In binary alloys that exhibit complete solid solubility, de-alloying of the less noble component results in the formation of nanoporous metals, a materials class that has attracted attention for applications such as catalysis, sensing and actuation. In addition, the occurrence of de-alloying in metallic alloy systems under stress is known to result in stress-corrosion cracking, a key failure mechanism in fossil fuel and nuclear plants, ageing aircraft, and also an important concern in the design of nuclear-waste storage containers. Central to the design of corrosion-resistant alloys is the identification of a composition-dependent electrochemical critical potential, Vcrit, above which the current rises dramatically with potential, signalling the onset of bulk de-alloying. Below Vcrit, the surface is passivated by the accumulation of up to several monolayers of the more noble component. The current understanding of the processes that control Vcrit is incomplete. Here, we report on de-alloying results of Ag/Au superlattices that clarify the role of pre-existing length scales in alloy dissolution. Our data motivated us to re-analyse existing data on critical potentials of Ag-Au alloys and develop a simple unifying picture that accounts for the compositional dependence of solid-solution alloy critical potentials.

  5. Microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of different tempers

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, Prasanta Kumar Ghosh, M.M.; Ghosh, K.S.

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the microstructural features and associated physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of various tempers. A 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy was subjected to different ageing schedules to produce under-(T4), peak-(T6), over-(T7) and highly over-aged tempers. Optical microscopy, hardness measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, tensile testing and SEM fractographs, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical polarization studies have been used to characterize the alloy tempers. Hardness measurement and tensile testing showed the characteristic age hardening phenomenon of aluminium alloys. Optical and TEM micrographs have revealed the variation in size of matrix strengthening η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) and also the size and distribution of grain boundary η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitate with ageing time. DSC thermograms exhibiting exothermic and endothermic peaks indicated the characteristic solid state reaction sequence of the 7017 alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization study of the 7017 alloy of various tempers in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at near neutral pH showed typical active metal dissolution behaviour, but at pH 12 an active–passive–transpassive transition behaviour has been observed. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the 7017 aluminium alloy of various tempers (a, b) under aged (T4), (c, d) peak aged (T6), (e, f) over aged (T7) and (g, h) highly over-aged. Display Omitted - Highlights: • 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy was subjected to different artificial ageing treatments. • Characterization of 7017 alloy tempers by hardness, tensile, DSC, TEM and electrochemical behaviour. • Structure-properties relationship of the 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy of various tempers.

  6. Giant-Magnetoresistance(GMR) Siegel KEY FIRST Experimental Discovery Decade-Earlier PRE-``Fert"-``Gruenberg" in Nuc"el"ar ``Super"alloys: Science?;``SEANCE!!!; Ethics?; SHMETHICS!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    (So MIScalled) ``Fert"-``Grunberg"[PRL(1988;1989)] GMR 2007 physics Nobel/Wolf/Japan-Prizes VS. decade-earlier(1973-1977) KEY FIRST Siegel at:Westin"kl"ouse/PSEG/IAEA/ABB[google:``Martin Ebner"(94-04) in financial media]/Vattenfall/Wallenbergs/nuc"el"ar-DoE Labs[at flickr.com, search on ``Giant- Magnotoresistance''; find: Intl.Conf.Mag.Alloys & Oxides(ICMAO), Haifa(Aug./1977); J.Mag.Mag.Mtls,(JMMM)7,312(1978)``unavailable: not yet scanned''/modified(last R(H) GMR Figs(7;8) deleted!!!) on JMMM/Reed-Elsevier website until 7/29/08 conveniently one- half-year after last (Nobel)award(12/2007); conveniently effectively deleted!!!; google: ``If Leaks Could Kill''; many APS/MRS Mtgs(1970s)<<<1988/1989] decade-earlier GMR: (1978)<<< (1988); 1988-1978 =10 years = one full decadeprecedence!!!] first experimental discovery in (so MIScalled) ``super''alloys [182/82, Hastelloy-X, 600, 690(!!!), Stainless-Steels: ANY/ALL!!!] generic endemic Wigner's[JAP,17,857(1946)]- disease/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/ thermo-mechanical-INstability!

  7. Physical Data on Certain Alloys for High Temperature Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-04-01

    exhibited outstanding strength properties: i. High alloyed materials designated 6_@43 224M, 1M, 16-25-6, N153 , N154, N155, N156 and Age Hardenable Inconel...Alloys (Cont’d.) H626 H627 628 ( _419) H629 (Fr419) N153 -Annealed N155-Eot Worked N155- "Cold" Worked N154-Annealed N154-Hot Worked N154-"Cold" Worked...FORGEABIX_ITY MACHINABILITY Forged and rolled without difficulty. Metal turned and threaded without difficultY. *Alloys N153 - Annealed, NiS3 - Hot

  8. An APFIM/AEM Study of Phase Decompositions in Fe-Ni Alloys at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J.; Miller, M. K.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    A combined atom probe field ion microscopy and analytical electron microscopy characterization has been performed on laboratory aged martensitic and austenitic specimens of FeNi and FeNiP alloys. These techniques revealed that the martensitic 24.1 and 28.6 at.% Ni alloys decomposed during aging for 1 year at 300 C to form face centered cubic precipitates of approx. 56 at.% Ni in a body centered cubic matrix containing approx. 20 at.% Ni. Some thin platelets were observed in the field ion micrographs of the austenitic Fe-42.9 at. % Ni alloy and the Fe-43.2 at.% Ni-0.44 at.% P alloy after aging at 400 and 350 C. Atom probe analysis revealed phosphorus clustering in the ternary alloy aged at 300 C.

  9. Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1996-10-01

    Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

  10. Characterization of Elevated Temperature Properties of Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; R.N. Wright; W.R. Lloyd; J.A. Chapman

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800°C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950°C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600°C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. In general dynamic strain aging is observed to begin at higher temperatures and serrated flow persists to higher temperatures in Alloy 617 compared to Alloy 800H. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. The role of dynamic strain aging in the creep-fatigue behavior of Alloy 617 at temperatures of 800°C and above has also been examined in detail. Serrated flow is found to persist in cyclic stress-strain curves up to nearly the cycle to failure in some temperature and strain regimes. Results of those experiments and implications for creep-fatigue testing protocols will be described.

  11. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  12. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  13. MODELING OF NI-CR-MO BASED ALLOYS: PART II - KINETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Liu, Z

    2006-07-07

    The CALPHAD approach is applied to kinetic studies of phase transformations and aging of prototypes of Ni-Cr-Mo-based alloys selected for waste disposal canisters in the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Based on a previous study on alloy stability for several candidate alloys, the thermodynamic driving forces together with a newly developed mobility database have been used to analyze diffusion-controlled transformations in these Ni-based alloys. Results on precipitation of the Ni{sub 2}Cr-ordered phase in Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys, and of the complex P- and {delta}-phases in a surrogate of Alloy 22 are presented, and the output from the modeling are compared with experimental data on aging.

  14. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  15. Electrical Resistivity of Ten Selected Binary Alloy Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    alloys --* Aluminum Alloys --*Copper alloys --*Gold alloys --*Nickel Alloys --*Silver alloys --*Iron alloys --*Palladium alloys ... aluminum -magnesium, and copper-zinc) are given for 27 compositions: 0 (pure element).* For aluminum -copper, aluninu.-eagnes tur, end copper-zinc alloy ...available data and infor- mation. The ten binary alloy systems selected are the systems of aluminum - copper, aluminum -magnesium, copper-gold,

  16. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: "Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear- reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based(so miscalled)``super"alloys(182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (1946)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google:``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: Siegel[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312 (1978)]<<<``Fert"-"Gruenberg"(1988/89)2007-physics Nobel/Wolf/ Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC-inspections of 40+25 = 65 Westin- ``KLouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827(1978)]-Sabol- Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(1970)]-Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell[Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/1995)]-Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embritt- lement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/ DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  18. The fracture resistance of 1420 and 1421 Al-Mg-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Birt, M.J.; Hafley, R.A.; Wagner, J.A.; Lisagor, W.B. )

    1993-04-15

    Aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloy 1420 was developed in the form USSR as a lightweight, weldable, corrosion resistant alloy for aerospace applications. The alloy is primarily strengthened upon aging by the homogeneous precipitation of metastable [delta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Li). The equilibrium T-phase (Al[sub 2]MgLi) also precipitated during aging on grain boundaries and dislocations but does not contribute to strength and can have deleterious effects on fracture toughness. The addition of scandium, which refines the ingot grain structure, led to the evolution of alloy 1421 which exhibits higher strength and superior weldability compared to the earlier 1420 alloy. Zirconium is added to both alloys and forms a coherent precipitate, [beta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Zr), which acts as a recrystallization inhibitor. The fracture resistance of alloys 1420 and 1421 in the T6 temper has been examined by R-curve determination and the observed behavior has been compared with Al alloy, 2219-T87. The center-cracked (M(T)) sheet panels tested in this study were of sufficient width to produce stable crack growth to a [Delta]a of [approximately] 25 mm and the R-curves that were generated allowed for a comparison to be made of the stable crack growth resistance between the alloys in accordance with ASTM E561-86. The data presented are part of an extensive collaborative test program involving both private industry and government laboratories to evaluate the 1420 and 1421 alloys.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-03-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  20. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  1. Alloy Selection System

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  2. Semiconductor Alloy Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-14

    ftoc*o~ow7 and Idenify’ by block nam. bor) Electron mobility , Lattice Relaxation, Bond Length, Bond Energy, Mixing Enthalpies, Band Structure, Core...including: (1) generalization of Brooks’ formula for alloy-scattering limited electron mobility to including multiple bands and indirect gaps, (2...calculation of SiGe alloys band structure, electron mobility and core-exciton binding energy and • :linewidth, (3) comprehensive calculation of bond

  3. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  4. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta intermetallic alloys based on Cr-(6--10)Ta (at.%) is under development for structural use in oxidizing environments in the 1,000-1,300 C (1,832--2,372 F) temperature range. Development objectives relate to high temperature strength and oxidation resistance and room temperature fracture toughness. The 1,200 C (2,192 F) strength goals have been met: yield and fracture strengths of 275 MPa (40 ksi) and 345 MPa (50 ksi), respectively, were achieved. Progress in attaining reasonable fracture toughness of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta alloys has been made; current alloys exhibit room-temperature values of about 10--12 MPa{radical}m (1.1 MPa{radical}m = 1 ksi{radical}in.). Oxidation rates of these alloys at 950 C (1,742 F) in air are in the range of those reported for chromia-forming alloys. At 1,100 C (2,012 F) in air, chromia volatility was significant but, nevertheless, no scale spallation and positive weight gains of 1--5 mg/cm{sup 2} have been observed during 120-h, 6-cycle oxidation screening tests. These mechanical and oxidative properties represent substantial improvement over Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr alloys previously developed.

  5. The Influence of Composition on the Clustering and Precipitation Behavior of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihong; Ding, Lipeng; Cao, Lingfei; Sanders, Robert; Li, Shichen; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The natural aging (NA) and artificial aging (AA) behavior of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Mg/Si ratios and Cu additions were systematically investigated by means of hardness test, atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and Monte Carlo simulation. The Si-rich low-Cu alloys displayed higher hardness compared to the Mg-rich equivalents because Si atoms play a dominant role in clustering of solute atoms during both natural and artificial aging. In the high-Cu alloys, Cu did not obviously change the cluster distribution during NA, but significantly refines the clusters and precipitates due to the strong interaction of Cu atoms with Mg atoms during AA. In contrast to the low-Cu alloys, the Mg-rich high-Cu alloys exhibit higher hardness in the early and over-aged stages of artificial aging, with similar or slightly higher hardness in the peak aging condition compared to their Si-rich counterparts. Three types of precipitates ( β″, Q', and L) are favored in the high-Cu alloys. The Mg-rich high-Cu alloy has more L phase, while the Si-rich variant is abundant in Q' phase. The negative effect of NA on subsequent AA behavior is less dependent on Mg/Si ratio in the high-Cu alloys due to a synergistic action of the residual Si and Cu atoms, but is closely related to Mg/Si ratio in low-Cu alloys.

  6. The effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanstone, R. H.; Low, J. R., Jr.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The microstructure of the alpha titanium alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn and the metastable beta titanium alloy Beta 3 was examined. The material was from normal and extra low interstitial grade plates which were either air-cooled or furnace-cooled from an annealing treatment. Beta 3 was studied in alpha-aged and omega-aged plates which were heat treated to similar strength levels. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were conducted at room temperature on the alpha-aged material. The microstructure and fracture mechanisms of alloys were studied using optical metallography, electron microscopy, microprobe analyses, and texture pole figures. Future experiments are described.

  7. Evaluation of the microstructure of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Joseph R.; Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy designed to have ultrahigh strength and to serve in aerospace applications. The alloy displays significantly higher strength than competitive alloys in both naturally aged and artificially aged tempers. The strengthening phases in such tempers have been identified to, in part, explain the mechanical properties attained. In general, the alloy is strengthened by delta prime Al3Li and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in the naturally aged tempers. In artificially aged tempers in slightly underaged conditions, strengthening is provided by several phases including GP zones, theta prime Al2Cu, S prime Al2CuMg, T(sub 1) Al2CuLi, and possibly a new phase. In the peak strength artificially aged tempers, T(sub 1) is the predominant strengthening phase.

  8. A mathematical model to predict the strength of aluminum alloys subjected to precipitation hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, F.S.; Sheikh, A.K.; Rashid, M.

    1999-06-01

    A number of alloys, notably most of the aluminum alloys, can be heat treated by aging. This aging due to time-dependent precipitation hardening increases the strength and hardness as well as modifying other mechanical properties. Precipitation hardening has been a popular strengthening mechanism for many decades; therefore, extensive information is available in literature about the precipitation-hardening response of various series of aluminum alloys. The age-hardening response of these alloys is usually represented in graphical form as plotted between property changes and aging time for different temperatures. In designing a suitable precipitation-hardening strategy, one can refer to these graphs. However, for automatic control of aging furnaces, as well as for decision making regarding optimal selection of aging conditions (time/temperature combination), it is desirable to express these relationships in a formal mathematical structure. A mathematical model is developed in this article for widely used heat treatable aluminum alloys used in the extrusion industry. This model is a condensed representation of all {sigma} = f(T,t) curves in different series of aluminum alloys, and the parameters of this model characterize the various compositions of the alloys in the series.

  9. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate strength while minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    This report provides strategies for minimizing machining distortion in future designs of aluminum alloy satellite boxes, based in part on key findings from this investigation. The report outlines types of aluminum alloys and how they are heat treated, how residual stresses develop during heat treatment of age hardening alloys, ways residual stresses can be minimized, and the design of machining approaches to minimize distortion in parts that contain residual stresses. Specific recommendations are made regarding alloy selection, heat treatment, stress relieving, and machining procedures for boxes requiring various strength levels with emphasis on 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys.

  10. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    Distortion frequently occurs during machining of age hardening aluminum alloys due to residual stresses introduced during the quenching step in the heat treatment process. This report quantifies, compares, and discusses the effectiveness of several methods for minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion in aluminum alloys 7075 and 6061.

  11. Effect of Alloying Element Partition in Pearlite on the Growth of Austenite in High-Carbon Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. N.; Xia, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2016-03-01

    The growth of austenite from pearlite in high-carbon low alloy steel occurs with and without alloy element redistribution depending on the amount of superheating above the eutectoid temperature. The transition temperature of austenite growth (denoted PNTT) is calculated as a function of pearlite transformation temperature and subsequent holding time, which affect the degree of partitioning in pearlite, using experimental partition coefficients k θ/ α of Mn, Cr, Co, Si, and Ni reported in the literature. PNTT is the highest in Cr-containing alloys which have the largest k θ/ α in pearlite. Post-transformation aging, usually accompanied by cementite spheroidization, leads to a marked increase of PNTT in Mn and Cr alloys. PNTT of Ni alloy does not depend on pearlite transformation temperature because practically the formation of partitioned pearlite is severely limited in this alloy for kinetic reasons. Above PNTT, austenite growth occurs fast initially, but slows down in the order of ten seconds when the ferrite disappears, and the remaining small carbide particles dissolve very slowly under the control of alloy element diffusion.

  12. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  13. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  14. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Kelly, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  15. Properties of splat-quenched 7075 aluminum type alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, J. P. H. A.; Pelloux, R. M.; Grant, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The 7075 alloy belonging to the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, prepared by powder metallurgy techniques, was used in a study of alloys prepared from splat-quenched foils consolidated into bar material by hot extrusion. Ni and Fe were included in one alloy specimen, producing a fine dispersion of FeAl3 type particles which added to the strength of the aged alloy but did not coarsen upon heat treatment. Fine oxide films showing up on air-splatted foils induce finely dispersed oxide stringers (if the foils are not hot-worked subsequently) which in turn promote axial cracking (but longitudinal tensile strength is not seriously impaired). Splatting in a protective atmosphere, or thermomechanical processing, is recommended to compensate for this.

  16. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  17. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  18. Effects of self-irradiation in plutonium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, B. W.; Lema, K. E.; Allen, P. G.

    2015-09-16

    In this paper, we present updated results of self-irradiation effects on 238Pu-enriched 239Pu alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. We obtained the self-irradiation equivalent time of nearly 200 years, nearly 100 years longer than in our previous papers. At this extended aging, we find the rate of decrease in density has slowed significantly, stabilizing around 15.73 g/cc, without signs of void swelling. The volume expansion measured at 35°C also shows apparent saturation at less than 0.25%. Quasi-static tensile measurement still show gradual increase in the strength of plutonium alloys with age.

  19. Weldability of HAYNES 282 alloy for new fabrications and after service exposure

    SciTech Connect

    White, H; Santella, Michael L; Specht, Eliot D

    2009-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements on the mechanical properties and weldability of wrought gamma prime strengthened nickel based superalloys is well known. An understanding of the basic guidelines concerning alloying additions has led to the invention and development of HAYNES 282 alloy for applications in aircraft and land based gas turbines and other high performance high temperature environments. The alloy combines exceptional high temperature properties with good weldability and fabricability. At high temperatures (?900 >C), the alloy is stronger in creep strength than Waspaloy alloy (UNS N07001) and it approaches the creep strength of R-41 alloy (UNS N07041). Because the alloy has better thermal stability, fabricability and weldability than Waspaloy and R-41 alloys, it is currently being considered as a candidate universal consumable for welding/repair welding of gamma prime strengthened nickel based superalloys and it is also being considered as a suitable replacement for applications where R-41, Waspaloy and C263 (UNS N07263) alloys are currently being used. The alloy was designed to have improved resistance to strain age cracking, a problem common to gamma prime strengthened nickel based superalloys. In this paper, the results from time resolved X-ray diffraction studies during a welding thermal cycle; gas metal arc welding of thick and gas tungsten arc welding of thin section annealed material (for new fabrications) and annealed and aged material (welding under the aged/service exposed condition); and the results from heat affected zone physical simulations of the weldment measured 2 mm from the weld centreline of annealed (for new fabrication) and annealed and aged (service exposed) material will be presented. Creep properties (870 C/159 MPa) of the weldment will be discussed as well as mechanisms leading to failure.

  20. The shape memory capability and life of Cu-Al-Be-X alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Y.Y.; Dar, K.Z. ); Wang, T.M. ); Zin, S.J. )

    1994-09-01

    The shape memory capacity and the shape memory life of three alloys of the Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-X type have been investigated using the strain angle restoration method and compared with the alloy Cu-25Zn-4Al. The alloys were subjected to various normalizing and normalizing plus aging treatments, and all were found to possess excellent shape memory properties. The alloy Cu-11.6Al-0.4Be-0.2Cr demonstrated the best shape memory capacity and life.

  1. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  2. Tissue Response to Base-Metal Dental Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), *CASTING ALLOYS, *BASE METAL, * DENTAL PROSTHESES, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), COMPATIBILITY, NICKEL ALLOYS, BERYLLIUM, DENTISTRY, CANCER, HISTOLOGY, DENTAL IMPLANTOLOGY , COBALT ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS.

  3. Finding the Alloy Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus L. W.; Nelson, Lance J.; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2012-10-01

    First-principles codes can nowadays provide hundreds of high-fidelity enthalpies on thousands of alloy systems with a modest investment of a few tens of millions of CPU hours. But a mere database of enthalpies provides only the starting point for uncovering the ``alloy genome.'' What one needs to fundamentally change alloy discovery and design are complete searches over candidate structures (not just hundreds of known experimental phases) and models that can be used to simulate both kinetics and thermodynamics. Despite more than a decade of effort by many groups, developing robust models for these simulations is still a human-time-intensive endeavor. Compressive sensing solves this problem in dramatic fashion by automatically extracting the ``sparse model'' of an alloy in only minutes. This new paradigm to model building has enabled a new framework that will uncover, automatically and in a general way across the periodic table, the important components of such models and reveal the underlying ``genome'' of alloy physics.

  4. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  5. Aluminum alloys with improved strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiasi, R.; Adler, P.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical strength and stress corrosion of new BAR and 7050 alloys that include Zn instead of Cr have been studied and compared with those of 7075 aluminum alloy. Added mechanical strength of new alloys is attributed to finer grain size of 5 to 8 micrometers, however, susceptibility to stress corrosion attack is increased.

  6. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  7. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  8. The Passive Film on Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C A

    2005-09-09

    This report describes oxide (passive film) formation on Alloy 22 surfaces when aged in air (25-750 C) and in solutions (90-110 C) over times ranging from days to 5 years. Most zero-valent metals (and their alloys) are thermodynamically unstable on the earth's surface and in its upper crust. Most will therefore convert to oxides when exposed to a surficial or underground environment. Despite the presence of thermodynamic driving forces, metals and their alloys may persist over lengthy timescales, even under normal atmospheric oxidizing conditions. One reason for this is that as metal is converted to metal oxide, the oxide forms a film on the surface that limits diffusion of chemical components between the environment and the metal. The formation of surface oxide is integral to understanding corrosion rates and processes for many of the more ''resistant'' metals and alloys. This report describes the correlation between oxide composition and oxide stability for Alloy 22 under a range of relevant repository environments. In the case in which the oxide itself is thermodynamically stable, the growth of the oxide film is a self-limiting process (i.e., as the film thickens, the diffusion across it slows, and the metal oxidizes at an ever-diminishing rate). In the case where the oxide is not thermodynamically stable, it dissolves at the oxide--solution interface as the metal oxidizes at the metal--oxide interface. The system achieves a steady state with a particular oxide thickness when the oxide dissolution and the metal oxidation rates are balanced. Once sufficient metal has transferred to solution, the solution may become saturated with respect to the oxide, which is then thermodynamically stable. The driving force for dissolution at the oxide--solution interface then ceases, and the first case is obtained. In the case of a complex alloy such as Alloy 22 (Haynes International 1997), the development and behavior of the oxide layer is complicated by the fact that different

  9. Magnetic susceptibility and hardness of Au-xPt-yNb alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Emi; Inui, Shihoko; Hamada, Kenichi; Honda, Eiichi; Asaoka, Kenzo

    2013-09-01

    Metal devices in the human body induce serious metal artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Metals artifacts are mainly caused by a volume magnetic susceptibility (χv) mismatch between a metal device and human tissue. In this research, Au-xPt-yNb alloys were developed for fabricating MRI artifact-free biomedical metal devices. The magnetic properties, hardness and phase constitutions of these alloys were investigated. The Au-xPt-8Nb alloys showed satisfactory χv values. Heat treatments did not clearly change the χv values for Au-xPt-8Nb alloys. The Vickers hardness (HV) of these two alloys was much higher than that of high-Pt alloys; moreover, aging at 700°C increased the HV values of these two alloys. A dual phase structure consisting of face-centered cubic α1 and α2 phases was observed and aging at 700°C promoted phase separation. The Au-5Pt-8Nb and Au-10Pt-8Nb alloys showed satisfactory χv values and high hardness and are thus suggested as candidates for MRI artifact-free alloys for biomedical applications.

  10. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  11. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  12. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Microstructure and Properties of a Cu-Fe-P Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiyi; Shen, Leinuo; Cao, Feng; Jia, Yanlin; Liao, Kaiju; Wang, Mingpu

    2015-04-01

    A Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P (wt.%) alloy was designed, and its comprehensive properties, especially electrical conductivity and temper-softening resistance of the designed alloy, were higher than those of traditional Cu-Fe-P alloys. The microstructure of this alloy was investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The particle of secondary phase was confirmed to be Fe2P with x-ray spectroscopy and digital diffractogram. By virtue of precipitation hardening and work hardening, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P alloy were 498 MPa and 62% IACS, respectively. The electrical conductivity of this alloy can be up to 92% IACS due to the complete precipitation of Fe2P. After repeating the cold rolling and aging process for three times, the tensile strength, elongation, and conductivity of this alloy were 467 MPa, 22%, and 78% IACS, respectively. Due to the low driving force of recrystallization and the pinning effect of fine dispersed Fe2P, the alloy with low deformation rate showed excellent softening resistance. The designed alloy can be used as a high-strength, high-electrical-conductivity lead-frame alloy.

  13. Effects of neutron irradiation on deformation behavior of nickel-base fastener alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Kammenzind, B.F.; Burke, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture behavior and deformation microstructure of high-strength nickel-base alloy fastener materials, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625. Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition, and Alloy 625 in the direct aged condition were irradiated to a fluence of 2.4x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} at 264 C in the Advanced Test Reactor. Deformation structures at low strains were examined. It was previously shown that Alloy X-750 undergoes hardening, a significant degradation in ductility and an increase in intergranular fracture. In contrast, Alloy 625 had shown softening with a concomitant increase in ductility and transgranular failure after irradiation. The deformation microstructures of the two alloys were also different. Alloy X-750 deformed by a planar slip mechanism with fine microcracks forming at the intersections of slip bands with grain boundaries. Alloy 625 showed much more homogeneous deformation with fine, closely spaced slip bands and an absence of microcracks. The mechanism(s) of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) are discussed.

  14. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  15. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  16. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  17. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  18. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  19. Role of Hf and Zr in the hydrogen embrittlement of Ta and Cb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrogen embrittlement of aged T-111 and similar Ta and Cb alloys is characterized and the mechanisms believed responsible for the increased sensitivity of T-111 to low temperature hydrogen embrittlement after aging for 1000 hours or longer near 1040 C are described. A total of eight Ta base alloys and two Cb base alloys were investigated. The effects of pre-age annealing temperature, aging time, temperature and environment, and alloy composition on the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement were investigated. The primary method of determining the effects of these variables on the ductility of T-111 was by bend testing at 25 and -196 C. Fractured specimens were examined by the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, metallography and X-ray diffration.

  20. Mechanism of the Bauschinger effect in Al-Ge-Si alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Gan, Wei; Bong, Hyuk Jong; Lim, Hojun; ...

    2016-12-07

    Here, wrought Al-Ge-Si alloys were designed and produced to ensure dislocation bypass strengthening ("hard pin" precipitates) without significant precipitate cutting/shearing ("soft pin" precipitates). They were processed from the melt, solution heat treated and aged.

  1. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  2. Metallographic techniques and microstructures: uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    The techniques used for the metallographic analysis of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Sample preparation and characterization procedures are described for: optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. A brief overview of electron optics, electron/sample interactions, signal detectors, and x-ray microanalysis is presented. Typical uranium alloy microstructures observed by these techniques are presented and discussed. The microstructures examined include those produced by the diffusional decomposition of ..gamma..:U-0.75Ti and ..gamma..:U-6Nb, the martensitic decomposition of U-2Mo, U-6Nb, U-0.75Ti and Mulberry, and the aging of quenched U-2Mo.

  3. A nanoscale co-precipitation approach for property enhancement of Fe-base alloys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongwu; Liu, Chain Tsuan; Miller, Michael K.; Wang, Xun-Li; Wen, Yuren; Fujita, Takeshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Mingwei; Chen, Guang; Chin, Bryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitate size and number density are two key factors for tailoring the mechanical behavior of nanoscale precipitate-hardened alloys. However, during thermal aging, the precipitate size and number density change, leading to either poor strength or high strength but significantly reduced ductility. Here we demonstrate, by producing nanoscale co-precipitates in composition-optimized multicomponent precipitation-hardened alloys, a unique approach to improve the stability of the alloy against thermal aging and hence the mechanical properties. Our study provides compelling experimental evidence that these nanoscale co-precipitates consist of a Cu-enriched bcc core partially encased by a B2-ordered Ni(Mn, Al) phase. This co-precipitate provides a more complex obstacle for dislocation movement due to atomic ordering together with interphases, resulting in a high yield strength alloy without sacrificing alloy ductility. PMID:23429646

  4. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  5. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  6. Novel Phenylethynyl Imide Silanes as Coupling Agents for Titanium Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Conell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; SaintClair, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    The durability of titanium (Ti) alloys bonded with high temperature adhesives such as polyimides has failed to attain the level of performance required for many applications. The problem to a large part is attributed to the instability of the surface treatment on the Ti substrate. Although Ti alloy adhesive specimens with surface treatments such as chromic acid anodization, Pasa-Jell, Turco, etc. have provided high initial mechanical properties, these properties have decreased as a function of aging at ambient temperature and faster, when aged at elevated temperatures or in a hot-wet environment. As part of the High Speed Civil Transport program where Ti honeycomb sandwich structure must perform for 60,000 hours at 177 C, work was directed to the development of environmentally safe, durable Ti alloy surface treatments.

  7. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  8. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  9. Microporosity in casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A J

    1975-06-01

    Three series of tensile test pieces were produced using a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. For the first series induction heating was employed, for the second a resistance crucible, and for the third an oxy-acetylene torch. Samples from each series were sectioned longitudinally, mounted, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of microporosity.

  10. Superplasticity in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T. G.

    1997-12-01

    We have characterized in the Al-Mg system the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled Al-6Mg-0.3Sc alloy. The alloy exhibited superplasticity at relatively high strain rates (about 10-2 s-1). At a strain rate of 10-2 s-1 there exists a wide temperature range (475-520`C) within which the tensile elongation is over 1000%. There also exists a wide strain rate range (10-3 - 10-1 s-1) within which the tensile elongation is over 500%. The presence of Sc in the alloy results in a uniform distribution of fine coherent Al3SC precipitates which effectively pin grain and subgrain boundaries during static and continuous recrystallization. As a result, the alloy retains its fine grain size (about 7 micron), even after extensive superplastic deformation (>1000%). During deformation, dislocations Mg with a high Schmidt factor slip across subgrains but are trapped by subgrain boundaries, as a result of the strong pining of Al3Sc. This process leads to the conversion of low-angled subgrain boundaries to high-angled grain boundaries and the subsequent grain boundary sliding, which produces superelasticity. A model is proposed to describe grain boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation glide across grains with a uniform distribution of coherent precipitates. The model predictions is consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  12. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  13. Microstructural Evaluations of Baseline HSR/EPM Disk Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Garg, Anita; Ellis, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Six alloys representing two classes of powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloys were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase extraction. Alloys KM4, CH98, IN-100 and 456 are based on a Ni-18Co-12Cr composition while alloys Rene' 88 DT and SR 3 have lower Al and Co and higher Cr contents. The lambda size distributions were determined from quantitative image analysis of the TEM images. The volume fraction of lambda and carbides and the composition of the phases were determined by a combination of phase extraction and TEM. The results showed many similarities in lambda size distributions, grain boundary serrations, and grain boundary carbide frequencies between alloys KM4, CH98, 456, Rene' 88 DT and SR 3 when heat treated to give an approximate grain size of ASTM 6. The density of grain boundary carbides in KM4 was shown to substantially increase as the grain size increased. IN-100 and 456 subjected to a serration cooling heat treatment had much more complex lambda size distributions with very large intergranular and intragranular secondary lambda as well as finer than average cooling and aging lambda. The grain boundary carbides in IN-100 were similar to the other alloys, but 456 given the serration cooling heat treatment had a more variable density of grain boundary carbides. Examination of the phases extracted from the matrix showed that there were significant differences in the phase chemistries and elemental partitioning ratios between the various alloys.

  14. Thermal stress-relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy are evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Evaluation of three thermal stress relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy in terms of their effect on residual stress, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion resistance. The treatments are post aging and stress relieving fullscale and subscale parts formed in the aged T81 condition, and aging subscale parts formed in the unaged T31 condition.

  15. Mechanical alloying of brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; McDermott, B.; Koch, C. C.

    1988-12-01

    Mechanical alloying by high energy ball milling has been observed in systems with nominally brittle components. The phases formed by mechanical alloying of brittle components include solid solutions (Si + Ge → SiGe solid solution), intermetallic compounds (Mn + Bi → MnBi), and amorphous alloys (NiZr2 + Ni11Zr9 → amorphous Ni50Zr50). A key feature of possible mechanisms for mechanical alloying of brittle components is the temperature of the powders during milling. Experiments and a computer model of the kinetics of mechanical alloying were carried out in order to esti-mate the temperature effect. Temperature rises in typical powder alloys during milling in a SPEX mill were estimated to be ≤350 K using the kinetic parameters determined from the computer model. The tempering response of fresh martensite in an Fe-1.2 wt pct C alloy during milling was consistent with the maximum results of the computer model, yielding temperatures in the pow-ders of ≤575 K i.e., ΔT ≤ 300 K). Thermal activation was required for mechanical alloying of Si and Ge powder. No alloying occurred when the milling vial was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The pos-sible mechanisms responsible for material transfer during mechanical alloying of brittle components are considered.

  16. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  17. On Heat-Treatable Copper-Chromium Alloy, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koda, S.; Isono, E.

    1984-01-01

    A mother alloy of 10% Cr and 90% Cu was prepared by sintering. This was alloyed with the Cu melt and Cu-Cr alloys containing about 0.5% Cr was obtained. These alloys could be deformed easily in both the hot and cold states. By measuring the hardness change, age-hardening properties of cast alloys were studied, which were quenched from 950 deg and aged at 300 to 700 deg for 1 hour. The maximum hardness was obtained with the tempering temperature of 500 deg. For the temperature of solution-treatment, 950 deg was insufficient and that above 1000 deg necessary. For the tempering time, a treatment at 500 deg for 1 hr. or at 450 deg for 3 hrs. yielded the maximum hardness. As for the properties for electrical conductors, 3 kinds of wires (diam. 2 mm.) were made: (1) after cold-drawn to 2 mm., solution-treated, quenched, and then tempered (500 deg, 1 hr.); (2) after quenching, cold-drawn (75% reduction) to 2 mm. and tempered (500 deg, 1 hr.); and (3) after quenching, cold-drawn (81%) to intermediate diameter, tempered (500 deg, 1 hr.) and then cold-drawn (88%) again. Properties obtained for the 3 kinds, respectively, were as follows: conductivity 91, 90, and 86%. Tensile strength and strength for electrical conductivity are given.

  18. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  19. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  20. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  1. Evaluation of candidate Stirling engine heater tube alloys for 1000 hours at 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misencik, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Six tubing alloys were endurance tested in a diesel fired, Stirling engine simulator materials test rig for 1000 hours of 760 C while pressurized at 17 to 21 MPa with either hydrogen or helium. The alloys tested were N 155, A 286, Incoloy 800, 19 9DL, Nitronic 40 and 316 stainless steel. The alloys were in the form of thin wall tubing. Hydrogen permeated rapidly through the tube walls of all six alloys when they were heated to 760 C. Helium was readily contained. Creep rupture failures occurred in four of the six alloys pressurized with hydrogen. Only two alloys survived the 1000 hour endurance test with no failures. Simultaneous exposure to either hydrogen or helium and the combustion environment did not seriously degrade the tensile strength of the six alloys in room temperature or 760 C tests after exposure. Decreases in room temperature ductility were observed and are attributed to aging rather than to hydrogen embrittlement in three of the alloys. However, there may be a hydrogen embrittlement effect in the N 155, 19 9DL, and Nitronic 40 alloys.

  2. DESIGN DATA STUDY FOR COATED COLUMBIUM ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIOXIDANTS, * COATINGS , * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, *REFRACTORY COATINGS , *SILICON COATINGS , ALLOYS, ALUMINUM, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, HIGH...TEMPERATURE, OXIDATION, PLASTIC PROPERTIES, REENTRY VEHICLES, REFRACTORY MATERIALS, SHEETS, SILICIDES , VACUUM APPARATUS, VAPOR PLATING, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

  3. Materials data handbook, Inconel alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.

    1967-01-01

    Materials data handbook on Inconel alloy 718 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  4. Mechanical and Wear Properties of Sb- and Y-Added Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boby, Arun; Srinivasan, A.; Pillai, U. T. S.; Pai, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of Sb and Y additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AZ91 alloy. The results indicate that the Sb and Y additions lead to the formation of Mg3Sb2 and Al2Y phases. These phases modify the morphology of the β-Mg17Al12 phase, and hence refine the microstructure. The effects of Sb and Y additions on the aging behavior have also been investigated. Aging of the AZ91 alloy results in the formation of continuous and discontinuous types of precipitates. Whereas Sb and Y additions to AZ91 alloy suppresses the formation of discontinuous precipitate. The paper also reports the mechanical properties of as-cast and aged Sb-added AZ91-xY alloys for room and high temperatures. The optimum tensile properties are obtained with the alloy having the combined addition of 0.5 wt pct Sb and 0.6 wt pct Y. The fracture surface of AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy reveals more quasi-cleavage type of failure with a cleavage fracture than the base alloy. At HT, the AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy displays more cleavage facets connected with tearing ridges and shallow dimples than AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, it observed the improvement in wear resistance through the addition of Y. The worn surface reveals abrasion, oxidation, delamination, and plastic deformation wear mechanisms.

  5. A lifetime-prediction approach to understanding corrosion: The corrosion-fatigue and corrosion behavior of a nickel-based superalloy and a nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Rejanah Vernice

    Lifetime-prediction models are useful for simulating a material's in-service behavior or outcome. Perhaps the greatest advantage of these models is the ability to use the predicted results to help optimize engineering designs and reduce costs. The HastelloyRTM C-2000RTM superalloy is a single-phase material and face-centered cubic in structure at all temperatures. The C-2000RTM alloy is a commercially designed alloy manufactured to function in both reducing and oxidizing solutions. C-2000RTM is used as a fabrication material for heat exchangers, piping for chemical refineries, and storage repositories. The corrosion properties of C-2000RTM are excellent, and the ductility and fatigue properties are good. In this study, C-2000RTM is used to verify the theoretical basis of an electrochemical-micromechanical crack-initiation corrosion-fatigue model for materials under passive electrochemical conditions. The results from electrochemical and mechanical experiments, along with the findings from the conventional electron microscopy and a laser interferometer will be presented. A nanocrystalline Ni-18 weight percent (wt.%) Fe alloy is examined to investigate its electrochemical behavior in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Three Ni-18 wt.% Fe samples were annealed at 400°C for 3, 8, and 24 hours (hrs.) to study the effects of grain sizes on the electrochemical properties of bulk Ni-18 wt.% Fe. The electrochemical results from the annealed samples are compared with those measured for the as-received Ni-18 wt.% Fe material consisting of an average grain size of 23 nanometers (nm). The samples annealed for times longer than 8 hrs. appear to have undergone an abnormal grain growth, where nanometer and micrometer (mum) grain sizes are present. Unlike the electrochemical results for the as-received material, the annealed nanocrystalline materials appear to be susceptible to localized corrosion. Consequently, these larger grains within the nanoncrystalline-grain matrix are

  6. High-throughput study of crystal structures and stability of strengthening precipitates in Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongshu; Amsler, Maxmilian; Hegde, Vinay; Saal, James; Issa, Ahmed; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Wolverton, Christopher

    Age hardening, in which precipitates form and impede the movement of dislocations, can be applied to magnesium alloys in order to increase their limited strengthening behavior. To help clarify the energetics of precipitation hardening of Mg alloys, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to elucidate both crystal structures and energetics of a very large set of precipitates in Mg alloys. We find the enthalpy changes of (stable and metastable) observed precipitates during the age hardening process are consistent with the experimental sequence of formation for many Mg binary alloys (Mg- {Nd, Gd, Y, Sn, Al, Zn}). For cases where the metastable precipitate crystal structure is unavailable, we search over several prototypes and predict structures/stoichiometries for several ternary precipitates. In addition, high-throughput calculations are performed to construct hcp-based based convex hulls, which assist the identification of coherent GP zones and new metastable phases in age-hardened hcp systems.

  7. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  8. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  9. Titanium-tantalum alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, J.D.; Bingert, J.F.; Dunn, P.S.; Butt, D.P.; Margevicius, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    Research has been underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory for several years to develop an alloy capable of containing toxic materials in the event of a fire involving a nuclear weapon. Due to their high melting point, good oxidation resistance, and low solubility in molten plutonium, alloys based on the Ti-Ta binary system have been developed for this purpose. The course of the alloy development to-date, along with processing and property data, are presented in this overview.

  10. Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter '2 Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys' with the content:

  11. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  12. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    possible today. Extensive work was conducted on casting of semi-solid alloys when highly fluid (’ Rheocasting ’) and when thixotropically gelled...Thixocasting’). In initial phases of the program, copper base alloys and cast iron alloys were prepared with special non-dendritic Rheocast structure by batch...processing. Compatibility studies were carried out to select materials suitable for preparing cast iron with the Rheocast structure. Design

  13. Surface Segregation in Ternary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    Surface segregation profiles of binary (Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Cu-Au) and ternary (Cu-Au-Ni) alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations using the BFS method for alloys for the calculation of the energetics. The behavior of Cu or Au in Ni is contrasted with their behavior when both are present. The interaction between Cu and Au and its effect on the segregation profiles for Cu-Au-Ni alloys is discussed.

  14. Alloy Interface Interdiffusion Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Garces, Jorge E.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    With renewed interest in developing nuclear-powered deep space probes, attention will return to improving the metallurgical processing of potential nuclear fuels so that they remain dimensionally stable over the years required for a successful mission. Previous work on fuel alloys at the NASA Glenn Research Center was primarily empirical, with virtually no continuing research. Even when empirical studies are exacting, they often fail to provide enough insight to guide future research efforts. In addition, from a fundamental theoretical standpoint, the actinide metals (which include materials used for nuclear fuels) pose a severe challenge to modern electronic-structure theory. Recent advances in quantum approximate atomistic modeling, coupled with first-principles derivation of needed input parameters, can help researchers develop new alloys for nuclear propulsion.

  15. Micromechanisms of Crack Extension in Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    1>MI» «UltMM »IM»« AfIT STUOCMT AT frton Coll « ini*eritty of 0»ford fitfit >• Cg«>MiLiiii orrici MM »MO AflT/W *AF| ON 45433 ii • 1...Idea oa the fractura characterl at Ice of peak aged Al Hg St alloys. Currant alaatlr and alaatlc-pleatIc fractura toughnaaa paraeetere...dlapereold» and coaraa lron-kaaring lacluatona waa »tu4i*4. Tka duct 1 la fractura toughnaaa, JIc ^4 th# raalataaca

  16. High-strength nanostructured titanium alloy for aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenkin, E. V.; Mishin, I. P.; Ratochka, I. V.; Vinokurov, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The technological regimes of receiving of round bars of VT22 titanium alloy with the diameter 22 mm and hierarchically organized ultrafine-grained (nano-) structure by helical rolling and subsequent heat treatment (aging) were developed. It was shown that such structure formation results in a substantial increase (by more than 20%) of strength properties of the alloy as compared to the initial state. The obtained rods with a high specific strength may be used in the aerospace industry in the manufacture of critical structural elements.

  17. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  18. Duct and cladding alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  19. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  20. Electrochemical methods to detect susceptibility of Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloy 22 to intergranular corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhe, D. D.; Raja, K. S.; Namjoshi, S. A.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Tolly, Alfredo; Jones, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a Ni-Cr-Mo-W based alloy, is a candidate material for the outer wall of nuclear waste package (NWP) containers. Even though the alloy is highly stable at low temperatures, it could undergo microstructural changes during processing such as welding and stress relieving. Formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases such as μ, P, σ, etc. and Cr-rich carbides could make the material susceptible to localized corrosion. Hence, it is important to correlate the microstructural changes with the corrosion resistance of the alloy by nondestructive and rapid electrochemical tests. In this investigation, different electrochemical test solutions were used to quantify the microstructural changes associated with aging and welding of the wrought alloy 22. The results of double-loop (DL) electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) tests in 1 M H2SO4+0.5 M NaCl+0.01 M KSCN solution indicated Cr depletion during initial stages of aging of wrought alloy 22. Results of EPR tests in 2 M HCl+0.01 M KSCN solution at 60 °C correlated well with the Mo depletion that occurred near TCP phases formed during aging of both weld and wrought alloy 22 materials. The EPR test results were compared with standard chemical weight loss measurements specified by ASTM standard G-28 methods A and B.

  1. Moessbauer spectroscopy study of the aging and tempering of high nitrogen quenched Fe-N alloys: Kinetics of formation of Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} nitride by interstitial ordering in martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, I.; Genin, J.M.R. |

    1996-08-01

    The distribution of nitrogen atoms in austenite and during the different stages of aging and tempering of martensite is studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) are used for studying the austenite phase where the distribution of nitrogen atoms is found to depend on the nitriding method, gas nitriding in the authors` case, or ion implantation. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which concerns a depth predominantly less than 200 nm, reveals a nitrogen atom distribution different from that found in the bulk by TMS. The identification and kinetics of the stages of aging and tempering of martensite are followed by TMS measurements, and the phase characterization is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and TEM. The major stages are the early ordering of nitrogen atoms, which leads to small coherent precipitates of {alpha}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}; the passage by thickening to semicoherent precipitates of {alpha}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}; the dissolution of {alpha}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} with the concomitant formation of {gamma}-Fe{sub 4}N; and the decomposition of retained austenite by tempering. The three first stages correspond to activation energies of 95, 126, and 94 kJ/mole, respectively, consistent with the nitrogen diffusion for the first and third stages and the dislocation pipe diffusion of iron for the second.

  2. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  3. Nondestructive detection of an undesirable metallic phase, T.sub.1, during processing of aluminum-lithium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Buck, Otto; Bracci, David J.; Jiles, David C.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    1990-08-07

    A method is disclosed for detecting the T.sub.1 phase in aluminum-lithium alloys through simultaneous measurement of conductivity and hardness. In employing eddy current to measure conductivity, when the eddy current decreases with aging of the alloy, while the hardness of the material continues to increase, the presence of the T.sub.1 phase may be detected.

  4. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.

    2004-02-01

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (<5%) even for high neutron exposures (>>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  5. Geometric and Chemical Composition Effects on Healing Kinetics of Voids in Mg-bearing Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Miao; Du, Kui; Wang, Chunyang; Wen, Shengping; Huang, Hui; Nie, Zuoren; Ye, Hengqiang

    2016-05-01

    The healing kinetics of nanometer-scale voids in Al-Mg-Er and Al-Mg-Zn-Er alloy systems were investigated with a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography at different temperatures. Mg was observed completely healing the voids, which were then rejuvenated to the alloy composition with further aging, in the Al-Mg-Er alloy. On the contrary, Mg51Zn20 intermetallic compound was formed in voids in the Al-Mg-Zn-Er alloy, which leads to complete filling of the voids but not rejuvenation for the material. For voids with different geometrical aspects, different evolution processes were observed, which are related to the competition between bulk and surface diffusion of the alloys. For voids with a large size difference in their two ends, a viscous flow of surface atoms can be directly observed with in situ electron microscopy, when the size of one end becomes less than tens of nanometers.

  6. Effect of irradiation on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Kearns, J.J.; Hoffman, R.C.; Korinko, J.J.; Luther, R.F.; Sykes, G.B.

    1993-10-01

    In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded precracked and as-notched compact tension specimens was performed in 360{degrees}C water to determine effect of irradiation on SCC of Condition HTH and Condition BH Alloy X-750 and age-hardened Alloy 625. Variables were stress intensity factor (K{sub I}) level, fluence, grade of HTH material, prestraining and material chemistry. Effects of irradiation on high temperature SCC and the rapid cracking that occurs during cooldown below 150{degrees}C were characterized. Significant degradation in the in-reactor SCC resistance of HTH material was observed at initial K{sub I} levels above 30 MPa{radical}m and fluences greater than 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). A small degradation in SCC resistance of HTH material was observed at low fluences (<10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}). As-notched specimens displayed less degradation in SCC resistance than precracked specimens. Prestraining greatly improved in-flux and out-of-flux SCC resistance of HTH material, as little or no SCC was observed in precracked specimens prestrained 20 to 30%, whereas extensive cracking was observed in nonprestrained specimens. Condition HTH heats with low boron (10 ppM or less) had improved in-reactor SCC resistance compared to heats with high and intermediate boron (>20 ppM). Age-hardened Alloy 625 exhibited superior in-reactor SCC behavior compared to HTH material as no crack extension occurred in any of the precracked Alloy 625 specimens tested at initial K{sub I} levels up to 80 MPa{radical}m.

  7. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  8. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  9. Aluminum and its light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merica, Paul D

    1920-01-01

    Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.

  10. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  11. Precipitate Phases in Several High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan

    Initiated by the aerospace industry, there has been a great interest to develop high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) for actuator type of application at elevated temperatures. Several NiTi based ternary systems have been shown to be potential candidates for HTSMAs and this work focuses on one or more alloys in the TiNiPt, TiNiPd, NiTiHf, NiPdTiHf systems. The sheer scope of alloys of varying compositions across all four systems suggests that the questions raised and addressed in this work are just the tip of the iceberg. This work focuses on materials characterization and aims to investigate microstructural evolution of these alloys as a function of heat treatment. The information gained through the study can serve as guidance for future alloy processing. The emphasis of this work is to describe novel precipitate phases that are formed under aging in the ternary systems and one quaternary system. Employing conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), 3D atom probe tomography (3D APT), as well as ab initio calculations, the complete description of the unit cell for the new precipitates was determined. The methodology is summarized in the appendix to help elucidate some basics of such a process.

  12. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  13. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  14. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  15. Mo-Si alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  16. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR TANTALUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PHASE STUDIES, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, REFRACTORY MATERIALS, SILICIDES , SILICON COATINGS , SILICON COMPOUNDS, TANTALUM, TENSILE PROPERTIES, TITANIUM COMPOUNDS, TUNGSTEN ALLOYS, VANADIUM ALLOYS, VAPOR PLATING, ZINC COATINGS ....TANTALUM ALLOYS, ALLOYS, ALUMINUM COATINGS , ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, BORON COMPOUNDS, CERAMIC COATINGS , CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, COATINGS , FLAME SPRAYING...HAFNIUM ALLOYS, HAFNIUM COMPOUNDS, HARDNESS, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, METAMATHEMATICS, NIOBIUM ALLOYS, OSCILLOGRAPHS, OXIDES

  18. The effect of copper, chromium, and zirconium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of the systematic variation of copper, chromium, and zirconium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 7000-type aluminum alloy. Fracture toughness and tensile properties are evaluated for each alloy in both the peak aging, T8, and the overaging, T73, conditions. Results show that dimpled rupture essentially characterize the fracture process in these alloys. In the T8 condition, a significant loss of toughness is observed for alloys containing 2.5 pct Cu due to the increase in the quantity of Al-Cu-Mg-rich S-phase particles. An examination of T8 alloys at constant Cu levels shows that Zr-bearing alloys exhibit higher strength and toughness than the Cr-bearing alloys. In the T73 condition, Cr-bearing alloys are inherently tougher than Zr-bearing alloys. A void nucleation and growth mechanism accounts for the loss of toughness in these alloys with increasing copper content.

  19. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  20. Lightweight Disk Alloy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    2001 (1982). 45. K C. Russell and J. W Eddington , JI Mat. Sci., 6, 20 (1972). 46. M. J. Lequeux, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. de Paris-Sud (1979). 47. P S ...AD-A237 064 UGHTWEIGHT DISK ALLOY DEVELOPMENT S . M. Russel, C. C. Law and M. J. Blackburn Uted Te lowkles Corpoaton Prat & Whtney Govnment Enes...Space Propulo P. 0. Box 109600 West Palm Beach, FL 33410-9600 P. C. Clapp and D. M. Pease Istitute of Materials Science 9 ELECT Fg AW 11il S E Final